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Внутренняя политика Николая I

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Eaeoeey ? 12

enoi?ey ?innee

io 18 iay 2006 aiaea

Aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea Ieeieay 1.

A eiioea 18 – ia?aie iieiaeia 19 aaea ?inneeneay eiia?ey caieiaea 3
eiioeiaioa: Aa?iio, Aceth e Naaa?ioth Aia?eeo (Aeynea), aieioue aei 1866
aiaea, eiaaea i?e Aeaenaiae?a 2 Aeynea auea i?iaeaia. I?eia?ii 18
ieeeeiiia ei2.

Ianaeaiea ?innee a 1800 aiaeo – 39 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae i?eia?ii.

1833 aiae (8-y ?aaecey) – 52 ieeeeiia /aeiaae

1850 aiae – 68,5 ieeeeiia /aeiaaea

1857 aiae (10 ?aaecey) – ii/oe 72 ieeeeiia /aeiaae.

*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?inea aeinoaoi/ii auno?i. Ianaeaiea ?innee
ninoaaeyei nouanoaaiioth /anoue anaai ianaeaiey Aa?iiu.

Ii iiaen/aoai A.I. Ie?iiiaa a 1800 aiaeo ianaeaiea ?innee ninoaaeyei 22%
ianaeaiey Aa?iiu, a 1850 aiaeo – 27%. A aeaeueiaeoai oaeaeueiue aan
?inneeneiai ianaeaiey oaaee/eaaeny ii n?aaiaieth n aa?iiaeneei
ianaeaieai.

?inney auea ianaeaia ia?aaiiia?ii. Ec 18 ieeeeiiia ia Neae?ue
i?eoiaeeony 10 ieeeeiiia, a oai anaai 1 ieeeeii. Ia Aeynea ia auei e
ouny/e /aeiaae ?onneeo. (???)

Yoi aaaea e iaoaai a?aiaie, eiaaea ana ianaeaiea Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea
iaiueoa, /ai *aoee, a ?yaeii Eeoae.

Ai aoi?ie /aoaa?oe 19 aaea aeaiiua i ianaeaiea noaee aieaa oi/iuie
aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi oeo/oaaony o/ao ianaeaiey. Eaeea iniiaiua enoi/ieee
aeey eco/aiey yoie/aneiai e nineiaiiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey? Eo 3. Yoi
?aaecneea iaoa?eaeu, auei 10 ?aaecee. A 1-e iieiaeia 19 aaea auei 5
?aaecee. ?aaecneea iaoa?eaeu o/eouaaee oieueei iiaeaoiia ianaeaiea, o.a.
e?anoueyi e iauai.

Aoi?ie enoi/iee yoi iao?e/aneea aeaiiua, eioi?ua aaeenue nayuaiieeaie,
eiaaea ?aaeno?e?iaaeenue ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa e?auaiey, /oi niaiaaeaao
n ?iaeaeaaiinoueth, aai/aiey, ioiaaaiey (o.a. eii/eia).

I?e Ieeieaa 1 auei i?eeacaii aanoe ia ?onneii ycuea iao?e/aneea eieae e
ae?oaei eiioanneyi: e i?ioanoaioai, e eaoieeeai, e ionoeueiaiai.

O?aoee enoi/iee ii aeaiia?aoee – yoi aeaiiua ii eeiee IAAe (ieienoa?noaa
aioo?aiieo aeae), eioi?ua niae?aeenue ianoiuie a?aaeaeaineeie aeanoyie.
A 1831 aiaeo auea ooaa?aeaeaia iiaay oi?ia aoaa?ineeo io/aoia. Iia
i?aaeoniao?eaaea nai? naaaeaiee aeiiieieoaeueiiai iaiiaeaoiiai
ianaeaiey, o.a. i aeai?yiao, ?acii/eioeao, iaa?-ioeoea?neeo aeaoyo.

A 1842 aiaeo – iiaay oi?ia io/aoa, 27 oi?i oaaeeoe.

Iao?e/aneea eieae auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia eaoieeeia, ethoa?ai, ionoeueiai
e aa?aaa. A n 1846 aiaea noaee niiauaoueny naaaeaiey ia?iaeiianaeaiey ii
oacaeai. Yoe aeaiiua noaee aeeth/aoueny a aoaa?iaoi?neea io/aou ii eeiee
IAAe.

Eaeiau iauea aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee? ?inney inoaaaeanue
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie no?aiie, naeueneia ianaeaiea i?aiaeaaeaei. A
n?aaee naeueneiai ianaeaiey i?aiaeaaeaee e?anoueyia. Enoaoe, naeueneia
ianaeaiea i?aiaeaaeaei e a NNN?. Ii ia?aiene 1959 aiaea naeueneiai
ianaeaiey auei aieueoa, /ai ai?iaeneiai.

Anee acyoue i?aaeoanoaothuee ia?eiae, oi e?anoueyia ninoaaeyee io iauaai
ianaeaiey ?innee 90%, e 1850 aiaeo – 83%; e 1860 aiaeo, iaeaioia ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa – 80% ianaeaiey ?innee.

I?iaeieaeaea oaaee/eaaoueny /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiiuo ioieoia.
I?iaeieaeaeinue inaiaiea oa??eoi?ee.

Aeai?yinoai – e 1858 aiaeo 443 ouny/e (ioae/ei), n aeaiueiaie 900 ouny/.

Aeooiaainoaa i?eia?ii 600 ouny/ (n aeaiueiaie).

Ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea, aeeth/ay eoia/anoai, iauai e oeaoiauo e ii/aoiuo
a?aaeaeai, eioi?ua iiyaeeenue a 1832 aiaeo, i?eia?ii /ooue aieueoa 2
ieeeeiiia /aeiaae (a 1858 aiaeo). A ii/aoiuo a?aaeaeai 11 ouny/.

Aeaiia?aoe/aneia iiaaaeaiea e?anoueyinoaa.

Iiaeaeue aeaiia?aoe/aneiai iiaaaeaiey ii?aaeaeyei o?enoeainoai.

9/10 e?anoueyi i?iaeieaeaei aeeoue a aea?aaia, caieiaoueny naeueneei
oicyenoaii. Iniiaiia ianaeaiea ai?iaea oiaea auei naeueneia, aea?aeaee
ei?ia e o.ae.

A?ae, naiaeiua ioiioaiey, ?iaeaeaaiinoue. Naiaeiua, a?a/iua ioiioaiey
iineee ioaee/iue oa?aeoa?. Naaaeueao aoeyea any aea?aaiy. Ioaee/ii
oaeinoiaa?yeanue aeaanoaaiiinoue iaaanou iieacuaaieai aa ?oaaoee eee
auaaoeaaieai ia caai?a i?inouie.

Ia iiiu?yeinue aiaa?a/iia ?iaeaeaiea aeaoae. Yoi auei eeaeii ia anth
aeeciue. Ana eiioeeeou, eioi?ua aicieeaee a naiuea, aeieaeiu auee
?aoaoueny ia iauanoaaiiii noiaea. Iaueia ?aaoee?iaaea ioiioaiey.

Iiauneeny aic?ano anooieaiey a a?ae. A 18 aaea aeaaooee anooiaee a a?ae
a 12-14 eao, aeey thiioae 13-15 eao. Oi e na?aaeeia 19 aaea aeaaooee
anooiaee a a?ae a 16-18 eao, thiioe a 20-21 aiae.

?iaeeoaee ana-oaee noa?aeenue iiaeaieoue ii?aiueoa. N/eoaeinue, /oi anee
aia?aiy ia aeaieoue nuia, ii caiaoa?aao, ia aoaeao iineooii niaeaoaoueny
ia oo eaiaeeaeaoo?o aeaiu, eioi?oth aio i?aaeeiaeao. Noa?eee aiai?eee
oae: aeaie iiiieiaea, iiea iineooai, oiaoa?aao – ia iaeaieoue aai.

N/eoaeinue, /oi aeaia aeieaeia auoue iieiaea ia 2-3 aiaea. Anee ?acieoea
a aic?anoa auea aieueoa, oi aeaaooea aai oaea n/eoaea noa?eeii e ia
oioaea ca iaai caioae.

I?aiyonoaeai aeey anooieaiey a a?ae aei 1810 aiaea auee: ?iaenoai eee
naienoai. O i?aaineaaiuo – aei 7-e noaiaie ?iaenoaa; iaaeaeo
?iaenoaaiieeaie iaeiie e ae?oaie noi?iiu – aei 5-e noaiaie. N 1810 aiaea
nieceee aei 4-e noaiaie ?iaenoaa.

O eaoieeeia, i?ioanoaioia auei aieaa eeaa?aeueii.

Anooieaiea a a?ae auei aaaeiui niauoeai a aeecie e?anoueyieia. Anee
thiioa a 20-21 aiae ia aeaieeny, ii ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaeny iaeui,
iaiieiioeaiiui. Anee ioae/eia ia aeaieeny, aai iacuaaee aaeiaooa, aiaeia
noa?ie aeaau; auei iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea.

N/eoaeinue, /oi a a?aea iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu auoue aeaoe, eia/a ii
a?aoiaiue. Anee ia auei aeaoae aei 60 eao, yoi i?eaiaeeei e ia/aeueiui
iineaaenoaeyi. O /aeiaaea caae?aeanue caiey, ioaeaaaeanue oai naiueyi,
aaea anoue aeaoe. Aicieeae aii?in: eoi aoaeao eo niaea?aeaoue. A oi
a?aiy «iaineiiiui iieenii» auee aeaoe, nuiiauey. Iioeiaeueii ioaeii auei
eiaoue 3 nuia. Aiai?eee oae: ia?aue nui aeey Aiaa – o/eouaay aieueooth
nia?oiinoue, aei niaa?oaiiieaoey oie?aei aei 50% aeaoae; aoi?ie nui –
aeey oea?y, o.a. aeey neoaeau, aeey a?iee. A a?iee oiaaea neoaeeee
aeieai, 25 eao. Ieeieae 1 niecee n?ie neoaeau aei 20 eao. A o?aoee nui –
aeey naay, aeey iaania/aiey noa?inoe.

?iaeaeaiea aeaoae auei yeiiiie/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

Anooieaiea a a?ae auei aaaeiui iioiio, /oi e?anoueyiei iia aanoe
oicyenoai, eiaaea auee e ioaeneea e aeaineea ?oee. Nouanoaiaaei /aoeia
?acaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae. Ioae/eiu caieiaeenue anaie iieaauie ?aaioaie,
caaioiaeie ae?ia. A aeaoaa i?eieiaee o/anoea e aeaiueiu. Ia aeaiueiao
eaaeaei aeiiaoiaa oicyenoai, aeeth/ay ecaioiaeaiea iieioia aeey iioeaa
iaeaaeaeu.

A ioiioaiee ?acaiaeia oiaea auee ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe. ?acaiae aue
cao?oaeiai n 1723 aiaea, i?e Iao?a 1. Eiaaea /enei caeiiiuo iniiaaiee
aeey ?acaiaea auei nie?auaii n 26 aei 5. Yoi i?aethaiaeayiea,
iaecaanoiia aeieaia ionoonoaea, nnueea eee oth?aiiia caeeth/aiea. AEaiu,
eae i?aaeei, iiaee neaaeiaaoue e a Neae?ue. Eiinoaioeia Iaaeiae/a
?acaaee, iioiio /oi aai aeaia ionoonoaiaaea aeeeoaeueiue n?ie e ia
aica?auaeanue a ?inneth. O?aouey i?e/eia – ooiae a iiianou?ue. Eiaaea
ioaeo ia i?aaeeanue aeaia, ii iiaiyie noa?aeny caaiaoue aa a iiianou?ue,
e ianeeueii ioi?aaeoue. 4 – anee iaia?oaeeaaeinue aeeceia ?iaenoai. Anee
iaia?oaeeaaeinue anooieaiea a a?ae i?e aeecie noi?oaa.

Oaeea neo/ae auee n aeaeaa?enoaie, eiaaea iie a Neae?e caaaee naaa
aoi?ua naiuee i?e aeeauo aeaiao, eioi?ua ca ieie ia iiaoaee.

?acaiaeia auei iaei. 70-80 ?acaiaeia a aiae. A anee i?aaineaaiia
ianaeaiea 43 ieeeeiia, oi yoi iaiiiai.

Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi naiuee ia ?aniaaeaeenue, ii yoi iacuaaeinue ia
?acaiaeeoueny, a ?acuacaeaoueny. Iaeioi?ua ia?aae?aeenue a ae?oaea
ai?iaea.

?inney auea no?aia iiiaieiioanneiiaeueiay, iieeyoie/aneay. A ?innee
i?iaeeaaei ieiei 200 ia?iaeia.

Yoie/aneea ninoaa ?innee a 1-e iieiaeia 19 aaea. 18-19 aae – aeiey
?onneeo iai?a?uaii oiaiueoaeanue, n 70,7% i?e Iao?a 1 aei 44,6% a 1914
aiaeo.

Ii a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae i?e Ieeieaa 1 oaeaeueiue aan ?onneiai
ianaeaiey ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy niiaa noae ?anoe, yoi ia?eiae 1830-50-o
aiaeia. I?e?ino ianaeaiey iiaeao eaeoe ia oieueei ca n/ao iiauoaiey
?iaeaeaaiinoe, ii e ca n/ao i?eniaaeeiaiey iiauo oa??eoi?ee. iiyoiio ia
oae auno?i i?e?anoaee ae?oaea ia?iaeu.

A oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenaiae?a 1 iaeaieaa e?oiiuie yoiinaie iinea ?onneeo
auee oe?aeioeu, aaei?onu, iieyee. Aeaeaa neaaeiaaee eeoiaoeu, eaouoe,
oaoa?u, oeiiu, aa?ae.

A nayce n aieaa ieceei anoanoaaiiui i?e?inoii ianaeaiey iaeioi?uo
yoiinia i?ienoiaeeei oiaiueoaiea oaeaeueiiai aana oe?aeioeaa e
aaei?onia, a oaeaea eeoiaoeaa e eaouoae. E 10 ?aaecee aan oe?aeioeaa
nieceeny e ia/aeo 19 aaea n 19,8 aei 17,2%.

Iniaaiii nieceeny oaeaeueiue aan aaei?onia, a oii /enea ca n/ao
ia?onaiey, n 8,3 aei 5,3%.

Noaaeeueiui inoaaaeny oaeaeueiue aan oeiiia.

Iiauneeny oaeaeueiue aan oaoa?, iaioeaa, aaoee?, iieaeaaai, eacaoia.

Iniaaiii auno?i ?in oaeaeueiue aan aa?aaa. A oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenaiae?a 1
aa?ae auoee ia 5 ianoi iinea neaayi. A aaei?onu ia?aaeaeioeenue ia 4
ianoi iinea iieyeia.

A 1-e iieiaeia 19 aaea n?aaeiea oaiiu i?e?inoa o ?onneeo ninoaaeee 73 %,
ia?eeoeaa (/a?aienia) 75%, o ii?aeau 105%, o ynoiioeaa 49%, o oaoa?
117%, o aaoee? 213 %. O.a. cia/eoaeueiui aue i?e?ino o aaoee? e o
aa?aaa.

Aeaiiua iicaieytho naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua auaiaeu.

Aeaaii caia/aii, /oi ?inney ia oeeaaeuaaeanue a noaio o?aaeeoeeiiiie
eieiieaeueiie eiia?ee. Ia oieueei iioiio, /oi o ?innee ia auei ino?iaiuo
ioaeaeaiiuo oa??eoi?ee, ii e iioiio /oi a ?innee iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in
ia anaaaea niaiaaeae n eieiieaeueiui. A ?innee neiaeeeinue 3 oeia
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ie?aei. Anee iu aicueiai caiaaeiua oa??eoi?ee ?innee,
aeeceea e ii?th, e Aa?iia, oaeea eae Iieueoa, Oeieyiaeey, I?eaaeoeea,
Oe?aeia, oi a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee iie auee ?acaeou aieueoa, /ai
oeaio?aeueiua ?onneea aoaa?iee. *anoe/ii yoiio niinianoaiaaee e
?acee/iua yeiiiie/aneea eueaiou, oaiiaeaiiua, oaeianoai ?uieia nauoa.
O.a. yoe ie?aeiu ia auee eieiieyie a yeiiiie/aneii niunea.

*oi eanaaony aii?ina noaiaie iaoeeiiaeueiiai oaiaoaiey e iieeoeee
?oneoeeaoeee, oi ii inoaaony aeeneonneiiiui.

Ae?oaie oei – yoi aa?a?ii-nu?ueaaua ie?aeiu, ia?acaeoua a yeiiiie/aneii
ioiioaiee, iie auee i?aaenoaaeaiu thaeiie ?inneae e Neae?ueth. I?e
ioiineoaeueiie ieioiinoe ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey yoi aue iauaeo ?onneie
eieiiecaoeee. Caeanue ia auei naiaai ianoiiai ianaeaiey. Yoi auee
eieiiee a eaiiie/aneii ieaia, ii iaei auei ia?onneeo ia?iaeia, eioi?ua
iiaeii auei oaiaoaoue.

O?aoee oei – Oeaio?aeueiue Eaaeac, Caeaaeacuea, Eacaonoai, iaeioi?ua
?aeiiu Iiaieaeuey e I?aaeo?aeuea. Caeanue aue cia/eoaeueiue i?ioeaio
ianoiiai ianaeaiey. Ianeieueei yoe oa??eoi?ee auee iauaeoii
eieiieaeueiiai oaiaoaiey, ioaeii ?acae?aoueny eiie?aoii. Aeaeaei ia ana
auei ieioi.

Iinea ?aaiethoeee iaeii a?aiy ?inney noaea ?anniao?eaaoueny eae oth?ueia
ia?iaeia. Iioii Noaeei iiaei?aaee, aiai?ee, /oi i?eniaaeeiaiea e ?innee
auei ana-oaee iaiueoei ceii, ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeoanoaothuei
iieiaeaieai.

I?e A?aaeiaaa noaee aiai?eoue, /oi caoi, i?eniaaeeieaoenue e ?innee, iie
aianoa n ?onneei ia?iaeii niaa?oeee nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth, e
aeeaoo i?ae?anii, e aoaeoo aeeoue i?e eiiioiecia.

Iioii ia/aeanue ia?ano?ieea e ianoiua iaoeeiiaeueiua yeeou, eioi?ua
a?aee a ?aaeiiao aeanoue a naie ?oee, niiaa noaee aeaeaoue aeoeaio ia
oaiaoaiea ni noi?iiu iaoi?ioae ?innee. E niaeaeaieth, yoa oaiaeaioeey
i?ineaaeeaaaony ai iiiaeo oeieueiuo o/aaieeao auaoeo niaaoneeo
?anioaeee, eioi?ua nae/an ioaeaeeeenue.

Eaeea iiaoo auoue iauaeoeaiua iiiaiou? A.I. Ie?iiia ?aoee eniieueciaaoue
iieacaoaee III, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Anoue oaeie
iieacaoaeue ioeaiee aeaaininoiyiey ianaeaiey eae Eiaeaen /aeiaa/aneiai
?acaeoey. Ii aeeth/aao 3 iieacaoaey.

1) Aeieaieaoea, o.a. n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?aaenoiyuae aeecie.

2) Ia?aciaaiiinoue. Ia?aciaaiiinoue ac?ineiai ianaeaiey, iethn
eiee/anoai aeaoae, eioi?ua oiaeyo a oeieo. Iaiyaony naii iiiyoea
ia?aciaaiiinoue. A aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee ia?aciaaiiui n/eoaeny oio,
eoi oiaao /eoaoue e iinoaaeoue naith iiaeienue. O ian n eiioea 1950-o
aiaeia ii aeaiiui III a?aiioiui n/eoaaony oio, eoi oiaao /eoaoue,
ienaoue e iaienaoue e?aoeia eceiaeaiea i naiae aeecie.

3) Iaoa?eaeueiia aeaaiiieo/ea. ?ann/eouaaaony aaeiaie i?iaeoeo ia aeooo
ianaeaiey. Yoio iieacaoaeue o?oaeiaa anaai i?in/eoaoue.

E eiioeo 19 aaea n?aaeiyy i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?aaenoiyuae aeecie o
iiai?iaeaeaiiiai ?onneiai auea 28,7 eao. Aaoee?a – 37,3 aiaea. O aa?ay –
39 eao. Aa?ae ia?aaeaeioeenue n 9 ianoa ia 5 a eiioea 18 aaea. Yoi ia
neo/aeii. Aeiey aaoee? oiaea oaaee/eeanue.

A?aiioiinoue 3-o neaayineeo ia?iaeia a 1897 aiaeo 29% o ioae/ei e 8,2% o
aeaiuei. Anoanoaaiii ii ?aciui ?aaeiiai ii-?aciiio. Naiuie a?aiioiuie
auee iiaia?aioeu y?ineaaneie aoaa?iee.

Anee acyoue aa?aaa, oi iie eco/aee ycue eaeeo a ?aeeaeiciuo oeieao
iiaieiaii, ii e?aeiae ia?a, iaeue/eee. Ii anee acyoue aeaaea ?onneee
ycue, oi ieaaeaony, /oi a?aiioiinoue o aa?aaa ii ?onneiio ycueo auea
aieueoa, /ai o ?onneeo. I?eia?ii a 2 ?aca aa?ae auee a?aiioiaa ?onneeo.

Anee acyoue aaoee?, ianaeaiea Ooeineie aoaa?iee (a. Ooa), oi o aaoee?
auea a?aiioiinoue e eiioeo 19 aaea 18,5%, o ?onneeo 16,7%.

Eae aeaeeoa, ?onneea onooiaee iiiaei ia?iaeai ?inneeneie eiia?ee.

*oi eanaaony aeioiaea, oi caeanue o?oaeii iiaen/eouaaoue. Iiaeii
iiniio?aoue ii aeioiaeai ainoaea?noaa ca n/ao iaeiaia, a oii /enea
einaaiiuo iaeiaia, iai?eia?, i?iaeaaea aiaeee.

Ii iiaen/aoai Ie?iiiaa eiioea 19 aaea a 30 aaeeei?onneeo aoaa?ieyo
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu ninoaaeyee 7,39 ?oaeae ia /aeiaaea. A
aoaa?ieyo aa?aeneie inaaeeinoe ianeieueei iaiueoa, 6,2 ?oaey. O aaoee?
aua iaiueoa. Ii aaoee?u cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa aiaeee ieee. E aa?ae
oi?aiaaee aiaeeie, ii naie aiaeeie ia oaeaeaeenue.

Anoue e ae?oaea ioee/ey ?inneeneie iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie eiia?ee io
eiia?ee, iai?eia? Aiaeeeneie, O?aioeocneie, Eniaineie. A oeaeii ?onneea
auee oa?ieiaa. A ?innee ia auei aeene?eieiaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee a
ioiioaiee ae?oaeo o?enoeaineeo aa?ieniiaaaeaiee. Iai?eia?, a Aiaeee
aeieaia a?aiy eaoieeeai auei cai?auaii caieiaoue ainoaea?noaaiiua iinou.
?onneea ia /oanoaiaaee naiaai i?aainoiaenoaa iaae ionoeueiaiaie.
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio yeeoa iiiaeo ia?iaeia aani?aiyonoaaiii aeeaaeanue a
?inneeneoth yeeoo. A ioiioaiee a?ocei, a?iyi aiiaua i?aiyonoaee ia
aicieeaei.

Iaeioi?ua oth?eneea oaieeee, eioi?ua aioee a ninoaa ?inneeneie yeeou:
Aenaeiau, Ai?aeneiu, A?ae/aaau, Aa?aeyaau, Aoeaaeiau, Aooa?eiu,
Aieaieuaau-Eooociau, Ai?/aeiau, Aeaoeiau, A?iieiau, Ea?aiceiu,
Ea?aineea, Eo?aeeiu, Iaua?neea, Ioneiu-Iooeeiu, Naia?eiu, Ie?iaiau,
Noai?iau, Oaaaioeaau, Oaoeuaau, Oeie?ycaau, Oo?aaiaau, Oooa/aaneea,
Ooaeiau, *aaaeaaau, *a?eanneea, Otho/aau, Oaoianeea, Oa?aiaoaau,
THnoiiau e o.ae.

Iiiaea ec ieo ia?onaee. Ii eo i?aaeee auee oth?eneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

Oaeiai ia auei a aiaeeeneie, o?aioeocneie, eniaineie eieiieaeueiie
eiia?ee.

Auee e ae?oaea ioee/ey. Ii iaeioi?ui iieacaoaeyi ?inney niioaaonoaiaaea
aa?iiaeneei iieacaoaeyi, ii eaeei-oi iao, ii a oeaeii ?inneeneay eiia?ey
ia iioiaeeea ia aiaeeeneoth, o?aioeocneoth, eniaineoth.

Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in a ?innee ia noiye. Iiiaea
aii?inu aeinoaeenue Ieeieath 1 ii ianeaaenoao io i?aaeoanoaothueo
oea?noaiaaiee.

Ieeieae Iaaeiae/ iuouae naay ?onneei /aeiaaeii. Oeana?aae/o Aeaenaiae?o
ii ienae: ia ethaeoue ee ioiuia aua neeueiaa iaoo neaaioth aeia?oth
?iaeeio, iaoo iaoooeo ?inneth. Ethae aa iaaeii, ethae n ai?aeinoueth,
/oi ae i?eiaaeeaaeai.

Ieeieae n/eoae, /oi e aeey ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, eioi?ua aeeaoo a ?innee,
yoi aeey ieo n/anouea. Iiieiay neiaeiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee, Ieeieae 1 i?aaeii/eoae aiai?eoue i iinoaiaiiii
naeeaeaiee ae?oaeo ia?iaeia n ?onneeie. Ii ii aue i?ioea iaoiaeia
ianeeuenoaaiiie ?oneoeeaoeee.

A ai?iaeao auee ?aciua o?aiu. Aeaaea a ?yaea aieineeo /anoae auee
iieeoaaiiua eiiiaou, o?aiu ae?oaeo eiioannee, e aeaaea a Iaoa?ao?aa auea
neiaaiaa a?iaeneay.

Aei/ue Ieeieay 1 aaeeeay eiyaeia Ieueaa Ieeieaaaia, oa?aeoa?ecoy
acaeyaeu Ieeieay ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio aii?ino, ioiaoeea: /oi aea eanaaony
iaia, oi ii ia aeaeae ?acieoeu ie a eiaiao, ie a iaoeeiiaeueiinoe, ii
n/eoaeny ni niiniaiinoyie e oa?aeoa?ii /aeiaaea, o?aaiaae oaaaeaiey,
aeiioneae aieueiiiuneey.

Eiia/ii aea, eaeea-oi ee/iua i?eno?anoey e aioeiaoee o iaai auee. O?iee
aeaeaa?y io?aceeenue e ia iaoeeiiaeueiii aii?ina. Ieeieae ioaeaaae
i?aaeii/oaiea iaioeai, eioi?ua ninoaaeyee e aieueoie i?ioeaio ioeoea?ia
a aaa?aeaeneeo iieeao, ethoa?aia, i?ioanoaiou; e n?aaee /eiiaie/anoaa.
Eiaaea noiye aii?in i iacia/aiee /eiiaieea ia eaeoth-ieaoaeue
aeieaeiinoue, Ieeieae ioaeaaae i?aaeii/oaiea oai, o eioi?uo auea
iaiaoeeay oaieeey. Ii/aio?

Eaeao nicaeaiea i?aaiia?iie ath?ie?aoe/aneie iiia?oee, iniiaaiiie ia
i?aaa, eioi?ia a eaeie-oi noaiaie oaea ia?aie/eaaao naiiaea?aeaaea.

Iaeiei ec o?ieia 14 aeaeaa?y 1825 aiaea auei iaaeiaa?ea Ieeieay 1 e
?onneie a?enoie?aoee, e aa?oooea aeai?yinoaa, i eioi?ie ii e ?aiueoa,
eiaaea aue aaeeeei eiycai, aue iaaunieiai iiaiey.

Yoa oaiaeaioeey iii?u ia iaioeaa iieo/eea ?acaeoea. Iaaea?ii aua aei
Ieeieay, i?e Aeaenaiae?a, e oaea Eaoianeee iacaaeieai aei eacie ienae ec
Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe Ieeieath 1: aeaeae y io oiai, /oiau
ii?aaaeuaaoue eaiinoue, ia?aaeaiea, aania/iinoue aeai?yinoaa ?onneiai.
Ii iaeuecy ia caiaoeoue, /oi oiio i?e/eiie yaiia i?aaeii/oaiea,
ioaeaaaaiia i?aaeoaeuenoaii anai eiino?aioeai, aac ?acai?a. Ia yoio ?ac
y oeaaeo oieueei ia ei?ion eiaeaia?ia aiaeyiie eiiioieeaoeee, oai ana
ioeoea?u, ia?aoaaeoea e iai n eiino?aiiie neoaeau, iaoiaeyony ia
aeaeiaaiee ia?iiiii, ii iieuecu io ieo iaei, a eo/oa neacaoue, /oi iao
ieeaeie.

Aeaeaa?enou – iao?eiou, iiiyoii eo oaeia ioiioaiea e eiino?aioeai, a oii
/enea e e iaioeai.

Ieeieae i?iaeieaeee yoo oaiaeaioeeth. Ia yoii ienae Aa?oeai a «Aueia e
aeoiu», ia yoii ienae Aeaeueaea, aeaith?iaeiue a?ao iiyoa Aeaeueaeaa,
eioi?ue i?eiye i?aaineaaea aua a aiaiiii o/eeeua. A iaioa?ao, iienuaay
niauoey 1846 aiaea, inocaeneee iaiaoe, aa?ii Aeaeueaea iaienae: iia
oiaaea aua ia auea ecaanoia any iaiaaenoue inocaeneeo aeai?yi, iieo
caieyeia e ?innee, eioi?ua i?eniaaeeiaiu aieaa 150 eao, ii ia i?eciatho
aa ioa/anoaii, a neoaeao ia ae, a ainoaea?th.

Ieeieath 1 i?eienuaatho oaeoth o?aco: ?onneea aeai?yia neoaeao
ainoaea?noao, a iaiaoeeea – iai (o.a. ainoaea?th).

E a aeaaiii oi?aaeaiee iooae niiauaiey, e a ?yaea ae?oaeo aaaeiinoa, e a
aaa?aeee i?ioeaio iaiaoeeeo ioeoea?ia ath?ie?aoia e aunoeo /eiiaieeia
aue aanueia cia/eoaeai.

E eiaaea Ea?iiioia a 1837 aiaeo ienae naia ciaiaieoia noeoioai?aiea
«Nia?oue iiyoa», oi a no?iea «aeaaeiie oieiie noiyuea o o?iia», ii,
eiia/ii aea, eiae a aeaeo e inocaeneia ie?oaeaiea eiia?aoi?neie naiuee,
ia/eiay io Aaieaiaei?oa, Aaeea?aa?aia e ae?.

O Ieeieay 1 auee ii?aaeaeaiiua i?eioeeiu iacia/aiey ia aeieaeiinoe, naiy
eaae?iaay iieeoeea. Ecaanoii aai au?aaeaiea: iia ia ioaeii o/aiuo aieia,
iia ioaeiu aa?iiiiaeaeaiiua. Aeaaiui ii n/eoae aa?iinoue e
eniieieoaeueiinoue, a ia oinoaiaaiea.

Aa?oeai aue aieueoei Ieeieaa-iaiaaenoieeii, iiyoiio ia iaai a?yae ee
iiaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny, ii ienae: I?icae/aneiio inaiiaio oea?noaiaaieth
Ieeieay 1 ia ioaeiu auee y?eea ee/iinoe. Ath?ie?aoe/aneay iaoeia eo
i?inoi ionaeaaea, eiiaaea ii naeaeaoaeuenoao nia?aiaiieeia, i?iniao?eaay
aae?an-eaeaiaea?ue, iaeuecy auei iaeoe ia eaeie-ieaoaeue ioaaonoaaiiue
iino iiaeoiaeyuaai ?oeiaiaeeoaey. Ec 260 ieeeeiiia ianaeaiey neiaeii
auei aua?aoue 8 oiiuo ieieno?ia e 50 /anoiuo aoaa?iaoi?ia. A oi aea
a?aiy cao?yaeiua, ii iineooiua, ee/ii ecaanoiua e i?aaeaiiua Ieeieath
aaeieieno?aoi?u iiaee aanueia aeieai caieiaoue iinou.

ss oaea aiai?ee ia yoii ea/anoaa Ieeieay 1, i aai eiina?aaoecia, ii
i?eaueae e ethaeyi, e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ii?yaeeo aauae, e i/aiue iaioioii
iaiye ethaeae.

Iiiaea iaoiaeeeenue i/aiue aeieai ia naieo iinoao, oio aea
Iannaeue?iaea, eioi?iai ii acye a ianeaaenoai io Aeaenaiae?a; ieieno?
oeiainia Eaie?ei, aiaiiue ieieno? *a?iuoaa e ae?.

I/aiue iaei eoi ec yoeo ethaeae iiaeao auoue iacaai niiaeaeaeieeii
Ieeieay 1, a iniiaiii yoi ana-oaee eniieieoaee. Ianeieueei aicauoaaony
iaae iauei n?aaeiei o?iaiai Eenaeaa, Aeoaeia, ii oaeeo auei iaiiiai.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu ai 2-e /aoaa?oe 19 aaea,
iu ioia/aai aai aeaeueiaeooth oeaio?aeecaoeeth. Iniaia cia/aiea n?aaee
aunoeo o/?aaeaeaiee i?eia?aoaao Nianoaaiiay aai eiia?aoi?neiai
aaee/anoaa Eaioeaey?ey. Iia auea ia?aciaaia aua i?e Iaaea 1, iieo/eea
cia/aiea aua ai a?aiy Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1812 aiaea, eiaaea ath
?oeiaiaeee A?ae/aaa. I?e Ieeieaa 1 Nianoaaiiay aai eiia?aoi?neiai
aaee/anoaa Eaioeaey?ey iieo/aao aieaa neiaeiia ono?ienoai. Iiyaeythony
?aciua ioaeaeaiey.

31 yiaa?y 1826 aiaea, o.a. /a?ac 2 ianyoea iinea aioea?aiey, auee
ia?aciaaiu 2 ioaeaeaiey: Ia?aia e Aoi?ia.

Ia?aia neaaeeei ca eniieiaieai auni/aeoeo iiaaeaiee, caieiaeinue
aii?inaie, naycaiiuie n iacia/aieai ia ?aciua aunoea iinou /eiiaieeia,
aaei o/ao, aioiaeei aoiaae aeey aeieeaaea eiia?aoi?o.

Aoi?ia ioaeaeaiea auei i?ecaaii caaa?oeoue ?aaioo ii nenoaiaoecaoeee
caeiiia, ia/aooth aua i?e Aeaenaiae?a 1, ii oae e ia caeii/aiioth. Yoi
iacuaaeinue eiaeeoeeaoeey.

3 ethey 1826 aiaea auei o/?aaeaeaii 3 ioaeaeaiea, eioi?ia iai iaeaieaa
iaiyoii. Iii iineei ia oieueei ooieoeee iieeoe/aneiai nunea. Iii auei e
naiaia?aciui einoeoooii eco/aiey iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey. Oai aieaa /oi
aeaniinoe ia auei. Iiiaea ienaee ia ionoonoaee aeaniinoe a ?innee. I
eae-oi iaaei auei ociaaaoue iiaiea ia?iaea.

Aaieaiaei?o n/eoae, /oi ciaiea iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey oae aea aaaeii aeey
?innee, eae ciaiea oiiia?aoe/aneie ea?ou aeey aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai.

3 ioaeaeaiea iaoiaeeeinue ia?aiia/aeueii ia oaeo iaaa?aaeiie Iieee e
Ai?ioiaie oeeoeu, ii a 1828 aiaeo ia?aaaaeaii ii aae?ano Oiioaiea, 36.
*eneaiiinoue nia/aea auea 16 /aeiaae, e eiioeo oea?noaiaaiey 40 /aeiaae.
Eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii eaioeaey?ee aue ei?ion aeaiaea?iia. A ?innee
auee nicaeaiu aeaiaea?ineea ie?oaa ai aeaaa n aeaiaea?ineeie aaia?aeaie.
I?e/ai yoe aaia?aeu ia iiae/eiyeenue ianoiiio aoaa?iaoi?o, ianoiui
aeanoyi, a eiaee auoiae iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia eiia?aoi?a. E a yoii auea eo
neea. Eo aiyeenue. Iaaea?ii a «?aaeci?a» aeaiaea?i i?eaiceo aanoue, /oi
aaeao ianoiyuee ?aaeci? a caeeth/eoaeueiie noeaia.

Iiaeao nicaeaoueny aia/aoeaiea, /oi aeaiaea?iu auee i?ace?aaiu
iauanoaii, ii ana-oaee aieueoeinoai iauanoaa ioiineeinue e iei n
ii/oaieai. Neoaeeoue a aeaiaea?ineii ei?iona n/eoaeinue i?anoeaeiui e
aeaiaaeiui. Aeaeaei ia anao ooaea i?eieiaee. Aac oaeiai einoeoooa
ainoaea?noai nouanoaiaaoue ia iiaeao.

E niaeaeaieth, iao a?aiaie oa?aeoa?eciaaoue ee/iinoe, eioi?ua
aicaeaaeyee 3 ioaeaeaiea. Yoi aue Aeaenaiae? O?enoioi?iae/ Aaieaiaei?o,
iinea aai nia?oe Aeaenae Oaaei?iae/ I?eia, a?ao aeaeaa?enoa Ieoaeea
I?eiaa, aiaa?a/iue nui Oaaei?a I?eiaa.

Iineieueeo Aaieaiaei?o aue ?annayi, a I?eia eaiea, oi i?aeoe/aneoth
?aaioo aaaeaee ia oao, ia ia/aeueiee, a oi?aaeythuee 3 ioaeaeaieai,
ia/aeueiee ooaaa aeaiaea?ineiai ei?iona, eioi?ui aeieaia a?aiy aue
_______, Ii?aeaeiia, Aeoaaeueo, aeinoaoi/ii i?eaeiaeueiue /aeiaae, n
eenueeie iiaaaeeaie, ae?aae/eaue, aaaeeeaue. I iai aiai?eee, /oi ii
naiei eioi?iaoi?ai, oaeiui aaaioai ieaoeo aeaeiaaiuea, e?aoiia 3, a
iaiyoue i 30 na?aa?yieeao. 30, 90 ?oaeae.

Aioo?e 3 ioaeaeaiey auee oaea naie iiae?acaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iacuaaeenue
yeniaaeeoeee. Eaaeaeay ec yeniaaeeoeee caieiaeanue naieie i?iaeaiaie.
Ia?aay – nae?aoiay yeniaaeeoeey, eioi?ay auea i?aaiii iieeoe/aneiai
nunea, 2 –caieiaeanue aeaeaie ?aneieueieeia, 3 – neaaeeaie ca
eiino?aioeaie, 4 – e?anoueyineei aii?inii, i?anaeaea ceioiio?aaeaiey
iiiaueeia, oeene?iaaea neooe ia inaiaiaeaeaiee e?aiinoiuo, 5 –
caieiaeanue oeaico?ie e ia?eiaee/aneeie ecaeaieyie.

A 1828 aiaeo iiyaeyaony 4 ioaeaeaiea iinea nia?oe Ia?ee Oaaei?iaiu,
eioi?ay aicaeaaeyea aieueoia eiee/anoai aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo aeaineeo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Aeaenaiae?a Oaaei?iaia, aeaia Ieeieay 1, iioyiooue oaeoth
aieueooth ?aaioo ia iiaea. Aeecaaaoa Aeaenaaaia (?) e yoiio a?aiaie
oia?ea, iiyoiio nicaeaee niaoeeaeueiia ioaeaeaiea, eioi?ia oi?aaeyei
anai yoei aieueoei aaniieieiui ianeaaenoaii.

5,6 ioaeaeaiey – auee a?aiaiiuie. 5 ioaeaeaiea auei ia?aciaaii a 1835-36
aiaeo, eiaaea a Iaoa?ao?aneie e Ineianeie aoaa?iee auei ?aoaii i?iaanoe
a aeaea iiuoa ?aoi?io ainoaea?noaaiiie aea?aaie, eioi?ay iioii auea
?ani?ino?aiaia ia anth ?inneth, i?e nicaeaiee ieienoa?noaa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa, i?e Eenaeaaa. Yoi ioaeaeaiea aeieaeii auei
caeiaeeoue iniiau ?aoi?iu Eenaeaaa. Iiiai aeieoiaioia ii yoiio aii?ino
ioeiaeeeinue a ?AEA.

6 ioaeaeaiea auei ia?aciaaii a 1842 aiaeo aei 1844 aiaea. Iii
caieiaeinue aii?inaie Eaaeaca, iiaeaioiaeie i?iaeoaie ia?aciaaiey
Eaaeacneiai iaianoie/anoaa. Iii auei ia?aciaaii a eiioea 1844 aiaea. A
1881 aiaeo iaianoie/anoai auei eeeaeaee?iaaii. Ai a?aiy ia?aie ?onneie
?aaiethoeee aai niiaa aiciaiiaeee. Eaaeacneei iaianoieeii aue iacia/ai
I.N. Ai?iioeia, nui iinea a Aiaeee, aiaeioee, eioi?iai a yiea?aiia
iani?aaaaeeeai iaeaeae Iooeei, iacaaa «iieoieei?ae, iieoeoiaoe,
iieoiiaeeaoe, iieoiaaaaeaea… eiaaea aea aoaeao iieiui, iaeiiaoe?».

A oi?aaeaiea Ai?iioeiaa, iaeiiai ec aeaeiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo aeayoaeae
oea?noaiaaiey Ieeieay 1, aioea oa??eoi?ey ?innee io ?aee I?oo, ieciaueaa
Aeoiay, aei A?aena, aei a?aieoeu n Ia?neae, any thaeiay ?inney.

Ae?oaea i?aaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe iinoaiaiii oa?ytho naia cia/aiea.
Eae-oi Ieeieae 1 iinaoee Naiao. Yoi auei a 1827 aiaeo. Ieacaeinue, /oi
oai i?aeoe/anee iao ieeiai ec naiaoi?ia, e?iia noaon-nae?aoa?y Ieeieay
Iaca?iae/a Io?aaueaaa. Ieeieae 1 oioae aiciaiiaeoue oeac Iao?a 1, /oiau
naiaoi?u ?aii oo?ii i?eacaeaee a naiao, ii Io?aaueaa iii?inee yoiai ia
aeaeaoue, oae eae naii iinauaiea eiia?aoi?a «naeaeaei iieacioth
yeaeo?ieecaoeeth ia?aee/a». Oai ia iaiaa, i?e Ieeieaa 1 aieaa /aoei
?ani?aaeaeythony aii?inu iaaeaeo naiaoii, ainoaea?noaaiiui niaaoii,
eiieoaoii ieieno?ia.

Aunoea o/?aaeaeaiey i?e Ieeieaa 1. Iniaia cia/aiea iieo/aao eiieoao.
Eiieoaoia ii e?anoueyineiio aii?ino auei 9. Ii eaaeaeiio aii?ino Ieeieae
ia?acoao nae?aoiua eiieoaou. Anee ioaeii ninoaaeoue i?ia?aiio ?acaeoey
aeaeaciie aei?iae, eee ninoaaeoue i?ia?aiio ainieoaiey e iao/aiey
ianeaaeieea oeana?aae/a Aeaenaiae?a, eee i iieeoeea a ioiioaiee aa?aaa,
neae?neee eiieoao. Ii eaaeaeiio aii?ino niae?aaony eiieoao.

I oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiao oi?aaeaiey.

Ieeieae aiai?ee: ii n/anoueth iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey a iiae no?aia aanueia
i?ino: eiaaea au i?e iaoeo ?annoiyieyo, nicaeathueo o?oaeiinoe ai anai,
i?aaeaiea auei neiaeii ii oi?ia, aeey iaai iaaeinoaei au aieiau iaeiiai
/aeiaaea.

Iaeiaei iaoaieci naiiaea?aeaaey i?aaenoaaeye niaie a?iiicaeeoth
ath?ie?aoe/aneoth nenoaio, n aeaeaei iai?inouie iaoaieciaie aeanoe. Oioy
a ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey ai iiiaii iauanoai aeeei iaeeaeaieai ?aoi?i,
aieueoeinoai i?iaeoia, eae e a oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenaiae?a 1, inouanoaeaii
ia auei.

Iniiaiua iiiaiou: auei nicaeaii 2 iiauo ieienoa?noaa.

Ieienoa?noai eiia?aoi?neiai aeai?a (IEAeA), nicaeaii 22 aaaonoa 1826
aiaea.

26 aeaeaa?y 1837 aiaea (7 yiaa?y 1838 aiaea ii iiaiio noeeth) auei
nicaeaii ieienoa?noai ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa (IAE), eioi?ia aicaeaaee
ia?aciaaiiue a?ao I.Ae. Eenaeaa. Auaoee ioeoea?, auaoee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
?onneie aaeieieno?aoeee a Aeoiaeneeo eiyaeanoaao iinea ?onnei-oo?aoeeie
aieiu, aaea ii i?iaiaeee e?anoueyineoth ?aoi?io. I?eaeeaeathueeny e oeio
i?inaauaiiiai ath?ie?aoa.

I?iecioee iaeioi?ua ia?aeiaiiaaiey aeaaiuo oi?aaeaiee.

I?e ieienoa?noaa oeiainia auee o/?aaeaeaiu iaiooaeoo?iue e eiiia?/aneee
niaaou, n i?eaea/aieai eoioeia e oaa?eeaioia. A 1828-29 aiaeo.

Ieienoa?noai ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey aioei a aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea oeaico?u.

Ai?iia aaaeiinoai, iiae/eiaiiia ieienoa?noao oeiainia, iieo/eei aiaiioth
i?aaiecaoeeth a 1834 aiaeo. Ieieno? oeiainia Eaie?ei noae
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei ei?iona ai?iuo eiaeaia?ia.

I?ienoiaeeo aeaeueiaeoay oeaio?aeecaoeey aiaiiiai aiia?aoa. I?e/ai a
a?iee e ia oeioa aeieaeiinoue ieieno?a iinoaiaiii naiaeeony e
oicyenoaaiiui ooieoeeyi, e eiiieaeoiaaieth a?iee, i?eianai,
no?ieoaeuenoao ei?aaeae. Aeaaiui noaiiaeony ia/aeueiee Ooaaa. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe 25 eao, n 1827 ii 1855 aiae oi?aaeaiea oeioii auei
nin?aaeioi/aii a ?oeao naaoeaeoaai eiycy A.N. Iaiueoeeiaa, aanueia
eiei?eoiay i?ioeai?a/eaay ee/iinoue.

Anee aiai?eoue i ?aaeiiaeueiie, ianoiie nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, oi iueana
Aiaiey «?aaeci?» aeaao iai i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yoii. Ieeieae 1, eioi?ue
iiiai iooaoanoaiaae ii ?innee, ia eiae iniauo eeethcee a ioiioaiee
ianoiuo /eiiaieeia. Oaeeo eae Ai?iioeia, I.I. Io?aaueaa-Ea?neee auei
iaaeinoaoi/ii. *eiiaieee ianoiiai o?iaiy ai iiiaii iaiiieiaee aa?iaa
«?aaeci?a». Eiaaea Ieeieae 1 ieacaeny ia aieueie/iie eieea iinea aaa?ee
a _______ , ia?aaa?ioeanue eieynea, e aai i?aaenoaaeyee ianoiui
/eiiaieeai, ii iioii neacae: Aea y eo anao ciath! Au aea caeanue ia
auee, aaoa aaee/anoai! A y eo anao ciath ii «?aaeci?o».

Naiaio nuio ianeaaeieeo Aeaenaiae?o Ieeieae neacae: oieueei iu n oiaie a
ainoaea?noaa ia ai?oai.

I?e anooieaiee ia i?anoie Ieeieae 1 noaaeo 2 aaaeiua caaea/e, ii?aaeaeyy
i?ei?eoaou aioo?aiiae iieeoeee, yoi eiaeeoeeaoeey o.a. nenoaiaoecaoeey
caeiiia e ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

Ia?aay caaea/a oaeaeanue aio a aieueoae noaiaie, aoi?ay io/anoe,
iineieueeo oa ia?ii?eyoey, eioi?ua i?e Ieeieaa 1 auee i?iaaaeaiu, iie
iiaeaioiaeee e iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, eioi?ia a oea?noaiaaiea Ieeieaa aua
ia auei aioiai e ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. E?aiinoiia i?aai aua eiaei
iaeioi?ua ?aca?au aeey naiaai ?acaeoey, ianiio?y ia e?ecen
oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie nenoaiu, iiiaueee aeeee ca n/ao yoiai.

Eiia/ii aea, ai iiiaii oea?noaiaaiea Ieeieay iiaeaioiaeei ioiaio
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. A ia?aue oaa Ieeieay – ?aoi?ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo
e?anoueyi.

Iinea ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea, ono?ienoai ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, auaoeo
iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi, no?ieeinue ii ia?acoeo, eioi?ia auei a
ainoaea?noaaiiie aea?aaia.

Auei aieaa 200 caeiiia, ia?aie/eaaaoeo e?aiinoiia i?aai, eioi?ia
ec?aoaoeei aai onoie. Ia?anoaea oaaee/eaaoueny /eneaiiinoue e oaeaeueiue
aan e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi a oea?noaiaaiea Ieeieay 1. Anee acyoue aeieth
iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi a ninoaaa anaai ianaeaiey, oi aieueoa anaai aeiey
e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi auea a eiioea 18 aaea. A 1796 aiaeo 54% anaai
ianaeaiey ?innee auee e?aiinoiua. A 1811 aiaeo – 51,7%. A 1833 aiaeo –
45%, a 1857 aiaeo – ii iineaaeiae 10 ?aaecee, oaea iinea nia?oe Ieeieay
1 – 39%.

Anee acyoue ana e?anoueyinoai, ?aciua eaoaai?ee e?anoueyi, oi caeanue
aeiey oiaea oiaiueoaeanue. Iniiaiua eaoaai?ee e?anoueyi:

Eacaiiua e?anoueyia, eioi?ua noaee iacuaaoueny ainoaea?noaaiiuie
e?anoueyiaie iinea ia?aciaaiey ieienoa?noaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa,
aaaeaaoaai ainoaea?noaaiiuie caieyie e eacaiiuie e?anoueyiaie. Anee
?aiueoa e?anoueyia auee a aaaeaiee ieienoa?noaa oeiainia, a iii
caaioeeinue oieueei i oii, /oiau iiaeooioth iiaeaoue nia?aoue. A oaia?ue
o ieieno?a oeiainia Eaie?eia yoi auei ioiyoi e ia?aaeaii Eenaeaao.
Caeanue anaaaea auei i?ioeai?a/ea, naycaiiia n aeeyieai ia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi, n iiauoaieai aeaaininoiyiey. Eenaeaa
caieiaeny oeo/oaieai, ?ac?aaaouaaeenue i?iaeou, eae no?ieoue aeiia,
aea?aaie, i?ioeaiiiaea?iua ia?u, ieacuaaee aaoa?eia?ioth iiiiuue,
i?aaieciauaaee oeieu.

Ii aue e ae?oaie iiiaio: eacaiiua ainoaea?noaaiiua e?anoueyia auee aieaa
naiaiaeiu, /ai iiiaue/uee. A iiiaue/ueeo naeaieyo auei cai?auaii
ono?aeaaoue eaaaee. Nianoaaiii Aeecaaaoa Iao?iaia oaea cai?aoeea
eniieueciaaoue neiai eaaae, noaee iacuaaoueny ieoaeiua aeiia. O oaoa?
ieoaeiia caaaaeaiea – yoi iinoiyeue aeai?.

Ieienoa?noai oeiainia auei caeioa?aniaaii a oii, /oiau iieoiaee aiaeeo.
Iiyoiio a ainoaea?noaaiiuo aea?aaiyo ono?aeaaee eaaaee. Iio?aaeaiea
aiaeee auei aieueoa o eacaiiuo e?anoueyi. Auea oaeay ea?eeaoo?a: eae
ieieno? oeiainia oyiao e?anoueyieia e eaaaeo, a Eenaeaa oyiao
e?anoueyieia a oea?eiaue. E iie ?ac?uaatho aai ia 2 /anoe.

Ia?aua aioeaeeiaieueiua eaiiaiee aicieeatho aua a iaae?ao
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai o/?aaeaeaiey ieienoa?noaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa.

A 1840 aiaeu nio?aieeinue aeaei, ii/oe 500 no?aieoe, iacuaaaony «I
no?anoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi e ai?y/eoaeueiui iaieoeai». Eenaeaao
aeieiaeeee, /oi eacaiiua e?anoueyia iiiai iuetho. Eenaeaa iaienae
ea?aiaeaoii, /oi iaaei au i?iaa?eoue, i?aaaea ee yoi? ?aoeee i?iaanoe
ianeaaeiaaiey, iai?aaeeenue ?aaeci?u ii aoaa?ieyi. Eenaeaao aeieiaeeee,
/oi ainoaea?noaaiiue e?anoueyiei iueao a 2 ?aca aieueoa, /ai iiiaue/ee.

Iaeei ec ?aaeci?ia i?aaeeaaaao ia?aciaaoue a aoaa?iee, eioi?oth ii
i?iaa?ye, Iauanoai o?acainoe. Eenaeaa ieoao: ?aii, iu aei yoiai aua ia
aeioee, a i?aaenaaeaoaee iauanoa – iaiaa ae?oaeo. A i?aaenaaeaoaeyie
oioaee naeaeaoue ianoiuo nayuaiieeia. Yoi iaiae ia oi, /oi nayuaiieee
aieueoa ae?oaeo iuetho.

A ninoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi aioee auaoea yeiiiie/aneea
e?anoueyia. Yeiiiie/aneea e?anoueyia nia/aea auee iiae/eiaiu eieeaaee
yeiiiiee aei 1812 aiaea. Iioii auee ia?aaeaiu a oi?aaeaiea eaciu, a
iioii iie ia?anoaee ioee/aoueny io iniiaiie iannu eacaiiuo e?anoueyi.

Iiiaue/uee e?anoueyia.

Oaeaeueiua e?anoueyia. Eiaaea ?a/ue oea i oea?noaiaaiee Iaaea 1, oi a
aeaiue aioea?aiey iaeei ec iaieoanoia – ia?aciaaiea oaeaeueiiai
aaaeiinoaa, oaeaeueiuo e?anoueyi. Yoe e?anoueyia iacuaaeenue
aeai?oeiauie. Ia eo n?aaenoaa aeeea eiia?aoi?neay naiuey e
ianeoaeeaaeenue eiia?aoi?neea aeai?oeu.

Oaia?ue oea?neay naiuey oeiaine?oaony ca n/ao n?aaenoa Eaaeiaoa e
Eaaeiaoneiai oicyenoaa, yoi neae?neea ?oaeieee, caaiaeu ia O?aea e a
NIa, oa?oi?iaue caaiae, a?aieeueiue caaiae, eana neae?neea, iooieia
(iyaeay ?ooeyaeue).

A oaeaeueiua e?anoueyia auee cae?aieaiu ca aaeeeeie eiycueyie e
eiyaeiyie.

Iieiaeaiea oaeaeueiuo e?anoueyi auei i?iiaaeooi/iia iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuie e iiiaue/ueeie.

Iinanneiiiua e?anoueyia. Iie i?eiaaeeaaeaee i?aaei?eyoeyi. e
i?iaeaaaeenue aianoa n iei.

Eaeao iinoaiaiiay oieoeeaoeey. A ninoaaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi auei
i/aiue iiiai ?aciuo iiae?ac?yaeia. Iie iinoaiaiii oieoeoee?iaaeenue.
Inoaaaeenue ______ueee eioi?ua ia ieaoeee iiaeaoe, a aianoi yoiai
aeieaeiu auee ioi?aaeyoue ii/oiaoth neoaeao. Iinoaiaiii iie
eaieoaeece?iaaeenue, Iie iaieiaee ethaeae, eioi?ua ca ieo auiieiyee yoe
iaycaiiinoe. Auee eaoiaiu a eaniuo aoaa?ieyo, aaea ei?aaaeueiue ean
caaioaaeeaaee aianoi oieaou iiaeooiie iiaeaoe.

Iaiaoeeea eieiienou auee iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiu ieienoa?noao ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiouanoa, ei/aaua ia?iaeu.

Iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi auei i/aiue aaaeiui. Io yoiai caaenaei ?acaeoea
yeiiiieee ?innee a oeaeii.

A o/aaieeao iaienaii ai aoi?ie /aoaa?oe 19 aaea ?aceiaeaiea
oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie nenoaiu, ia?a?anoaao a e?ecen, e?aiinoiia
e?anoueyinoai auie?aao. Ii i?e/eiu auee ae?oaea. E?aiinoiia
e?anoueyinoai ia?aoiaeeei a ae?oaea nineiaey, ?aaoee?iaaiea
?iaeaeaaiinoe.

Ia naiii aeaea, oioy oaiiu ?acaeoey caiaaeeeeenue, ii iaeioi?ia
iinooiaoaeueiia ?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa ana-oaee i?iaeieaeaeinue.

A 1802-1863 aiaeo a 20 ?inneeneeo aoaa?ieyo nai? ca?iiauo e ea?oioaey
oaaee/eeny n 4,1 aei 4,4 /aoaa?oe ia aeooo ianaeaiey. O.a. ia 7%.

Oiaa?u naeueneiai oicyenoaa oiaea oaaee/eeenue n 9 aei 12 %, o.a. ca?ii
ia i?iaeaaeo.

Oiaa?iia caieaaeaeea a iiiaue/ueai oicyenoaa aeinoeaaei 45-50%, o.a.
ii/oe iieiaeio oei ia i?iaeaaeo.

Iniiaiui iinoaaueeii ca?ia inoaaaeinue ana-oaee e?anoueyineia oicyenoai.

*oi yaeyaony i?eia?ii e?ecena oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie nenoaiu a yoi
a?aiy? Ia oieueei oiaiueoaiea /eneaiiinoe e oaeaeueiiai aana e?aiinoiuo
e?anoueyi. O ian i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi a 16 aaea e?anoueyia aeeee ooaea,
/ai a 15; a 17 ooaea, /ai a 16; a 18 ooaea, /ai a 17; a 19 ooaea, /ai a
18. A ia/aea 20 aaea ooaea, /ai a 19. Aicieeaao aii?in: eaeei aea
caianii i?i/iinoe aeieaeii auei iaeaaeaoue naeueneia oicyenoai, /oiau ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia iieiaeaiea yoiai e?anoueyineiai oicyenoai
oooaeoaeinue, a e?anoueyia i?iaeieaeaee aeeoue, ?aciiiaeaoueny, ieaoeoue
iiaeaoe e o.ae. Cia/eo, eee aieaa-iaiaa iieiaeaiea inoaaaeinue
noaaeeueiui, eee auee ia?eiaeu oeo/oaiey iieiaeaiey e?anoueyi.

E, eiia/ii aea, a oaiaeaeueiii iauanoaa ai iiiaii ioiioaiey auee
io?aaoee?iaaiu i?e?iaeie, yeiiiieeie, nioeeoiii, o?aaeeoeeae. E ?aceea
oaeiaeaeaeaiey iiiaueeia i?eaiaeeee oieueei eee e aicieeiiaaieth
eiioeeeoia, oaeenoao iiiaueeia, ainnoaieth e o.ae. E ie iaeei
ii?iaeueiue iiiauee ia aue caeioa?aniaai a aaaeiii e?anoueyieia. Ii
iiaieth iaeioi?uo enoi?eeia, iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi oeo/oaeinue a 1-e
iieiaeia 19 aaea. ?anooo ia?iee, ii iaoa?eaeueiia iieiaeaiea oeo/oaaony
aua auno?aa, /ai ?anooo ia?iee. Oioy auee e ithainu. Auee e aaaeiua, e
iiiaueee auee ?aciua.

Iiiaueee ?aaoee?iaaee e a?aee o e?anoueyi, noa?aeenue aiaaoiio iaeoe
aaaeioth iaaanoo e iaiai?io. Noai?ia ienae naiaio i?eeac/eeo: o iaiy
aeai?iaua ia?ie iiae?inee, oaeea eau noaee, iaaei au ei iaaano
i?eeoieoue ia y?ia?ea. Eeoe-oi ia i/aiue ?acae?ae, a eeoue au auee
caei?iau. Iieoiaee iaaano ia noi?iia.

Iaaeeaiii, ii oiaa?iinoue oaaee/eaaaony. Iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai,
oa?aeoa?iia aeey oaiaeaeecia, yoeie oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuie ioiioaieyie
iiae?uaaaony.

E?anoueyiei eaeao a NIa ec ss?ineaaneie aoaa?iee, ii iaieiaao ia naia
ianoi ?aaioieea a iiiiuue naiae aeaia, oiai, eoi i?eoiaeeo n thaa.
Iieoiiua oiaa?u i?iieeatho a aea?aaith. Iaaeeaiii, ii iieoiaoaeueiay
niiniaiinoue ianaeaiey ?anoao.

O?oaeii iin/eoaoue yoe oaiaeaioeee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e?anoueyi, ii,
noaey ii anaio, iii ?anoao. Yoi iiauoaei eioa?an e?anoueyi e ?uieo e
niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee.

A 1840-a aiaeu /enei ianii?oia aeinoeaei 1 ieeeeiia. I?aeoe/anee ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae iieiaeiu aaea iiaeooiay iiaeaoue ia iaiyeanue, o.a.
iaeiae ia oaaee/eaaeenue.

Ieeieae 1 iiieiaao, /oi e?aiinoiia i?aai iaoaao ?acaeoeth
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oi?aiaea. E naiia aeaaiia – i?aiyonoaoao ?acaeoeth
aianiiniaiie a?iee. E?aiinoiia i?aai ia aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaoue
iao/aiiue ?aca?a, eae yoi noaei iinea caeiia i Anaiauae aieineie
iiaeiiinoe 1870 aiaea. Anee ioaeii oaaee/eoue a?ieth, oi nicuaaee
iiie/aiea, eae yoi auei a 1806, 1812 aiaeo. A iioii /oi aeaeaoue n ieie?
A 1812 aiaeo e?anoueyia noaee aoioiaaoue, eo ia oaeaeinue ioi?aaeoue
iacaae e iiiaueeo, i?eoeinue aeaoue ei aieueioth, a iiiaueeai n/eoaoue
eo ioaeaiiuie a ?ae?oou. O.a. iiiaueeo auei auaiaeii ioaeaoue
e?anoueyieia ia 25 eao, /ai ioaeaaaoue ia 6-7 eao. A a ?acoeueoaoa ia
auei iao/aiiiai ?aca?aa. Yoiai iaeuecy auei naeaeaoue aac ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

Ieeieae 1 iiiai yoei caieiaeny e iiiai ia yoii aeoiae. Ii aiai?ee
Eenaeaao: iaiy a iniaaiiinoe caeioa?aniaaei iaeii ianoi, a eioi?ii ou
aiai?eoue ia inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi. Iu caeiainy yoei eiaaea-ieaoaeue,
y ciath, /oi iiao ?ann/eouaaoue a yoii ia oaay. Eai iu eiaai iaeie e oa
aea eaeae a yoii aaaeiii aii?ina, a eioi?ii iie ieieno?u ia iiieiatho, e
eioi?ue eo ioaaao. ss nia?ae ana aoiaae aeey i?ioeanna, eioi?ua y oi/o
aaanoe i?ioea ?aanoaa, /oiau inaiaiaeeoue e?anoueyi ii anae eiia?ee.

A eioeiiuo ?acaiai?ao Ieeieae aiai?eo ia yoii i/aiue iiiai. A aio a
ioaee/iuo aunooieaieyo ia yoii iaeuecy auei e caeeaoueny.

Eenaeaa aue iioii iacia/ai ieieno?ii ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa.

Aaieaiaei?o ienae: Iiaua aayiey ?acaoeeaatho. E?aiinoiia i?aai anoue
ii?ioiaie iia?aa iiae ainoaea?noaii, e oai iianiaa, /oi aienei
ninoaaeaii ec e?anoueyi. Iaaei n /aai-ieaoaeue ia/aoue, e ia
aeiaeeaeaoueny, eiaaea ia/iaony nieco, io ia?iaea.

Ii auei aaoaiia nii?ioeaeaiea aeai?yinoaa ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.
Ieeieae 1 ia ?aoaeny. Oai aieaa /oi iiea aua iiaeii auei aeaeaoue. Ii
iinea E?uineie aieiu ioeeaaeuaaoue yoi auei iaeuecy.

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