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Власть и социальные нормы поведения человека в первобытном обществе

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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

1. Aeanoue e nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa

2. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeanoe aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?eiaea

3. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea nioeeaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey a ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa

Auaiaeu

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea

Ethaee n ae?aaieo ii? anooiaee a ?acee/iua ioiioaiey ae?oa n ae?oaii. Ii
ia?a oeeaeeecaoeee /aeiaa/anoaa noaee iiyaeyoueny caeiiu,
i?aia?aciaaiiua ec iau/aaa, aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey yoeo ioiioaiee. A
aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee, ?acaeaathony e ioiioaiey, e yoi o?aaoao nicaeaiey
oaea niaoeeaeueiiai neiaeiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia au iiaei
naieie i?aaiauie aeoaie iaania/eoue caeiiioth nenoaio iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee. ?iae (ia?aiauoiay ?iaeiaay iaueia) i?aaenoaaeye niaie
ia?ae/ioth y/aeeo i?aaiecaoeee ia?aiauoii-iaueiiiai no?iy,
iauaaeeiaiioth e?iaiui ?iaenoaii, niaianoiui eieeaeoeaiui o?oaeii, iauae
nianoaaiiinoueth ia i?iaeoeou i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aaainoaii nioeeaeueiiai
iieiaeaiey, aaeeinoaii eioa?ania e niei/aiiinoueth /eaiia ?iaea.

Oaia aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou – «Aeanoue e nioeeaeueiua ii?iu iiaaaeaiey
a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa» – aeooaeueia a neeo oiai, /oi, ai-ia?auo,
iiieiaiea nia?aiaiiie aeanoe e nioeeaeueiuo ii?i iaaiciiaeii aac o/aoa
iiuoa i?aaeuaeoueo yiio, ai-aoi?uo, yoi iicaieyao noi?ie?iaaoue
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeanoe e nioeeaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey a ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa.

Oeaeueth aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony iienaoue nouiinoue aeanoe e
nioeeaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee a ?aaioa ?aoathony neaaeothuea
i?iiaaeooi/iua caaea/e:

1. iieacuaaaony aeanoue e nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey a ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa;

2. iienuaaaony iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeanoe aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai
ia?eiaea;

3. iieacuaaaony iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea nioeeaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey a
ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa;

?aaioa ninoieo ec Aaaaeaiey, o?ao Ia?aa?aoia, Auaiaeia e Aeaeeia?aoee.

A Ia?aa?aoa 1 – Aeanoue e nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey a ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa – ?aoaaony ia?aay ec iinoaaeaiiuo auoa i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaea/, a
eiaiii: iieacuaaaony aeanoue e nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey a ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa.

A Ia?aa?aoa 2 – Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeanoe aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai
ia?eiaea – ?aoaaony aoi?ay ec i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaea/, a eiaiii:
iienuaaaony iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeanoe aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?eiaea.

A Ia?aa?aoa 3 – Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea nioeeaeueiuo ii?i a ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa – ?aoaaony o?aouey ec i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaea/, a eiaiii:
iieacuaaaony iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea nioeeaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey a
ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa.

A Auaiaeao iieacuaathony iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou.

§1. Aeanoue e nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa

Eco/aiea nouiinoe nia?aiaiiiai ainoaea?noaa iaaiciiaeii aac iiciaiey
aii?ina i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaa. Anaaaea ee a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa nouanoaiaae yoio einoeooo eee aea ii iiyaeeny ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia aai ?acaeoey?. Oieueei iiaeoiae, iniiaaiiue ia
i?eioeeia enoi?ecia iicaieyao oynieoue i?e/eiu e oi?iu iiyaeaiey
ainoaea?noaa, aai oa?aeoa?iua, nouiinoiua /a?ou, ioee/ea io
i?aaeuaeoueo, aeiainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i aeecie iauanoaa.
A neeo yoiai ia/eiaoue ?anniio?aiea aii?ina i i?ienoiaeaeaiee
ainoaea?noaa ioaeii n oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?aaeaeaiiuo noi?ii ia?aiauoiiai
iauanoaa, eniieuecoy aeey yoiai aeaiiua a?oaieiaee e yoiia?aoee,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii eco/athueo yoi iauanoai.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey iaoe ciaiey i ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa, yoaiao e
oaiaeaioeeyo aai ?acaeoey nouanoaaiii iaiaaoeeinue aeaaiaea?y oniaoai
a?oaieiaee e yoiia?aoee. Aua a OIO – ia/aea XX aaeia enoi?e/aneia ciaiea
ia iauanoaaiiii ?ac aeoee ioaaouaaei ia?eiae anaai a o?e ouny/e eao, a
ana, /oi auei aei yoiai, ii?aaeaeyeinue eae i?aaeunoi?ey (ec-ca
ionoonoaey ienueiaiiuo e ae?oaeo iaaeaaeiuo enoi/ieeia). A iaoe aeie
enoi?ey iiiaeo ?aaeiiia ieaiaou ian/eouaaao oaea 10-12 ouny/ eao,
nouanoaoao aiieia aeinoiaa?iia ciaiea ia yoii enoi?e/aneii aeeaiaciia a
aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iiieii oiai, anee aeey XIX – ia/aea XX aaea aue oa?aeoa?ai a iniiaiii
oae iacuaaaiue «aa?ioeaio?enoneee» acaeyae ia enoi?eth, o.a.
iie?athueeny aeaaiui ia?acii ia ciaiey enoi?ee Aa?iiu e iaeioi?uo
i?eeaaathueo e iae ?aaeiiia, a caoai yoe ciaiey eneonnoaaiii
?ani?ino?aiyeenue ia aanue inoaeueiie ie?, oi a XX aaea a i?aeoo
iao/iiai iniuneaiey ieacaeanue aiaea/aiiie enoi?ey anao ?aaeiiia caiiiai
oa?a.

Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa noaiiaeony, oaeei ia?acii, aeaenoaeoaeueii
eiae/aneei iaiauaieai enoi?ee anaieaiaoiiai ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai
?acaeoey iauanoaa. A yoii iiaii iiieiaiee ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa,
i?aaeaea anaai, neaaeoao auaeaeeoue ciaiey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ?acaeoea
yoiai iauanoaa, ia?eiaeecaoeeth ia?aiauoiie enoi?ee. Eiuie neiaaie,
?a/ue eaeao i oii, /oi naii yoi iauanoai ieeiaaea ia auei noaoe/iui, iii
?acaeaaeinue, i?ioiaeeei ?acee/iua yoaiu.

Auaeaeytho ianeieueei aeaeia oaeie ia?eiaeecaoeee iaua enoi?e/aneoth,
a?oaieiae/aneoth, aio?iiieiae/aneoth. Iniaoth iaoiaeieiae/aneoth
oeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao aeey oai?ee ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa
ia?eiaeecaoeey, aace?othuayny ia iiauo aeaiiuo a?oaieiaee e auaeaeythuay
a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo ?oaaaeae ?acaeoey ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa
«iaieeoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth» (io «iaieeo» iiaue eaiaiiue aae).

Yoi iiiyoea a enoi?e/aneoth iaoeo aaae aiaeeeneee a?oaieia A.*aeeae a
na?aaeeia XX aaea, oa?aeoa?ecoy oio i?eioeeieaeueiue ea/anoaaiiue
ia?aai?io, eioi?ue i?iecioae ai anao noa?ao aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa i?e
ia?aoiaea a iaieeoa (i?eia?ii VII -III oun. aei i.y.) io i?enaaeaathuaai
e i?iecaiaeyuaio oicyenoao, o.a. io ioiou, ?uaieianoaa e niae?aoaeuenoaa
e caieaaeaeeth, neioiaiaenoao, iaoaeeo?aee e iaoaeeiia?aaioea,
ea?aie/aneiio i?iecaiaenoao.

Yoio ia?aoiae ia/aeny a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao caiiiai oa?a (Ainoi/iia
N?aaeecaiiiii?uea, Iaaeaeo?a/uea, Ianiaia?eea, Ai?iia Ia?o e ae?.)
i?eaeeceoaeueii 10-12 oun. eao iacaae e caiye ianeieueei ouny/aeaoee.

Iineieueeo yoio ia?aoiae eciaiee anth iaoa?eaeueioth iniiao aeecie
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa, aa nioeeaeueioth e aeooiaioth i?aaiecaoeeth, oi
ii ni?aaaaeeeai iaicia/aaony eae ?aaiethoeey, oioy e ?anoyioaoayny ia
ianeieueei ouny/aeaoee.

Yoa ia?eiaeecaoeey iicaieyao /aoei iaicia/eoue, i eaeii ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa eaeao ?a/ue, a eaeeo a?aiaiiuo ?aieao iii nouanoaiaaei, eaeiaa
auea nioeeaeueiay e aeooiaiay i?aaiecaoeey iauanoaa, eaeea oi?iu
aini?iecaiaenoaa e nouanoaiaaiey eniieueciaaei /aeiaa/anoai. Aeey oai?ee
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa iiyaeyaony, iaeiiaoe, aiciiaeiinoue oaeaea /aoei
ii?aaeaeyoue, eaeea oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee aeanoe e nioeeaeueii-?aaoeyoeaiua
nenoaiu ooieoeeiie?iaaee a iauanoaao i?enaaeaathuae yeiiiieee, a eaeea a
iauanoaao i?iecaiaeyuae yeiiiieee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
iao i?aaeie?iiaiueiineee /aeiaae (aai iiyaeaiea aeaoe?oaony 40 oun. eao
iacaae) caieiaeny ioioie, ?uaieianoaii, niae?aoaeuenoaii ieiaeia e
ei?iae ?anoaiee, o.a. caieiaeny i?enaiaieai aioiauo aeeaioiuo e
?anoeoaeueiuo oi?i. Aeey yoiai ii eniieueciaae e?aiiaaua, einoyiua e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea i?oaeey, eioi?ua ecaioaaeeaae oaeaea ec aioiauo
i?e?iaeiuo iaoa?eaeia (e?aiiaauo eiie?aoeee, einoae, aea?aaa), o.a.
caieiaeny i?oaeeeiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey e?iiaiueiioeaa oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue naiaeiie
iaueiie, eioi?ue ?oeiaiaeeee aa /eaiu iaeaieaa aaoi?eoaoiua e iiuoiua
aeiauo/eee ieue, ciaoiee iau/aaa e ia?yaeia. A iniiaa naiaeiie iaueiu
eaaeaee ?iaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, iauaaeeiyaoea, eae i?aaeei, ianeieueei
iieieaiee: ?iaeeoaeae, iieiaeuo ioae/ei e aeaiuei, aeaoae. Oa?aeoa?iui
aue e eo ioiineoaeueii ei/aaie ia?ac aeecie ia ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Naiaeiua iaueiu iiaee iauaaeeiyoueny, ii oaeaea ia ?iaenoaaiiie iniiaa,
a aieaa e?oiiua ia?aciaaiey aeey caueou io iaiaaeaiee, aeey i?aaiecaoeee
aiaiiuo iioiaeia, eieeaeoeaiuo ioio. Iineieueeo a iniiaa nioeeaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa eaaeaee ?iaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey,
iinoieueeo yoo i?aaiecaoeeth ii?aaeaeytho eae ?iaeiaie no?ie.

A yoii iauanoaa nouanoaiaaea no?iai oeene?iaaiiay nenoaia
iieiaic?anoiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, ?ani?aaeaeaiey ieue, a?a/iinaiaeiuo
ioiioaiee. Iineaaeiea aa?uee?iaaeenue a caaeneiinoe io niioiioaiey
ioae/ei e aeaiuei, eo aic?anoa, neiaeeaoeony oi?i a?aea io iiiiaaiiuo
aei aa?aiiuo oi?i naiae.

?acoiaaony, oaeay i?aaiecaoeey ciaea e aeanoiua einoeooou aeanoue
i?aaeaiaeeoaey, niaaoa noa?aeoei. I?e/ai nouanoaiaaea auai?iinoue,
niaiyaiinoue aiaeaeae, i?aaeaiaeeoaeae, niaaoa noa?aeoei. Oi?ia aeanoe a
ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa iacuaaaony a ioee/ea io aeanoe a
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiecaoeeiiiii iauanoaa iioanoa?iie (io eao.
«potestas» – aeanoue, iiuue). Iai?eia?, iioanoa?iay aeanoue
i?aaeaiaeeoaey naiaeiie iaueiu, aace?iaaeanue ia oieueei ia aai
aaoi?eoaoa, ii e ia aiciiaeiinoe aeanoeiai i?eioaeaeaiey. Ia?ooeoaeue
neiaeeaoeony i?aaee iiaaaeaiey iia auoue no?iai iaeacai, aieioue aei
eeoaiey aeecie.

Oaeia iauanoai ciaei e ?acee/iua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu ?ac?aoaiey
nii?ia ninoycaiey naieo nii?yueo, eiaaea iiaaaeeoaeue n/eoaeny
auea?aaoei nii?, noae ?iaenoaaiieeia, iin?aaeieeia, i?aaeaiaeeoaey,
niaaoa noa?aeoei. Neiaii, oaeay nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey ia?aiauoiiai
iauanoaa ouny/aeaoeyie aini?iecaiaeeea i?enaaeaathuoth yeiiiieeo,
iaania/eaaea aa?iiie/iia acaeiiaeaenoaea /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeu, auea
ia?aui, ioee/iui io anao iineaaeothueo, niiniaii nouanoaiaaiey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, iieiinoueth niioaaonoaiaaea aai iio?aaiinoyi.

Ii aio ia ?oaaaea 10-12 oun. eao iacaae aicieeee yeieiae/aneea e?eceniua
yaeaiey, eioi?ua, ii iiaieth iaeioi?uo o/aiuo, oa?iaeaee nouanoaiaaieth
/aeiaa/anoaa, eae aeieiae/aneiai aeaea. I?iecioee iaaeaaii?eyoiua
eciaiaiey eeeiaoa, ia/aeinue auie?aiea iaaaoaoiu (iaiiioia, oa?noenouo
iini?iaia e ae?.), auaoae iniiaiui enoi/ieeii ieoaiey /aeiaaea a
iaeioi?uo ?aeiiao. *aeiaa/anoai ioaaoeei ia yoe e?eceniua yaeaiey
ia?aoiaeii e iiaiio niiniao nouanoaiaaiey e aini?iecaiaenoaa e
i?iecaiaeyuae yeiiiieea, i?iecioea oae iacuaaaiay «iaieeoe/aneay
?aaiethoeey».

Iinoaiaiii io ioiou, ?uaieianoaa e niae?aoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea a?oae/iuo
oi?i caieaaeaeey, neioiaiaenoaa /aeiaa/anoai noaei ia?aoiaeeo e ?acaeoui
oi?iai caieaaeaeey (iiaena/iiiaiaaiio, iaiieeaiiio, iieeaiiio, a oii
/enea e??eaaoeeiiiiio) e neioiaiaenoaa (ianoaeuiiio, ioaiiiiio, a caoai
e ei/aaiio). Yoe iiaua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie noaee
ea?aoue iniiaioth yeiiiie/aneoth ?ieue a aeecie iauanoaa.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay e yeieiae/aneay nouiinoue «iaieeoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee» caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi n oeaeueth oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaae io i?oaeeeiie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n
i?enaiaieai aioiauo aeeaioiuo e ?anoeoaeueiuo oi?i, ia?aoae e iiaeeeiii
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?aaeaiiie ia i?aia?aciaaiea i?e?iaeu e
i?iecaiaenoai ieue, nicaeaieth iiauo ?anoeoaeueiuo e aeeaioiuo oi?i e
caiauaieth eie i?e?iaeiuo, anoanoaaiiuo oi?i. Yoio ia?aoiae
nii?iaiaeaeaeny ia oieueei naeaeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay
eaaea a iniiao caieaaeaeey e neioiaiaenoaa, ai e eiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, i?aaeaea anaai, ecaioiaeaieai ea?aie/aneeo ecaeaeee,
a oaeaea iaoaeeo?aeae e iaoaeeiia?aaioeie. I?iecaiaeyuay yeiiiieea e
IV-III oun. aei i. y. noaea aoi?ui e iniiaiui niiniaii nouanoaiaaiey e
aini?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/anoaa.

Eoiaii «iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee» yaeeinue aicieeiiaaiea a iaeioi?uo
?aaeiiao caiiiai oa?a ?aiieo caieaaeaeue/aneeo iauanoa (iai?eia?, a
?aeiia Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea iii ioiineony i?eia?ii e VII oun. aei i. y.).
Ia neaaeothuai yoaia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey (i?eia?ii e
IV-III oun. aei i. y.) i?ienoiaeeo ?anoeaao ?aiiacaieaaeaeue/aneeo
iauanoa. Ia eo iniiaa aicieeatho ia?aua oeeaeeecaoeee i?ienoiaeeo
noaiiaeaiea ?aiiaeeanniauo iauanoa. Iie aicieeaee, eae i?aaeei, a
aeieeiao e?oiiuo ?ae Oea?a e Ao?aoa, Ieea, Eiaea, ssioecu e ae?oaeo,
i?eaeeceoaeueii iaaeaeo 20-40 a?aaeonaie naaa?iie oe?iou, o.a. a
iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey caieaaeaeey eeeiaoe/aneeo e eaiaeoaooiuo
oneiaeyo, e ninoaaeee e III-II oun.aei i. y. ianoiyuee iiyn ia?ae/iuo
oeeaeeecaoeee, i?inoe?aaoeeny io N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y aei aa?aaia) Oeoiai
ieaaia.

Yoaiu noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ?aiiacaieaaeaeue/aneeo iauanoa ii naiaio
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiio cia/aieth e oa?aeoa?enoeeai caieiatho iniaia
e naiinoiyoaeueiia ianoi a iauai i?ioeanna ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa.
Ia?aoiae e i?iecaiaeyuae yeiiiieea iaania/ee ?ino /aeiaa/anoaa
(«aeaiia?aoe/aneee ac?ua»), iaiaoiaeeiue aeey nouanoaiaaiey e ?anoeaaoa
oeeaeeecaoeee. ?an/aou iieacuaatho, /oi ioioieeo, aii?oaeaiiiio eoeii e
no?aeaie, /oiau i?iei?ieoueny, ioaeii ieiei 20 eaaae?aoiuo ei
oa??eoi?ee. Yoie ieiuaaee oaaoeei au aeey oiai, /oiau i?iei?ieoue ii
iaiueoae ia?a ianeieueei nio caieaaeaeueoeaa. Niaeanii ae?oaei ?an/aoai
a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aoiaea e i?iecaiaeyuaio oicyenoao, ianaeaiea caiee,
ian/eouaathuaio a eiioea iacieeoa (VII oun. aei i. y.) 10 iei. /aeiaae,
aic?inei a eiioea iaieeoa II oun. aei i. y.) aei 50 iei. /aeiaae.

Ianiio?y ia iaeioi?oth oneiaiinoue, yoe ?an/aou oaaaeeoaeueii aiai?yo i
?aceii oaaee/aiee /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey iinea ia?aoiaea e caieaaeaeeth e
neioiaiaenoao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iecaiaeyuay yeiiiieea oaea ia ia?auo
yoaiao naiaai noaiiaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeei iaiaiii iaaeaeo
/aeiaaeii e i?e?iaeie, i?e eioi?ii /aeiaae noae nicaeaaaoue i?eaaai/iue
i?iaeoeo. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, naeaeoeey ?anoaiee, iieeaiia caieaaeaeea,
iniaaiii e??eaaoeey, i?eaaee ia ia?auo ii?ao e iaiaueiiaaiiui o?iaeayi.
Oae, o?iaeaeiinoue ca?iiauo a ?aiiacaieaaeaeue/aneii iauanoaa ninoaaeyea
a Aaeioa, N?aaeiae Acee (1 oun.aei i.y.).

I?iecaiaeyuay yeiiiieea iauaeoeaii aaea e oneiaeiaieth i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, iiyaeaieth iiauo oi?aaeai/aneeo, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
ooieoeee, noaiiaeaieth iiaiai oeia o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiie n
i?iecaiaenoaii ieue e, oai naiui, e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue
naeuenei-oicyenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, o?aiaiea e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ii?ie?iaaoue e
o/eouaaoue o?oaeiaie aeeaae eaaeaeiai /eaia iauanoaa, ?acoeueoaou aai
o?oaea, aai o/anoea a nicaeaiee iauanoaaiiuo oiiaeia, auaea/e aio ec
iauanoaaiiuo oiiaeia.

Yoa yeiiiieea iauaeoeaii i?eaaea e aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeaeaieth o?oaea.
Auaeaeythony a?oiiu i?aaiecaoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa, ?aaioieeia
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, a eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony o/ao o?oaea e
?ani?aaeaeaiey aai ?acoeueoaoia, a oaeaea ?aaioieeia nenoai eiio?iey ca
niaethaeaieai ?aaeaiaioe?othueo ii?i. Aicieeiiaaiea e i?enaiaiea
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa aaaeao e noaiiaeaieth iiauo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe
(eieeaeoeaiie, a?oiiiaie, /anoiie), e aeaeueiaeoaio nioeeaeueiiio
?anneiaieth iauanoaa.

Iiaay i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (aa oneiaeiaiea,
iiyaeaiea iiauo oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee) oaeaea niinianoaoao
nioeeaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iauanoaa: i?ienoiaeeo ioaeaeaiea aa?oooee
iauanoaa io iniiaiie iannu i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iao/anoea aa?oooee a
iaoa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ia/eiaaony noaiiaeaiea eeannia, iiauo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i oi?aaeaiey
iauanoaii, ca?iaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa. Oaeei ia?acii, «iaieeoe/aneay
?aaiethoeey» ia?aoiae /aeiaa/anoaa e i?iecaiaeyuae yeiiiieea i?eaiaeeo
ia?aiauoiia iauanoai iauaeoeaii a neeo naiaai aioo?aiiaai ?acaeoey e
oeiaeueiiio ?oaaaeo nioeeaeueiiio ?anneiaieth iauanoaa, iiyaeaieth
eeannia, ca?iaeaeaieth ainoaea?noaa.

2. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea aeanoe aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?eiaea

O/eouaay, /oi iauanoai aicieeei ai?acaei ?aiueoa ainoaea?noaa,
iaiaoiaeeii a oeaeyo iaeaieaa iieiiai iiciaiey ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiauo
einoeoooia aeaoue nioeeaeueioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeanoe e ii?i,
nouanoaiaaaoeo a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa.

Iacaaeneii io oiai, eae nia?aiaiiua o/aiua ioiinyony e a?aaeaoeee
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, ie o eiai a iauai-oi iao niiiaiey a oii, /oi
ia/aeueiui yoaiii yoiai i?ioeanna aue ia?aiauoii-iaueiiue no?ie,
ioaaouaathuee ia?iiiue io?acie a?aiaie io iiyaeaiey ia Caiea /aeiaaea
aei noaiiaeaiey ia?auo eeanniauo iauanoa e ainoaea?noa, a oaeaea iau/ii
niioonoaothuaai ei aicieeiiaaiey oii?yaei/aiiie ienueiaiiinoe.

Ia?aiauoii-iaueiiue no?ie aue naiui aeeeoaeueiui ii a?aiaie (aieaa
ieeeeiia eao) yoaiii a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii?aaeaeeoue aai ieaeithth
a?aiue neieueei-ieaoaeue oi/ii iaeaaei, eai ai aiiaue iaia?oaeeaaaiuo
einoiuo inoaieao iaoeo aeaeaeeo i?aaeeia aieueoeinoai niaoeeaeenoia
aeaeeo oi i?aae/aeiaaea, oi /aeiaaea. A caaeneiinoe io yoie ioeaiee
i?aiaeaaeathuaa iiaiea iaiyaony. A nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae iaeie o/aiua
n/eoatho, /oi ae?aaiaeoee /aeiaae (a oai naiui e ia?aiauoiia, aeeeia
iauanoai) aiciee ieiei 1 – 1,5 iei. eao iacaae, ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee
ioiinyo aai iiyaeaiea e aieaa iicaeiaio a?aiaie. Aa?oiyy aea a?aiue
ia?aiauoii-iaueiiiai no?iy eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao iineaaeieo 5 – 6 oun.
eao, ?acee/aynue ia ?aciuo eiioeiaioao. A Acee e Ao?eea ia?aua
ainoaea?noaa neiaeeeenue ia ?oaaaea 4 e 3 ouny/aeaoee aei i.y., a
Aia?eea – a 1 ouny/aeaoee i.y., a ae?oaeo /anoyo caiiiai oa?a – aua
iicaeiaa.

Ethaia iauanoai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiaai ?iaea oeaeinoiue nioeeaeueiue
i?aaieci (nenoaio), eioi?ue ioee/aaony oie eee eiie noaiaiueth
i?aaieciaaiiinoe, o?aaoee?iaaiiinoe, oii?yaei/aiiinoe iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi aeey eaaeaeiai iauanoaa oa?aeoa?iu
ii?aaeaeaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey (nioeeaeueiay aeanoue) e ?aaoee?iaaiea
iiaaaeaieai ethaeae i?e iiiiue ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaueo i?aaee (nioeeaeueiuo
ii?i).

Eae oieueei iiyaeyaony iauanoai, n?aco aea aicieeaao iio?aaiinoue a
oi?aaeaiee. Eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue /eai iauanoaa eiae nianoaaiiua
eioa?anu, aac niaeaniaaiey eioi?uo iauanoai ia iiaei nouanoaiaaoue, oae
eae eiaiii eioa?anu aunooiatho ?aoathuei ee/iinoiui ?aaoeyoi?ii. Aeey
iaania/aiey ii?iaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, i?ia?anneaiiai ?acaeoey
nioeeaeueiuo naycae o?aaoaony iauaaeeieoue yoe eioa?anu ia iauaa aeaai.
Ii niaaeeieoue iiaeii eeoue i?e ni/aoaiee ai iiiaii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
auaiaeu (ee/iiai eioa?ana) n nioeeaeueiie auaiaeie (iauanoaaiiui
eioa?anii). Oaeia niaaeeiaiea aeinoeaaaony aeaaiui ia?acii eeoue
aeaaiaea?y nouanoaiaaieth a iauanoaa i?aaee iiaaaeaiey (ii?i) e aeanoe,
eioi?ay au i?iaiaeeea a aeeciue e iaania/eaaea iacaaiiua ii?iu.

Aeey ia?aiauoii-iaueiiiai no?iy auee oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea /a?ou:

– iaee/ea eeoue i?eieoeaiuo i?oaeee e ianiiniaiinoue /aeiaaea aac iiiiue
anaai ?iaea auaeeoue e iaania/eoue naay ieuae, iaeaaeaeie, aeeeeuai. Ii
aeaaea ?aaioay niaianoii, eieeaeoeaii, ethaee ia iiaee i?iecaanoe
aieueoa, /ai iio?aaeyee. Iiyoiio a oaeii iauanoaa ia auei eceeoeia
i?iaeoeoia, ia auei /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e, niioaaonoaaiii, ?acaeaeaiey
ia aaaeiuo e aiaaouo; yeiiiie/anee ana auee ?aaiu;

– yeiiiie/aneia ?aaainoai iaoneiaeeaaei e iieeoe/aneia ?aaainoai. Ana
ac?ineia ianaeaiea ?iaea – e ioae/eiu, e aeaiueiu – eiaee i?aai
o/anoaiaaoue a ianoaeaeaiee e ?aoaiee ethaiai aii?ina, naycaiiiai n
aeayoaeueiinoueth ?iaea.

Iauanoaaiiay (nioeeaeueiay) aeanoue, nouanoaiaaaoay a
aeiainoaea?noaaiiue ia?eiae, iaeaaeaea neaaeothueie aeaaiuie /a?oaie.
Yoa aeanoue:

1) aace?iaaeanue ia naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo, eai iniiaie i?aaiecaoeee
iauanoaa aue ?iae (?iaeiaay iaueia), o.a. iauaaeeiaiea ethaeae ii
aeaenoaeoaeueiiio eee i?aaeiieaaaaiiio e?iaiiio ?iaenoao, a oaeaea
iauiinoe eiouanoaa e o?oaea. ?iae oi?ie?iaaeny a ia?eiae, eiaaea ia
niaio aanii?yaei/iui iieiaui naycyi i?eoea naiuey, iniiaaiiay ia
eieeaeoeaiii, a iioii e ia ia?iii a?aea. Eaaeaeue ?iae aunooiae a
ea/anoaa oicyenoaaiiie aaeeieoeu, nianoaaiieea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?aaiecaoi?a iauaai o?oaeiaiai i?ioeanna. ?iaeu ia?aciauaaee aieaa
e?oiiua iauaaeeiaiey (o?ao?ee, ieaiaia, nithcu ieaiai). Iineieueeo ?iae
(?iaeiaay iaueia) ea?ae ?aoathuoth ?ieue a aeecie ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa,
aeaiiay yiioa oae e noaea iacuaaoueny – «ia?aiauoii-iaueiiue no?ie», a
aai nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey – ?iaeiieaiaiiie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
nioeeaeueiay aeanoue ?ani?ino?aiyeanue oieueei ia a ?aieao ?iaea,
au?aaeaea aai aieth e aace?iaaeanue ia e?iaiuo naycyo;

2) auea iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaueiiie, no?ieeanue ia ia/aeao ia?aiauoiie
aeaiie?aoee, ia ooieoeeyo naiioi?aaeaiey (o.a. noauaeo e iauaeo aeanoe
caeanue niaiaaeaee);

3) iie?aeanue ia aaoi?eoao, oaaaeaiea, o?aaeeoeee /eaiia ?iaea;

4) inouanoaeyeanue eae iauanoaii a oeaeii (?iaeiaua nia?aiey, aa/a), oae
e aai i?aaenoaaeoaeyie (noa?aeoeiaie, niaaoaie noa?aeoei,
aiaia/aeueieeaie, aiaeaeyie, ae?aoeaie e o.i.), eioi?ua ?aoaee
aaaeiaeoea aii?inu aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa.

Ia iicaeieo noaaeeyo nouanoaiaaiey ?iaeiaiai no?iy ia/aeny i?ioeann aai
?aceiaeaiey: ioii/eiaaiea iiauo ?iaeiauo iauei io ia?aiia/aeueiuo,
aeaeaiea e?oiiuo ?iaeia ia iaeeea eee aieueoea naiuee. Nayce iaaeaeo
ieie nio?aiyeenue a aeaea aieaa e?oiiuo ia?aciaaiee a?aonoa (o?ao?ee) e
ieaiai.

Ieaiy, eae i?aaeei, eiaei naith oa??eoi?eth, naia eiy, ycue eee aeeaeaeo
iaeii?iaeiie iniiau n ycueii iauaaeeieaoeony ieaiai, iauea aeey ieaiaie
?aeeaeiciua e auoiaua ia?yaeu.

Neaaeothuee yaiethoeeiiiue yoai naycai n ia?aoiaeii io niae?aoaeuenoaa e
i?iecaiaeyuae yeiiiieea. Ii aeaiiui a?oaieiaee e yoiia?aoee, yoio
i?ioeann ia/aeny 10 – 12 oun. eao iacaae e i?iaeieaeaeny ianeieueei
ouny/aeaoee. Ii iieo/ee iacaaiea iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, iineieueeo
i?iecioae a yiioo iicaeiaai iaieeoa (iiaiai eaiaiiiai aaea). N
iiyaeaieai i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee auee naycaiu
e?oiiua iauanoaaiiua iineaaenoaey. I?iecioei iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea: – ioaeaeaiea neioiaiaenoaa io caieaaeaeey; – ioaeaeaiea ?aianea;
– iiyaeaiea eoioeia.

Eiaiii ia?aoiae e iaoioiiio caieaaeaeeth a iaeaieueoae ia?a
niinianoaiaae auno?iio i?ia?anno oicyenoaa, ?inoo ianaeaiey, ?acaeoeth
?aianea, eneonnoaa, aicieeiiaaieth ia?auo ai?iaeia, ienueiaiiinoe e eiuo
aeinoeaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u. Eoeueoo?a ia?aoiaea
ae?aaiaeoeo iauanoa e oeeaeeecaoeee iieo/eea iacaaiea
?aiiacaieaaeaeue/aneie eoeueoo?u. Aeaaiia iineaaenoaea iaieeoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee – iiyaeaiea eaieoaea. A ?acoeueoaoa ?inoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea iiyaeeenue eceeoee, eioi?ua iaeaieeaaeenue.
Iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue i?eaea/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiie ?aai/ae neeu
(aiaiiiieaiiuo noaee ia?auaoue a ?aaia). Ia/aeanue eiouanoaaiiay e
nioeeaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey iauanoaa. Iniiaie oicyenoaa auei ia
oieueei ?aaiaeaaeaiea, ii e o?oae naiaiaeiuo ?iaeiauo iaueiieeia.
Aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth oi?aiaee e ?aianae aicieeee nineiaey eoioeii,
?aianeaiieeia, a?aaeino?ieoaeae. ?aiiacaieaaeaeue/aneea iauanoaa auee
naycaiu n aicieeiiaaieai ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa, aaea iniiaiia
caieaaeaeue/aneia ianaeaiea iiiaaeaei a caaeneiinoue io ai?iaeneeo
oeaio?ia, a eioi?uo nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue ia oieueei ?aianei e oi?aiaey,
ii e oi?aaeai/aneay, aiaiiay e aeooiaiay ciaoue. Ae?oaei aaaeiui
nioeeaeueiui iineaaenoaeai iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee yaeeny ia?aoiae io
?iaeiaie iaueiu e ioaeaeueiui naiuey e ninaaeneie (e?anoueyineie)
iaueia. Caiaia iao?ea?oaoa iao?ea?oaoii auea ?aaiethoeeiiiui ia?aai?ioii
a ?iaeiaii no?ia. Iauanoaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue iaoa?eineiai ?iaea
ia?aoiaeeo iinoaiaiii a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo naiae,
noaaoeo naiinoiyoaeueiuie oicyenoaaiiuie aaeeieoeaie. Eiouanoai e
aeanoue ianeaaeoaony ii ioaeneie eeiee, io iooea e nuio, ii i?aao
ia?ai?iaenoaa. Yoe cae?aieyeny ia?aoiae e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe naiae,
onoaiaaeeaaeinue ia?aaainoai n?aaee /eaiia naiuee-iaueiu.

Iiyaeaiea ainoaea?noa o ?aciuo ia?iaeia aucaaii e ae?oaeie i?e/eiaie,
e?iia nioeeaeueiuo e yeiiiie/aneeo. Yoio yoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ia?anaeaieai ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia. A ?acoeueoaoa ia iaeiie oa??eoi?ee
iinaeyeenue ?aciiieaiaiiua a?oiiu, acaeiiua eioa?anu eioi?uo ia iiaee
?aaoee?iaaoueny iau/ayie ?iaeiaiai no?iy, ciaaoaai oieueei
e?iaii-?iaenoaaiiua nayce. Iiaua oneiaey o?aaiaaee e iiaie
oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, ioaaouaathuae i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe eae
ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey, oae e i?eoeiai. N yoei iauaoa??eoi?eaeueiui
eioa?anii naycaii i?aia?aciaaiea i?aaeiae ?iaeiaie iaueiu a ninaaeneoth
(e?anoueyineoth), eioi?ay, eae e ?iae, ninoiyea ec ianeieueeeo naiae.
Ii, a ioee/ea io ?iaea, naiuey yaeyeanue nianoaaiieeii naiaai eiouanoaa
e i?iaeoeoa o?oaea. Naia aea ninaaeneay iaueia auiieiyea ooieoeee
i?aaiecaoeee iaueo aeae; niaianoiiai iieueciaaiey caieae, i?ioaiey,
au?oaee eana e ae?. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo iauanoaaiiuo oneiaee ia?aoiaea
io ?iaeiaiai no?iy n aai iauanoaaiiie aeanoueth e ainoaea?noao yaeyaony
aic?inoaa cia/aiea aiei e aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ieaiai. Aiaiiay
i?aaiecaoeey ieaiai niinianoaiaaea iinoaiaiiiio i?aa?auaieth i?aaiia
iauanoaaiiie aeanoe ieaiai a i?aaiu aiaiiie aeaiie?aoee e a aeaea
auai?iuo aiaiiuo aiaeaeae, ae?oaeeiu, aienea. Ia?aeeaeueii i?ienoiaeeei
oneeaiea aeanoe aiaiiuo aiaeaeae. A eo ?oeao iinoaiaiii
nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue aeanoue aa?oiaiiai ae?aoea, aa?oiaiiai noaeuee anaai
iauanoaa. Aiaiiue auo niinianoaiaae iauaaeeiaieth ?iaenoaaiiuo ieaiai a
aaeeiue ia?iae e i?eaiaee e oco?iaoeee aeanoe aiaiiiai aiaeaey iaeaieaa
neeueiiai ieaiaie. Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey
ainoaea?noaa ieacuaaea ?aeeaey. Iia nua?aea aieueooth ?ieue a
iauaaeeiaiee ioaeaeueiuo ieaiai a aaeeiua ia?iaeu. ?aeeaeiciua iiiu
niaeaenoaiaaee oe?aieaieth aeanoe oea?ae. Yoa aeanoue naycuaaeanue n
ia?aaea/ae aa io aiaia e cae?aieyeanue nia/aea i?iaeeaieai auai?iiai
n?iea, a caoai iiaeeciaiii e ianeaaenoaaiii. Aeeianoey aeanoeoaeae
no?aieeanue iauaaeeieoue ieaiaia iaueie ?aeeaeiciuie eaiiiaie.

3. Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea nioeeaeueiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey a ia?aiauoiii
iauanoaa

Iniaaiiinoueth nioeeaeueiuo ii?i a aeiainoaea?noaaiiue ia?eiae yaeyeinue
oi, /oi iie, ii nooe aeaea, a naio aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae,
au?aaeay e iaania/eaay nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia aaeeinoai ?iaea,
ieaiaie. Yoi auei naycaii n ianiaa?oainoaii i?oaeee o?oaea, aai ieceie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth. Ionthaea i?ienoaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue a
niaianoiii i?iaeeaaiee, a iauanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa e a ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?iaeoeoia ia iniiaa ?aaainoaa.

Iiaeiaiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa ieacuaaee nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia i?e?iaeo
aeanoe e ii?iu ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa.

Anee aeeaioiua iiae/eiyeenue oieueei aeieiae/aneei caeiiai, oi /aeiaae
noae /aeiaaeii iioiio, /oi a aeiiieiaiea e aeieiae/aneei caeiiai
iao/eeny aua e ?aaoee?iaaoue naia iiaaaeaiea. Ii ecia?ae iauanoaaiiua
?aaoeyoi?u, eioi?ua oioy e ono?aieee aeieiae/aneea caeiiu, iaeiaei
nouanoaaiii eo iioanieee.

A?iiaaeiia cia/aiea a yoii ioiioaiee eiaee oaeea nioeeaeueiua ii?iu, eae
eoeueoiaua ?eooaeu e ia?yaeu. Iie i?iecaaee iienoeia ?aaiethoeeiiiua
eciaiaiey a ia?aii-ineoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea e iicaieeee aio
ii n?aaiaieth n aeeaioiui aoeaaeueii i?uaiooue ia iiaoth nooiaiue
?acaeoey. Nioeeaeueiua ?aaoeyoi?u aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?eiaea
iicaieyee ia?aiauoiui ethaeyi inaiaiaeeoue naie ineoe/aneee iioaioeeae
io no?aoa, o?aaiae i?aae ie?oaeathuei ie?ii e iai?aaeoue aa ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue, nicaeaaaee oneiaey aeey
onoaiiaeaiey a iauanoaa noaaeeueiuo, a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a i?aaeneacoaiuo
e aa?aioe?iaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Ecaanoii, /oi i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa iineee
neie?aoe/aneee (eao. synkretismos – niaaeeiaiea) oa?aeoa?. Yoe i?aaeea a
iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a iieo/eee iaeiaiiaaiea «iiiiii?iu», iineieueeo iie ia
iiaoo auoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu e eeanneoeoee?iaaiu eae ii?iu ?aeeaee,
ii?aee, iau/iiai i?aaa. Ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o – yoi i?aaeea, au?aaeathuea
onoie/eaua i?eau/ee, oaaaeaeathuea naiae oeaeaniia?aciinoueth. Iie
eiioeaio?e?iaaee noeoeeii neeaaeuaathueany i?aaenoaaeaiey i iieaciii e
a?aaeiii aeey ?iaea eee ieaiaie e a eiia/iii n/aoa auee naycaiu ni
noaiiaeaieai iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea. Oeaeueth oaeeo ii?i auei
iiaeaea?aeaiea e nio?aiaiea e?iaii?iaenoaaiiie naiuee.

Nioeeaeueiua ii?iu ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa iaania/eaaee nouanoaiaaiea
i?enaaeaathuae yeiiiieee e i?iaeieaeaiea ?iaea, ?aaoee?iaaee
ii?aaeaeaiiua niiniau aeiauaaiey ieue e nio?aiyee a?a/ii-naiaeiua
ioiioaiey. Yoe ii?iu eiaiothony iiiiii?iaie, iineieueeo iie ii aieueoiio
n/aoo au?aaeaee aeaaiue eioa?an ethaeae oiai iauanoaa – auaeeoue. Yoio
eioa?an niae?ae neeu a iauanoaa aeey oiai, /oiau i?ioeainoiyoue noeoee,
?acee/iui iianiinoyi.

Iiiiii?iu aunooiaee e ii?iaie i?aaiecaoeee nioeeaeueiie aeecie, e
ii?iaie ia?aiauoiie ii?aee e ?eooaeaie e o.i. Oae, anoanoaaiiia
?acaeaeaiea ooieoeee a o?oaeiaii i?ioeanna iaaeaeo ioae/eiie e
aeaiueiie, ac?ineui e ?aaaieii ?anniao?eaaeinue iaeiia?aiaiii e eae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iau/ae, e eae o?aaiaaiea i?aanoaaiiinoe, e eae aaeaiea
ia?aiauoiie ?aeeaee.

?iaeiaua ii?iu niaea?aeaee a ca/aoi/iii ninoiyiee i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aeia?a e cea, oae eae iie i?aaeoniao?eaaee i?aaeea acaeiiiiiiue e
acaeiicaueou. Ii a oeaeii yoi auee aeanoeea i?aaeienaiey,
i?iaeeeoiaaiiua iaiau/ii o?oaeiuie oneiaeyie nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea,
i?eieoeaiiio niciaieth eioi?iai i?ioeainoiyee no?iaua neeu i?e?iaeu,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iai?iiyoueny io a?aaeaeaaiuo ieaiai. Iiyoiio e i?aaeea
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa eae iiiiii?iu, a eioi?uo aua /aoei ia i?inooiatho
ie i?eciaee ii?aee, ie i?eciaee ?aeeaee, ie i?aaiaua naienoaa a neeo
neie?aoecia niciaiey ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea, ii?aaeaeyaiiai neie?aoeciii
auoey, a iaeaieueoae noaiaie au?aaeatho eo oa?aeoa? e nioeeaeueiia
iacia/aiea – iiaeaea?aeaiea oeaeinoiinoe iaueiu, ?iaea, i?aeu.

Aeey iiiiii?i oa?aeoa?iui auei oi, /oi iie ieeiaaea ia aeaaaee
i?aeiouanoa iaeiiio /eaio ?iaea ia?aae ae?oaei, o.a. cae?aieyee
«ia?aiauoiia ?aaainoai». Ii nooue yoiai ?aaainoaa ninoiyea a iiaeiuaiee
/aeiaaea niiauanoaii, a aeanoi/aeoae ?aaeaiaioaoeee anae aai
aeayoaeueiinoe, a eiina?aaoeaiinoe e canoieiinoe oi?i, cae?aieythueo
nouanoaothuea nayce e ioiioaiey. Yoa o.i. ii?iaoeaiay ecauoi/iinoue,
naienoaaiia iauanoaai n ioiineoaeueii aaaeiie eoeueoo?ie, aeey eioi?uo
aaaeiaeoae caaea/ae yaeyaony iiaeaea?aeaiea ?aaiiaaney e iauanoaaiiiai
niieienoaey.

Iaeiaei aicieeiiaaiea iiiiii?i auei naeaeaoaeuenoaii a?aiaeeiciie
yaiethoeee /aeiaa/anoaa, auoaaeoaai ec aeeaioiiai oea?noaa. Nai oaeo
iiyaeaiey ii?i – yoi i?eciae noaoai /aeiaa/aneiai auoey, aai
nioeeaeueiinoe. *a?ac inaiaiea iiiiii?i eoeueoeae?iaaeenue oi?iu
iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua auee iaiaoiaeeiu /aeiaa/aneiio niiauanoao aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai i?ia?anna. Aaaeue aeaaea naiua eiina?aaoeaiua e aeanoeea
nioeeaeueiua ii?iu i?eoee ia niaio noaaeiui einoeieoai e
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee ia iniciaiee /aeiaa/aneeie niiauanoaai iniaaiiinoe
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey ii ioiioaieth e inoaeueiii ie?o e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iiaeaea?aeaiey e nio?aiaiey naiae iauiinoe. A ?aieao ia?aiauoiie ii?aee,
iau/aaa, o?aaeeoeee, ?eooaeia, au?anoaaoeo ec iiiiii?i, i?ienoiaeeei
noaiiaeaiea /aeiaa/aneie nioeeaeueiinoe.

Ethaee ia i?aeoe/aneii iiuoa oaaaeaeaeenue a iieaciinoe e
oeaeaniia?aciinoe ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee, cai?aoia, i?aaeienaiee.

Nioeeaeueiua ii?iu, nouanoaiaaaoea a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa:

1) ?aaoee?iaaee ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie, /oi noaei ioee/aoue eo io
ii?i ianioeeaeueiuo – oaoie/aneeo, oeceieiae/aneeo e ae?oaeo, eioi?ua
?aaoee?iaaee e ?aaoee?otho ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e i?e?iaeiui,
iaoa?eaeueiui iauaeoai, i?oaeeyi o?oaea e o.i. Oae, ia?aiauoiua ethaee,
ciay, /oi ii/ueth a aeeeeua iiieaeaaony oaiia?aoo?a, noa?aeenue
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaiiue e a oaiiia a?aiy nooie. Aeaeay yoi, iie
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue ia nioeeaeueiuie ii?iaie, a nei?aa einoeieoii
nio?aiaiey aeecie e caei?iauey. Ii eoi ec ni?iaee/ae a yoi a?aiy aoaeao
neaaeeoue ca iaiai, ?aoaeinue oaea ia iniiaa ii?iu nioeeaeueiie
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa.

2) ?aaeeciaaeenue aeaaiui ia?acii a aeaea iau/aaa (o.a. enoi?e/anee
neiaeeaoeony i?aaee iiaaaeaiey, aioaaeoeo a i?eau/eo a ?acoeueoaoa
iiiaie?aoiiai i?eiaiaiey a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie);

3) nouanoaiaaee a iiaaaeaiee e a niciaiee ethaeae, ia eiay, eae i?aaeei,
ienueiaiiie oi?iu au?aaeaiey;

4) iaania/eaaeenue a iniiaiii neeie i?eau/ee, a oaeaea niioaaonoaothueie
ia?aie oaaaeaeaiey (aiooaiey) e i?eioaeaeaiey (ecaiaiea ec ?iaea);

5) eiaee a ea/anoaa aaaeouaai niiniaa ?aaoee?iaaiey cai?ao (nenoaio
oaao) eae naiue i?inoie e yeaiaioa?iue i?eai aicaeaenoaey; i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe eae oaeiaua ionoonoaiaaee;

6) auee i?iaeeeoiaaiu anoanoaaiii-i?e?iaeiie iniiaie i?enaaeaathuaai
iauanoaa, a eioi?ii e /aeiaae yaeyeny /anoueth i?e?iaeu;

7) au?aaeaee eioa?ania anao /eaiia ?iaea e ieaiaie.

I?aai eae iniaay nenoaia th?eaee/aneeo ii?i e naycaiiuo n ieie i?aaiauo
ioiioaiee aicieeaao a neeo oao aea i?e/ei e oneiaee, eioi?uie
iauyniyaony i?ienoiaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaa. I?ioeann yoio eiaao
enoi?e/aneea ia?aeeaee.

Yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aeeciue ethaiai iauanoaa ioaeaeaaony a
ii?aaeaeaiiie oii?yaei/aiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae.
Oaeay o?aaoee?iaaiiinoue, eioi?ay iiae/eiyao anth ianno aaeeie/iuo
ioiioaiee ethaeae iauaio ii?yaeeo, aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth i?aaee
iiaaaeaiey, eee nioeeaeueiuo ii?i.

Aeaeu nioeeaeueiuo ii?i ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa:

– iau/ae – enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeany i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua a
?acoeueoaoa iiiaie?aoiiai iiaoi?aiey aioee a i?eau/eo;

– i?inoaeoea ii?iu ii?aee – i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey, ?aaoee?iaaaoea ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie ia iniiaa ia?aiauoiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeia?a e cea;

– ?aeeaeiciua ii?iu – i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey ?aaoee?iaaaoea ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ethaeueie ia iniiaa eo ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee;

– ieoieiaey – niaieoiiinoue ieoia (?anneacia, iiaanoaiaaiee i aiaao,
aa?iyo, aeaiiiao, aeooao e ae?.), io?aaeaaoeo oaioanoe/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey ethaeae i ie?a, i?e?iaea e /aeiaa/aneii auoee;

– oaao – ?aeeaeiciue cai?ao, iaeaaaaiue ia eaeie-eeai i?aaeiao,
aeaenoaea, neiai e o.i., ia?ooaiea eioi?iai aoaeoi au iaieioaii aea/ao
aeanoieoth ea?o (aieaciue, nia?oue) ni noi?iiu oaioanoe/aneeo aeooia e
aiaia ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa.

Ana nioeeaeueiua ii?iu ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa iacuaaeenue iiiiii?iaie,
iioiio /oi iie niaiaaeaee ii niaea?aeaieth.

Iiiiii?iu – aaeeiua, ia?an/eaiaiiua niaoeeoe/aneea ii?iu. Iie
au?aaeaeenue iau/ayo, oanii ia?aieaoaiiuo n ?aeeaeiciuie e
i?aanoaaiiuie onoiyie.

I?eciaee ia?aiauoiuo iau/aaa:

– yoi nioeeaeueiua ii?iu;

– neiaeeeenue a ?acoeueoaoa iiiaie?aoiiai iiaoi?aiey e aioee a i?eau/eo
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa;

– iaania/eaaeenue ia?aie iauanoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey;

– eiina?aaoeaiu ii naiae i?e?iaea, iineieueeo cae?aieytho oi, /oi
neeaaeuaaeinue a ?acoeueoaoa aeeeoaeueiie iauanoaaiiie i?aeoeee.

I?aanoaaiiua e ?aeeaeiciua ii?iu ?iaeiaiai no?iy ia iiaee naeaeaoue
oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia oiaa?ia, iaycaoaeueiuie
aeey anao, iineieueeo oaea ia nouanoaiaaei aaeeinoaa eioa?ania.

I?eie?eoue i?ioeaiiieiaeiua eioa?anu ?acee/iuo a?oii ianaeaiey iau/ae ia
iiaee. Ioaeiu auee iaycaoaeueiua ii?iu, onoaiiaeaiiua eee
naieoeeiie?iaaiiua e io?aiyaiua ainoaea?noaii, o.a. aiia?aoii oi?aaeaiey
e iiae/eiaiey. Oaeea ii?iu e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie th?eaee/aneia i?aai. N
eo iiiiuueth ?acee/iua ioiioaiey (i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, naiaeiua,
o?oaeiaua, oi?aaeai/aneea e o.ae.) i?eia?aoatho oi?io i?aaiauo
ioiioaiee.

I?ioeann i?ienoiaeaeaiey i?aaa, eae e ainoaea?noaa, caieiae oeaeua
yiioe. Enoi?e/anee ia?aie oi?iie ia?iaeaeathuaainy i?aaa aue i?aaiaie
iau/ae, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue ae?a/anoaii e ainoaea?noaii.

Iiyoiio ia?aiia/aeueii noaiiaeaiea iiaiai ii?yaeea caieaaeaeue/aneeo
ieaiai i?ienoiaeeei iiae ciaiaiai nicaeaiey iiaie ?aeeaee, iauaaeeiyaoae
?iaeiaua iaueiu. Oaeie ?aeeaeae noaea ?aeeaey nieioea. Yoa ?aeeaey
ecaanoia o anao ae?aaiaeoeo ia?iaeia. Ii?aaeaeyeny aaeeiue ey anaai
ia?iaea ii?yaeie, onoaiiaeaiiue nauoa aa?oiaiui aiaeanoaii.

Iau/ae – yoi i?aaeei, ooaa?aeeaoaany a iauanoaaiiie i?aeoeea, aioaaeoaa
a i?eau/eo, a ?acoeueoaoa iiiaie?aoiiai i?eiaiaiey, onoaiiaeaoaainy
iiaeoiaea e ioeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?aca ioiioaiee, aeaenoaee /aeiaaea,
eieeaeoeaa ethaeae. Iau/ae i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?eau/ioth aeey /eaiia
iauanoaa, a?oiiu ethaeae oi?io nioeeaeueiie ?aaoeyoeee. Iau/ae, eiathuea
i?aanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, iacuaathony i?aaaie. A i?aaao iaoiaeei au?aaeaiea
ineoieiaee ii?aaeaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu. E aieueoeinoao o?aaeeoeee,
ia?yaeia, ?eooaeia i?aai eiaeeooa?aioii. A oi aea a?aiy iii iie?aaony ia
i?eau/iua oi?iu iiaaaeaiey, a a ?yaea neo/aaa cae?aieyao eo a naieo
ii?iao. Iauay noaia aeeyiey i?aaa ia iau/ae oaeiau: i?ia?anneaiua iau/ae
noeioee?othony i?aaii, a oa ec ieo, eioi?ua i?ioeai?a/ao caeiio,
eaaeeoeoee?othony eae i?aaiia?ooaiey. Eniuouaay ia naaa aicaeaenoaea
i?aaa, iau/ae a oi aea a?aiy ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia i?aai, I?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo iau/ae i?eciathony a ea/anoaa enoi/ieeia i?aaa.
Ii?iu i?aaa e iau/ae iaeaaeatho ?yaeii iaueo i?eciaeia, i?enoueo anai
nioeeaeueiui ii?iai: yaeythony iaueie, iaycaoaeueiuie i?aaeeaie
iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, oeacuaay eaeei aeieaeiu eee iiaoo auoue /aeiaa/aneea
iinooiee. Aianoa n oai iau/ae e ii?iu i?aaa ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa
ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, ii oi?ia au?aaeaiey, ii niiniao iaania/aiey
?aaeecaoeee.

Niaethaeaiea ii?i, niaea?aeaueony a iau/ayo, ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey
iauanoaa iaania/eaaeinue oaeeie ia?aie iauanoaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
ia?ooeoaeae, eae ecaiaiea ec ?iaea eee ieaiaie, eeoaiea iaiy e aiaeu, e
i?.

Iiaeaea?aeea ?aeeaeae e ainoaea?noaii iau/aaa, neiaeeaoeony a ia?eiae
noaiiaeaiey ae?aaieo oeeaeeecaoeee, i?eaaea e nicaeaieth iaeiiai ec
aaaeiaeoeo enoi/ieeia i?aaa ae?aaieo ainoaea?noa: i?aaiaiai iau/ay;
iau/iiai i?aaa.

A i?aaiauo iau/ayo nio?aiyeenue inoaoee iau/aaa ?iaeiaiai no?iy e
iaeiia?aiaiii cae?aieyeenue ii?iu iao?ea?oaeueiiai auoa naeueneie iaueiu
(n aa ia?aaainoaii /eaiia), cae?aieyeenue eanoiaua i?eaeeaaee aunoeo
nineiaee e iaycaiiinoe iecoeo, ii?iu eoiee-i?iaeaaee caiaeue, eiouanoaa,
iaeacaiey aeey iecoeo eano e nineiaee e aeiioneaeny aueoi eee
?eooaeueiia aeaenoaea aeey aunoeo eano e aiaaouo. Aieueooth ?ieue a
noaiiaeaiee i?aaiauo iii ea?aee noaeaaiua i?aaiu, eioi?ua caueuaee
i?aaeaea anaai eioa?anu eioueo. Iie niaeaenoaiaaee ?ac?ooaieth
onoa?aaoeo iau/aaa ?iaeiaiai no?iy, cae?aieyee a naieo ?aoaieyo oa
iau/ae, eioi?ua ioaa/aee iiaui ii?yaeeai. Noaeaaiua ooieoeee
ia?aiia/aeueii inouanoaeyeenue ae?aoeaie eeai i?eiaaeeaaeaee aa?oiaiiio
i?aaeoaeth (oea?th, ei?ieth) e iacia/aiiui ei noaeaaiui i?aaiai. Ana yoi
niinianoaiaaei nicaeaieth i?aaiauo ii?i noaeaie, o.a. aicieeiiaaieth
noaeaaiiai i?aoeaaeaioa, iiae eioi?ui iiieiaaony i?aa?auaiea ?aoaiey
noaea ii eiie?aoiiio aeaeo a iauoth ii?io. Noaiiaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe o?aaiaaei ana aieaa i?i/iiai cae?aieaiey i?aaiauo
ii?i. N iiyaeaieai ienueiaiiinoe yoe ii?iu iieo/atho oaeia cae?aieaiea a
ia?auo caeiiao aa?oiaiie aeanoe oea?y, ei?iey, eiycy, ia?iaeiiai
nia?aiey, naiaoa eeai ae?oaiai eieeaaeaeueiiai i?aaia. Yoi caeiiu oea?y
Oaiio?aie, caeiiu Iaio, caeiiu 12 oaaeeoe, caeiiu Nieiia, a iicaea
aa?aa?neea i?aaaeu (Naee/aneay, ?onneay, Iieueneay).

Ii?iu th?eaee/aneiai, naieoeeiie?iaaiiiai ainoaea?noaii i?aaa auee
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey onoaiiaeaiey e iiaeaea?aeaiey aaeeiiai aeey anaai
ianaeaiey ii?yaeea iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, aeey iaania/aiey aaeeiiai
?uiea, oneiaee aeaaeaiey e ?anii?yaeaiey nianoaaiiinoueth, iaiaia
oiaa?aie, aeey nio?aiaiey iao?ea?oaeueii-naiaeiiai auoa a naeueneie
iaueia, a oaeaea aeey iaania/aiey aaeeiie aeanoe a ainoaea?noaa. E oiio
aea ainoaea?noaaiiia iauaaeeiaiea ieaiai niinianoaiaaei i?aaiaie caueoa
eo eioa?ania ai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo naycyo n ianaeaieai ae?oaeo
ainoaea?noa. Ecae?aaea au?aaaouaaeenue niiniau aeeieiiaoe/aneeo
oea?aiiieaeia, i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ninaaeieo aea?aeaa, caeeth/aiey
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo nithcia, oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee e nai?ia e o.ae. /ai
oe?a e noaaeeueiaa noaiiaeeenue oaeea nayce, oai aieueoa ioiioaiey ie?a
auoaniyee aiaiiua iaaaae e oa?ico caaiaaaiee. Iiyoiio n i?ioeannaie
noaiiaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe e th?eaee/aneiai aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aaa aicieeatho iiea ca/aoi/iua, ii iinoaiaiii ?acaeaathueany ii?iu e
ioiioaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

Ia iineaaeiai yoaia ?aniaaea ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy a yiioo
eeanniia?aciaaiey aicieeatho ii?iu i?aaa. Iaeiaei oi?ie?iaaiea ii?i
i?aaa e i?aa /aeiaaea yaeaiey ?aciia?aiaiiua. I?aaiaua nenoaiu
aieueoeinoaa ?aaeiiia ie?a oi?ie?othony a nayce n e?oiiuie iauanoaaiiuie
?acaeaeaieyie o?oaea, ?inoii aai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua nicaeaee
aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey ecauoi/iiai i?iaeoeoa e nin?aaeioi/aiey
iauanoaaiiiai aiaaonoaa a ?oeao oaea noi?ie?iaaaoaeny i?eaeeaae?iaaiiie
aa?oooee, inouanoaeyaoae i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey a ?iaeiauo i?aaiecaoeeyo.
Iie auee iniiaaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii ia iaoiaeao ianeeey, i?eioaeaeaiey,
i?eiaiyaoeony iineoaeyie aa?oiaiie aeanoe ii ioiioaieth e aieueoeinoao
iauanoaa. O?iaaiue naiaiaeu aue ieieiaeueiue e ioaaouaae, ?acaa /oi,
i?aayuoth aa?oooeo. A oaeeo oneiaeyo i?eoycaiey eiaeeaeaeia ia
iaania/aiea ii?iaeueiie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe auee ia?aaeueiu. Ethaee
aeaeaee a i?aaenoaaeoaeyo aa?oiaiie aeanoe eeai noaaeaiieeia Aiaa ia
caiea, eeai i?inoi aeaaeue, o?aaothueo aani?aeineiaiiai iiae/eiaiey.

Auaiaeu

Ia?aiauoii-iaueiiue no?ie aue naiui aeeeoaeueiui ii a?aiaie (aieaa
ieeeeiia eao) yoaiii a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii?aaeaeeoue aai ieaeithth
a?aiue neieueei-ieaoaeue oi/ii iaeaaei, eai ai aiiaue iaia?oaeeaaaiuo
einoiuo inoaieao iaoeo aeaeaeeo i?aaeeia aieueoeinoai niaoeeaeenoia
aeaeeo oi i?aae/aeiaaea, oi /aeiaaea. A caaeneiinoe io yoie ioeaiee
i?aiaeaaeathuaa iiaiea iaiyaony. A nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae iaeie o/aiua
n/eoatho, /oi ae?aaiaeoee /aeiaae (a oai naiui e ia?aiauoiia, aeeeia
iauanoai) aiciee ieiei 1 – 1,5 iei. eao iacaae, ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee
ioiinyo aai iiyaeaiea e aieaa iicaeiaio a?aiaie. Iauanoaaiiay
(nioeeaeueiay) aeanoue, nouanoaiaaaoay a aeiainoaea?noaaiiue ia?eiae,
iaeaaeaea neaaeothueie aeaaiuie /a?oaie. Yoa aeanoue: aace?iaaeanue ia
naiaeiuo ioiioaieyo, eai iniiaie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa aue ?iae
(?iaeiaay iaueia), o.a. iauaaeeiaiea ethaeae ii aeaenoaeoaeueiiio eee
i?aaeiieaaaaiiio e?iaiiio ?iaenoao, a oaeaea iauiinoe eiouanoaa e
o?oaea. ?iae oi?ie?iaaeny a ia?eiae, eiaaea ia niaio aanii?yaei/iui
iieiaui naycyi i?eoea naiuey, iniiaaiiay ia eieeaeoeaiii, a iioii e ia
ia?iii a?aea. Eaaeaeue ?iae aunooiae a ea/anoaa oicyenoaaiiie aaeeieoeu,
nianoaaiieea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaiecaoi?a iauaai o?oaeiaiai
i?ioeanna; auea iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaueiiie, no?ieeanue ia ia/aeao
ia?aiauoiie aeaiie?aoee, ia ooieoeeyo naiioi?aaeaiey (o.a. noauaeo e
iauaeo aeanoe caeanue niaiaaeaee); iie?aeanue ia aaoi?eoao, oaaaeaiea,
o?aaeeoeee /eaiia ?iaea; inouanoaeyeanue eae iauanoaii a oeaeii
(?iaeiaua nia?aiey, aa/a), oae e aai i?aaenoaaeoaeyie (noa?aeoeiaie,
niaaoaie noa?aeoei, aiaia/aeueieeaie, aiaeaeyie, ae?aoeaie e o.i.).
Nioeeaeueiua ii?iu ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa iaania/eaaee nouanoaiaaiea
i?enaaeaathuae yeiiiieee e i?iaeieaeaiea ?iaea, ?aaoee?iaaee
ii?aaeaeaiiua niiniau aeiauaaiey ieue e nio?aiyee a?a/ii-naiaeiua
ioiioaiey. Yoe ii?iu eiaiothony iiiiii?iaie, iineieueeo iie ii aieueoiio
n/aoo au?aaeaee aeaaiue eioa?an ethaeae oiai iauanoaa – auaeeoue. Yoio
eioa?an niae?ae neeu a iauanoaa aeey oiai, /oiau i?ioeainoiyoue noeoee,
?acee/iui iianiinoyi.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

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5. Eina?aa A. E. I?ienoiaeaeaiea e nouiinoue ainoaea?noaa. I., 1976 a.

6. Eeaoeoe ?. C. Oai?ey i?aaa. – I.: AAE, 1994 a.

7. Iaoocia I. E., Iaeueei A. A. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: O/aaiee. –
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9. Iauay oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa / Iiae ?aae. A. N. Ieaieeeia. – I.,
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10. Iauay oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. Aeaaeaie/aneee eo?n. A 2 o. .
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11. Nie?eaeiiia E. E. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. – I., 1995 a.

12. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa / Iiae ?aae. A. I. Ei?aeueneiai e A. Ae.
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13. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. *anoue 1: Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa / Iiae
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14. O?iiaithe A. I. Oai?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa / Iiae ?aae. A. A.
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