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Великий князь Иван III

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Enoi?e/aneee ii?o?ao oea?y Eiaiia A?iciiai

A iaoae enoi?ee oea?noaiaaiea oea?y Eaaia Aaneeueaae/a A?iciiai,
ninoaaeythuaa iieiaeio eao XVI noieaoey, anoue iaeia ec naiuo aaaeiuo
yiio. Iii aaaeii eae ii ?anoe?aieth ?onneie oa??eoi?ee, oae e ii e?oiiui
e ciaiaiaoaeueiui niauoeyi e eciaiaieyi ai aioo?aiiae aeecie. Iiiai auei
niaa?oaii a yoio iieoaaeiaie ia?eiae neaaiiai, naaoeiai e aaeeeiai ii
naiei iineaaenoaeyi, ii aua aieaa i?a/iiai, e?iaaaiai e
ioa?aoeoaeueiiai. Iiiyoii, /oi i?e oaeii i?ioeaiiieiaeiii ea/anoaa
iiiaeo aaaeiuo yaeaiee oa?aeoa? aeaaiiai aeayoaey, oea?y Eaaia
Aaneeueaae/a, i?aaenoaaeyeny caaaaei/iui, oynieoue e ii?aaeaeeoue aai
auei iaiaeiaaaeiie caaea/ae ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee, a yoi auei aiciiaeii
oieueei i?e ?aciiia?aciii eco/aiee eae aueaaie, oae e auoiaie noi?iiu
oiai aaea, e eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeae oea?ue Eaai.*oiau iiiyoue
aeayoaeueiinoue Eaaia IV, iaaei ciaoue, eaeoth no?aio ii iieo/ee a
ianeaaenoai, eiaaea a 1533 aiaeo o?aoeaoiei ?aaaieii anooiee ia i?anoie
e noae ainoaea?ai aaeeeei eiycai anay ?one.

E enoiaeo ia?aie o?aoe XVI aaea ?inney auea aieueoie no?aiie, ii ana aea
iaiiiai iaiueoa, /ai a iineaaeothuaa a?aiy. Ia caiaaea iia?aie/iie
iaeanoueth auea Niieaineay caiey (a 1514 aiaeo ioaiaaaia o Eeoianeiai
eiyaeanoaa), Eaeoaa auea a?aieoeae ia thai-caiaaea, ca iae i?inoe?aeanue
noaiue, iaoiaeeaoayny iiae iinoiyiiie oa?icie iaiaaeaiey e?uineiai oaia.
Ia ainoiea ?inney eii/aeanue Ieaeaai?iaeneei e ?ycaineei oacaeaie. Ia
ainoiea n ?inneae a?aie/eee Eacaineia e Ano?aoaineia oainoaa. Eeoue ia
naaa?a ?oaaaee no?aiu, eae e nae/an, aeioiaeeee aei Eaaeiaeoiai ieaaia.
Ia naaa?i-caiaaea a ?oeao ?innee auei e iiaa?aaeuea Oeineiai caeeaa.

Ainoaea?noai auei oaea aaeeiui, ii iaueaaeeiaiea aai caeii/eeinue eeoue
ca iieaaea aei anooieaiey ia i?anoie Eaaia IV (aeey n?aaeiaaaeiauo
oaiiia aeecie n?ie nianai iaaieueoie). Iieeoe/aneia iaueaaeeiaiea auei
ioithaeue ia ?aaiicia/ii oeaio?aeecaoeee. Eiycuey iiiaeo ec oao
oa??eoi?ee, /oi aioee a ninoaa aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaa, aeaaeaee aua
iaeiieaie naieo i?aaeieo eiyaeanoa eae aio/eiaie, nio?aiyee /anoe/ee
naiae aueie aeanoe. Oaiaeaeu ec ?aciuo /anoae no?aiu ia?aiauathony,
iieo/atho aio/eiu e iiianouey a iiauo ianoao. Iinoaiaiii neeaaeuaaaony
aaeeiue iaua?onneee eeann oaiaeaeia. E eiioeo eiyaeaiey Aaneeey III
inoaeinue anaai 2 oaeaeueiuo eiyaeanoaa, i?eiaaeeaaeaee iie ieaaeoei
a?aoueyi Aaneeey III: TH?eth, aeaaeaaoaio Aeieo?iaii e Caaieai?iaeii, e
Aiae?ath, a oaeae eioi?iai aoiaeeee Noa?eoea a Oaa?neie caiea e Aa?ay ia
thai-caiaaea.

A?aouey oaeaeueiua eiycuey oai aieaa aaniieieee Aaneeey III, /oi o iaai
aeieai ia auei ianeaaeieea. A?ae n Nieiiiieae Naao?iaie ieacaeny
iaoaea/iui: o noi?oaia a oa/aiea 20 eao ia auei aeaoae. A eiioea eiioeia
Aaneeee III ?aoeeny ia ianeuoaiiue iinooiie ?acaiae, a Nieiiiieth
caoi/eee a Iie?ianeee aeaineee iiianou?ue. Iiaie aeaiie Aaneeey III
coaea eiyaeia Aeaia Aeeineay iieiaeay e?anaaeoea. Ioaoe eiyaeiu Aaneeee
Eueaiae/ Aeeineee ie/ai auaeathueiny naay ia i?iyaee, caoi aeyaethoea
Ieoaeei Eueaiae/ aue iaeiei ec naiuo aeanoyueo aaaioth?enoia Aa?iiu XVI
aaea. A iieiaeinoe ii ia?aoae ec i?aaineaaey a eaoiee/anoai. Aai
ae?ocueyie auee iaaeno? Oaaoiineiai i?aeaia O?eae?eo e nai aaeeeee
eiycue eeoianeee e ei?ieue iieueneee Aeaenaiae? Eaceie?iae/. I?e ei?iea
Aeaenaiae?a Aeeineee aue oaeoe/anee i?aaeoaeai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai. A
1506 aiaeo ei?ieue Aeaenaiae? oia? e aeeyiea Aeeineiai eii/eeinue, n /ai
nie?eoueny ii ia iia e a 1508 aiaeo eiycue Ieoaeei aicaeaaee ainnoaiea
?onneeo, oe?aeineeo e aaei?onneeo oaiaeaeia i?ioea Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa
Eeoianeiai, ca ainniaaeeiaiea n ?inneae. ii iyoaae aue iiaeaaeai e
Aeeineea aaaoo ia ?onue. A Iineaa Ieoaeei Aeeineee noae iaeiei ec oao,
eoi ?oeiaiaeee ?onneie aiaoiae iieeoeeie ia caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee.
Aaaeue aai eiy inoaaaeinue ciaiaiai aeey i?aaineaaiuo oaiaeaeia Oe?aeiu,
Aaei?onnee e Niieaiueiu, o iaai auee aeaaiea ee/iua eiioaeou n aeaeiuie
aeayoaeyie e Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai, e Aa?iaineie eiia?ee e
Oaaoiineiai i?aeaia. Aaeeea auea ?ieue Aeeineiai a oii, /oi a 1514 aiaeo
oaeaeinue ioaiaaaoue o Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai Niieaineoth
caieth. Aeyaey ainoaea?uie caiye ii/aoiia ianoi i?e aeai?a, noae iaeiei
ec niaaoieeia Aaneeey III.

Oea?ue Eaai ?iaeeeny a 1530 aiaeo. Io i?e?iaeu ii iieo/ee oi aeaeee e
aieeee, aaeoi/eaue e iaiiiai ianiaoeeaue, ianoiyuee aaeeei?onneee,
iineianeee oi. Ii ianoiyoaeuenoaa, n?aaee eioi?uo i?ioaeaei aai aeaonoai
?aii enii?oeee yoio oi, aeaee aio iaanoanoaaiiia, aieaciaiiia ?acaeoea.
Eaai ?aii ine?ioae ia /aoaa?oii aiaeo eeoeeny iooea, a ia ainueiii
iioa?ye iaoue. A aeooa aai ?aii e aeoaiei a?acaeinue e ia anth aeeciue
nio?aieeinue /oanoai ne?ionoaa, a?ioaiiinoe e iaeeii/anoaa, i /ai ii
oaa?aeee i?e anyeii neo/aa: “?iaenoaaiieee iie ia caaioeeenue iai iia”.
Eae ana ethaee, au?inoea n?aaee /oaeeo, Eaai ?aii onaiee i?eau/eo
oiaeeoue iaeyaeuaaynue e i?eneooeaaynue. Yoi ?acaeei a iai
iiaeic?eoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay n eaoaie i?aa?aoeeanue a aeoaieia
iaaeiaa?ea e ethaeyi. A aeaonoaa aio /anoi i?eoiaeeeinue eniuouaaoue
?aaiiaeooea e i?aiaa?aaeaiea ni noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo. A oi?aeanaaiiua
oea?aiiieaeueiua neo/ae i?e auoiaea eee i?eaia iineia aai ie?oaeaee
oea?noaaiiie iuoiinoueth, Ea?atho iie auaaei n a?aoii TH?eai a niaeueia
iieieiiai iooea, a ia?aainoaothuee aiy?ei eiycue E.A. Ooeneee ?acaaeeony
ia?aae ieie ia eaaea, iaii?aony eieoai i iinoaeue noaiiaeeenue aie?oa
iaai n ?aaieaiiui nie?aieai, a a aoaeie oa aea ethaee ia oea?aiiieeenue
n iei, ii?ie aaeiaaee, ii?ie ae?acieee. iieieiiai ainoaea?y, eo iooea, e
iiao ia iaa iieiaeeo, ia ia?auay ia aeaoae ieeaeiai aieiaiey. Ai?a/ue, n
eaeie Eaai aniiieiae ia yoii 25 eao nionoy, aeaao ii/oanoaiaaoue eae
/anoi e neeueii aai na?aeeee a aeaonoaa. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
naea?aeeaaoueny, aeooueny, aeioaoue neacu ieoaea a iai
?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoue e caoaaiiia, iie/aeeaia iceiaeaiea i?oea ethaeae.
Noeaiu aiy?neiai naiaaieey e ianeeey, n?aaee eioi?uo ?in Eaai,
i?ea?aoeee aai ?iainoue a ia?aioth ioaeeainoue, ec eioi?ie n eaoaie
?acaeeanue iaeeiiiinoue i?aoaaee/eaaoue iianiinoue, /oi canoaaeyei aai
auoue anaaaea ianoi?iaea. Eae ana ethaee, neeoeii ?aii ia/aaoea ai?ueao
ca nouanoaiaaiea, Eaai i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii iiac?ineae.

A 17-20 eao ii ii?aaeae ie?oaeathueo iaiiia?iui eiee/anoaii ia?aaeeouo
aia/aoeaiee e ia?aaeoiaiiuo iuneae, aei eioi?uo aai i?aaeee ia
aeiaeoiaeenue e a c?aeii aic?anoa. Eiaaea Aaeeeiio eiycth eniieieeinue
17 eao ii nia?ae aeai? e iauyaee i naiai iaia?aiee aeaieoueny, ii aua
aei naiae aeaieoueau ii iauyaee ei naia iaia?aiea aai/aoueny ia
oea?noai. N yoiai a?aiaie ?inneeneea iiia?oe ia/aee ia oieueei a
niioaieyo n ae?oaeie aea?aeaaaie ii e aioo?e ainoaea?noaa, ai anao
aeaeao e aoiaaao, eiaiiaaoueny oea?yie, nio?aiyy e oeooe aaeeeeo eiycae.
A iaaeaeo oai ciaoiua naiiaieee iaueaoaee ?inneth e i?aaenoaaeee eo/oeo
iaaano ainoaea?th ii eca?ae ec ieo thioth Aianoaneth, aei/ue aaeiau
Caoa?ueeiie, eioi?ie ioae aue ieieueie/ee, a naaei? – aiy?eiii Eiaiia
III. Ii ia ciaoiinoue, a ee/iua aeinoieinoaa iaaanoau ii?aaaeuaaee aai
auai?. Nia?aiaiieee i?eienuaatho ae ana aeaineea aeia?iaeaoaee:
oeaeiioae?ea, nie?aiea, iaaiaeiinoue, /oanaeoaeueiinoue, aeaainoue, oi;
ia aiai?y i e?anioa. Aai/aiea i?ioei a o?aia aiaiiaoa?e. I?a?aaa aanaeua
ie?u aeai?a, Eiaii e noi?oaa oiaeeee iaoeii ceiith a O?ieoeeoth Na?aeaao
eaa?o e i?iaaee oai ia?aoth iaaeaee aaeeeiai iinoa, aaeaaeiaaii iieyny
iaae a?iaii nayoiai Na?aey. Ii ney iaaiaeiinoue Eiaiiiaa iaene?aiiyy
ethaiaue e aeia?iaeaoaeueiie noi?oaa ia iiaee oe?ioeoue aai iueeie
aaniieie aeooe, no?aieoaeueiue a aeaeaeaieyo aiaaa, i?eo/aiiue e
iaoaiiie i?acaeiinoe, e caaaaai a?oaui, iaaeaai/eiiui. Ii ethaee
iieacuaaoue naay oea?ai, ii ia a aeaeao ioae?iai i?aaeaiey, a a
iaeacaieyo, a iaiaocaeaiiinoe i?eoioae; Ea?ae, oae neacaoue ieeinoyie e
iiaeaie; oiiiaeae /enei ethaeioeaa, aua aieaa oiiiaeae /enei
ioaa?aeaiiuo; naiaaieueie/ae, /oiau aeieacaoue naith iacaaeneiinoue; ii
ia ciae, /oi ainoaea?ue, enoeiii iacaaeneiue, anoue oieueei ainoaea?ue
aeia?iaeaoaeueiue. I?eia?ii oiai iiaeao neoaeeoue oi, /oi 70
/aeiaeoieeia ineianeeo i?eoee n aeaeiaaie, iaaeiaieyie ia naiaai
iaianoieea eiycy Oo?oioay-I?iiueneiai. Ainoaea?ue ia auneooae: caeeiae
aiaaii; e?e/ae e oiiae, eee ia ieo ai?yuaa aeii, iaeee ei ai?iaeu e
aieinu, aaeae eo ?acaeaoue e iieiaeeoue ia caieth. Iie aeaeaee nia?oe. A
neth ieiooo aeiianee Eiaiio i iaaeaiee aieueoiai eieieiea a Iineaa; ii
oneaeae a noieeoeo, e aaaeiua ineiaeoyia inoaeenue aeeau. *aniua aiy?a n
iiooieaiiui aci?ii aaciienoaiaaee ai aeai?oea; ooou caaaaeyee oea?y, a
euenoaoeu neaaeee aai ioae?inoue. Aeia?iaeaoaeueiay Aianoaney iieeeanue
aianoa n ?inneath, e aia oneuoae eo. Oa?aeoa?u neeueiua o?aaotho
neeueiiai iio?ynaiey, /oiau naa?aiooue n naay eai ceuo no?anoae e n
aeeaith ?aaiinoeth ono?aieoueny ia iooue aeia?iaeaoaee. Ieeiaaea ?inney
ia oi?aaeyeanue ooaea. Aeeineea, iiaeiaii Ooeneei, aeaeaee /oi oioaee
eiaiai thiioe-ainoaea?y; ianeaaeaeaeenue ii/anoyie, aiaaonoaii e
?aaiiaeooii aeaeaee iaaa?iinoue /anoiuo aeanoeoaeae; o?aaiaaee io ieo
?aaieainoaa, a ia ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Aeey eni?aaeaiey Eiaiiiaa iaaeeaaeaei nai?aoue Iineaa. Ney noieeoea
aaeaaiaeii ?ac?anoaea naiei i?ino?ainoaii e /eneii aeeoaeae. Aeai?u
aieaa e aieaa noaniyeenue, iiaua oeeoeu i?eiueaee e noa?ui, aeiia
no?ieeenue eo/oa aeey aeac, ii ia aaciianiaa i?aaeiaai: oeaiiua a?iiaaeu
caeaiee aeaeaee oieueei ene?u iaiy, /oiau naeaeaoueny iaieii. Eaoiienoeu
Iineau /anoi aiai?yo i iiaea?ao, iacuaay eiua aaeeeeie; ii ieeiaaea
iaiiue ia nae?ainoaiaae a iae oae oaeanii, eae a 1547 aiaeo. Nai?aee ana
aeiia io A?aaoa e Iaaeeiiie aei ssocu e aei eiioea Aaeeeie oeeoeu,
Aa?aa?neie, Iie?ianeie, Iynieoeeie, Aeieo?ianeie, Oaa?neie. Ie iai?iaeu,
ie naaeu ia ooeaeaee: aea?aaa ia?aoeeenue a oaieue, o?aaa – a cieo.
Nai?aei 1700 /aeiaae, e?iia ieaaeaioeaa. Iaeuecy, ii neacaieth
nia?aiaiieeia, ie iienaoue, ie aiia?aceoue naai aaaenoaey. A nea
oaeaniia a?aiy, eiaaea thiue oea?ue o?aiaoae a Ai?iaueaaneii aeai?oea
naiai, a aeia?iaeaoaeueiay Aianoaney iieeeanue, “yaeeny oai eaeie-oi
oaeeaeoaeueiue ioae, eiaiai Neeueaano?, naiii ea?ae, ?iaeii ec
Iiaaai?iaea, i?eaeeaeeeny e Eiaiio n iiaeuyoui, oa?iaeathuei ia?noii, n
aeaeii i?i?iea, e aeanii oaaaeeoaeueiui aicaanoee aio, /oi noae aiaeee
a?aieo iaae aeaaith oea?y eaaeiiuneaiiiai, ceino?anoiiai; /oi iaiiue
iaaaniue eniaiaeee Iineao, /oi neea auoiaai aieioao ia?iae e eueao aiaa
a na?aeoea ethaeae.” Ii oeacae Eiaiio i?aaeea, aeaiiua anaaea?aeeoaeai
niiio oea?ae caiiuo e i?iecaae /oaei: Eiaii naeaeaeny eiui /aeiaaeii;
iaeeaaynue neacaie ?aneayiey i?inoa? aeanieoeo e ianoaaieeo
aaeioiiaaiioio; o?aaiaae io iaai neeu auoue aeia?iaeaoaeueiui. Nie?aiiue
ea?ae, ia o?aaoy ie aunieiai eiaie, ie /anoe, ie aiaaonaa, noae o o?iia,
/oiau iaiae?youe thiiai aaioeaiinoea ia iooe eni?aaeaiey, caeeth/ea
oaniue nithc n iaeiei ec ethaeioeaa Eiaiiiauo, Aeaenaai Aaeaoaaui,
i?ae?aniui iieiaeui /aeiaaeii, eiathuei iaaeioth e /enooth aeooo, i?aau
aeaaea, ?acoi i?eyoiue, aanei?unoioth ethaiaue e aeia?o, ii eneae
Eiaiiiau ieeinoe ia aeey naieo ee/iuo auaiae, a aeey iieuecu ioa/anoaa.
Caeanue ia/eiaaony yiioa Eiaiiiaie neaau, iiaay aeayoaeueiinoue a
i?aaeaiee.

E eiioeo 40-o aiaeia i?e iieiaeii oea?a neeaaeuaaaony e?oaeie
i?eaeai?iuo aeayoaeae, eioi?ui ii aeiaa?yao aaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeae. E aeanoe i?eoea iiaay a?oiie?iaea, eioi?ay aioea a enoi?ey iiae
iacaaieai Eca?aiiie ?aaeu. Anaai aeanyoeeaoea noaeaeaii auei
nouanoaiaaoue “Eca?aiiie ?aaea”, anaai aeanyoeeaoea auei ioiouaiii
enoi?e/aneie noaeueaie aeey aeayoaeueiinoe ?aoeoaeueiuo e yia?ae/iuo
?aoi?iaoi?ia, i?ioaeaaoae a oneiaeyo ioiineoaeueiiai ie?a iaaeaeo anaie
eeannaie e nineiaeyie ?onneiai iauanoaa. Ii ca yoio e?aoeee ia?eiae
ainoaea?noaaiiia e nioeeaeueiia ono?ienoai ?innee i?aoa?iaei noieue
neeueiua eciaiaiey, eaeea ia i?ienoiaeeee ca oeaeua aaea niieieiiai
?acaeoey. “Eca?aiiay ?aaea” aicieeea a 1549 aiaeo, a a 1560 aa oaea ia
nouanoaiaaei.

Ca yoi a?aiy, ai-ia?auo, noi?ie?iaaeanue ?acaeoay nenoaia “i?eeacia”
(naiae aeaenoaothueo caeiiia). Eaaeaeue ec i?eeacia ioaa/ae ca
ii?aaeaeaiioth noa?o oi?aaeaiey: oae, iai?eia?, Iinieueneee i?eeac – ca
aeeieiiaoe/aneoth neoaeao, ?ac?yaeiue i?eeac – ca aieueooth /anoue
aiaiiuo aeae, *aeiaeoiue i?eeac – ca eiio?ieue iaae inoaeueiuie
i?eeacaie.

Ai-aoi?uo, a 1550 aiaeo aue aaaaeai a aeaenoaea iiaue Noaeaaiee (naiae
aeaenoaothueo caeiiia), ?anoe?aiiue, nenoaiaoece?iaaiiue, aeeth/athuee
ana iiaia, /oi iaeiieeinue a noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ni a?aiai aaaaeaiey
noa?iai Noaeaaieea a 1497 aiaeo.

A-o?aoueeo, auei ?ai?aaieciaaiii ianoiia oi?aaeaiea. Aeanoue
iaianoieeia, eioi?ua ?aiueoa iacia/aeenue aaeeeei eiycai ia
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, auea caiaiaia aeanoueth auai?iuo caineeo i?aaiia.

A-/aoaa?ouo, oea?eiaiue niai? 1551 aiaea i?aaae e aaeeiiia?aceth ana
ia?yaeu, iinoaaee caaea/o oeo/oeoue i?aau aeooiaainoaa. Yoio niai? aioae
a enoi?eth iiae iacaaieai Noiaeaaiai, oae eae aai ?aoaiey auee naaaeaiu
a noi aeaa.

Iaeiiaoe, iaeaieaa oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui eciaiaieyi iiaeaa?aeinue aiaiiia
aeaei. Auei iiaeaioiaeaiii e i?eiyoi Oeiaeaiea i aiaiiie neoaeaa,
ii?aaeaeythuaa, n eaeiai eiee/anoaa caiee (iiianouey) aiei aeieaeai aue
auoiaeeoue a iioiae “eiiii, ethaeii, i?oaeii”. Iiae Iineaie auea
auaeaeaia caiey aeey i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeai?yi, ec /enea eioi?uo
aiineaaenoaee iacia/aeenue aiaaiaeu, “aieiau” (iecoea ioeoea?u),
aeeieiiaou e aaeieieno?aoi?u. Aiciee ei?ion ia?aiai ?onneiai iinoiyiiiai
aienea – no?aeueoeia iieo/aaoeo ec eaciu aeaeiaaiuea, aii?oaeaiea e
iaioiaee?iaaiea. Ana yoe i?aia?aciaaiey niaa?oaeenue iaeiia?aiaiii n
aia/aoeythueie iiaaaeaie a aieiao e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeie oniaoaie.

Iaaeaeo oai oea?ue iiac?ineae, i?aia?ae iaeioi?ue iiuo a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaeao e oaea oyaioeeny aeayoaeueiui i?aaeaieai
“Eca?aiiie ?aaeu”. Aiey aai, noaniaiiay a thiinoe, oaia?ue
?ani?yieeanue, neiaii ioiouaiiay i?oaeeia, no?aiynue e naiiaeanoeth.

Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo /a?o oa??aeoa?a Eiaiia IV noaea ianiiniaiinoue
naea?aeeaaoue naay a /ai-eeai, ianiiniaiinoue noaaeoue naiei aeaeaieyi e
ieaiai ?acoiiua i?aaeaeu. N oa/aieai a?aiaie oea?ue noae iiaeaa?aeai
i?enooiai aiaaa, ai a?aiy eioi?uo ii oa?ye iaae niaie eiio?ieue. *a?ac
/aoaa?oue aaea a ninoiyiee oaeiai i?eiaaeea aio noaeaeaii auei oaeoue
naiaai nuia Eaaia. I?eaey a y?inoue a nii?a n nuiii ii ie/oiaeiiio
iiaiaeo, oea?ue oaea?ee oiai a aieiao aeaceii. Oea?aae/ io ?aiu caaieae
e oia?, ?iaeeoaeue aai “?uaeae e ieaeae”, i?eaey a naay e iniciaa
niaeayiiia, aea auei iicaeii.

Aei ia/aea 60-o aiaeia naiiaeanoea Eiaiia IV auei ia?aie/aii a
iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee “Eca?aiiie ?aaeie”, a a ii?aeueiii – aai
ianoaaieeii ieo?iiieeoii Iaea?eai e aeaiie Aianoaneae, aaeeinoaaiiui
nouanoaii, e eioi?iio Eaai ieoae a c?aeua aiaeu i?eyciue e ethaiaue. A
nayce n ia/aeii Eeaiineie aieiu oea?ue anooiee a eiioeeeo n aeayoaeyie
“Eca?aiiie ?aaeu”, noiyaoaie ca aieio n E?uineei oainoaii, aeey eioi?ie
oiaaea neiaeeeanue aeaaii?eyoiay aiaiii-iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey. A
ioiioaiee Eeaiiee ?aaea n/eoaea i?aaeii/oeoaeueiuie ie?iua ia?aaiai?u
eee aiaaua aeaenoaey a ia?aie/aiuo ianooaaao. ”Eca?aiioth ?aaeo”
iiaeaea?aeeaaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue a?enoie?aoee, ii Eiaii IV ianoiye
ia naiai e iia n/anoue naay i?aaui, iineieueeo a ia?aua aieiu n
Eeaiineei i?aeaiii ?onneea aiaaaee oniaoii.

A aaaonoa 1560 aiaea oia?ea oea?eoea. Aiy?neay a?oiie?iaea iaaeieea
Aaeaoaaa a io?aaeaiee Aianoanee e eieaeianoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa “Eca?aiiay
?aaea” iaea, aa aeayoaee e noi?iiieee iiaeaa?aeenue aiiaieyi e iiaea. A
aeaeaa?a 1563 aiaea neii/aeny ieoi?iiieeo Iaea?ee, e ia aai ianoi aue
iinoaaeai oeoee, ia?aoeoaeueiue ieo?iiieeo Aoaianee. Iineianeee
ainoaea?ue ia/eiaao aaeeiiee/ii ?oeiaiaeeoue anae aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae
iieeoeeie. A aeaoo neiaao aai iieeoe/aneee eo?n iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
eae aeiaaaeaiea ee/iie aeanoe aei o?iaiy iaia?aie/aiiiai naiiaea?aeaaey
aioo?e no?aiu e iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia aa ?ani?ino?aiaiea ca i?aaeaeu
Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa iooai caaiaaaiee.

A aiaeu Eeaiineie aieiu a no?aia oaea /oanoaiaony ia?anoathuea
enoiuaiea nee e n?aaenoa ec-ca aiaiiuo oyaio. A?enoie?aoe/aneay aa?oooea
auea caeioa?eniaaiia a iai?iieoaeueiuo aieiao, a ionoaeaaiee thaeiuo
?oaaaeae io iaaaaia oaoa?. Iai?ioea, iecoay /anoue aeai?yinoaa –
aunooiaea ca i?iaeieaeaiea ianooiaoaeueiie aieiu n caiaaeiuie ninaaeyie.
Yoi e iiiyoii: ii n?aaiaieth n caieaeaaeaeueoeaie-a?enoie?aoaie aeai?yia
cia/eoaeueii ooaea auee iaania/aiu caieae. Yoa aieia i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
aeaeaiiue enoi/iee iaiaauaiey: ca n/ao aiaiiie aeiau/e e, aiciiaeii, ca
n/ao iieo/aiey iiauo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia a i?eniaaeeiaiiuo iaeanoyo.
No?aieaiea aeai?yinoaa niaiaaeaee n e?oiiuie caaiaaaoaeueiuie ieaiaie
oea?y e iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue ?onneie I?aaineaaiie oea?eiaueth, ii iie
i?ioeai?a/eee /ayieyi aiy?noaa, ia aeaeaaoei niunea a caaiaaaieyo,
iinaaeneiai ianaeaiey, iaaeiaieueiiai oneeaieai iaeiaia e iiaeiiinoae.
Iiea a aieia oea?neei aieneai niioonaiaae oniao, yoi i?ioeai?a/ea ia
auei noieue i/aaeaeiui, ii eae oieueei ia/aeenue na?ueaciua iaoaea/e,
oea?ue ia?aoae e iieeoeea ?ai?annee ,no?aiynue ethaie oeaiie neiieoue
nii?ioeaeaiea aa?oooee neoaeeeiai eeanna, naeaeaoue ec iaa iineooiia,
aacaeaniia i?oaeea.

O?aaaaeey enoi?e/aneiai iiiaioa caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi aiey oiiiai,
yiaae/iiai, ii iaiaocaeaiiiai ainoaea?y anooieea a i?ioeaiai?noai n
aieae oeaeiai nineiaey, i?eoii naiiai iiaouanoaaiiiai a ?onneii
iauanoaa. Yoa ai?ueaa iaianea ainoaea?noao iaiii?aaeiue oua?a.

A 1563-1564 aiaeao ia noi?iio Eeoau ia?aaaaeaea ianeieueei
iaaeiaieueiuo a?enoie?aoia: aiaiiue aieiaa Aiaaeai Oeuciaa-Eieu/aa,
aiaaiaea Aiae?ae Eo?aneee, aiaaiaea eiycue Ai?aineee. A 1564 aiaeo,
ian/anoeeaii aeey Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa, oea?neea a?iee aeaaaeaeu
auee ?acaeou iieuenei-eeoianeeie aieneaie. A ?acoeueoaoa Eaai IV eeoeeny
eeethcee a ioiioaiee nianoaaiiiai ananeeey e i?enooiee e iieeoeea
“e?oouo ia?”.

3 aeaeaa?y 1564 aiaea Oea?ue ni anae naiueae iiae io?aiie io?yaea
aeai?yi auaoae ec Iineau a Aeaenaiae?ianeoth neiaiaeo, aaea iaueyaee i
naiai io?a/aiee io i?anoiea, e io eoaea ioi?aaee aeaa iineaiey. A ia?aie
a?aiioa ainoaea?ue iaaeiye eiycae, aiy?, aiaaiae a eciaia,
eaciie?aaenoaa, iaaeaeaiee caueuaoue no?aio. Niaea?aeaiea aoi?ie a?aiiou
ninoiyei a oii, /oi ia iineae/ae aiaaa e iiaeu oea?y iao. Iaoiaeynue
iiae oa?icie ia?iaeiuo aieiaiee, Aiy?neay aeoia a yiaa?a 1565 aiaea
ioi?aaeea aeaeaaaoeeth e oea?th, oaiaa?eaay aai aa?ioony ia i?anoie.
Aeaeaaaoeey niaeaneeanue ia /oaeiaeuiua oneiaey aica?aoa, ec eioi?iai
au?in /oaeiaeuiue yenia?eiaio, iacuaaaiue “ii?e/ieiie”. Eiaii IV iieo/ae
i?aai iiaeaa?aaoue eciaiieeia iiaea eae aio acaeoiaaony. Ec
ainoaea?noaaiiie oa??eoi?ee aio aue auaeaeai iniaue oaeae, eioi?ue
nouanoaiaae eae au iiieii (ii?e/ue) anao inoaeueiuo iaeanoae: a iai auee
naie i?eeacu, oea?neee aeai?, naia aienei, a aai i?aaeaeao aeanoue
aac?acaeaeueii i?eiaaeeaaeaea oea?th. Ii?e/iay ?aceaeaioeey oea?y
iiiauaeanue a caiea, niaoeeaeueii auno?iaiiii a oeaio?a Iineau. Enoi?eee
?.TH. Aeiia? e A.E. Oi?ioeaae/ naycuaaee onoaiiaeaiea ii?e/iuo ii?yaeeia
n aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeie e aiaiiuie cao?oaeiaieyie. Ii?e/ieia auea
o/?aaeaeaia i?aaeaea anaai aeey oiai, /oiau ethaie oeaiie auaeaoue ec
no?aiu neeu e n?aaenoaa aeey i?iaeieaeaiey Eeaiineie aieiu e iiaeaaeoue
ethaia nii?ioeaeaiea anao oao, eoi iaoae yoiio. Ii?e/iua ii?yaeee
i?aaenoaaeyee niaie nenoaio /?acau/aeiuo ia? aiaiiiai a?aiaie. Ii
?acoeueoaou aaaaeaiey ii?e/ieiu auee i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie, ca a?aiy
aa nouanoaiaaiey ia caiaaeiii o?iioa ?onneea aienea ia aeiaeeenue
neieueei-ieaoaeue aiaiiuo oniaoia.

A 1566 aiaeo aue nicaai Caineee niai?, ia eioi?ii oea?ue auneooae
iiaiey naieo iiaeaeaiiuo ii iiaiaeo i?iaeieaeaiey aieiu e ia iaia?oaeee
iaeeaeaaiiai aaeeiiaeooey. Aieaa oiai, caineea aeayoaee ianoaeaaee ia
ioiaia ii?e/ieiu. Eaoii 1568 aiaea i?ieecioei aioeii?e/iia aunooieaiea
iineianeeo iinaaeneeo ethaeae. Any yiioa nouanoaiaaiey ii?e/ieiu – auea
a?aiaiai iinoiyiiiai ?ane?uoey caaiai?ia e aaaeaiey neaaenoaaiiuo aeae.
O?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue a iaoa a?aiy, eaeea ec caaiai?ia auee ianoiyueie, a
eaeea anaai eeoue ieiaeii iieoaeueiinoe oea?y e aai no?aoa ia?aae
nianoaaiiuie iiaeaeaiiuie.

Oeaeay yiioa e?iaaauo eaciae, eioi?ui ?onneia iauanoai iiaeaa?aaeinue a
ia?eiae ii?e/iaiu, yaeyaony ea?ie ianiioaaonoaaiii oyaeeie. Aaaeue oiaee
aea aeaae e ioaoe Eiaiia IV oi?aaeyoue aea?aeaaie aac anyeeo ianniauo
?ai?annee. A eo aioe e nui eniieueciaae ii?e/iua ii?yaeee a ea/anoaa
aiaaiai oiia?a, ia?ooeaoaainy ia aieiau aeiiaiuo e iaaeiiuo ii?ie aac
noaea e neaaenoaey.

Eacieee aeanyoeaie, nioiyie, oeaeuie naiueyie e aeaaea ?iaeaie. A 1567
aiaeo oea?ue aucaae ai aeai?aoe aiy?eia Oaaei?iaa – iaeiiai ec
aiaaoaeoeo e oaaaeaaiiai a ia?iaea /aeiaaea, iaea/ee aai a oea?neea
iaeaaeaeu, onaaeee ia o?ii, a caoai nianoaaiii?o/ii caeieie aai iiaeii,
n/eoay aeiiaiui a caaiai?a. Ii “aeaeo” Oaaei?iaa auei oie/oiaeaii 370
/aeiaae. A 1569 aiaeo ii i?eeaco oea?y i?eiye yae aai aeaith?iue a?ao,
eiycue Noa?eoeeee, aoi?ie ii ciaoiinoe a ?innee iinea naiiai oea?y,
aianoa n iei auee oia?uaeaiu aai naiuey e neoae. 25 ethey 1570 aiaea ia
?uii/iie ieiuaaee auee caa?nee eaciaiu 116 /aeiaae “iiaeueiuo”. Ia
uaaeeee aeaaea nae e aea?aaaiue, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo “iiaeueiui”. Ii naiie
aeooeie no?aieoeae ii?e/ieiu noae ?aca?ii Iiaai?iaea, eoaea Eaai IV
iaa?yioe n ii?e/iui aieneii e aaea oai?ee ?ani?aao iieoi?a ianyoea.
“Ia?oaua oaea ethaeae e aeeaioiuo cai?oaeeee ?aeo Aieoia, eoaea iie auee
na?ioaiu. Enoi?ey ia ciaao noieue oaeaniie ?acie” – ieoao aiaee/aiei
Aeae. Ai?nae. Naiua ne?iiiua iiaen/aou /enea eaciaiuo a Iiaai?iaea
aiai?yo i 2-o – 3-o ouny/ao aea?oa. Iioiiee eiaee iieiia i?aai iacuaaoue
Eaaia IV A?iciui. Ai?i/ai, ca ?oaaaeii aai iacuaaee Eaaiii Oaeaniui.

A eoiaa anao ono?aoathueo ia? Eaaia A?iciiai aiaiiay nenoaia no?aiu ia
oi?i/eeanue, a ?anoaoaeanue. Eo/oea aiaaiaeu auee eaciaiu; ae?oaea auee
aei oiai caioaaiu, /oi aiyeenue anooieoue n iai?eyoaeai a aie, iianaynue
iioa?iaoue iaoaea/o e auoue ca yoi eaciaiiuie. Ii?e/iia aienei
ieacaeanue iaeiaianiiniaiui. Aaneiia/iay aieia iiaeioeea ianno nee e
n?aaenoa, thaeiua ?oaaaee no?aiu ieacaeenue iaieaiiuie. A 1571 aiaeo
e?uineee oai Aeaaeao-Ae?ae, ?aca?iiea ii?e/iia aienei, iiyaeeny iiae
naiuie noaiaie Iineau e naeaa aanue ia?iiiue iineianeee iinaae. Ai a?aiy
iiaea?a iiaeaee aeanyoee ouny/ iineae/ae.

Ia?aae eeoeii iaoaea/e ii?e/iie iieeoeee Eaai IV auioaeaeai aue
ioiaieoue a 1572 aiaeo ii?e/ieio.

A ?acoeueoaoa ii?e/iie iieeoeee, /?acau/aeiuo,e?oouo ia? a 70-80-a
aiaeu XVI aaea Iineianeia ainoaea?noai aioei a iieino e?ecena. A
25-eaoiae Eeaiineie aieia ?inney iioa?iaea ii?aaeaiea, eo/oay
aianiiniaiay /anoue aiene auea oie/oiaeaia ia iieyo n?aaeaiee,
caaiaaaiiua oa??eoi?ee ooa?yiu. No?aia auea aeiaaaeaia aei no?aoiiai
?aci?aiey.

Oea?ue Eaai IV 3,5 aeanyoeeaoey iaeaaeae anae iieiioie aeanoe a
Iineianeii ainoaea?noaa. Ii noaaee ia?aae niaie aanueia iaooaaiua
caaea/e e ia?aaeei aeiaeaaeny oniaoa, ii caoai oa?ye ieiaeu
ia?aiia/aeueiuo iiaaae, ai anai aeaeay aieueoaai, iaoiay oioue a
/ai-eeai naay ia?aie/eoue. A ?acoeueoaoa ii ieii/ee naie aeie eae
i?iea?aaoeeny ea?oaaeiee, neaii oaa?iaaaoee a naith oaea/o, iinoaaeaoee
ia ea?oo ana naia ninoiyiea e e eiioeo ea?u ?ani?iuaaoeeny n aeueoae aai
/anoueth. Noaeueaa yoiai ainoaea?y i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeeieaiiue
i?eia? i?aaeoaey, no?aieaoaainy aieaa e ee/iie neaaa e iiaouanoao,
iaaeaee e iieueca ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia aeinoaeinue aio ii i?aao
?iaeaeaiey.

Cia/aiea oea?y Eaaia.Oaeei ia?acii, iieiaeeoaeueiua cia/aiey oea?y
Eaaia a eoi?ee iaoaai ainoaea?noaa aeaeaei ia oae aaeeei, eae iiaeii
auei au aeoiaoue, noaey ii aai caiuneai e ia/eiaieyi, ii ooio, eaeie
i?iecaiaeeea aai aeayoaeueiinoue. A?iciue oea?ue aieueoa caaeoiuaae, /ai
naeaeae, neeueiaa iiaeaenoaiaae ia aiia?aaeaiea e ia?au naieo
nia?aiaiieeia, /ai ia nia?aiaiiue aio ii?yaeie. AEeciue iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaa e aac Eaaia ono?ieeanue au oae aea, eae iia no?ieeanue aei
iaai e iinea iaai, ii aac iaai yoi ono?iaiea iioei au eaa/a e ?iaiaa,
/ai iii oei i?e iai: aaaeiaeoea iieeoe/aneea aii?inu auee au ?ac?aoaiu
aac oao iio?ynaiee, eaeea auee ei iiaeaioiaeaiu.

Oea?ue Eaai aue caia/aoaeueiue ienaoaeue, iiaeaeoe, aeaaea aieeee
iieeoe/aneee iuneeoaeue, ii ii ia aue ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaeueoeii.
Iaeiinoi?iiiaa, naayethaeaia e iieoaeueiia iai?aaeaiea aai iieeoe/aneie
iunee i?e aai ia?aiie aicaoaeaeaiiinoe eeoaei aai i?aeoe/aneiai oaeoa,
iieeoe/aneiai aeaciia?a, /oouey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e, oniaoii
i?aaei?eiya caaa?oaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea, caeiaeaiiiai aai
i?aaeeaie, ii iacaiaoii aeey naay naiiai eii/ee oai, /oi iieieaaae naiia
iniiaaiea yoiai ii?yaeea. Ea?aicei i?aoaaee/ee i/aiue iaiiiai, iinoaaea
oea?noaiaaiea Eaaia – iaeiie ec i?ae?aniaeoeo ii ia/aeo – ii eiia/iui
aai ?acoeueoaoai ia?yaeo n iiiaieueneei eaii e aaaenoaeyie oaeaeueiiai
a?aiaie. A?aaeaea e i?iecaieo oea?ue aea?oaiaae e niaie, e naiae
aeeianoeae, e ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaaii. Aai iiaeii n?aaieoue n oai
aaooicaaaoiui neaiui aiaaou?ai, eioi?ue, /oiau iiaoaeoue naieo a?aaia,
ia naiiai naay iiaaeee caeaiea, ia e?uoa eiaai yoe a?aae neaeaee.

Ii oai ia iaiaa, aeia?ay neaaa Eaaiiaa ia?aaeeea aai ooaeoth neaao a
ia?iaeiie iaiyoe: noaiaiey oiieeee, aea?oau enoeaee, e noa?ua i?aaeaiey
caoieeenue iiaaeoeie; ii eiy Eiaiiiai aeenoaei ia noaeaaieea e
iaiiieiaei i?eia?aoaiea o?ao oea?noa iiiaieueneeo, aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeae
oaeaniuo eaaeaee a e?eaio?aieeeuao, a ia?iae a oa/aiea aaeia aeaeae
Eacaiue, Ano?aoaiue, Neae?ue eae aeeaua iiioiaiou oea?y-caaiaaaoaey;
/oee a iai ciaiaieoiai aeiiaieea iaoae ainoaea?noaaiiie neeu, iaoaai
a?aaeaeaineiai ia?aciaaiey; ioaa?aioe eee caaue iacaaiey io/eoaey,
aeaiiia aio nia?aiaiieeaie, e ii oaiiui neooai i aeanoieinoe Eiaiiiaie
aeiiuia eiaioao aai oieueei A?ICIUI.

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