.

Венская система и международные отношения в Европе

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2019
Скачать документ

Naieia?: «Aaineay nenoaia» e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey a Aa?iia a
20-50-a aa. XIX a.

1.Aaineee eiia?ann 1814-1815 aa. e o?aaoee?iaaiea nii?ia i iieeoe/aneii
ono?ienoaa Aa?iiu

AAINEEE EIIA?ANN (1814–1815), ie?iay eiioa?aioeey aa?iiaeneeo
ainoaea?noa a Aaia a naioya?a 1814 – ethia 1815 aeey o?aaoee?iaaiey
iieeoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey a Aa?iia a oneiaeyo ii?aaeaiey iaiieaiiianeie
O?aioeee. Nicaai niaeanii oneiaeyi Ia?eaeneiai aeiaiai?a io 30 iay 1814
iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e Oanoie eiaeeoeeae (?inney, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aano?ey,
I?onney), e eioi?iio iicaea i?eniaaeeieeenue Eniaiey, Ii?ooaaeey e
Oaaoeey.

A naioya?a 1814 a Aaia ninoiyeenue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua ia?aaiai?u
no?ai-iiaaaeeoaeueieoe, i?aaei?eiyaoeo iiiuoeo au?aaioaoue aaeeioth
iiceoeeth aei ia/aea Eiia?anna; ?inneth i?aaenoaaeyee eiia?aoi?
Aeaenaiae? I e aeeieiiaou eiycue A.E.?acoiianeee e a?ao
E.A.Iannaeue?iaea, Aano?eth – eiia?aoi? O?aioe I e ieieno? eiino?aiiuo
aeae eiycue E.E.A.Iaooa?ieo, Aaeeeia?eoaieth – ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae
ei?ae ?.N.Eane?e, I?onneth – eaioeea? E.A.Aa?aeaiaa?a e ieieno?
i?inaauaiey e eoeueoa E.A.Aoiaieueaeo. Ia?aaiai?u, iaeiaei, caaa?oeeenue
iaoaea/ae aneaaenoaea na?ueaciuo i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo eo o/anoieeaie.
?inney i?aoaiaeiaaea ia Aaeeeia aa?oeianoai Aa?oaaneia, ia?aciaaiiia
Iaiieaiiii a 1807–1809 ec i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo Aano?ee e I?onnee iieueneeo
caiaeue, ii oaeia oneeaiea ?innee ia ioaa/aei eioa?anai aa nithcieeia.
I?onney iaia?aaaeanue aiiaene?iaaoue nithcioth Iaiieaiio Naeniieth,
iaeiaei i?ioea yoiai ?aoeoaeueii aunooiaea Aano?ey, iaia?aaaaoayny
i?aa?aoeoue Aa?iaieth a oaaea?aoeeth iiia?oee iiae naiei aa?oiaainoaii;
aano?eeneea Aaanao?ae ieaie?iaaee oaeaea onoaiiaeoue naith aaaaiiieth a
Eoaeee. Nithcieee auee aaeeiu eeoue a iaeiii – eeoeoue O?aioeeth
aaaeouae ?iee a Aa?iia e naanoe aa oa??eoi?eth e a?aieoeai 1792. 22
naioya?y iie aeiaiai?eeenue iono?aieoue O?aioeeth aianoa n Eniaieae,
Ii?ooaaeeae e Oaaoeeae io ?aaeueiiai o/anoey a ?aaioa Eiia?anna. Ii
i?eauaoae 23 naioya?y a Aaio o?aioeocneie aeaeaaaoeee ai aeaaa n
ieieno?ii eiino?aiiuo aeae eiycai O.-I.Oaeae?aiii oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny
iieiii?aaiiai o/anoey a ia?aaiai?ao.

Eiia?ann ioe?ueny a ia/aea iiya?y 1814; ia iai i?enoonoaiaaei 450
aeeieiiaoia ec 126 aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, ca eneeth/aieai Oo?oeee.
?aoaiey i?eieiaeenue ia niaauaieyo i?aaenoaaeoaeae iyoe aea?aeaa
(?inney, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, I?onney, Aano?ey, O?aioeey) eee a iniauo
i?aaiao – eiieoaoa ii aa?iaineei aeaeai (nicaeai 14 ieoya?y), eiieoaoa
ii oaaeoea?neei aeaeai (14 iiya?y), noaoenoe/aneie eiiennee (24
aeaeaa?y) e o.ae.

Iniiaiui e naiui ino?ui aii?inii ieacaeny iieuenei-naeniineee. Aua ia
noaaeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ia?aaiai?ia (28 naioya?y) ?inney e I?onney
caeeth/eee oaeiia niaeaoaiea, ii eioi?iio ?inney iaycuaaeanue
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?eoycaiey I?onnee ia Naeniieth a iaiai ia iiaeaea?aeeo
aa i?eoycaiee ia Aaeeeia aa?oeianoai Aa?oaaneia. Ii yoe ieaiu
iaoieeioeenue ia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea O?aioeee, ia aeaeaaoae ?anoe?aiey
i?onneiai aeeyiey a Naaa?iie Aa?iaiee. Aiaeee?oy e i?eioeeio eaaeoeiecia
(ainnoaiiaeaiey caeiiiuo i?aa), O.-I.Oaeae?ai i?eaeae ia naith noi?iio
Aano?eth e iaeeea aa?iaineea ainoaea?noaa. Iiae aeaaeaieai o?aioeocia
aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai oaeaea eciaieei naith iiceoeeth a iieueco
naeniineiai ei?iey O?eae?eoa-Aaaonoa I. A ioaao ?inney auaaea naie
ieeoiaoeeiiiua aienea ec Naeniiee e ia?aaeaea aa iiae oi?aaeaiea I?onnee
(10 iiya?y). Aicieeea oa?ica ?aneiea Oanoie eiaeeoeee e aiaiiiai
eiioeeeoa ?innee e I?onnee n Aaeeeia?eoaieae, Aano?eae e O?aioeeae. 7
aeaeaa?y aa?iaineea ainoaea?noaa aunooieee n eieeaeoeaiui i?ioanoii
i?ioea i?onneie ieeoiaoeee Naeniiee. Oiaaea ?inney e I?onney
i?aaeeiaeeee nicaeaoue ia eaaii aa?aao ?aeia ainoaea?noai iiae
aa?oiaainoaii O?eae?eoa-Aaaonoa I a ea/anoaa eiiiainaoeee ca aai ioeac
io Naeniiee, ii yoio i?iaeo aue ?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aioo inoaeueiuie
o/anoieeaie Eiia?anna. 3 yiaa?y 1815 ?.N.Eane?e, E.E.Iaooa?ieo e
O.-I.Oaeae?ai caeeth/eee oaeiue aeiaiai?, i?aaeoniao?eaaaoee
niaeaniaaiiua aeaenoaey a iieuenei-naeniineii aii?ina. ?innee e I?onnee
i?eoeinue iieoe ia onooiee, e e 10 oaa?aey noi?iiu aeinoeaee
eiii?iienniiai ?aoaiey.

I?aaeiaoii ianoaeaeaiey ia Eiia?anna auee e ae?oaea aaaeiua i?iaeaiu –
iieeoe/aneia ono?ienoai Aa?iaiee e a?aieoeu aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa,
noaoon Oaaeoea?ee, iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a Eoaeee, noaeioiaenoai ii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui ?aeai (?aei, Iaan, Iicaeue e ae?.), oi?aiaey iaa?aie.
Iiiuoea ?innee iinoaaeoue aii?in i iieiaeaiee o?enoeaineiai ianaeaiey a
Iniaineie eiia?ee e i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ae i?aaa aiaoeaaoueny a aai caueoo
ia ano?aoeei iiieiaiey ae?oaeo aea?aeaa.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa neiaeiuo ieacaeny aii?in i Iaaiieeoaineii
ei?ieaanoaa. O?aioeey iio?aaiaaea eeoeoue iaiieaiiianeiai ia?oaea
E.Ith?aoa iaaiieeoaineiai i?anoiea e ainnoaiiaeoue ianoioth aaoaue
aeeianoee Ao?aiiia; ae oaeaeinue i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio
Aaeeeia?eoaieth. Iaeiaei ieaiai naa?aeaiey Ith?aoa aini?ioeaeeanue
Aano?ey, eioi?ay a yiaa?a 1814 aa?aioe?iaaea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue aai
aeaaeaiee a ea/anoaa ieaou ca eciaio Iaiieaiio e ca ia?aoiae ia noi?iio
Oanoie eiaeeoeee.

1 ia?oa 1815 Iaiieaii, iieeioa ianoi naiae nnueee ia i.Yeueaa,
aunaaeeeny ai O?aioeee. 13 ia?oa aea?aeaau-o/anoieoeu Ia?eaeneiai ie?a
iauyaeee aai aia caeiia e iaauaee iiiiuue eaaeoeiiiio ei?ieth Ethaeiaeeo
XVIII. Iaeiaei oaea 20 ia?oa ?aaeei Ao?aiiia iae; Ith?ao, ?aci?aaa
ioiioaiey n nithcieeaie, aoi?any a Iaineoth iaeanoue. 25 ia?oa ?inney,
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Aano?ey e I?onney ia?aciaaee Naaeueioth
aioeo?aioeocneoth eiaeeoeeth. Iiiuoea Iaiieaiia ?aneieioue aa e
aeiaiai?eoueny n Aeaenaiae?ii I iioa?iaea iaoaea/o. 12 ai?aey Aano?ey
iauyaeea aieio Ith?aoo e auno?i ?aca?iieea aai a?ieth; 19 iay a Iaaiiea
auea ?anoaa?e?iaaia aeanoue Ao?aiiia. 9 ethiy i?aaenoaaeoaee ainueie
aea?aeaa iiaeienaee Caeeth/eoaeueiue aeo Aaineiai eiia?anna.

Niaeanii aai oneiaeyi, ?inney iieo/eea aieueooth /anoue Aaeeeiai
aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneiai. I?onney ioeacaeanue io iieueneeo caiaeue,
nio?aiea eeoue Iiciaiue, ii i?eia?aea Naaa?ioth Naeniieth, ?yae iaeanoae
ia ?aeia (?aeineay i?iaeioeey), Oaaaeneoth Iiia?aieth e i.?thaai.
THaeiay Naeniiey inoaeanue iiae aeanoueth O?eae?eoa-Aaaonoa I. A
Aa?iaiee aianoi oi?acaeiaiiie Iaiieaiiii a 1806 Nayuaiiie ?eineie
eiia?ee, ninoiyaoae ec ii/oe aeaoo ouny/ ainoaea?noa, aiciee Aa?iaineee
nithc, aeeth/eaoee 35 iiia?oee e 4 aieueiuo ai?iaea, iiae aeaaainoaii
Aano?ee. Aano?ey aa?ioea naaa Ainoi/ioth Aaeeoeeth, Caeueoeao?a,
Eiiaa?aeeth, Aaiaoeeth, Oe?ieue, O?eano, Aeaeiaoeeth e Eeee?eth;
i?anoieu Ia?iu e Oineaiu caiyee i?aaenoaaeoaee aeiia Aaanao?aia; auei
ainnoaiiaeaii Na?aeeineia ei?ieaanoai, eioi?iio ia?aaeaee Aaioth e
aica?aoeee Naaieth e Ieoeoeo. Oaaeoea?ey iieo/eea noaoon aa/ii
iaeo?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, e aa oa??eoi?ey ?anoe?eeanue ca n/ao
Aaeeena, AEaiaau e Iaooaoaey. Aeaiey eeoeeanue Ii?aaaee, eioi?ay ia?aoea
e Oaaoeee, ii iieo/eea ca yoi Eaoyiao?a e aeaa ieeeeiia oaea?ia.
Aaeueaey e Aieeaiaeey ia?aciaaee ei?ieaanoai Ieaea?eaiaeia iiae
aeanoueth I?aineee aeeianoee; a aai ninoaa ia iniiaa ee/iie oiee aioae
Ethenaiao?a. Aiaeey cae?aieea ca niaie a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a Eiie/aneea
i-aa e i. Iaeueoo, a Aano-Eiaeee i.Naio-Ethney e i.Oiaaai, a Eiaeeeneii
ieaaia Naeoaeueneea i-aa e i.Oeaeeii, a Ao?eea Eaineoth eieiieth; iia
aeiaeeanue iieiiai cai?aoa ?aaioi?aiaee.

A?aieoeu O?aioeee auee onoaiiaeaiu oaea iinea ?aca?iia Iaiieaiia i?e
Aaoa?eii (18 ethiy) e ?anoaa?aoeee Ao?aiiia (8 ethey): Aoi?ie Ia?eaeneee
ie? 20 iiya?y 1815 aa?ioe aa e a?aieoeai 1790.

Aaineee eiia?ann yaeeny ia?aie iiiuoeie onoaiiaeoue i?i/iue ie? a Aa?iia
ia iniiaa eieeaeoeaiiai niaeaoaiey anao aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa;
caeeth/aiiua aeiaiai?u iaeuecy auei ?anoi?aiooue a iaeiinoi?iiiai
ii?yaeea, ii eo iiaeii auei eciaieoue n niaeaney anao o/anoieeia. Aeey
aa?aioee aa?iiaeneeo a?aieoe a naioya?a 1815 ?inney, Aano?ey e I?onney
nicaeaee Nayuaiiue nithc, e eioi?iio a iiya?a i?eniaaeeieeanue O?aioeey.
Aaineay nenoaia iaania/eea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ia?eiae ie?a e
ioiineoaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe a Aa?iia. Iaeiaei iia auea oycaeiie,
iineieueeo a aieueoae noaiaie enoiaeeea ec iieeoeei-aeeianoe/aneiai, a
ia iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?eioeeia e eaii?e?iaaea nouiinoiua eioa?anu iiiaeo
aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia (aaeueaeeoeaa, iieyeia, iaioeaa, eoaeueyioeaa); iia
cae?aieea ?acae?iaeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee e Eoaeee i?e aaaaiiiee aano?eeneeo
Aaanao?aia; I?onney ieacaeanue ?anna/aiiie ia aeaa /anoe (caiaaeioth e
ainoi/ioth), iaoiaeeaoeany ai a?aaeaeaaiii ie?oaeaiee.

Aaineay nenoaia ia/aea ?ooeoueny a 1830–1831, eiaaea ainnoaaoay Aaeueaey
ioaeaeeeanue io Ieaea?eaiaeneiai ei?ieaanoaa e ia?aea iacaaeneiinoue.
Ieii/aoaeueiue oaea? ae iaianee aano?i-o?aiei-na?aeeineay aieia 1859,
aano?i-i?onneay aieia 1866 e o?aiei-i?onneay aieia 1870, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?uo aicieeee aaeeiua Eoaeueyineia e Aa?iaineia ainoaea?noaa.

1) Ii eaeie i?e/eia auea ia?aciaaia 7-ay aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey?

2) Eaeea eioa?anu i?aneaaeiaaea Aaeeeia?eoaiey ia eiia?anna?

3) Ii/aio ?inney ia ano?aoeea iiieiaiey a aii?ina i o?enoeaineii
ianaeaiee a Iniaineie eiia?ee?

2. «Aaineay nenoaia»

I?aaeaea anaai iiaaaeeoaee caiyeenue i?iaeaiie ?anoaa?aoeee, eioi?ay
noaea e?aaoaieueiui eaiiai «aaineie nenoaiu». Aeaaiue aii?in caeeth/aeny
a oii, ia eaeeo i?eioeeiao i?iaiaeeoue ?anoaa?aoeeth a auaoae iaoe?iie
eiia?ee Iaiieaiia e ai O?aioeee. Oaea n 90-o aiaeia XVIII a. io/aoeeai
auyaeeenue aeaa iiaeoiaea e yoiio aii?ino: aano?i-i?onneee (iieiia
ainnoaiiaeaiea aei?aaiethoeeiiiuo ii?yaeeia i?e iaeneiaeueiii ineaaeaiee
O?aioeee aieioue aei iooi?aeaiey io iaa /anoe oa??eoi?ee) e
?onnei-aiaeeeneee, i?aaeoniao?eaaaoee ii?aaeaeaiiia i?eniiniaeaiea e
iiaui nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei e iieeoe/aneei oneiaeyi
iinea?aaiethoeeiiiie Aa?iiu i?e nio?aiaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe O?aioeee eae aaeeeie aea?aeaau a i?ioeaiaan I?onnee e
Aano?ee. I?e nio?aiaiee e aeaaea iaino?aiee aiaei-?onneeo i?ioeai?a/ee a
ia?eiae nicaeaiey «aaineie nenoaiu» naia onoaiiaea ?innee e Aiaeee i
i?eioeeiao ?anoaa?aoeee aiciaeaaeaea. Auee ioaa?aioou aeiiiaaoaeuenoaa
«noa?iai» yiea?aioneiai o?aioeocneiai aeai?yinoaa ainnoaiiaeoue
aei?aaiethoeeiiiua oaiaeaeueiua ii?yaeee e eiioeneiaaiioth aeai?yineoth
nianoaaiiinoue.

A iniiao nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie ?anoaa?aoeee ii ia?aiio Ia?eaeneiio
ie?o 30 iay 1814 a. iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e /aou?ueiy
aea?aeaaaie-iiaaaeeoaeueieoeaie — ?inneae, Aano?eae, Aiaeeae e I?onneae
— auee iieiaeaiu oneiaey aiaei-?onneie eiiaaioeee «I ia?ao e
onoaiiaeaieth ie?a a Aa?iia», iiaeienaiiie (a nayce n nicaeaieai
o?aoueae eiaeeoeee) a 1805 a.

«Noi aeiae» Iaiieaiia eciaieee n?aaieoaeueii eaaeea oneiaey ia?aiai
Ia?eaeneiai ie?a. Ii oneiaeyi aoi?iai Ia?eaeneiai ie?a ia O?aioeeth auea
iaeiaeaia eiio?eaooeey a 700 iei. cieiouo o?aieia, a aei aa auieaou
naaa?i-ainoi/iua aeaia?oaiaiou ieeoie?iaaeenue nithciuie aieneaie. A
a?iee e ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa auea i?iaaaeaia /enoea, a
aeayoaeueiinoue o?aioeocneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a 1815— 1818 aa. iinoaaeaia
iiae iieiue eiio?ieue iinoiyiiie eiioa?aioeee /aou?ao nithciuo iineia a
Ia?eaea. Iaeiaei e aoi?ie Ia?eaeneee ie? 20 iiya?y 1815 a. ia eciaiee
iniiaiuo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia ia?aie ?anoaa?aoeee.

A oeaeii oneiaey ia?aiai e aoi?iai Ia?eaeneiai ie?a icia/aee, /oi
nithcieee (i?aaeaea anaai Aiaeey e ?inney) a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a
iniciaaaee iaia?aoeiinoue oao a?aiaeeiciuo ao?aeoaciuo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo eciaiaiee, eioi?ua i?iecioee a
no?aia ca aeaaaeoeaoue eao ?aaiethoeee e iaiieaiiianeeo aiei, e a naieo
i?aeoe/aneeo ?aoaieyo i noaeueaao O?aioeee iinea naa?aeaiey Iaiieaiia
auioaeaeaiu auee n yoei n/eoaoueny.

Ae?oaei e?aaoaieueiui eaiiai «aaineie nenoaiu» noaei oa??eoi?eaeueiia
ia?aono?ienoai a Aa?iia. ?aoaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?iaeai ia/aeinue ia
ia?aaiai?ao i ia?aii Ia?eaeneii ie?a e caaa?oeeinue a oeaeii ia Aaineii
eiia?anna, eioi?ue i?eiye 9 ethiy 1815 a. Caeeth/eoaeueiue
(Aaia?aeueiue) aeo ec 121-e noaouee, caoeene?iaaaoee iiaua a?aieoeu
Aa?iiu.

Caeeth/eoaeueiue aeo (ianiio?y ia iiiuoee I?onnee a oiaea Aaineiai
eiia?anna iooi?aiooue io O?aioeee Yeuecan e Eioa?eiaeth) iiaeoaa?aeee
?aoaiey ia?aiai Ia?eaeneiai ie?a (1814) i a?aieoeao O?aioeee: iia auea
eeoaia anao caaiaaaiee, ii nio?aiyea naith oa??eoi?eth a a?aieoeao ia
yiaa?ue 1792 a., o. a. aei ia/aea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aiei, aeaaea n
iaeioi?ui aeiaaaeaieai ca n/ao ninaaeieo ainoaea?noa. Iinea aea «noa
aeiae», ii oneiaeyi aoi?iai Ia?eaeneiai ie?a (1815), O?aioeey eeoeeanue
ianeieueeeo i?ea?aie/iuo ioieoia e oa??eoi?ee, nio?aiaiiuo ca iath ii
oneiaeyi ia?aiai Ia?eaeneiai ie?a. Iaeiaei i?aoaicee I?onnee ia
o?aioeocneea caiee ia eaaii aa?aao ?aeia auee aiiaue ioeeiiaiu. A oeaeii
aii?in i o?aioeocneeo a?aieoeao aue ?aoai a iieueco O?aioeee.

Eia/a iiaeioae Aaineee eiia?ann e aii?ino i a?aieoeao Aa?iaiee e Eoaeee.
Auea nio?aiaia oa??eoi?eaeueiay ?acae?iaeaiiinoue iaieo ainoaea?noa, /oi
a ei?ia i?ioeai?a/eei iaoeeiiaeueiui ono?aieaieyi iaiaoeeiai e
eoaeueyineiai ia?iaeia. ?acaeoea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a yoeo
no?aiao a aeaeueiaeoai aoaeao nicaeaaaoue iinoiyiioth oa?ico
Caeeth/eoaeueiiio aeoo Aaineiai eiia?anna i aa?iiaeneeo a?aieoeao.

A Aa?iaiee ?aoaiey Aaineiai eiia?anna iie/aeeai naieoeeiie?iaaee
oi?acaeiaiea Iaiieaiiii a 1806 a. Nayuaiiie ?eineie eiia?ee, ii
nio?aieee aianoi iaa iieeoe/aneee eiiaeiia?ao ec 34 ainoaea?noa e
/aou?ao aieueiuo ai?iaeia, iauaaeeiaiiuo a yoaia?iue Aa?iaineee nithc
iiae aa?oiaainoaii Aano?ee. Ioeeeeii ia o?aaiaaiea a?aiaie auei
aeeth/aiea a «Nithciue aeo» niaoeeaeueiie noaouee (13-e), eioi?ay
i?aaeoniao?eaaea aaaaeaiea a ainoaea?noaao Nithca
«nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo eiinoeoooeee» (a aeaeueiaeoai, ca
iaeioi?uie eneeth/aieyie, yoi iinoaiiaeaiea inoaeinue iaauiieiaiiui).
Aioo?e Aa?iaineiai nithca eiia?ann i?iecaae /anoe/iia ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
caiaeue e «ia?acae» iiaua a?aieoeu (oiaiueoee ieiuaaeue aunooiaaoae a
nithca n Iaiieaiiii Naeniiee, oaaee/ee oa??eoi?ee Aaaa?ee, Aaaeaia,
Ath?oaiaa?aa e o. ae.). Ii aeaaiia auei a oii, /oi eiia?ann nio?aiee e
cae?aiee ainoaea?noaaiioth ?acae?iaeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee (oioy /enei
ainoaea?noa cia/eoaeueii oiaiueoeeinue n?aaieoaeueii n ia?eiaeii aei
1789 a.).

Oai?oeu «aaineie nenoaiu» ainnoaiiaeee ainoaea?noaaiii-oa??eoi?eaeueiia
ono?ienoai Eoaeee a iniiaiii a oii aeaea, eaeei iii auei aei aoi?aeaiey
o?aioeocneeo aiene ia Aiaiieineee iieoino?ia a 90-a aiaeu XVIII a.
No?aia ieacaeanue niiaa ?acaeaeaiiie ia ?yae ainoaea?noa: Na?aeeineia
ei?ieaanoai, aa?oeianoaa Ia?ia, Iiaeaia e Oineaia, eiyaeanoai Eoeea,
Iaineia ainoaea?noai e Iaaiieeoaineia ei?ieaanoai. Eiiaa?aeey e Aaiaoeey
auee ia?aaeaiu Aano?ee, iie ia?aciaaee a ninoaaa eiia?ee
Eiiaa?aei-Aaiaoeeaineoth iaeanoue. Ia i?anoieu ainnoaiiaeaiiuo iiia?oee
aa?ioeenue oaiaeaeueiua i?aaeoaee.

A ni/aoaiee n aeaaeaieyie aano?eeneie ei?iiu a Naaa?iie Eoaeee
ainiiaenoai a yoeo ainoaea?noaao iaania/eaaei Aano?ee i?aiaeaaeathuaa
aeeyiea a eoaeueyineeo aeaeao. Aaanao?ae noaee aeaaiuie caueoieeaie
?aaeoeeiiiuo ?aaeeiia ia Aiaiieineii iieoino?iaa e y?inoiuie
i?ioeaieeaie (ia?yaeo n iaiie ?eineei) iauaaeeiaiey Eoaeee a 20—60-o
aiaeao XIX a.

A eioa?anao iaeiiai ec aeoeaiuo o/anoieeia oanoie aioeiaiieaiiianeie
eiaeeoeee 1813—1814 aa.— Oaaoeee — aue ?aoai neaiaeeiaaneee aii?in.
Ii?aaaey, aei 1814 a. iaoiaeeaoayny iiae ainiiaenoaii nithcieoeu
Iaiieaiia — Aeaiee, auea ia?aaeaia Oaaoeee ia i?eioeeiao ee/iie oiee.
Ia?aaea/a Ii?aaaee ?anniao?eaaeanue eae eiiiainaoeey ca iioa?yiioth a
1809 a. Oeieyiaeeth, aoiaeaeaiea eioi?ie a ninoaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee
iiaeoaa?aeee Caeeth/eoaeueiue aeo Aaineiai eiia?anna. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi
nicaeaoaee «aaineie nenoaiu», ia aeaeay iaino?youe iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in
ie a Oaaoeee, ie a ?innee, nio?aieee eae ioiineoaeueioth aaoiiiieth
Oeieyiaeee, oae e aeiaieueii oe?ieoth aaoiiiieth Ii?aaaee. Io anao yoeo
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?ae?iae a Neaiaeeiaaee aieueoa anao iioa?yea Aeaiey,
iecaaaeaiiay Aaineei eiia?annii aei ?iee o?aoueanoaiaiiie aea?aeaau
Naaa?iie Aa?iiu.

Ia?yaeo n ?aoaieai oaeeo e?oiiuo ?aaeiiaeueii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aii?inia,
eae aa?iaineee, eoaeueyineee e neaiaeeiaaneee, eiia?ann ii?aaeaeee
noaeueao e ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia.

Noa?ue iauaeo i?eoycaiee O?aioeee, Eniaiee e Aano?ee — THaeiua
Ieaea?eaiaeu (Aaeueaey), aeeth/aiiua a 1810 a. Iaiieaiiii a ninoaa
O?aioeee, auee i?eniaaeeiaiu e Aieeaiaeee. Aano?eeneea Aaanao?ae
iaanaaaea ioeacaeenue io i?eoycaiee ia Aaeueaeth. Ainoaea?noaaiiay
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue Aieeaiaeee ai aeaaa n i?eioeai I?aineei auea
ainnoaiiaeaia ia Aaineii eiia?anna eae i?ioeaiaan I?onnee e O?aioeee.
Iiaia ainoaea?noai iieo/eei iacaaiea Ieaea?eaiaeneiai ei?ieaanoaa. A iai
auea aaaaeaia oia?aiiay eiinoeoooeey aiaeeeneiai oeia, eioi?ay
ia?aie/eaaea aeanoue ei?iey e aa?aioe?iaaea i?aai iieeoe/aneiai
oaaaeeua.

Ainnoaiaaeeaaeenue ainoaea?noaaiiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e
?anioaeeeaineia ono?ienoai Oaaeoea?ee eae eiioaaea?aoeee nithciuo
eaioiiia, «naiaiaeiuo, iacaaeneiuo e iaeo?aeueiuo». Aue iauyaeai «aa/iue
iaeo?aeeoao» Aeueieeneie ?anioaeeee (ei iia iieuecoaony aei neo ii?), ae
aa?aioe?iaaeanue eiinoeoooeey. I?eiyoay a 1815 a., yoa eiinoeoooeey
eiioeaio?e?iaaea aeanoue a ?oeao a?enoie?aoee, ai?iaeneiai iao?eoeeaoa,
eea?eeaeia, iaeiaei oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe e oeaoe, niaoaiiua a oiaea
O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee e aiei, ia auee ainnoaiiaeaiu.

Aeaeaae iaiieaiiianeiai ianeaaenoaa i?ioiaeee aeaeaei ia aeaaeei.
Iaeaieueoea ?aciiaeaney aucaae iieuenei-naeniineee aii?in. N iiiaioa
ioe?uoey Aaineiai eiia?anna Aeaenaiae? I aeae io/aoeeai iiiyoue naiei
ia?oia?ai ii ia?aaiai?ai, /oi ii ianoaeaaao ia ia?aaea/a ?innee
oa??eoi?ee oi?acaeiaiiiai iieueneiai aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneiai. *oiau
i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio I?onneth, ii iiaeaea?aeae i?onneea i?eoycaiey
ia caiee naeniineiai ei?iey — nithcieea Iaiieaiia I. Iaeiaei yoei ieaiai
?aoeoaeueii aini?ioeaeeenue Aiaeey e Aano?ey, eioi?ua no?aieeenue
i?aaeioa?aoeoue ?ino aeeyiey ?innee. E iei i?eieioea O?aioeey Ao?aiiia
(aa i?aaenoaaeye ia Aaineii eiia?anna Oaeae?ai).

E eiioeo 1814 a. ?aciiaeaney iaaeaaieo nithcieeia ec-ca noaeaa Naeniiee
e Iieueoe ianoieueei iaino?eeenue, /oi a aicaeooa caiaoei iiaie aieiie.
Aano?eeneee eiia?aoi? ioaee/ii iauyaee, /oi anee Naeniiey ia?aeaeao e
I?onnee, oi Aano?ey iauyaeo ae aieio. ?aciiaeaney i?eaaee e iiaeienaieth
3 yiaa?y 1815 a. nae?aoiiai «iai?iieoaeueiiai aiaiiiai nithca» iaaeaeo
Aiaeeae, Aano?eae e O?aioeeae, iai?aaeaiiiai i?ioea ?innee e I?onnee.
Iicaeiaa e yoiio nae?aoiiio aeiaiai?o i?eniaaeeieeenue Aaaa?ey, Aaiiiaa?
e Aieeaiaeey. Aioeiaiieaiiianeay eiaeeoeey ieacaeanue ia a?aie ?acaaea.

A?yae ee o/anoieee aeiaiai?a 3 yiaa?y ana?ueac iiiuoeyee i iiaie e?oiiie
aieia a Aa?iia: neeoeii aaeeea auea onoaeinoue ia?iaeia io iai?yaeaiiuo
aiei iaiieaiiianeie yiioe, aea e aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu aai
o/anoieeia (iniaaiii O?aioeee) auee e?aeia enoiuaiu. A eiia/iii eoiaa
oea?ue niya/ee naith iiceoeeth e iioae ia onooiee a iieuenei-naeniineii
aii?ina. 11 oaa?aey 1815 a. ii iaio auei iiaeienaii niaeaoaiea. Yoio
aii?in ?aoeeny ia iniiaa eiii?iienna. I?onnee ia oaeaeinue iieo/eoue
anth Naeniieth, ii e iae ioioea aa yeiiiie/anee iaeaieaa ?acaeoay
/anoue. A ii?yaeea eiiiainaoeee ca /anoe/iia (ii iiaieth I?onnee)
?aoaiea iieuenei-naeniineiai aii?ina iia iieo/eea caiaaeiiii-iaoeeea
caiee aaeieue ?aeia n ianaeaieai aieaa 100 oun. /aeiaae, iiaa?aaeuea
Aaeoeee (oae iacuaaaiay Oaaaeneay Iiia?aiey), a oaeaea iaaieueooth
/anoue aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneiai n ai?iaeii Iiciaiue. Iniaaiii aaaeiui
auei i?eia?aoaiea ?acaeouo iaeanoae ii ?aeio e a Aanooaeee (?o?neee
oaieueiue aannaei). A ?acoeueoaoa ia?ae?iae aa?iaineeo a?aieoe I?onney
noaea a?aie/eoue n O?aioeeae e Ieaea?eaiaeaie; aa oa??eoi?ey ninoiyea
oaia?ue ec aeaoo /anoae — Ainoi/iie e Caiaaeiie (?aeineie) I?onnee,
iaaeaeo eioi?uie iaoiaeeeenue aeaaeaiey ae?oaeo aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa.
Yoi aeaaaei noi?iiieeai i?onnei-thiea?neie yeniaineiienoneie iieeoeee
aeiiieieoaeueiue a?aoiaio aeey caoaaoa iiauo caiaeue a Naaa?iie
Aa?iaiee.

3 iay 1815 a. ia iniiaa aeiaiai?ia ?innee, Aano?ee e I?onnee aue
inouanoaeai ia?aaeae iieueneeo caiaeue. E ?innee ia?aoea aieueoay /anoue
auaoaai aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneiai n ianaeaieai a 3,2 iei. /aei-

Aeiaiai? 3 yiaa?y 1815 a. eiae iaeiaei ae?oaia aaaeiia iineaaenoaea: ii
onei?ee ?aoaiea Iaiieaiia, oi?ioi eioi?ie?iaaiiiai i ?aciiaeaneyo ia
eiia?anna, iieeiooue ino?ia Yeueao e aunaaeeoueny 1 ia?oa 1815 a. ia
thaeiii iiaa?aaeuea O?aioeee, ia/aa oaeei ia?acii yiiiath «noa aeiae».
Ia neo/aeii ia?aie aeoeeae Iaiieaiia iinea caiyoey Ia?eaea noaea iinueea
Aeaenaiae?o I iiaeeeiieea aeiaiai?a 3 yiaa?y, eioi?ue Ethaeiaee XVIII,
oaaaay ec Ia?eaea, aiiiuoao caaue ia noiea naiaai eaaeiaoa: noaaea ia
?aneie nithcieeia auea aeaaiui no?aoaae/aneei ?an/aoii Iaiieaiia a
ia?eiae «noa aeiae». A eoiaa anao yoeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?ae?iae
aieueoa anao auea?aee Aano?ey, I?onney e ?inney, eioi?ua e noaioo
aieioue aei E?uineie aieiu aeaaiuie no?aaeaie «aaineie nenoaiu». Aano?ey
ii/oe iieiinoueth aa?ioea ana oa??eoi?ee (aeeth/ay auaoea Eeee?eeneea
i?iaeioeee — Aeaeiaoeeth), ooa?yiiua a 1800—1809 aa. a oiaea
iaiieaiiianeeo aiei, noaa ioiuia aeaaiui i?ioeaieeii i?eioeeia
iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey a Aa?iia. Aiiaue, eae e a XVIII a.,
noiaea oaaee/eoue naie aeaaeaiey I?onney, e aa aeeyiea a Aa?iaiee
caiaoii aic?inei. Ca oea?neie ?inneae iiieii ia?aaeaiiie ae aieueoae
/anoe aa?oeianoaa Aa?oaaneiai Caeeth/eoaeueiue aeo eiia?anna cae?aiee
Oeieyiaeeth (ioaiaaaiioth aua a 1809 a. o Oaaoeee) e Aanna?aaeth
(ioioaaeooth io Oo?oeee ii ie?iiio aeiaiai?o 1812 a.).

Io caoeene?iaaiiuo a Caeeth/eoaeueiii aeoa oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?ae?iae
oi?iaeueii iaiaa anaai auea?aea Aaeeeia?eoaiey — a eiioeiaioaeueiie
Aa?iia iia ia iieo/eea ie iaeiiai eaaae?aoiiai eeeiiao?a. Oai ia iaiaa
oaeoe/aneia aeeyiea Aiaeee ia aa?iiaeneea aeaea iinea Aaineiai eiia?anna
/?acau/aeii oneeeeinue. Aicaeaenoaea Aiaeee i?iyaeyeinue eae /a?ac aa
o/anoea a «o?aeoaoao 1815 a.» (i?aaeaea anaai a *aoaa?iii nithca ?innee,
Aano?ee, I?onnee e Aaeeeia?eoaiee), oae e /a?ac caaeneiua a
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneii eee aeeianoe/aneii ioiioaiee iaeua ainoaea?noaa
Aa?iiu. A Aa?iaineii nithca oaeei ainoaea?noaii noaei ei?ieaanoai
Aaiiiaa?, ianeaaenoaaiiia aeaaeaiea aiaeeeneeo ei?ieae, oa??eoi?ey
eioi?iai iiae aeaaeaieai aiaeeeneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia eiia?anna auea
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?aia. I?iaiaeieeii aiaeeeneie iieeoeee noae e
Aeeueaaeuei I I?aineee, aeaaa iiaiai Ieaea?eaiaeneiai ei?ieaanoaa.

Oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eia?aoaiey (ia io?aaeaiiua a Caeeth/eoaeueiii aeoa
eiia?anna, iineieueeo aiaee/aia aini?ioeaeeenue aeeth/aieth a iaai
eieiieaeueiuo i?iaeai) auee naeaeaiu Aaeeeia?eoaieae ca i?aaeaeaie
Aa?iiu. Ca iae inoaeenue caoaa/aiiua a oiaea iaiieaiiianeeo aiei auaoea
aieeaiaeneea (Eaineay i?iaeioeey a THaeiie Ao?eea, ino?ia Oeaeeii e
ae?.), o?aioeocneea (ino?ia Iaeueoa, Eiie/aneea ino?iaa, Naeoaeueneea
ino?iaa, ino?ia Oiaaai e ae?.), a oaeaea iaeioi?ua eniaineea e
ii?ooaaeueneea eieiiee.

Ia?yaeo n aii?inaie i a?aieoeao a Aa?iia o/anoieee Aaineiai eiia?anna
iiiuoaeenue ?aoeoue ianeieueei ie?iauo yeiiiie/aneeo e aeeieiiaoe/aneeo
i?iaeai. E eo /eneo ioiineeenue cai?ao ?aaioi?aiaee, naiaiaea
noaeioiaenoaa ii aa?iiaeneei ?aeai e eiiaaioeey ii ii?aaeaeaieth
noa?oeinoaa aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae.

N eieoeeaoeaie ia ioiaia ?aaioi?aiaee aunooieea Aiaeey: cai?aoea a 1807
a. ?aaioi?aiaeth a naieo aeaaeaieyo, iia ia oioaea, /oiau ia iae
iaaeeaaeenue ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa (i?aaeaea anaai Eniaiey, Ii?ooaaeey,
thaeiua ooaou NOA). Aeiaeoueny cai?aoa ia oaeaeinue; ana aea a 1815 a.
Aaineee eiia?ann i?eiye aeaeea?aoeeth ia inoaeaeaiee ?aaioi?aiaee a
i?eioeeia, ii eaaeaeie aea?aeaaa i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai naiie
ii?aaeaeeoue n?iee aa eeeaeaeaoeee.

A ia?oa 1815 a. auea i?eiyoa eiiaaioeey ii ii?aaeaeaieth noa?oeinoaa
aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, caiaieaoay niaoaiiue O?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeeae n?aaeiaaaeiaue aeeieiiaoe/aneee yoeeao e ?aiae (auoa anao —
eiia?aoi? Nayuaiiie ?eineie eiia?ee, ii?ooaaeueneee ei?ieue — aeaaiaa
aiaeeeneiai ei?iey e o. ae.). Eiiaaioeey i?eaaea aeeieiiaoe/aneee
i?ioieie a niioaaonoaea n ?aaeueiie ?annoaiiaeie nee. Ana ei?iee e
eiia?aoi?u (o. a. Aiaeey, Aano?ey, ?inney, I?onney e ae?.) iiiaee a
ia?aue ?aia, ai aoi?ie — eiycuey e aaeeeea aa?oeiae (a oaeaea
?anioaeeeaineea NOA e Oaaeoea?ey), inoaeueiua — a o?aoee. Aeeieiiaoia
oiaea ?acaeee ia ?aiae: iineu, iineaiieee, iiaa?aiiua a aeaeao.

1) Eaeea oa??eoi?eaeueiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee a ?acoeueoaoa aaaaeaiey
«aaineie nenoaiu»?

2) Eaeea oa??eoi?eaeueiua eciaiaiey ia auee aeeth/aiu a Caeeth/eoaeueiue
aeo Aaineiai eiia?anna?

3) Ca eaeea oa??eoi?ee ai?ieanue ?inney?

3. Ia?aciaaiea Nayuaiiiai Nithca e eiina?aaoeaii-iiia?oe/aneay ?aaeoeey
a Aa?iia

Eieoeeaoeaa nicaeaiey ?aaeoeeiiiiai Nayuaiiiai nithca, eioi?ue aue
ioi?ieai a naioya?a 1815 a., i?eiaaeeaaeaea Aeaenaiae?o I, iiaeienaaoaio
aianoa n i?onneei ei?ieai O?eae?eoii e aano?eeneei eiia?aoi?ii O?aioeai
niioaaonoaothuee o?aeoao. Iicaea e yoiio niaeaoaieth i?eniaaeeieeenue
ae?oaea no?aiu. Aiaeey, oi?iaeueii ia aioaaeoay a Nayuaiiue nithc, ai
iiiaeo neo/ayo iiaeaea?aeeaaea aai ?aaeoeeiiioth iieeoeeo.

Oo?oeey ia aioea e ia iiaea aieoe a Nayuaiiue nithc, oae eae ii
ioeoeeaeueii aue nithcii o?enoeaineeo ainoaea?noa. Ia?aia a?aiy i?aayuea
e?oae Oo?oeee iianaeenue, /oi ?aeeaeiciay o?enoeaineay o?acaieiaey
Nayuaiiiai nithca icia/aao oa?ico Oo?oeee eae ionoeueiaineiio
ainoaea?noao. Iaeiaei anei?a auynieeinue, /oi yoe iianaiey aanii/aaiiu.
I?aaiecaoi?u Nayuaiiiai nithca iaiueoa anaai iiiuoeyee ia inaiaiaeaeaiee
oaiaoaaoeony oo?aoeeeie oaiaeaeaie ia?iaeia. Nayuaiiue nithc aue
«nithcii ainoaea?ae i?ioea eo ia?iaeia».

?aaeoeeiiiue o?aeoao Nayuaiiiai nithca, iiaeienaiiue 14 (26) naioya?y
1815 a. a Ia?eaea, aue aanue i?iiecai ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneie
o?acaieiaeae. A iai aiai?eeinue, /oi Nayuaiiue nithc nicaeaaony ai eiy
«ia?acaeaeueiua o?ieoeu», /oi ainoaea?e, iiaeienaaoea yoio aeieoiaio,
«aiceiaeeee naia oiiaaiea e iaaeaaeaeu ia aaeeiiai aiaa», /oi iie aoaeoo
«eae a oi?aaeaiee aaa?aiiuie ei ainoaea?noaaie, oae e a iieeoe/aneeo
ioiioaieyo ei anai ae?oaei i?aaeoaeuenoaai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny ia eiuie
eaeeie-eeai i?aaeeaie, eae caiiaaaeyie nay nayoua aa?u» e o. ae.

Ieeoi ec o/anoieeia yoie i?aaiecaoeee ia iaiaiuaaeny, eiia/ii, ia n/ao
oiai, /oi ca ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneie iaiei/eie ne?uaaeenue ?aaeoeeiiiua
oeaee – ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeiiiui aeaeaeaieai a Aa?iia. *eaiu Nayuaiiiai
nithca n/eoaee aeaaiie naiae caaea/ae iiaeaaeaiea ?aaiethoeee, aaea au
iia ie i?iyaeyeanue.

A yoii aii?ina Aeaenaiae? I iaoae naaa aanueia aeoeaiiai nio?oaeieea a
eeoea aano?eeneiai eaioeea?a Iaooa?ieoa.

I?aaiecaoeey Nayuaiiiai nithca ano?a/aea iiaeaea?aeeo ?aaeoeeiiiuo
e?oaia ai iiiaeo no?aiao Aa?iiu. ?onneea e?aiinoieee, aano?eeneay
ciaoue, i?onneea thiea?a e iiaeiaiua ei ?aaeoeeiiiua yeaiaiou a ae?oaeo
no?aiao auee i?eaa?aeaioeaie Nayuaiiiai nithca e anaia?ii
iiaeaea?aeeaaee aai iieeoeeo oaeooaiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo nee Aa?iiu. N
yoiai iiiaioa ?onneee oea?eci ia/ae aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa aeaiaea?ia
Aa?iiu.

Ia neo/aeii, iiyoiio Ia?en e Yiaaeuen iacuaatho eiia?annu Nayuaiiiai
nithca «aaiaeeoneeie», oae eae iie auee iinayuaiu ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae
a Aa?iia.

Nicaeaoaee Nayuaiiiai nithca, i?aaieciaaa neeu ?aaeoeee a aa?iiaeneii
ianooaaa, ia?ooeaaee eo ia no?aiu, a eioi?uo iiaeieiaeinue
?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea.

Eiia?annu Nayuaiiiai nithca ninoiyeenue a Aaoaia a 1818 a., a O?iiiao e
Eaeaaoa a 1820-1821 aa., a Aa?iia a 1822 a. Ia Aaoaineii eiia?anna
oeaio?aeueiui aii?inii aue aii?in i O?aioeee.

A nianoaaiii?o/iie caienea Aeaenaiae?a I i oaia ia?aaiai?ia a Aaoaia
auei caienaii:

«3. Aeieaeii ee aeiionoeoue O?aioeeth a iauee nithc aa?iiaeneeo
ainoaea?noa aac anyeie i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe, eee:

4. Ia iaeaaaao ee aieaciaiiia ninoiyiea O?aioeee ia aa?iiaeneea
aea?aeaau iaycaiiinoe i?eiyoue ia?u, eioi?ua auee au niiniaiu
i?aaeio?aieoue eo io ca?acu, iiaouae yaeoueny ioooaea, e aianoa n oai
ieacaeenue au aeaaiaeaoaeueiuie aeey naiie O?aioeee, iiaeaea?aeeaay a
iae niieienoaea».

I?eciaa, /oi O?aioeee ia oa?iaeaao iianiinoue ?aaiethoeee, ?aoaii auei
auaanoe ec O?aioeee ieeoiaoeeiiiua aienea e i?eiyoue aa a «eiii»
Nayuaiiiai nithca.

Iineaaeothuea eiia?annu Nayuaiiiai nithca a O?iiiao e Eaeaaoa
(1820-1821) ianoaeaeaee aii?in i iiaeaaeaiee ?aaiethoeee a Iaaiiea e
Iueaiiioa (a Eoaeee).

Ii ?aoaieth eiia?anna, i?eiyoiio a O?iiiao, aano?eeneea aienea anooieee
a Iaaiieue e iiaeaaeee a ia?oa 1820 a. i?ienoiaeeaooth oai ?aaiethoeeth.

Aeey oaeooaiey ?aaiethoeee a Iueaiiioa, ii ?aoaieth eiia?anna, auee
iai?aaeaiu aano?eeneea e ?onneea aienea. ?onneea aienea ia oniaee i?eeoe
a Iueaiiio. Ainnoaiea oai auei caaeaaeaii aano?eeneeie aieneaie.

?onneea aienea yaii ia oi?iieeenue. Eiiaiaeothuee, eie aaia?ae A?iieia a
naieo caieneao ienae: «Eiia/ii, ia auei aeinaea i?eia?a, /oiau
ia/aeueiee, i?aaeiacia/aiiue e eiiaiaeiaaieth a?ieae, aue noieueei, eae
y, aeiaieai, /oi aieia ia eiaea ianoa». Ia eiia?anna a O?iiiao auei
oaeaea ?aoaii eneeth/aoue ec Nayuaiiiai nithca no?aiu, a eioi?uo
i?ienoiaeeo ?aaiethoeey. Ia iineaaeiai eiia?anna Nayuaiiiai nithca,
i?ienoiaeeaoai a Aa?iia a 1822 a., ?aoaeny aii?in ia oaeooaiee
?aaiethoeee a Eniaiee e i iiaeaaeaiee ainnoaiey a A?aoeee.

?aaiethoeey a Eniaiee aniuoioea a yiaa?a 1820 a. Niaa?oaia iia auea
iooai aiaiiiai ia?aai?ioa, ai aeaaa eioi?iai noiyee ioeoea?u eniaineie
a?iee ?eaai e Eae?iaa. Eniaineee ei?ieue Oa?aeeiaiae VII iiiaaiea
iiaeienae iaieoano i nicuaa ei?oania (ia?eaiaioa) e ainnoaiiaeaiee
eeaa?aeueiie eiinoeoooeee 1812 a. Nicaeaoaee Nayuaiiiai nithca ni/ee yoe
niauoey iianiuie, e Aa?iineee eiia?ann ?acei aunooiee i?ioea eniaineie
?aaiethoeee. Ii ?aoaieth Aa?iineiai eiia?anna, O?aioeey iai?aaeea a
Eniaieth 100-ouny/ioth a?ieth e iiaeaaeea oai ?aaiethoeeth.

Ainnoaiea a A?aoeee i?ioea aiaoa oo?aoeeiai noeoaia e aai oaiaeaeia
ia/aeinue a ia?oa 1821 a. Anei?a iii ioaaoeei anth A?aoeeth e a ia/aea
1822 a. Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea i?iaicaeaneei iacaaeneiinoue A?aoeee.
Inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa a?a/aneiai ia?iaea iiiiaaee eo/oea
i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo no?ai. A ai?ueaa ca inaiaiaeaeaiea A?aoeee iiaea
aaeeeee aiaeeeneee iiyo Aae?ii, o/anoaiaaaoee aeia?iaieueoeai a ?yaeao
iianoaioeaa. A ?innee ni/oanoaea a?a/aneiio ainnoaieth auei i/aiue
neeueii. Ia?aua oaeiua i?aaiecaoeee (aaoa?ee), noaaeaoea naiae oeaeueth
ai?ueao ca inaiaiaeaeaiea A?aoeee, auee nicaeaiu ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee –
a Iaeanna. Io?yaeii, aeaeioaoeiny ec Aanna?aaee a A?aoeeth, ?oeiaiaeee
Eineeaioe – a?ae, ioeoea? ?onneie neoaeau. Ca yoi Aeaenaiae? I eneeth/ee
Eineeaioe ec ?yaeia ?onneie a?iee.

Oioy io?yae Eineeaioe iioa?iae ii?aaeaiea, aeaeaeaiea a A?aoeee
?acaa?ioeinue oe?ieie aieiie. A?a/aneiio ainnoaieth ni/oanoaiaaee
aeaeaa?enou. Ianoaeue, eae ecaanoii, niaoeeaeueii iineaiiue aiaiiui
ieienoa?noaii aeey eco/aiey yoeo niauoee, ienae aeieeaaeiua caienee a
aeooa ni/oanoaey inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa a?aeia e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iiiiue ni noi?iiu ?innee. Iiceoeey Aeaenaiae?a I a a?a/aneii aii?ina
auea iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiie e i?ioeai?a/eaie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, a oeaeyo
oe?aieaiey aeeyiey ?innee ia Aaeeaiu, ii noiye ca iiaeaea?aeeo a?aeia e
ca inaiaiaeaeaiea eo io oo?aoeeiai aeaaeu/anoaa e, eae aoaeoi au, aioia
aue iiaeaea?aeaoue inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, ?acaa?ioaoaany a
A?aoeee e aiiaua ia Aaeeaiao, ii, n ae?oaie – ii eae iaeei ec aeaaa?ae
Nayuaiiiai nithca aiyeny ?aaiethoeee e n/eoae i?eia? A?aoeee iianiui
aeey ae?oaeo no?ai.

Iaeiaei aeaei auei ia oieueei a yoii; no?aieaiea ?innee e oe?aieaieth ia
Aaeeaiao e a /anoiinoe no?aieaiea Aeaenaiae?a I e nicaeaieth iiae naiei
aeeyieai iacaaeneiiai io Oo?oeee a?a/aneiai ainoaea?noaa ano?a/aei
nii?ioeaeaiea ni noi?iiu Aiaeee e a ecaanoiie ia?a oaeaea e Aano?ee. Ii
yoei aeaoi i?e/eiai Aeaenaiae? I ia ?eneioe aiaoaoueny a ?ac?aoaiea
a?a/aneiai aii?ina aiaiiui iooai, oioy aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey n
Oo?oeeae ei auee i?a?aaiu e ?onneee iineaiiee aue ioicaai ec Oo?oeee.
Iiiuoea ?ac?aoeoue aii?in aeeieiiaoe/aneei aeaaeaieai ia Oo?oeeth
iauaaeeiaiiui o?iioii n Aiaeeae e Aano?eae oaeaea i?iaaeeeanue ec-ca
acaeiiie eiieo?aioeee e ianiaeaniaaiiinoe. Eiaaea aea aeaeaeaiea a
A?aoeee ?acaa?ioeinue i/aiue oe?iei, aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai,
ainiieueciaaaoenue ia?aoeoaeueiinoueth ?onneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
a?a/aneii aii?ina, ?aoeei aeey oneeaiey naiaai aeeyiey i?aaeinoaaeoue a
1824 a. A?aoeee caai. ?aaeueiie iieuecu io yoiai a?aee ia iieo/eee, ii
nai yoio aeano yaii eiae oeaeueth iiae?ua aeeyiey ?innee ia Aaeeaiao.

Iiiuoea nicaaoue a Iaoa?ao?aa eiia?ann Nayuaiiiai nithca aeey ?ac?aoaiey
a?a/aneiai aii?ina ia oaeaeanue, oae eae ieeoi ec iiia?oia aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai ia i?eaoae. Aianoi yoiai a 1824 a. ninoiyeanue eiioa?aioeey,
i?iaeieaeaaoay naith ?aaioo a 1825 a. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi Aiaeey ioeacaeanue
a 1825 a. io o/anoey a eiioa?aioeee. Ia eiioa?aioeee auei i?eiyoi
i?aaeeiaeaiea ia?aoeoueny e Oo?oeee n i?aaeeiaeaieai i oii, /oiau iia
aeiionoeea aiaoaoaeuenoai aa?iiaeneeo no?ai aeey ?anniio?aiey aii?ina ia
«ono?ienoaa» aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia. Yoi ?aoaiea nouanoaaiiie ?iee ia
nua?aei, oae eae oo?aoeeee noeoai e iinea yoiai ii-i?aaeiaio eno?aaeye
a?aeia e ?ani?aau oo?aoeeeo oaiaeaeia a A?aoeee e aiiaua ia Aaeeaiao
i?iaeieaeaeenue.

Oaeei ia?acii, Aeaenaiae? I ia ?eneioe ieacaoue A?aoeee na?ueacioth
iiiiuue, ii aue naycai oie ?aaeoeeiiiie iieeoeeie, eioi?oth i?iaiaeee
Nayuaiiue nithc a Aa?iia.

?aaeoeeiiiue eo?n, i?iaiaeeaoeeny Aeaenaiae?ii I ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
a?aia, ia?aieaoaeny n ?aaeoeeiiiie iieeoeeie, i?iaiaeeiie ei aioo?e
no?aiu.

1) Ii/aio Oo?oeey ia aioea a ninoaa Nayuaiiiai nithca?

2) Eaeea oeaee i?aneaaeiaae Nayuaiiue nithc?

3) Eaeea no?aiu iiaeaea?aeeaaee Nayuaiiue nithc, ii ia aoiaeeee a iaai?

4. Ainoi/iue aii?in e iaino?aiea i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo aa?iiaeneeie
aea?aeaaaie a 20-50-a aa. XIX a.

Ainoi/iue aii?in — eiiieaen iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioeeeoia eiioea XVII —
ia/aea XX aaeia, naycaiiuo n eiio?ieai iaae nayouie ianoaie a Iaeanoeia,
a oaeaea n ai?ueaie o?enoeaineeo (i?aeiouanoaaiii i?aaineaaiuo) ia?iaeia
Iniaineie eiia?ee ca ia?aoaiea iacaaeneiinoe e n niia?ie/anoaii aaeeeeo
aea?aeaa (?innee, Aano?ee, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee, iicaea Eoaeee e
Aa?iaiee) ca ?acaeae neaaathuae Iniaineie eiia?ee.

Iiyaeaiea oo?ie a Aa?iia e ia?aciaaiea iiaouanoaaiiiai ionoeueiaineiai
ainoaea?noaa ia Aaeeaineii iieoino?iaa na?ue?cii eciaieei ioiioaiea
iaaeaeo o?enoeaiaie e eneaiii: Oo?aoeeia ainoaea?noai naeaeaeinue iaeiei
ec oaeoi?ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iieeoe/aneie aeecie Aa?iiu; aai aiyeenue e
aianoa n oai eneaee nithca n iei. Ia/aei aeeieiiaoe/aneeo niioaiee n
Oo?oeeae iieiaeaii O?aioeeae au? a oi a?aiy, eiaaea i?i/ea aa?iiaeneea
aea?aeaau /oaeaeaeenue eiaoue n Oo?oeeae eaeea-eeai niioaiey.

A na?aaeeia XVII aaea Iniaineay eiia?ey anooieea a ia?eiae
aeieain?i/iiai oiaaeea. Iinea ?aca?iia oo?ie aano?eeoeaie e iieyeaie
iiae Aaiie a 1683 aiaeo eo i?iaeaeaeaiea a Aa?iio auei inoaiiaeaii.
Ineaaeaiea eiia?ee niinianoaiaaei iiaeu?io
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia (a?aeia,
aieaa?, aaeaoia, na?aia, /a?iiai?oeaa), a aieueoeinoaa nai?i
i?aaineaaiuo. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a XVII aaea a Iniaineie eiia?ee
oneeeeenue iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea iiceoeee O?aioeee e
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, eioi?ua, aeaeay nio?aieoue nai? aeeyiea e iiiaoaoue
oa??eoi?eaeueiui i?eia?aoaieyi ae?oaeo aea?aeaa (iniaaiii Aano?ee e
?innee), noaee a naiae ?aaeueiie iieeoeea aunooiaoue ca nio?aiaiea a?
oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe e i?ioea inaiaiaeaeaiey iiei?aiiuo
o?enoeaineeo ia?iaeia.

N iieiaeiu XVIII aaea ?ieue aeaaiiai i?ioeaieea Iniaineie eiia?ee
ia?aoea io Aano?ee e ?innee. Iiaaaea iineaaeiae a aieia 1768—1774 aiaeia
i?eaaea e ea?aeeiaeueiiio eciaiaieth neooaoeee a I?e/a?iiii?uea.

Eo/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeeneee aeiaiai? 1774 aiaea onoaiiaee a ia?aue ?ac ia/aei
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ?innee a aeaea Oo?oeee. Ii noaouea 7-e naai aeiaiai?a
Ii?oa iaauaao oa??aeoth caueoo o?enoeaineiio caeiio e oea?eaai iiiai;
?aaiui ia?acii aeicaieyao ?onneei ieieno?ai «aeaeaoue, ii anai
ianoiyoaeuenoaai, a iieueco eae aicaeaeaiooie a Eiinoaioeiiiiea oea?eae,
oae e neoaeaueo iiie ?aciua i?aaenoaaeaiey. Ii?oa iaauaao i?eieiaoue yoe
i?aaenoaaeaiey, yei /eieiua aeiaa?aiiie iniaie ninaaenoaaiiie e ene?aiii
ae?oaeanoaaiiie aea?aeaau». E?iia oiai, ioieoii 10-i noaouee 16-e
aeiaiai?a, Oo?oeey niaeaneeanue, /oiau ii ianoiyoaeuenoaai eiyaeanoa
Iieaeaaneiai e Aaeaoneiai ieieno?u ?inneeneiai aeai?a i?e aeenoaoaeueiie
Ii?oa iiaee aiai?eoue a iieueco neo eiyaeanoa.

Aeaoa?eia II (1762—1796) eiaea i?iaeo iieiiai ecaiaiey oo?ie ec Aa?iiu,
ainnoaiiaeaiey A?a/aneie (Aecaioeeneie) eiia?ee (ia a? o?ii iia
ieaie?iaaea aicaanoe naiaai aioea Eiinoaioeia Iaaeiae/a), ia?aaea/e
Aano?ee caiaaeiie /anoe Aaeeaineiai iieoinoiaa e nicaeaiey ec Aeoiaeneeo
eiyaeanoa aooa?iiai ainoaea?noaa Aeaeey. A oi aea a?aiy Ii?oa (iniaineia
i?aaeoaeuenoai), iaaeaynue acyoue ?aaaio ca ii?aaeaiea a aieia
1768—1774, i?e aeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeea Aaeeeia?eoaiee e O?aioeee ia/aea
iiaoth aieio i?ioea ?innee (?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia 1787—1792), ia
noi?iia eioi?ie a 1788 aiaeo aunooieea Aano?ey. A 1788 aiaeo
aiaei-o?aioeocneie aeeieiiaoee oaeaeinue ni?iaioee?iaaoue iaiaaeaiea ia
?inneth Oaaoeee (?onnei-oaaaeneay aieia 1788—1790). Ii aeaenoaey
aioe?onneie eiaeeoeee ieacaeenue iaoaea/iuie: a 1790 aiaeo ec aieiu
auoea Oaaoeey (Aa?aeueneee ie?), a a 1791 Oo?oeee i?eoeinue niaeaneoueny
ia caeeth/aiea ssnneiai ie?a, iiaeoaa?aeeaoaai oneiaey
Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeeneiai aeiaiai?a e ioiaeaeioaoaai ?onnei-oo?aoeeoth
a?aieoeo aei Aeiano?a; Ii?oa ioeacaeanue io i?eoycaiee ia A?oceth e
i?eciaea i?aai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ?innee ai aioo?aiiea aeaea Aeoiaeneeo
eiyaeanoa.

Iineaaeothuea o?aeoaou: Aooa?aooneee (1812) e ae?oaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaee
iniaua i?aaa ?innee. Aaeeiiee/iue i?ioaeoi?ao ?innee iaae o?enoeaiaie a
Oo?oeee ia iia auoue i?eyoai i?i/ei aa?iiaeneei aea?aeaaai, oioy a
iineaaeiaa noieaoea ?inney ieeiaaea ia iieueciaaeanue yoei naiei i?aaii,
ii naeaeaa i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ana aiciiaeiia e oiio, /oiau iiaoaeeoue e
i?i/ea aa?iiaeneea aea?aeaau e niaianoiiio aicaeaenoaeth ia Oo?oeeth.
Au? ia Aaineii eiia?anna 1815 aiaea, cai?aoeaoai, iaaeaeo i?i/ei,
oi?aiaeth iaa?aie, eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? I iieaaae, /oi Ainoi/iue aii?in
a ?aaiie ia?a caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey aaeeeeo aea?aeaa, i?eiyaoeo ia naay
o?oae onoaiiaeoue a Aa?iia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia niieienoaea. Oee?eoey?iay
iioa ii yoiio i?aaeiaoo (oaa?aeue 1815) ia eiaea, iaeiaei, ieeaeeo
iineaaenoaee. Aniuoioaoaa anei?a iinea oiai ainnoaiea a?aeia e no?aoiua
aa?aa?noaa oo?ie i?e aai iiaeaaeaiee iiaoaeeee ?inneth aiaoaoueny a yoo
aieio, niaianoii n ae?oaeie aea?aeaaaie. Aeaaiaea?y iieeoeea Eaiieiaa,
oaeaeinue aeinoeaiooue, oioy e iaiaaeieai, niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo Aiaeeae,
?inneae e O?aioeeae.

Iinea Aae?eaiiiieueneiai ie?a eiia?aoi? Ieeieae I i?eeacae iniaiio
nae?aoiiio eiieoaoo, iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii eiycy Ei/oaay, eco/eoue
iieiaeaiea Oo?oeee e auynieoue iieiaeaiea ?innee a neo/aa ?aniaaeaiey
Oo?oeee. Eiaii Eaiiaeeno?ey i?aaeeiaeee a oi a?aiy ec Oo?aoeeie eiia?ee
ia?aciaaoue iyoue aoi?inoaiaiiuo ainoaea?noa: eiaiii 1) eiyaeanoai
Aeaeey — ec Iieaeaaee e Aaeaoee; 2) ei?ieaanoai Na?aey — ec Na?aee,
Ainiee e Aieaa?ee; 3) ei?ieaanoai Iaeaaeiiey — ec O?aeee, Iaeaaeiiee e
ianeieueeeo ino?iaia: I?iiiioeaeu, Naiio?aeee, Eia?ina, Oacina; 4)
ei?ieaanoai Yie? — ec aa?oiae e ieaeiae Aeaaiee e iaeiiaoe 5)
ei?ieaanoai A?a/aneia, ia thaa Aaeeaineiai iieoino?iaa io ?aee e ai?iaea
A?ou. Eiinoaioeiiiieue — eeth/ Aea?aeaiaee e Ainoi?a — ii i?aaeiieaaae
iauyaeoue aieueiui ai?iaeii e oeaio?ii eiioaaea?aoeee, eioi?oth aeieaeiu
auee ninoaaeoue ec naay icia/aiiua iyoue ainoaea?noa. Aoiaeee ee eiieoao
a ?anniio?aiea yoiai i?iaeoa — iaecaanoii; ii eiieoao iao?e
aaeeiiaeanii, /oi iiaeaea?aeaiea nouanoaiaaiey Oo?aoeeie eiia?ee a
Aa?iia ai?acaei auaiaeiaa aeey ?innee, /ai a? oi?acaeiaiea e ia?aciaaiea
aieueiiai ai?iaea ec Eiinoaioeiiiiey.

Eiia?aoi? Ieeieae I, a ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey oaeaeaaoeeny iaaeaaeaeie
inouanoaeoue caaaoioth ia/oo Aeaoa?eiu II, — ecaiaoue oo?ie ec Aa?iiu, —
inoaaee yoo iuneue e ia oieueei ia niaeaenoaiaae e nei?aeoae eii/eia
«aieueiiai /aeiaaea» (oae iacuaae eiia?aoi? Ieeieae Oo?oeeth a eioeiiie
aanaaea) e ?aceiaeaieth aai inoaieia, ii nai iiaeaea?aeeaae e io?aiye
aai nouanoaiaaiea. Eiaaea ainnoaiea aaeiaoneiai iaoe Iaaiaoa-Aee aaeaa
ia nie?ooeei Oo?oeeth, ?inney a 1833 aiaeo caeeth/eea n iae
iai?iieoaeueiue nithc e iineaea nai? aienei e oeio ia iiiiuue noeoaio. A
aanaaea naiae n aano?eeneei iineaiieeii Oeeaeueiiiii eiia?aoi? Ieeieae
neacae, «/oi ii i?eaeao ia iiiiuue Oo?oeee a neo/aa iaaeiaiinoe, ii /oi
ia a aai aeanoe aeaoue aeeciue ia?oaaoeo». «Anee Oo?oeey iaae?o, y
ie/aai ia aeaeath io a? ?acaaeei; iia ie/aai ia iaaei».
Oieea?-Neaeanneeneee aeiaiai? 1833 aiaea, iaania/eaaaoee ca iaeiie
?inneae aiaoaoaeuenoai a oo?aoeeea aeaea, onooiee ianoi Eiiaeiineiio
o?aeoaoo 1840 aiaea, onoaiaaeeaaaoaio niaianoiue i?ioaeoi?ao ?innee,
Aiaeee, Aano?ee e I?onnee (e eioi?ui nei?i i?eniaaeeieeanue e O?aioeey).
Iineaaeiaaoaee oea?eaae I?aaineaaiie e ?einei-eaoiee/aneie ecaeaaia
a?aaeaeiaaee iaaeaeo niaie ia Ainoiea e niia?ie/aee ii iiaiaeo ?acee/iuo
eueaio e i?aeiouanoa o?enoeai, iinauathueo Nayoua ianoa. ?aoaiea yoeo
nii?ia ia?aaeei cao?oaeiyei Ii?oo, iaaeaeaaooth ia naay a /oaeaeii aeey
iaa aeaea iaoaeiaieuenoaea iaeiie ec noi?ii, a eiiaaea e iaaeo. Aua a
1740 aiaeo O?aioeey oniaea enoiaeaoaenoaiaaoue aeey Eaoeineie oea?eae
iaeioi?ua i?eaeeaaee a oua?a I?aaineaaeth. Iicaea iineaaeiaaoaeyi
a?a/aneiai eniiaaaeaiey oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny io noeoaia ianeieueeeo
oe?iaiia, ainnoaiiaeaoeo eo ae?aaiea i?aaa. Ia/aeii iiauo oneiaeiaiee
iineoaeeea a 1850 a. iioa o?aioeocneiai iineaiieea, a eioi?ie ii,
iniiauaaynue ia aeiaiai?a 1740 aiaea, aeiiiaaeny aica?auaiey
eaoiee/aneiio aeooiaainoao iaeioi?uo Nayouo iano a Ea?onaeeia e aai
ie?anoiinoyo. ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaeuyaeei, ni naiae noi?iiu,
o?aaiaaiey, ianiaianoeiua n o?aioeocneei aeiiiaaoaeuenoaii. Caaioiaeai
aue oe?iai, aeaaii?eyoiue aeey ?innee; ii Oo?oeey iaaeeeea n aai
iaia?iaeiaaieai. Ionthaea ?ac?ua ?innee nia/aea n Oo?oeeae (1853), a
iioii e n caiaaeiuie aea?aeaaaie, e aieia, ieii/eaoayny Ia?eaeneei ie?ii
18 ia?oa 1856 a. Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo aai oneiaee auea ioiaia aaeeiiee/iiai
i?ioaeoi?aoa ?innee iaae o?enoeaiaie a Oo?oeee; acaiai aai iiyaeeinue
eieeaeoeaiia anao aaeeeeo aea?aeaa iie?iaeoaeuenoai iaae oo?aoeeeie
iiaeaeaiiuie-o?enoeaiaie. Oaeei ia?acii aa?iiaeneea aea?aeaau iioee ii
iooe, iaia/aiiiio ?inneae a i?ioaaeoai noieaoee, e i?eciaee ca naieie
oiieiiii/aiiuie ia Ainoiea oi i?aai, eioi?ia aia?aua auei i?iaicaeaoaii
eiia?ao?eoeae Aeaoa?eiie II a iieueco ?onneeo aaaioia a 1774 aiaeo.
Iiaiaeu e aiaoaoaeuenoao ia caiaaeeeee i?aaenoaaeoueny. Oaea a 1860 a.
ionoeueiaia i?iecaaee oaeanioth ?acith o?enoeai a Ne?ee. Iyoue aaeeeeo
aea?aeaa ?aoeee aiaoaoueny a yoi aeaei ia oieueei iooai aeeieiiaoe/aneeo
iio, ii e n i?oaeeai a ?oeao. Ia Ainoie iineaii auei o?aioeocneia
aienei, e Ii?oa i?eciaea, /oi oaeia aiaoaoaeuenoai aea?aeaa a aa
aioo?aiiea aeaea ia yaeyaony ie iieooaieai ia aa naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, ie
inei?aeaieai aa aeinoieinoaa. Aniuoioaoaa anei?a iinea yoiai ainnoaiea a
Eaiaeee 1866 aiaea aucaaei niiaa aa?iiaeneia aiaoaoaeuenoai, i?e/ai,
iaeiaei, ie iaeia ec aea?aeaa ia acyeanue ca i?oaeea, i?aaeinoaaea
ianaeaiea Eaiaeee aiieia ia aea?oao aicaoaeaeaiiiio oaiaoecio oo?ie.
Oaeay aea iaoaea/a iinoeaea aiaoaoaeuenoai aea?aeaa a aeaea ainnoaiey
Aa?oeaaiaeiu a 1875 aiaeo e caoai Na?aee a 1876 aiaeo; ana
i?aaenoaaeaiey, niaaou, ianoie/eaua o?aaiaaiey aa?iiaeneeo eaaeiaoia
(aa?iiaeneiai eiioea?oa) inoaeenue aac oniaoa ca ionoonoaeai
?aoeoaeueiie e yia?ae/aneie aiee canoaaeoue Oo?oeeth, a neo/aa
iaaeiaiinoe, neeie i?oaeey eniieieoue i?aaeuyaeyaiua o?aaiaaiey, a
oaeaea ca iaaeinoaoeii niaeaney iaaeaeo aea?aeaaaie. N naiiai ia/aea
ainnoaiey a Aa?oeaaiaeia ?inney a?iiei aicaanoeea naia iaia?aiea
naeaeaoue ana /oi iiaeao, n iauaai niaeaney aea?aeaa, iiaeienaaoeo
Ia?eaeneee o?aeoao, aeey iaeaa/aiey no?aaeaiey o?enoeai a Oo?oeee e aeey
oiai, /oiau iieiaeeoue eiiaoe i?ieeoeth e?iae. Iaia?aiea ?innee
aeaenoaiaaoue caiaeii n i?i/eie aea?aeaaaie Ii?oa i?eiyea ca
?aaiicia/auaa ?aoaieth ie a eaeii neo/aa ia ia?auaoueny e i?oaeeth. Yoi
i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia ii?aaaeaeinue: aniuoioea aieia 1877—1878 aiaeia.
Iiaeaeae ?onneeo aiene i?eaaee eo e naiiio Eiinoaioeiiiieth.
Nai-Noaoaineei o?aeoaoii Ii?oa i?eciaea iacaaeneiinoue ?oiuiee, Na?aee e
*a?iiai?ee; ec Aieaa?ee ?aoaii auei ia?aciaaoue naiioi?aaeythuaany,
ieaoyuaa aeaiue eiyaeanoai n o?enoeaineei i?aaeoaeuenoaii e caineei
aieneii; a Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeia Oo?oeey iaycaeanue aaanoe niiauaiiua
oo?aoeeiio i?aaeoaeuenoao aua ?aiaa (a ia?aii canaaeaiee
Eiinoaioeiiiieueneie eiioa?aioeee) i?aaeeiaeaiey Aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa, n
oaie eciaiaieyie, eioi?ua aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu ii acaeiiiio niaeaoaieth
iaaeaeo Ii?oie, ?onneei e aano?i-aaiaa?neei i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Yoe
iinoaiiaeaiey auee nouanoaaiii eciaiaiu Aa?eeineei o?aeoaoii. Io?aiaiea
eioa?ania o?enoeaineiai ianaeaiey e yoei o?aeoaoii auei i?eciaii aeaeii
iauaaa?iiaeneei. Ii?oa au?aceea oa??aeia iaia?aiea niaethaeaoue i?eioeei
?aeeaeiciie naiaiaeu a naiii oe?ieii niunea. ?acee/ea aa?ieniiaaaeaiey
ia iiaeao iiaeaoue iiaiaea, ie a eaeie /anoe Iooiiaineie eiia?ee, e
iai?eciaieth ca eai-eeai i?aainiiniaiinoe ai anai oii, /oi eanaaony
iieueciaaiey a?aaeaeaineeie e iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie, aeinooia e
ioaee/iui aeieaeiinoyi e ioi?aaeaiey ?acee/iuo naiaiaeiuo caiyoee e
?aianae. Naiaiaea aiaineoaeaiey iaania/eaaaony ca anaie e ieeaeea
noaniaiey ia iiaoo auoue aeaeaaiu a ea?a?oe/aneii ono?ienoaa ?acee/iuo
?aeeaeiciuo iauei e a niioaieyo eo n eo aeooiaiuie aeaaaie. I?aai
ioeoeeaeueiiai iie?iaeoaeuenoaa i?eciaaony ca aeeieiiaoe/aneeie e
eiinoeueneeie aaaioaie aea?aeaa a Oo?oeee, eae ii ioiioaieth aeooiaiuo
eeoe, iaeiiieeia e eiieia anao iaoeee, iooaoanoaothueo a Aa?iiaeneie e
Aceaoneie Oo?oeee, oae e o/?aaeaeaiee aeooiaiuo, aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo e
ae?oaeo ia Nayouo ianoao e a ae?oaeo ianoiinoyo. Aa?eeineee o?aeoao,
eiia/ii, ia ?ac?aoee oae iacuaaaiiai Ainoi/iiai aii?ina; ii yaeyaony
eeoue iaeiei ec oaaia e yoie oeaee. Ana iineaaeothuea niauoey
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi iieiaeaiea, onoaiiaeaoaany ia Aaeeaineii
iieoino?iaa, ia iiaeao auoue i?eciaii ie ieii/aoaeueiui, ie aeaaea
i?i/iui.

1) Eaeiau i?e/eiu ineaaeaiey Iniaineie eiia?ee?

2) Eaeea iineaaenoaey eiaei ineaaeaiea Iniaineie eiia?ee?

3) Eaeiaa ?ieue Aaeeeia?eoaiee a Ainoi/iii aii?ina?

5. E?uineay aieia: i?e/eiu e eoiae

E?uineay aieia 1853—1856, oaeaea Ainoi/iay aieia — aieia ?innee n
eiaeeoeeae O?aioeee, Iniaineie eiia?ee, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e Na?aeeiee ca
ainiiaenoai ia Aaeeaiao, a aannaeia *??iiai ii?y, ia Eaaeaca.

A 1820—1830-o aiaeao Iniaineay eiia?ey ia?aaeeea ?yae oaea?ia,
iinoaaeaoeo iiae aii?in naii nouanoaiaaiea no?aiu. A?a/aneia ainnoaiea,
ia/aaoaany aaniie 1821 aiaea, iieacaei eae aioo?eiieeoe/aneoth, oae e
aiaiioth neaainoue Oo?oeee, e i?eaaei e no?aoiui aeanoieinoyi ni noi?iiu
oo?aoeeeo aiene. ?acaii a 1826 aiaeo yiu/a?neiai ei?iona yaeeny
ianiiiaiiui aeaaii a aeieain?i/iie ia?niaeoeaa, ii a e?aoein?i/iie eeoee
no?aio a?iee. A 1827 aiaeo iauaaeei?iiue aiaei-o?aiei-?inneeneee oeio a
aeoaa i?e Iaaa?eia oie/oiaeee i?aeoe/anee aanue iniaineee oeio. A 1830
aiaeo, iinea 10-eaoiae aieiu ca iacaaeneiinoue e ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu,
A?aoeey noaiiaeony naiinoiyoaeueiie. Niaeanii Aae?eaiiiieueneiio ie?iiio
aeiaiai?o, caaa?oeaoaio aieio iaaeaeo ?inneae e Oo?oeeae, ?inneeneea e
eiino?aiiua noaea iieo/eee i?aai naiaiaeii i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac
/a?iiii?neea i?ieeau, Na?aey noaiiaeeanue aaoiiiiiie, a Aeoiaeneea
eiyaeanoaa (Iieaeaaey e Aaeaoey) ia?aoiaeeee iiae i?ioaeoi?ao ?innee.

Ainiieueciaaaoenue iiiaioii, a 1830 aiaeo O?aioeey ieeoie?iaaea Aeaee?,
a a 1831 aiaeo io Iniaineie eiia?ee ioeiaeeeny a? naiue iiaouanoaaiiue
aannae, Iooaiiaae Aee Aaeiaoneee. Iniaineea aienea auee ?acaeou a ?yaea
n?aaeaiee, e iaecaaaeiinoue caoaaoa Noaiaoea aaeioyiaie auioaeeea
noeoaia Iaoioaea II i?eiyoue aiaiioth iiiiuue ?innee . 10-ouny/iue
ei?ion ?onneeo aiene, aunaaeaiiue ia aa?aaa Ainoi?a a 1833 aiaeo,
iicaieee i?aaeioa?aoeoue caoaao Noaiaoea, a n iei, aa?iyoii, e ?aniaae
Iniaineie eiia?ee.

Caeeth/aiiue ii eoiaai yoie yeniaaeeoeee Oiey?-Eneaeaneeneee aeiaiai?,
aeaaii?eyoiue aeey ?innee, i?aaeoniao?eaae aiaiiue nithc iaaeaeo aeaoiy
no?aiaie a neo/aa anee iaeia ec ieo iiaeaa?aaeanue iaiaaeaieth.
Nae?aoiay aeiiieieoaeueiay noaouey aeiaiai?a ?ac?aoaea Oo?oeee ia
iinueaoue aienea, ii o?aaiaaea cae?uoey Ainoi?a aeey ei?aaeae ethauo
no?ai (e?iia ?innee).

A 1839 aiaeo neooaoeey iiaoi?yaony — Iooaiiaae Aee, iaaeiaieueiue
iaiieiioie naiaai eiio?iey iaae Ne?eae, aiciaiiaeyao aiaaua aeaenoaey. A
aeoaa i?e Ieceaa 24 ethiy 1839 aiaea iniaineea aienea auee niiaa
iaaieiao ?acaeou. Iniaineoth eiia?eth nianei aiaoaoaeuenoai
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Aano?ee, I?onnee e ?innee, 15 ethey 1840 aiaea
iiaeienaaoeo a Eiiaeiia eiiaaioeeth, aa?aioe?iaaaooth Iooaiiaaeo Aee e
aai iioiieai i?aai ianeaaeiaaoue aeanoue a Aaeioa a iaiai ia auaiae
aaeiaoneeo aiene ec Ne?ee e Eeaaia e i?eciaiea oi?iaeueiie
iiae/ei?iiinoe iniaineiio noeoaio. Iinea ioeaca Iooaiiaaea Aee
iiae/eieoueny o?aaiaaieyi eiiaaioeee, iauaaeei?iiue aiaei-aano?eeneee
oeio aeiee?iaae aeaeueoo Ieea, aiiaa?aee?iaae Aae?oo e ooo?iii acye
Ae?o. 27 iiya?y 1840 aiaea Iooaiiaae Aee i?eiye oneiaey Eiiaeiineie
eiiaaioeee.13 ethey 1841 aiaea, iinea enoa/aiey n?iea aeaenoaey
Oiey?-Eneaeaneeneiai aeiaiai?a, iiae aeaaeaieai aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa
auea iiaeienaia Eiiaeiineay eiiaaioeey i i?ieeaao (1841), eeoeaoay
?inneth i?aaa aeiee?iaaoue aoiae aiaiiuo ei?aaeae o?aoueeo no?ai a
*??iia ii?a a neo/aa aieiu. Yoi ioe?uei aei?iao oeioai Aaeeeia?eoaiee e
O?aioeee a *??iia ii?a a neo/aa ?onnei-oo?aoeeiai eiioeeeoa e yaeeinue
aaaeiie i?aaeiinueeie E?uineie aieiu.

Aiaoaoaeuenoai aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa, oaeei ia?acii, aeaaaeaeu nianaei
Iniaineoth eiia?eth io ?aniaaea, ii i?eaaei e iioa?a ath iacaaeneiinoe
ai aiaoiae iieeoeea. A nio?aiaiee Iniaineie eiia?ee auee caeioa?aniaaiu
A?eoaineay eiia?ey e O?aioeocneay eiia?ey, eioi?ui auei iaauaiaeii
iiyaeaiea ?innee ia N?aaeecaiiii ii?a. Yoiai aea iianaeanue e Aano?ey.

Nouanoaaiiie i?aaeiinueeie eiioeeeoa auei oi, /oi a Aa?iia (aeeth/ay
A?a/aneia ei?ieaanoai) n 1840-o iaaethaeaeinue oneeaiea aioe?inneeneeo
iano?iaiee.

A caiaaeiie i?anna iiae/a?eeaaeinue aeaeaiea ?innee iaeaaeaoue
Eiinoaioeiiiieai (Noaiaoe) . A ?aaeueiinoe, Ieeieae I ecia/aeueii ia
noaaee oeaeae i?eniaaeeiaiey e ?innee eaeeo-eeai aaeeaineeo oa??eoi?ee.
Eiina?aaoeaii-io?aieoaeueiua i?eioeeiu aiaoiae iieeoeee Ieeieay
aeeeoiaaee aio naea?aeaiiinoue a iiiu?aiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee
aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia, /oi aucuaaei iaaeiaieuenoai ?inneeneeo
neaayiioeeia.

Aaeeeia?eoaiey auea iaaniieiaia yeniaineae ?innee ia Eaaeaca e a
N?aaeiae Acee, ?anniao?eaay a? eae oa?ico aeey naieo ?anooueo aeaaeaiee
a Eiaeee e aeey naiaai i?iieeiiaaiey a Ia?neth e Aoaaienoai. E na?aaeeia
XIX aaea naea?aeeaaiea ?innee ia thaeiii iai?aaeaiee noaiiaeony iaeiei
ec i?ei?eoaoia a?eoaineie aiaoiae iieeoeee. Oaeay iieeoeea iaecaaaeii
i?eaiaeeea Aaeeeia?eoaieth a eaaa?ue nithcieeia Oo?oeee, iineieueeo
Iniaineay eiia?ey ia oieueei neoaeeea anoanoaaiiui aa?uea?ii aeey
yeniainee ?innee ia tha, ii e ioaeaeaea ia naay aieueoia eiee/anoai
?inneeneeo aiaiiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ua a i?ioeaiii neo/aa iiaee au auoue
caaeaenoaiaaiu a N?aaeiae Acee. Aaeeeia?eoaiey no?aieeanue
i?aaeioa?aoeoue ethaia oneeaiea ?inneeneiai aeeyiey a iniaineeo aeaeao.
Iaeaioia aieiu Aaeeeia?eoaiey oneeeaaea aeeieiiaoe/aneia aeaaeaiea ia
?inneth, n oai, /oiau ioaiai?eoue a? io ethauo iiiuoie oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
?acaeaea Iniaineie eiia?ee.

I?aethaeeae e aieia noae eiioeeeo Ieeieay I n Iaiieaiiii III, i?eoaaeoei
e aeanoe ai O?aioeee iinea ia?aai?ioa 2 aeaeaa?y 1851. Ieeieae I n/eoae
iiaiai o?aioeocneiai eiia?aoi?a iaeaaeoeiiui, iineieueeo aeeianoey
Aiiaia?oia auea eneeth/aia ec o?aioeocneiai i?anoieiianeaaeey Aaineei
eiia?annii. *oiau i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue naith iiceoeeth, Ieeieae I a
iicae?aaeoaeueiie oaeaa?aiia ia?aoeeny e Iaiieaiio «Monsieur mon ami»
(«aeia?ue ae?oa»), aianoi aeiionoeiiai ii i?ioieieo «Monsieur mon frere»
(«aei?iaie a?ao»). Iiaeiaiay aieueiinoue auea ?anoeaiaia eae ioaee/iia
inei?aeaiea iiaiai o?aioeocneiai eiia?aoi?a.

Iaiieaii III, niciaaay iai?i/iinoue naiae aeanoe, oioae ioaea/ue
aieiaiea o?aioeocia iiioey?iie a oi a?aiy, aieiie i?ioea ?innee e aianoa
n oai oaeiaeaoai?eoue /oanoai ee/iiai ?acae?aaeaiey i?ioea eiia?aoi?a
Ieeieay I. I?eoaaeoee e aeanoe i?e iiaeaea?aeea eaoiee/aneie oea?eae,
Iaiieaii III no?aieeny ioieaoeoue nithcieeo, caueuay eioa?anu Aaoeeaia
ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia, a /anoiinoe a aii?ina eiio?iey iaae
oea?eiaueth ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa a Aeoeaaia, /oi i?eaaei e eiioeeeoo n
i?aaineaaiie oea?eiaueth e, iiin?aaeiaaiii, n ?inneae. I?e yoii
o?aioeocu nnueaeenue ia aeiaiai? n Iniaineie eiia?eae io 1740 aiaea,
aeathuee O?aioeee i?aai eiio?iey iaae o?enoeaineeie nayouie ianoaie a
Iaeanoeia, a ?inney — ia oeac noeoaia io 1757 aiaea, ainnoaiiaeaoee
i?aaa I?aaineaaiie oea?eae a Iaeanoeia, e Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeeneee ie?iue
aeiaiai? io 1774 aiaea, aeaaoee ?innee i?aai caueuaoue eioa?anu o?enoeai
a Iniaineie eiia?ee.

O?aioeey iio?aaiaaea /oiau eeth/e io oea?eae (eioi?ua a oi a?aiy
i?eiaaeeaaeaee i?aaineaaiie iaueia) auee ioaeaiu eaoiee/aneiio
aeooiaainoao. ?inney iio?aaiaaea, /oiau eeth/e inoaeenue o i?aaineaaiie
iaueiu. Iaa noi?iiu iiaee?aieyee naie neiaa oa?icaie. Iniaiu, ia eiay
aiciiaeiinoe ioeacaoue, iiiaauaee auiieieoue e o?aioeocneea, e ?onneea
o?aaiaaiey. Eiaaea yoa oeie/iay aeey iniaineie aeeieiiaoee oeiaea auea
?ane?uoa, a eiioea eaoa 1852 aiaea O?aioeey, a ia?ooaiea Eiiaeiineie
eiiaaioeee i noaoona i?ieeaia io 13 ethey 1841 aiaea, i?eaaea iiae noaiu
Noaiaoea 90-iooa/iue ia?iaie eeiaeiue ei?aaeue Charlemagne. A ia/aea
aeaeaa?y 1852 aiaea eeth/e io oea?eae ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa auee
ia?aaeaiu O?aioeee[33]. A ioaao ?inneeneee eaioeea? Iannaeue?iaea io
eeoea Ieeieay I cayaee, /oi ?inney «ia iioa?ieo iieo/aiiiai io Iniaineie
eiia?ee inei?aeaiey… vis pacem, para bellum!» (eao. oi/aoue ie?a,
aioiaueny e aieia!) Ia/aeanue iiaeeecaoeey ?inneeneie a?iee ia a?aieoea
n Iieaeaaeae e Aaeaoeae.

A /anoiie ia?aienea Iannaeue?iaea aeaaae ianneienoe/iua i?iaiicu — a
/anoiinoe, a ienueia ?inneeneiio iineaiieeo a Eiiaeiia A?thiiiao io 2
yiaa?y 1853 aiaea ii i?aaeneacae, /oi a yoii eiioeeeoa ?inney aoaeao
aiaaaoue i?ioea anaai ie?a iaeia e aac nithcieeia, iineieueeo I?onnee
yoio aii?in aac?acee/ai, Aano?ey aoaeao iaeo?aeueia eee
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueia e Ii?oa. Aieaa oiai, A?eoaiey i?eniaaeeieony e
O?aioeee, /oiau ooaa?aeeoue naia ii?neia iiaouanoai, iineieueeo «ia
oaeae?iiii oaao?a aiaauo aeaenoaee, ia n/eoay nieaeao ioaeiuo aeey
aeanaioa, iio?aaothony a iniiaiii neeu oeioa aeey ioe?uoey I?ieeaia,
iinea /aai iauaaeei?iiua oeiou A?eoaiee, O?aioeee e Oo?oeee auno?i
iieii/ao n ?inneeneei oeioii ia *??iii ii?a».

Ieeieae I ?ann/eouaae ia iiaeaea?aeeo I?onnee e Aano?ee e n/eoae
iaaiciiaeiui nithc iaaeaeo A?eoaieae e O?aioeeae. Iaeiaei aiaeeeneee
i?aiuea? Aaa?aeei, iianaynue oneeaiey ?innee, iio?e ia niaeaoaiea n
o?aioeocneei eiia?aoi?ii Iaiieaiiii III i niaianoiuo aeaenoaeyo i?ioea
?innee.

11 oaa?aey 1853 aiaea a Ii?oo iineii aue ioi?aaeai eiycue Iaioeeia, n
o?aaiaaieai i i?eciaiee i?aa a?a/aneie oea?eae ia nayoua ianoa a
Iaeanoeia e i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ?innee i?ioaeoeee iaae 12 ieeeeiiaie
o?enoeai a Iniaineie eiia?ee, ninoaaeyaoeie ieiei o?aoe anaai iniaineiai
ianaeaiey. Ana yoi aeieaeii auei auoue ioi?ieaii a aeaea aeiaiai?a.

A ia?oa 1853 aiaea, ociaa i o?aaiaaieyo Iaioeeiaa, Iaiieaii III iineae
o?aioeocneoth yneaae?o a Yaaeneia ii?a. 1 ethiy aiaeiae/iue i?eeac
iieo/eea aiaeeeneay yneaae?a.

5 ai?aey 1853 aiaea a Eiinoaioeiiiieue i?eaue No?aooi?ae-?aaeeeeo
(aiae.), iiaue iinie A?eoaiee. Ii oaaaeee iniaineiai noeoaia
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?inneeneea o?aaiaaiey, ii oieueei /anoe/ii, iaauay a
neo/aa aieiu iiaeaea?aeeo Aiaeee. A ?acoeueoaoa Aaaeoe-Iaaeaeeae ecaeae
oe?iai (oeac) i ia?ooeiinoe i?aa a?a/aneie oea?eae ia nayoua ianoa. Ii
ii ioeacaeny caeeth/eoue n ?inneeneei eiia?aoi?ii aeiaiai? i i?ioaeoeee.
21 iay 1853 aiaea Iaioeeia ioaue ec Eiinoaioeiiiiey.

Iinea yoiai Ieeieae I i?eeacae ?onneei aieneai (80 oun.) caiyoue
iiae/ei?iiua noeoaio aeoiaeneea eiyaeanoaa Iieaeaaeth e Aaeaoeth «a
caeia, aeieiea Oo?oeey ia oaeiaeaoai?eo ni?aaaaeeeaui o?aaiaaieyi
?innee». 21 ethiy (3 ethey) ?onneea aienea anooieee a aeoiaeneea
eiyaeanoaa.

Yoi aucaaei i?ioano Ii?ou, eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?ea?e e oiio,
/oi a Aaia auea nicaaia eiioa?aioeey oiieiiii/aiiuo Aiaeee, O?aioeee,
Aano?ee e I?onnee. ?acoeueoaoii eiioa?aioeee noaea Aaineay iioa,
eiii?iienniay aeey anao noi?ii, iio?aaiaaaoay io ?innee yaaeoaoeee ec
Iieaeaaee e Aaeaoee, ii aeaaaaoay ?innee iiieiaeueiia i?aai caueou
i?aaineaaiuo a Iniaineie eiia?ee e iiieiaeueiue eiio?ieue iaae nayouie
ianoaie a Iaeanoeia.

Aaineay iioa iicaieyea ?innee aueoe ec neooaoeee aac iioa?e eeoea e auea
i?eiyoa Ieeieaai I, ii ioaa?aiooa iniaineei noeoaiii, iaaeayaoeiny ia
iaauaiioth No?aooi?aeii-?aaeeeeoii aiaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo A?eoaiee. Ii?oa
i?aaeeiaeeea ?acee/iua eciaiaiey a oiiiyiooie iioa. Ia eciaiaiey yoe
niaeaney ni noi?iiu ?onneiai ainoaea?y ia iineaaeiaaei, aneaaenoaea /aai
Aiaeey e O?aioeey caeeth/eee iaaeaeo niaie nithc n iaycaoaeuenoaii
«caueuaoue Eiinoaioeiiiieue, eeai anyeoth ianoiinoue Oo?oeee, a Aa?iia e
Acee, iiaeaa?aioaoothny iaiaaeaieth». Oo?oeey, ni naiae noi?iiu, au? a
iaa ?ac?aoeea aoiae a i?ieea Aea?aeaiaeeu aiaei-o?aioeocneie yneaae?u.

Iuoaynue eniieueciaaoue aeaaii?eyoioth aiciiaeiinoue «i?io/eoue» ?inneth
?oeaie caiaaeiuo nithcieeia, iniaineee noeoai Aaaeoe-Iaaeaeeae I 27
naioya?y (9 ieoya?y) iio?aaiaae i/euaiey aeoiaeneeo eiyaeanoa a
aeaooiaaeaeueiue n?ie, a iinea oiai, eae ?inney ia auiieieea yoi
oneiaey, — 4 (16) ieoya?y 1853 aiaea iauyaee ?innee aieio. 20 ieoya?y (1
iiya?y) aiaeiae/iui cayaeaieai ioaaoeea ?inney.

?inney no?aieeanue iaaciianeoue thaeiua a?aieoeu, iaania/eoue nai?
aeeyiea ia Aaeeaiao e onoaiiaeoue eiio?ieue iaae /a?iiii?neeie i?ieeaaie
Ainoi? e Aea?aeaiaeeu, /oi auei aaaeii e n aiaiiie, e n yeiiiie/aneie
oi/ae c?aiey. Ieeieae I, niciaaay naay aaeeeei i?aaineaaiui iiia?oii,
no?aieeny i?iaeieaeaoue aeaei inaiaiaeaeaiey i?aaineaaiuo ia?iaeia,
iaoiaeyueony iiae aeanoueth Iniaineie Oo?oeee. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia
iaee/ea ieaiia ?aoeoaeueiuo aiaiiuo aeaenoaee, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo
aeanaiou a /a?iiii?neea i?ieeau e oo?aoeeea ii?ou , aue i?eiyo ieai,
eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaae eeoue caiyoea ?onneeie aieneaie Aeoiaeneeo
eiyaeanoa. Niaeanii yoiio ieaio ?onneea aienea ia aeieaeiu auee
ia?ai?aaeyoueny /a?ac Aeoiae e aeieaeiu auee ecaaaaoue noieeiiaaiee n
oo?aoeeie a?ieae. N/eoaeinue, /oi oaeay «ie?ii-aiaiiay» aeaiiino?aoeey
neeu i?eioaeeo oo?ie e i?eiyoeth ?inneeneeo o?aaiaaiee.

13 (25) oaa?aey 1856 ia/aeny Ia?eaeneee eiia?ann, a 18 (30) ia?oa aue
iiaeienai ie?iue aeiaiai?.

?inney aica?auaea iniaiai ai?iae Ea?n n e?aiinoueth, iieo/ay a iaiai
caoaa/aiiue o ia? Naaanoiiieue, Aaeaeeaao e ae?oaea e?uineea ai?iaea.

*??iia ii?a iauyaeyeinue iaeo?aeueiui (oi anoue ioe?uoui aeey
eiiia?/aneeo e cae?uoui aeey aiaiiuo noaeia), n cai?auaieai ?innee e
Iniaineie eiia?ee eiaoue oai aiaiiua oeiou e a?naiaeu.

Ieaaaiea ii Aeoiath iauyaeyeinue naiaiaeiui, aeey /aai ?onneea a?aieoeu
auee ioiaeaeioou io ?aee e /anoue ?onneie Aanna?aaee n onoueai Aeoiay
auea i?eniaaeeiaia e Iieaeaaee.

?inney eeoaeanue i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai ae Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaeeeneei ie?ii 1774
aiaea i?ioaeoi?aoa iaae Iieaeaaeae e Aaeaoeae e eneeth/eoaeueiiai
iie?iaeoaeuenoaa ?innee iaae o?enoeaineeie iiaeaeaiiuie Iniaineie
eiia?ee.

?inney iaycaeanue ia aicaiaeeoue oe?aieaiee ia Aeaiaeneeo ino?iaao.

A oiaea aieiu o/anoieeai aioe?onneie eiaeeoeee ia oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny
anao naieo oeaeae, ii oaeaeinue i?aaeioa?aoeoue oneeaiea ?innee ia
Aaeeaiao e eeoeoue a? *a?iiii?neiai oeioa. ?inney iio?aoeea ia aieio 800
iei ?oaeae, A?eoaiey — 76 iei ooioia.

Aieia i?eaaea e ?anno?ienoao oeiainiaie nenoaiu ?inneeneie eiia?ee: aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia i?aaeoaeuenoao i?eoeinue i?eaaaiooue e
ia/aoaieth iaiaania/aiiuo e?aaeeoiuo aeeaoia, /oi i?eaaei e nieaeaieth
eo na?aa?yiiai iie?uoey n 45 % a 1853 a. aei 19 % a 1858, oi anoue
oaeoe/anee aieaa /ai e aeaooe?aoiiio iaanoeaieaaieth ?oaey . Niiaa aueoe
ia aacaeaoeoeeoiue ainathaeaeao ?inney niiaea a 1870 aiaeo, oi anoue
/a?ac 14 eao iinea ieii/aiey aieiu . Onoaiiaeoue noaaeeueiue eo?n ?oaey
e cieioo e ainnoaiiaeoue aai iaaeaeoia?iaeioth eiiaa?oaoeeth oaeaeinue a
1897 aiaeo, a oiaea aeaiaaeiie ?aoi?iu Aeooa.

Aiaiiua iaoaea/e noaee i?e/eiie ooiaea a ionoaaeo a?eoaineiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aaa?aeeia, eioi?iai ia aai iinoo caiaiee Iaeueia?noii.
Iaia?oaeeeanue ii?i/iinoue ioeoeeaeueiie nenoaiu i?iaeaaee ioeoea?neeo
/eiia ca aeaiueae, nio?aieaoayny a a?eoaineie a?iee ni n?aaeiaaaeiauo
a?ai?i.

A oaa?aea 1856 aiaea noeoai Aaaeoe-Iaaeaeeae I aue auioaeaeai ecaeaoue
aeae?ao Oaoo-e ooiathi, eioi?ui i?iaicaeaoaeenue naiaiaea ?aeeaee e
?aaainoai iiaeaeaiiuo eiia?ee.

Ai a?aiy Ainoi/iie eaiiaiee Iniaineay eiia?ey naeaeaea ca?i a Aiaeee a 7
iei ooioia noa?eeiaia. A 1858 aiaeo auei iauyaeaii aaie?ionoai
noeoaineie eaciu.

Oo?aoeeee noeoai iioaeeeiaae aaooe-oa?eo aoiaethi (1856), a eioi?ii
iniaaiii ianoaeaaeinue ia ?aaainoaa anao iiaeaeaiiuo, aac ?acee/ey
aa?ieniiaaaeaiey e iaoeeiiaeueiinoe.

Aano?ey ieacaeanue a iieeoe/aneie ecieyoeee aieioue aei 23 ieoya?y 1873
aiaea, eiaaea aue caeeth/?i iiaue nithc o??o eiia?aoi?ia (?innee,
Aa?iaiee e Aano?i-Aaia?ee).

A 1871 aiaeo ?inney aeiaeeanue ioiaiu cai?aoa aea?aeaoue aiaiii-ii?neie
oeio a *??iii ii?a ii Eiiaeiineie eiiaaioeee. A 1878 aiaeo ?inney niiaea
aa?iooue oo?a/aiiua oa??eoi?ee ii Aa?eeineiio o?aeoaoo, iiaeienaiiiio a
?aieao Aa?eeineiai eiia?anna, ninoiyaoaainy ii eoiaai ?onnei-oo?aoeeie
aieiu 1877—1878.

E?uineay aieia aeaea oie/ie ?acaeoeth aii?oae?iiuo nee, aiaiiiai e
aiaiii-ii?neiai eneonnoaa aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao
ia/aeny ia?aoiae io aeaaeeinoaieueiiai i?oaeey e ia?aciiio, io ia?oniiai
aea?aayiiiai oeioa e ia?iaiio a?iiaiiniiio. A nooiiooiuo aieneao
iiauneeanue ?ieue no?aeeiaiai i?oaeey e, niioaaonoaaiii, iaiaaie
iiaeaioiaee aoaee.

A E?uineie aieia ca?iaeeeenue iiceoeeiiiua oi?iu aaaeaiey aieiu,
iiyaeeny iiaue aiaaie ii?yaeie — no?aeeiaay oeaiue, /oi oaeaea auei
?acoeueoaoii ?acei aic?inoeo aiciiaeiinoae no?aeeiaiai i?oaeey. Ni
a?aiaiai iia iieiinoueth caiaieea eieiiiu e ?annuiiie no?ie.

Iiuo E?uineie aieiu /anoe/ii e?a a iniiao aiaiiuo ?aoi?i 1860—1870-o
aiaeia a ?innee.

1) Eaeiau i?e/eiu ii?aaeaiey ?innee a E?uineie aieia?

2) Eaeea oneiaey i?aaeoniao?eaae ie?iue aeiaiai? io 18 ia?oa 1856a.?

3) Eaeeie yeiiiie/aneeie iineaaenoaeyie aeey ?innee iaa?ioeanue aieia?

6. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aiaoiae iieeoeee NOA a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a.

Iii?i aeieo?eia, aeaeea?aoeey i?eioeeiia aiaoiae iieeoeee NOA,
i?iaicaeao?iiay 2 aeaeaa?y 1823 aiaea a oi?ia iineaiey i?aceaeaioa NOA
Aeae. Iii?i eiia?anno a nayce n oneeaieai ai?ueau iaaeaeo NOA e
aa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie ca ainiiaenoai a Eaoeineie Aia?eea. Oaeoe/anee
aaoi?ii I. ae. yaeyeny ain. nae?aoa?ue NOA Aeae. Aaeaia. A oneiaeyo
nouanoaiaaaoae oiaaea oa?icu eioa?aaioeee Nayuaiiiai nithca a Eao.
Aia?eeo, a oeaeyo ainnoaiiaeaiey ainiiaenoaa Eniaiee a a? aia?.
eieiieyo, NOA i?iaicaeaneee i?eioeei, cai?auathuee eieiiecaoeeth Aia?.
eiioeiaioa aa?ii. aea?aeaaaie , a oaeaea i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey ie?a ia
aa?ii. e aia?. nenoaiu. I?ioeaiaeaenoaea iieeoeea eieiiecaoeee,
i?iaiaeeiie aa?ii. aea?aeaaaie, eiaei enoi?e/anee i?ia?anneaiia
cia/aiea. Ii a oi aea a?aiy I. ae. io/?oeeai auyaeea yeniaineiieno,
ono?aieaiey i?aayueo e?oaia NOA. Iiae aeaeii caueou no?ai Aia?eee io
aa?ii. aiaoaoaeuenoaa NOA i?enaaeaaee naaa i?aai eiio?iey iaae
acaeiiioiioaieyie anao ae?. aia?. ain-a ni no?aiaie Aa?iiu. A iineaiee
aiai?eeinue, /oi a neo/aa eaeiai-eeai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ethaie aa?iiaeneie
aea?aeaau a aeaea oao i?aaeoaeuenoa (aia?eeaineeo ainoaea?noa), eioi?ua
i?iaicaeaneee naith iacaaeneiinoue, NOA aoaeoo ?anniao?eaaoue yoi ia
eia/a, eae iaae?oaeaethaiue aeo ii ioiioaieth e iei naiei. I?e yoii
iineaiea i?aceaeaioa ia niaea?aeaei e.-e. cayaeaiee ia ioeaca naieo NOA
io caoaaoie/. iieeoeee ia Aia?. eiioeiaioa. Aieaa oiai, I. ae. naycuaaea
?ino iiaouanoaa e aeaaininoiyiey NOA n aiciiaeiinoueth i?eniaaeeiaiey
iiauo oa?. e oaaee/aiey /enea naieo ooaoia ca n/?o no?ai Eao. Aia?eee.
Oaea a 19 a. I. ae. eniieueciaaeanue i?aayueie e?oaaie NOA aeey
iainiiaaiey eo nenoaiaoe/. aiaoaoaeuenoaa a aeaea eaoeiiaia?. ain-a,
iaaycuaaiey ei eaaaeueiuo aeiaiai?ia. I. ae. neoaeeea ii?aaaeaieai
aa?anneaiuo aeaenoaee NOA ia Aia?. eiioeiaioa. A 1846 — 48 NOA aaee
a?aaeoaeueneoth aieio i?ioea Iaeneee, a ?acoeueoaoa e-?ie iooi?aee aieaa
iieiaeiu iaen. oa?. N au? aieueoae neeie aa?anneaiay nouiinoue I. ae.
i?iyaeeanue a yiioo eiia?eaeecia. I?ee?uaaynue ath, NOA ia/aee aieio
(1898) i?ioea Eniaiee, a oiaea e-?ie caoaaoeee ii/oe ana a? eieiiee a
Oeoii ie. e Ea?eaneii i.; inouanoaeee eioa?aaioeeth ia Eoaa, a Aaeoe,
Ieea?aaoa, Iaiaia, Eieoiaee e ae?. no?aiao Eao. Aia?eee. I. ae.
i?aa?aoeeanue a ciaiy aieinoaaiiiai, aa?anneaiiai aia?. eiia?eaeecia,
i?enaieaoaai naaa i?aai aunooiaoue ia Aia?. eiioeiaioa a ?iee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iieeoeaeneie neeu. Ia?iaeu eaoeiiaia?. no?ai
?aoeoaeueii aunooiaee i?ioea iieeoeee aia?. eiia?eaeenoia.
«THaeiiaia?eeaioeu,— ienae A. E. Eaiei, – ainnoatho… i?ioea oiai
oieeiaaiey aeieo?eiu Iii?i, /oi-aea Aia?eea — naaa? i aia?eeaioeai.

Eaeay i?iaicaeaoaiey iaaeo /anoae aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa ciiie,
cae?uoie aeey aa?iiaeneie eieiiecaoeee, i?eiaaeeaaeaea Aeae. E. Aaeaino,
ainoaea?noaaiiiio nae?aoa?th a aaeieieno?aoeee i?aceaeaioa Aeaeaeina
Iii?i (1758—1831). Eae iieeoe/aneay aeieo?eia iia auea aia?aua eceiaeaia
a ethea 1823 a. a oi?ia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoao ?innee.
Ianoaeaeaiea aeaenoaee Eniaiee ia thaa eiioeiaioa, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
ainnoaiiaeaiea ooa?yiiuo oai ath eieiiee, auei naycaii n eieoeeaoeaie,
i?iyaeaiiie ieieno?ii eiino?aiiuo aeae Aaeeeia?eoaiee Aeae. Eaiieiaii.
Ii i?aaeeiaeee I?aaeoaeuenoao NOA aunooieoue n niaianoiui cayaeaieai i
«iaiaeia?aiee» oaeeo oaaia ni noi?iiu Eniaiee. Oioy aia?eeaineea
yen-i?aceaeaiou O. Aeaeaooa?nii e Aeae. Iyaeenii iiaeaea?aeaee
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeiai eieeaeoeaiiai aeaia?oa, Aaeaia n/ae
oeaeaniia?aciui naeaeaoue cayaeaiea io eiaie eeoue Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia,
aeaau aai no?aia ia auaeyaeaea «oethieie, ieaoouaeny a eeeueaaoa?a
a?eoaineiai e?aena?a». I?aceaeaio Iii?i niaeaneeny n iiaieai naiaai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai nae?aoa?y, ii n/ae aieaa ?acoiiui ia ?ani?ino?aiyoue
oaeia cayaeaiea ii aeeieiiaoe/aneei eaiaeai, a aeeth/eoue aai a
i/a?aaeiia aaeaaiaeiia iineaiea i?aceaeaioa e Eiia?anno Niaaeeiaiiuo
Ooaoia, eioi?ia auei ca/eoaii 2 aeaeaa?y 1823 a. i i?aaeeiaeaieth
?inneeneiai eiia?aoi?neiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ia?aaeaiiiai /a?ac eiathuaai
iinoiyiioth ?aceaeaioeeth a Aaoeiaoiia iineaiieea eiia?aoi?a, iineaiieeo
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa aeaiu ana iieiiii/ey e
eino?oeoeee eanaoaeueii anooieaiey a ae?oaeanoaaiiua ia?aaiai?u i
acaeiiuo i?aaao e eioa?anao aeaoo aea?aeaa ia naaa?i-caiaaeiii
iiaa?aaeuea iaoaai eiioeiaioa… Yoei ae?oaeaneei oaaii I?aaeoaeuenoai
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia aeaeaei i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue ia?iiiia cia/aiea,
eioi?ia iii iaeciaiii i?eaeaaaei ae?oaeaa eiia?aoi?a, e naia no?aieaiea
?acaeaaoue iaeeo/oaa acaeiiiiieiaiea n aai i?aaeoaeuenoaii. A oiaea
ia?aaiai?ia, aucaaiiuo yoei aeaeaieai, e a aeiaiai?aiiinoyo, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue aeinoeaioou, auei ni/oaii oeaeaniia?aciui ainiieueciaaoueny
neo/aai aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey a ea/anoaa i?eioeeia, eanathuaainy i?aa e
eioa?ania Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia, oiai iieiaeaiey, /oi aia?eeaineea
eiioeiaiou, aeiaeaoeany naiaiaeu e iacaaeneiinoe e iaa?aaathuea eo,
ioiuia ia aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iauaeo aoaeouae eieiiecaoeee ni
noi?iiu ethauo aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa.

A naiii ia/aea iineaaeiae noaaeee ia?aaiai?ia auei naeaeaii cayaeaiea i
oii, /oi a Eniaiee e Ii?ooaaeee i?aaei?eieiathony na?ueaciua oneeey aeey
oeo/oaiey oneiaee aeecie ia?iaea a yoeo no?aiao e /oi yoe oneeey
ioee/athony /?acau/aeiie inoi?iaeiinoueth. A?yae ee noieo oiiieiaoue,
/oi aeinoeaiooue ia nae aeaiue ?acoeueoao neeueii ioee/aaony io
iaeeaeaaoaainy.

Iu anaaaea n aaniieienoaii e eioa?anii iaaethaeaee ca niauoeyie a yoie
/anoe caiiiai oa?a, n eioi?ie o ian ia oieueei nouanoaotho oaniua
acaeiiioiioaiey, ii n eioi?ie naycaii iaoa i?ienoiaeaeaiea. A?aaeaeaia
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia ieoatho naiua ae?oaeaneea /oanoaa e naiei nia?aoueyi
ii oo noi?iio Aoeaioe/aneiai ieaaia, e eo naiaiaea e n/anoueth. Iu
ieeiaaea ia i?eieiaee o/anoey a aieiao aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa, eanathueony
eO naieo, e yoi niioaaonoaoao iaoae iieeoeea. Iu iaaiaeoai ii iiaiaeo
iaianaiiuo iai iaeae eee aioiaeiny e iai?iia eeoue a neo/aa ia?ooaiey
iaoeo i?aa eeai aicieeiiaaiey oa?icu ei.

Ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe iu a ai?acaei aieueoae noaiaie ieacuaaainy
aiaea/aiiuie a niauoey, i?ienoiaeyuea a iaoai iieooa?ee, e aunooiaai ii
iiaiaeai, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue i/aaeaeiu anai oi?ioi inaaaeiieaiiui e
iai?aaeoaaaeaeaiiui iaaethaeaoaeyi. Iieeoe/aneay nenoaia nithciuo
aea?aeaa nouanoaaiii ioee/aaony a yoii niunea io iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu
Aia?eee… Iiyoiio a eioa?anao nio?aiaiey ene?aiieo e ae?oaeaneeo
ioiioaiee, nouanoaothueo iaaeaeo Niaaeeiaiiuie Ooaoaie e yoeie
aea?aeaaaie, iu iaycaiu iauyaeoue, /oi aeieaeiu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue
iiiuoeo n eo noi?iiu ?ani?ino?aieoue naith nenoaio ia ethaoth /anoue
yoiai iieooa?ey eae i?aaenoaaeythuoth iianiinoue iaoaio ie?o e
aaciianiinoe. Iu ia aiaoeaaeenue e ia aoaeai aiaoeaaoueny a aeaea oaea
nouanoaothueo eieiiee eee caaeneiuo oa??eoi?ee eaeie-eeai aa?iiaeneie
aea?aeaau. Ii /oi eanaaony i?aaeoaeuenoa no?ai, i?iaicaeaneaoeo e
nio?aiythueo naith iacaaeneiinoue, e oao, /ueth iacaaeneiinoue, iinea
ouaoaeueiiai eco/aiey e ia iniiaa i?eioeeiia ni?aaaaeeeainoe, iu
i?eciaee, iu ia iiaeai ?anniao?eaaoue ethaia aiaoaoaeuenoai aa?iiaeneie
aea?aeaau n oeaeueth oaiaoaiey yoeo no?ai eee onoaiiaeaiey eaeiai-eeai
eiio?iey iaae ieie eia/a, eae iaae?oaeanoaaiiia i?iyaeaiea ii ioiioaieth
e Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai.

1) *oi i?aaeiieaaaea «Aeieo?eia Iii?i»?

2) Eaeea aeaenoaey i?aaei?eieiaei NOA a ioiioaiee aa?iiaeneeo no?ai?

3) Eaeea aeaenoaey i?aaei?eieiaei NOA a ioiioaiee ainoaea?noa Naa. E
THaei. Aia?eee?

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019