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?AOA?AO

ii eo?no «Enoi?ey ?innee»

ii oaia: «Aaeeeea aeie ?innee»

Aaaaeaiea

A aiaaoie aiaiiie enoi?ee iaoaai ainoaea?noaa iaiaei ciaiaiaoaeueiuo
aeao, naycaiiuo n e?oiiuie iiaaaeaie eee aaaeiaeoeie niauoeyie,
ieacaaoeie ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aiaiiiai eneonnoaa,
a?iee e no?aiu. Iie aucuaatho o ?inneyi caeiiioth ai?aeinoue e aeeaie
eioa?an.

1. Inaiaiaeaeaiea Iineau io iieueneeo eioa?aaioia a 1612 aiaeo

Iaeiie ec neaaiuo no?aieoe enoi?ee Ioa/anoaa yaeyaony inaiaiaeaeaiea
Iineau neeaie ia?iaeiiai iiie/aiey iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Eocueiu Ieieia e
Aeieo?ey Iiaea?neiai io iieueneeo eioa?aaioia a 1612 aiaeo. Yoi aue
ia?eiae Niooiiai a?aiaie, eiaaea ?onue iaoiaeeeanue a aeoaieii
nioeeaeueiii e?ecena. Ii aeeeeny ii/oe o?e aeanyoeeaoey (ni nia?oe a
1584 aiaeo oea?y Eaaia A?iciiai e aei 1613 aiaea, eiaaea ia ?onneii
i?anoiea aioea?eeny ia?aue ec aeeianoee ?iiaiiauo – ainoaea?ue Ieoaee
Oaaei?iae/). Iinea nia?oe A?iciiai ?inneae i?aaeee aai nui, caoai Ai?en
Aiaeoiia, eioi?iai niaiee Eaeaaeieo?ee 1 (A?eai?ee Io?aiueaa). Iinea
oaeenoaa naiicaaioea a ?acoeueoaoa aiy?neiai caaiai?a oea?ai noae
Aaneeee Ooeneee.

Oai ia iaiaa, ?ani?e e iyoaaee a no?aia ia i?ae?auaeenue. Ainnoaiea
Eaaia Aieioieeiaa, a caoai iiyaeaiea ia thaeiuo ?oaaaeao aoi?iai
Eaeaaeieo?ey aucaaee iiaoth aieio Nioou.

A iieneao nithcieeia iineianeia ?oeiaiaenoai ia?aoeeinue ca iiiiuueth e
Oaaoeee, eioi?ay auaeaeeea aeey o/anoey a aiyo n aieneii Eaeaaeieo?ey II
io?yae neaiaeeiaaneeo iaaiieeia.

Ca nieiie aoi?iai naiicaaioea noiyea iieueneay oeyooa, naia aea ?a/ue
Iiniieeoay iaoiaeeeanue a oi a?aiy a ninoiyiee aieiu ni Oaaoeeae. Ana
yoi auei eniieueciaaii iieueneei ei?ieai Neaecioiaeii III eae iiaiae
aeey ioe?uoie eioa?aaioeee i?ioea ?innee.

A naioya?a 1609 a. 12-ouny/iia iieueneia aienei i?e iiaeaea?aeea
10-ouny/iiai eacaoeeiai ei?iona aoi?aeinue a ?inneth. Eioa?aaiou
inaaeeee Niieaine, aa?ie/aneay iai?iia eioi?iai ia aeaa aiaea neiaaea
aeaaiua neeu a?aaa.

A yoi a?aiy a Iineaa ?acai?aeny i/a?aaeiie iyoaae, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?iai Aaneeee Ooeneee aue naa?aioo n i?anoiea, iino?eaeai a iiiaoe,
auaeai iieyeai e caeeth/ai a oaiieoeo. Ii i?e/eia oiai, /oi
aeiaiai?eoueny iaaeaeo niaie ii eaiaeeaeaoo?a oea?y aiy?a ia niiaee
ec-ca aiycie iiauo iyoaaeae, «naieaiy?ueia» iioea ia caeeth/aiea
aeiaiai?a n iieueneei aiaia/aeueieeii aaoiaiii AEieeaaneei i i?eciaiee
?onneei oea?ai iieueneiai ei?ieaae/a Aeaaeeneaaa IV.

21 naioya?y 1610 a. aiy?a ii/ueth aionoeee a ai?iae ieeoiaoeeiiiue
ei?ion eioa?aaioia, eioi?ue ninoiye ec 8 ouny/ iieuenei-eeoianeeo
nieaeao. Ianeieueei ?aiaa, a ethia 1610 aiaea, ia/aeanue aieia Oaaoeee
i?ioea ?innee.

E aania 1612 aiaea oaaaeu caoaaoeee ii/oe anth Iiaai?iae/eio.

A oyaeaeue aeey ?innee /an ?acaeaeny aiein iao?ea?oa Aa?iiaaia, eioi?ue
a ie?oaeaiee iieueneeo eioa?aaioia ia ia?anoaaae aeaaineiaeyoue
i?aaineaaiuo ia inaiaiaeeoaeueiue iiaeaea.

Ia/aeinue oe?ieia iao?eioe/aneia aeaeaeaiea ca inaiaiaeaeaiea noieeoeu
io iieyeia. Ia?aia ia?iaeiia (caineia) iiie/aiea aicaeaaee ?ycaineee
aiaaiaea I?ieiiee Eyioiia. Ii ec-ca ?ani?ae iaaeaeo aeai?yiaie e
eacaeaie, eioi?ua ii eiaeiiio iaaeiaieth oaeee aiaaiaeo, iiie/aiea
?aniaeinue. I?aaeaeaa?aiaiii ia/aaoaany a Iineaa 19 ia?oa 1611 aiaea
aioeiieueneia ainnoaiea iioa?iaei ii?aaeaiea. Eioa?aaiou iiaeiaeaee
ai?iae, eioi?ue ii/oe aanue auai?ae.

A naioya?a 1611 aiaea ieaeaai?iaeneee caineee noa?inoa Eocueia Ieiei
ia?aoeeny e ai?iaeaiai n i?ecuaii nicaeaoue ia?iaeiia iiie/aiea, ia
ai?iaeneii noiaea i?iecian naith ciaiaieooth ?a/ue: «I?aaineaaiua
ethaee, iioioei iiii/ue Iineianeiio ainoaea?noao, ia iiaeaeaai aeeaioia
iaoeo, aea ia oieii aeeaioia – aeai?u naie i?iaeaaeei, aeai, aeaoae
caeiaeei e aoaeai aeoue /aeii, /oiau eoi-ieaoaeue noae o ian
ia/aeueieeii. E eaeay oaaea aoaeao anai iai io ?onneie caiee, /oi io
oaeiai iaeiai ai?iaea, eae iao, i?iecieaeao oaeia aaeeeia aeaei».

Ii i?ecuao Ieieia ai?iaeaia aeia?iaieueii ioaeaaaee /anoue naieo
aeioiaeia ia nicaeaiea caineiai iiie/aiey. Ii eo auei iaaeinoaoi/ii.
Iiyoiio iauyaeee i?eioaeeoaeueiue nai?: eaaeaeue aeieaeai aue aianoe a
iiie/ai/aneoth eacio iyooth /anoue naieo aeioiaeia ia aeaeiaaiuea
neoaeeeui ethaeyi.

Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth Ieieia ia iino aeaaiiai aiaaiaeu aue i?eaeaoai
30-eaoiee eiycue Aeieo?ee Iiaea?neee, eioi?ue ia n?aco i?eiye
i?aaeeiaeaiea. Ii niaeaneeny aiaaiaenoaiaaoue i?e oneiaee, /oi ai?iaeaia
naie auaa?oo aio iiiiuieea, eioi?ue ia/aeuenoaiaae au iaae eaciie
iiie/aiey. Ei noae Ieiei.

Oae ai aeaaa aoi?iai caineiai iiie/aiey noaee aeaa /aeiaaea, eca?aiiua
ia?iaeii e iaea/aiiua aai iieiui aeiaa?eai.

Nicaeaaay caineoth ?aoue, aa i?aaiecaoi?u ia?aoeeenue n i?ecuaiuie
a?aiioaie ai iiiaea ai?iaea. Iie ia?aeeeeaeenue n iineaieyie, eioi?ua
?annueae ii anae no?aia iao?ea?o Aa?iiaai.

A ia/aea ia?oa 1612 aiaea ieaeaai?iaeneia iiie/aiea ia/aei iioiae e
/a?ac ianyoe anooieei a ss?ineaaeue. Ia/aeinue «y?ineaaneia noiyiea», a
oiaea eioi?iai iiie/aioeu i?iaeieaeaee niae?aoueny n neeaie. Aunooieea e
Eacaineay ae?oaeeia, n iath aue eae aeaaineiaaiea Aiaeeae Iaoa?e ia?ac
Eacaineee – nienie n /oaeioai?iie eeiiu.

Iiae ciaiaia Iiaea?neiai e Ieieia nia?aeinue ia?iiiia ii oiio a?aiaie
aienei – aieaa 10 ouny/ neoaeeeuo iiianoiuo ethaeae, aei 3 ouny/
eacaeia, aieaa ouny/e no?aeueoeia e iiiaeanoai «aeaoi/iuo ethaeae» ec
e?anoueyi. A ioee/ea io ia?aiai iiie/aiey Iiaea?neee nicaeae no?ieioth
aiaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth. Iaoea ?aoieee iauaaeeieeenue a iieee, a eiiiua –
a nioie. Aiaaiaeai iieeia i?aaeienuaaeinue i?iaiaeeoue iao/aiea
?aoieeia, neaaeeoue ca niaethaeaieai aieineie aeenoeeieeiu, a naiei
aiaia/aeueieeai – auoue ia?acoeii ni?aaaaeeeainoe ii ioiioaieth e
iiie/aioeai e ai?iaeaiai. A ss?ineaaea i?aaieciaaee i?iecaiaenoai
oieiaeiiai i?oaeey – eiiee, aa?aeuoae, ?iaaoei.

A ethea 1612 aiaea cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iiie/aiey aeaeioeanue ec
ss?ineaaey e 20 aaaonoa anooieea a Iineao, ?aniieiaeeaoenue a ?aeiia
A?aaoa. A yoi a?aiy e Iineaa ia iiiiuue inaaeaeaiiui iieyeai oae n
12-ouny/iui aieneii aaoiai ss. E. Oiaeeaae/. 21 aaaonoa ii iiaeioae e
ai?iaeo e inoaiiaeeny ia Iieeiiiie ai?a. Iiaea?neee, /oiau i?aa?aaeeoue
iooue i?ioeaieeo a E?aieue, aaea iaoiaeeeny /aou?aoouny/iue aa?iecii,
noae ia eaaii aa?aao o E?uineiai aeai?a. Aeaaiua neeu iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai Iiaea?neiai ?aniieaaaeenue ia iaeaieaa ioaaonoaaiiuo
o/anoeao – a ?aeiiao A?aaoneeo, Oaa?neeo e Ieeeoneeo ai?io.

Anaai iiae Iineaie iaoiaeeeinue aei 10 ouny/ ?onneeo aiene, ec ieo – 2,5
ouny/e eacaeia Ae.O?oaaoeeiai.

A ii/ue ia 22 aaaonoa i?ioeaiee ia?aoae a?iaeii ?aeo Iineao i?ioea
Iiaiaeaae/ueaai iiianou?y e ia/ae aioiaeoueny e ianooieaieth, /oiau
neiieoue nii?ioeaeaiea iiie/aiey e niaaeeieoueny n io?yaeii, canaaoei a
E?aiea.

?acaaaeaa caiunae i?ioeaieea, Iiaea?neee auaeaeioe a ?aeii
Iiaiaeaae/ueaai iiianou?y neeueiue eiiiue io?yae e nin?aaeioi/ee iaoea
aienea a oe?aieaieyo Caieyiiai aaea. N?aaeaiea ia/aeinue oo?ii 22
aaaonoa e i?iaeieaeaeinue ieiei naie /ania. Cia/eoaeueiia i?aainoiaenoai
a eiiieoea iicaieeei eioa?aaioai iooanieoue iiie/aioeaa e noaiai Aaeiai
ai?iaea. Caeanue auei iiiaeanoai ?aia, e Iiaea?neee i?eeacae naiei
eiiieeai aeoueny a iaoai no?ith.

A?aaeaneea aienea iieeiaieea I. No?ony, iaoiaeeaoeany a E?aiea,
iuoaeenue aoaeiaaoue ?onneeo n ouea. Iaeiaei eo aoaea auea oniaoii
io?aaeaia io?yaeii, ca?aiaa auaeaeaiiui aeey yoie oeaee.

Ia ?annaaoa 24 aaaonoa oeyoaoneea aienea aoaeiaaee iiie/aioeaa ia i?aaii
aa?aao Iineau. Aia/aea ei oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny iaeioi?iai oniaoa, ii
iioii iiie/aioeu no?aieoaeueiie eiio?aoaeie auaeee i?ioeaieea ec
oe?aieaiey e iaianee aio aieueoea iioa?e.

Ia iaiaa oii?iue aie ?acai?aeny ia iieo?ac?ooaiiuo noaiao Caieyiiai
ai?iaea, ii i?aainoiaeyuea neeu a?aaa canoaaeee iiie/aioeaa ioieoe e
?aea. Ia iiiiuue n?aaeaaoeiny Iiaea?neee aeaeioe ?aca?aiua aienea, iiae
oaea?ii eioi?uo i?ioeaiee ia auaea?aeae e ionooiee. ?aca?iiea
Oiaeeaae/a, Iiaea?neee ana neeu iai?aaee ia iaeaaeaiea E?aieai e
Eeoae-ai?iaeii, aaea aua neaeaee iieyee.

15 naioya?y inaaeaeaiiui auei i?aaeeiaeaii naeaoueny, ii iie
ioeacaeenue, iaaeaynue ia iiiiuue iieueneiai ei?iey. Oiaaea iiie/aiea
Iiaea?neiai i?enooieei e inaaea. 22 ieoya?y (4 iiya?y) i?enooiii aue
acyo Eeoae-ai?iae. A ?oeao iieyeia inoaaaeny oieueei E?aieue, aaea iie
aua i?iaeieaeaee oicyeie/aoue, ii iaoiaeeeenue a oyaeaeii iieiaeaiee.
Inaaeaeaiiua auee ie?oaeaiu ni anao noi?ii, aieiaeaee, a aiaaua i?eianu
ec?anoiaeiaaee. Iaaeaaeaeu ia iiiiuue oaea ia auei. Aeiaaaeaiiua aei
io/ayiey, iieyee 26 ieoya?y (8 iiya?y) cayaeee ia ia?aaiai?ao i
aioiaiinoe naeaoueny e auoee ec E?aiey. 27 ieoya?y (9 iiya?y) 1612 aiaea
iiie/aiea oi?aeanoaaiii anooieei a E?aieue.

*oaeioai?iue ia?ac Aiaeeae Iaoa?e iaoiaeeeny a ia?aaeiauo io?yaeao
aienea. Iiie/aiea niaa?oeei oi?aeanoaaiiue iieaaai e e?anoiue oiae n
eeiiie Eacaineie Aiaeeae Iaoa?e a aeaaiaea?iinoue ca ecaaaeaiea io
a?aaia.

Iineaa ?aaeinoii i?acaeiiaaea inaiaiaeaeaiea, ii aei ieii/aoaeueiiai
ecaiaiey eioa?aaioia ec no?aiu auei aua aeaeaei. Iieueneea e oaaaeneea
ieeoiaiou ia ioeacaeenue io naieo iaia?aiee iiei?eoue ?onneee ia?iae.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea Iineau auei aeinoeaiooi i?aaeaea anaai aeaaiaea?y
aunieiio ii?aeueiiio aeooo ?aoieeia ia?iaeiiai iiie/aiey, oiaeiio
?oeiaiaenoao aiaiiuie aeaenoaeyie Iiaea?neei e Ieieiui, /oi iaoei
io?aaeaiea eae a iauai caiunea iioiaea, oae e a oaeoe/aneeo i?eaiao:
/aoeia acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoiou e eiiieoeu, oeaiaiaua oaea?u, ?aoeoaeueiua
eiio?aoaee. Inaiaiaeaeaiea Iineau iicaieeei ainnoaiiaeoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue a ?innee, iineoaeeei iiuiui oie/eii e
inaiaiaeeoaeueiiio aeaeaeaieth ii anae no?aia.

2. Acyoea oo?aoeeie e?aiinoe Eciaee

Iiaeeeiiie aa?oeiie aieineie neaau ?onneie a?iee a eiioea XVIII aaea
noae ooo?i neeueiaeoae oo?aoeeie e?aiinoe Eciaee 11 (22) aeaeaa?y 1790
aiaea. Iia anaaaea n/eoaeanue iai?enooiiie. Iaae aa oe?aieaieai iaiaei
iio?oaeeeenue o?aioeocneea e iaiaoeeea eiaeaia?u. Aoi?ie oaeie e?aiinoe
a Oo?oeee ia nouanoaiaaei.

Eciaeeneay e?aiinoue i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iai?aaeeueiue o?aoaieueiee,
i?eeaaaaoee e aa?aao Aeoiay. N o?ao noi?ii – naaa?iie, caiaaeiie e
ainoi/iie – iia auea ie?oaeaia aaeii i?ioyaeaiiinoueth 6 ei, aunioie 6 –
8 i n caieyiuie e eaiaiiuie aanoeiiaie. Ia?aae aaeii aue au?uo ?ia 12 i
oe?eiu e 6 – 10 i aeoaeiu, a ioaeaeueiuo ianoao caiieiaiiue aiaeie ia
aeoaeio 1 i. Ai?io a e?aiinoiii aaeo auei /aou?a. N thaeiie noi?iiu
Eciaee i?ee?uaaeny Aeoiaai. Aioo?e ai?iaea eiaeinue iiiai eaiaiiuo
iino?iae, niinianoaiaaaoeo aaaeaieth oii?iie iai?iiu. Aai aa?iecii
ian/eouaae 35 oun. /aeiaae i?e 265 e?aiinoiuo i?oaeeyo.

Iiae eciaeeneeie noaiaie noiyea iiiai/eneaiiay oo?aoeeay Aeoiaeneay
aiaiiay oeioeeey, eioi?ay oe?uaaeanue caeanue io ?onneie a?aaiie
oeioeeee iinea ?yaea i?iea?aiiuo ia ?aea aiaa.

A iiya?a ?onneay a?iey /eneaiiinoueth 31 oun. /aeiaae (a oii /enea 28,5
oun. /aeiaae iaoiou e 2,5 oun. /aeiaae eiiieoeu) e nauoa 500 i?oaeee
inaaeeea Eciaee n nooe. Neaainoueth iaoiou, eioi?ie i?aaenoiyei eaeoe ia
ooo?i, auei oi, /oi ii/oe iieiaeio aa ninoaaeyee eacaee, iioa?yaoea ia
aieia eioaaeae. Eo oei?i/aiiua ieee e naaee ia iiaee caiaieoue a
?oeiiaoiii aith ?oaeuey n aaaeiaoaie, eioi?uo eacaee ia eiaee, eae e
auo/ee iaoioeioeaa. E?iia oiai, ?onneea ii/oe ia eiaee, a ioee/ea io
oo?ie, i?oaeee e?oiiuo eaeea?ia, ec eioi?uo oi?ie?iaaeenue inaaeiua
a?ao-aaoa?ae. A?oeeea?ey aiaiiuo oeioeeee ioee/aeanue iaeuie eaeea?aie e
iiaea aanoe iaiiue oieueei n aeeceeo aeenoaioeee.

?a/iay oeioeeey iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea I.I. aea ?eaana
caaeiee?iaaea e?aiinoue ni noi?iiu Aeoiay, a?oeeea?eeneei iaiai
oie/oiaeea ii/oe anth oo?aoeeoth ?a/ioth oeioeeeth. Aeaa iiiuoee ?onneeo
aiene acyoue Eciaee ooo?iii ieii/eeenue iaoaea/ae. Aiaaua aeaenoaey
ia?aie/eaaeenue a?oeeea?eeneei iano?aeii. N ia/aeii inaiiae iaiiaiaeu a
a?iee ?ani?ino?aieeenue ianniaua caaieaaaiey. Ii?aeueiia ninoiyiea aiene
iaaeaei. ?oeiaiaeeaoea inaaeie aaia?aeu, n/eoay, /oi iaeaaeaoue Eciaeeii
iaeuecy, iinoaiiaeee ia aiaiiii niaaoa ioaanoe ec-iiae e?aiinoe aienea e
?aniieiaeeoue eo ia ceiieo eaa?oe?ao.

25 iiya?y (6 aeaeaa?y) eiiaiaeothuei aieneaie, nin?aaeioi/aiiuie iiae
Eciaeeii, aue iacia/ai A.A. Noai?ia. Aio auei i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai
aeaenoaiaaoue ii naiaio oniio?aieth: eee i?aaei?eiyoue ooo?i, eee
i?ae?aoeoue inaaeo e ioaanoe aienea.

Noai?ia i?eaue e Eciaeeo 2(13) aeaeaa?y, eiaaea oaea ia/aeny ioaiae
aiene ec-iiae e?aiinoe. Auno?i ioeaiea ianoaiiaeo, ii i?eiye ?aoaiea
ooo?iiaaoue e?aiinoue. Ia oa?yy a?aiaie, Noai?ia ia/ae aanoe iiaeaioiaeo
e ooo?io, eioi?ay i?iaeieaeaeanue aeaayoue aeiae. A oeaeyo
eniieueciaaiey oaeoi?a aiacaiiinoe yoa iiaeaioiaea aaeanue ne?uoii, ii
ii/ai. Aeey nicaeaiey aeaeeiinoe iiaeaioiaee e aeeeoaeueiie inaaea
i?eeacae caeiaeeoue /aou?a aaoa?ae, a oi aea a?aiy a aieneao
caaioaaeeaaee ooo?iiaua eanoieoeu, oaoeiu, iaeaieeaaee oaioeaaue
eino?oiaio.

Ia?aae ooo?iii iniaia aieiaiea ia?auaeinue ia iiaeaioiaeo, iao/aiea
aiene. A noi?iia io e?aiinoe Noai?ia i?eeacae aueiiaoue ?ia e ianuiaoue
aae, eioi?ua iaiiieiaee au eciaeeneea, e ia ieo aienea o?aie?iaaeenue a
i?aiaeieaiee yoeo oe?aieaiee. I?e yoii aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
ii?aeueii-i?aanoaaiiie iiaeaioiaea aiene. Noai?ia nicaae aiaiiue niaao,
ia eioi?ii i?iecian aaeioiiaaiioth ?a/ue, iinea /aai ana niaeaneeenue,
/oi ooo?i iaiaoiaeei.

7(18) aeaeaa?y Noai?ia iai?aaee eiiaiaeaioo Eciaeea oeueoeiaooi i naea/a
e?aiinoe. Oo?ee eaieooee?iaaoue ioeacaeenue e a ioaao cayaeee, /oi
«nei?ae Aeoiae inoaiiaeony a naiai oa/aiee e iaai oiaaeao ia caieth, /ai
naeanony Eciaee». Yoio ioaao ii i?eeacaieth Noai?iaa aue ca/eoai a
eaaeaeie ?ioa aeey aiiaeooaaeaiey nieaeao.

Caiunae ooo?ia caeeth/aeny ai aiacaiiie ii/iie eiioeaio?e/aneie aoaea
neeaie nooiiooiuo aiene e ?a/iie oeioeeee. I?e yoii iniiaiua oneeey
nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue aaeieue iaiaa caueuaiiie i?e?a/iie /anoe e?aiinoe.
Aienea auee ?acaeaeaiu ia o?e io?yaea ii o?e eieiiiu a eaaeaeii. Eieiiia
aeeth/aea a naay iyoue aaoaeueiiia. Oanoue eieiii aeaenoaiaaee n nooe e
o?e – ni noi?iiu Aeoiay.

Io?yae iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea I.N. Iioaieeia /eneaiiinoueth 7 500
/aeiaae aeieaeai aue aoaeiaaoue caiaaeiue oan e?aiinoe, io?yae iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea A.I. Naiieeiaa /eneaiiinoueth 12 oun. /aeiaae –
naaa?i-ainoi/iue oan e?aiinoe e io?yae aaia?aea I.I. aea ?eaana
/eneaiiinoueth 9 oun. /aeiaae aeieaeai aue aoaeiaaoue i?e?a/iue oan
e?aiinoe ni noi?iiu Aeoiay. Iauee ?aca?a /eneaiiinoueth ieiei 2 500
/aeiaae aue ?acaeaeai ia /aou?a a?oiiu e ?aniieiaeai i?ioea eaaeaeuo
e?aiinoiuo ai?io.

Aia?aaee eaaeaeie eieiiiu aeieaeiu auee aeaeaaoueny a ?annuiiii no?ith
eiiaiaeu no?aeeia (120 – 150 /aeiaae) e 50 ?aai/eo n oaioeaaui
eino?oiaioii, caoai ianooiaee o?e aaoaeueiia n oaoeiaie e eanoieoeaie,
caiueae eieiiiu ?aca?a.

Aanue aeaiue e ii/ue 10(21) aeaeaa?y ?onneay a?oeeea?ey n nooe e n
ei?aaeae aaea iai?a?uaiue iaiiue, iiaeaioaaeeaay ooo?i. A 5 /ania 30
ieioo oo?a 11(22) aeaeaa?y ii neaiaeo ?aeaoie eieiiiu aeaeioeenue e
e?aiinoiui noaiai. ?a/iay oeioeeey aunaaeeea aeanaio. Inaaeaeaiiua
ano?aoeee aoaeo ?onneeo aeanoieei a?oeeea?eeneei e ?oaeaeiui iaiai.
Eiio?aoaeaie iie na?anuaaee aoaeothuea aaoaeueiiu ni noai e?aiinoe. Aie
ca iaeaaeaiea aaeii aeeeeny ainaiue /ania. Ioaaonoaaiiay ?ieue a ooo?ia
Eciaeea i?eiaaeeaaeaea I.E. Eooociao, eieiiia eioi?iai, neiiea
nii?ioeaeaiea i?ioeaieea, ia?aie ai?aaeanue a ai?iae.

N ?annaaoa ia/aeanue ai?ueaa aioo?e e?aiinoe. E?iaii?ieeoiua oee/iua aie
i?iaeieaeaeenue aei 17 /ania. I?eoiaeeeinue ae?aoueny ca eaaeaeoth
oeeoeo, eaaeaeue aeii. Ooo?iiaua eieiiiu, eae i?aaeei, ?an/eaiyeenue e
aeaenoaiaaee iiaaoaeueiiii e ii?ioii. Aaa?y ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n
a?oeeea?eae iaania/eaaee i?iaeaeaeaiea eieiii, i?ee?uaaee eo oeaiae e
io?aaeaee eiio?aoaee i?ioeaieea. Aeaenoaey ooo?iothueo aiene
ia?aueaaeenue ca n/ao /anoiuo e iaueo ?aca?aia, eioi?ua aaiaeeeenue
iaeiia?aiaiii ia ianeieueeeo o/anoeao. Eciaeeueneay oaa?aeuiy iaea e 4
/anai aeiy. Oae caaa?oeeanue aeoaa ca e?aiinoue Eciaee, iiaaaea a
eioi?ie i?ineaaeea ?onneia i?oaeea e iaannia?oeea eiy iieeiaiaeoea A. A.
Noai?iaa-?uiieeneiai.

Oo?ee iioa?yee a oiaea ooo?ia aieaa 26 oun. /aeiaae oaeouie e 9 oun.
ieaiiuie. ?onneeie o?ioayie noaee 400 ciaiai, 265 i?oaeee, inoaoee
?a/iie oeioeeee, aieueoea caianu aiai?eiania e iiiai ae?oaeo o?ioaaa.
?onneea iioa?yee 1815 oun. /aeiaae oaeouie e 2445 oun. ?aiaiuie.

Ii iioa?yi i?ioeaiai?noaothueo noi?ii i?e ooo?ia Eciaeea, aai
iaeanoi/aiiinoe e e?iaii?ieeoiinoe yoa aeoaa ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu 1787
– 1791 aiaeia ia eiaao naaa ?aaiuo a ie?iaie aiaiiie enoi?ee.

A oio aea aeaiue, 11 aeaeaa?y, aaia?ae-aioao A.A. Noai?ia ?aii?oiaae i
acyoee a?aaeaneie e?aiinoe aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaio ?onneie a?ieae ia THaa
?innee aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaeo AA. Iioaieeio-Oaa?e/aneiio: «Iao e?ai/a
e?aiinoe, iao io/ayiiaa iai?iiu, eae Eciaee, iaaeoae i?aae auni/aeoei
o?iiii aa eiia?aoi?neiai aaee/anoaa e?iaii?ieeoiui ooo?iii! Ieaeaeoa
iicae?aaeyth aaoo naaoeinoue! Aaia?ae a?ao Noai?ia-?uiieeneee».

Oniao ooo?ia iaania/eee aiacaiiinoue aeaenoaee, ouaoaeueiay e
ananoi?iiiyy iiaeaioiaea, oiaeia iino?iaiea aiaaiai ii?yaeea, oi?ioi
i?aaieciaaiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo ianooiaaoeie /anoyie e
iiae?acaeaeaieyie, no?iaia niaethaeaiea ieaia ooo?ia, ni/aoaaiia n
oe?ieei i?iyaeaieai ?acoiiie eieoeeaoeau ia/aeueieeia, ?aoeoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaee e ianoie/eainoue a aeinoeaeaiee oeaee, nin?aaeioi/aiea nee ia
iai?aaeaiee aeaaiiai oaea?a, ianne?iaaiiia eniieueciaaiea a?oeeea?ee,
acaeiiaeaenoaea nooiiooiie a?iee e ?a/iie oeioeeee.

Acyoea Eciaeea icia/aei e?oiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea ?onneiai aiaiiiai
eneonnoaa. Ooo?i Eciaeea iieacae, /oi nouanoaiaaaoea oiaaea ia Caiaaea
iaoiaeu iaeaaeaiey e?aiinoyie iooai aeeeoaeueiie inaaeu aeaaii ecaeeee
naay. Iie?aynue ia aunieea aiaaua ea/anoaa ?onneie a?iee, Noai?ia
auaeaeioe e aeanoyua inouanoaee eaeath iaeaaeaiey e?aiinoueth iaoiaeii
ioe?uoiai ooo?ia, ni/aoaaiiai n eneoniie eiaeaia?iie iiaeaioiaeie. Iiaue
iaoiae iicaieye a?aoue e?aiinoe a aieaa ei?ioeea n?iee e n iaiueoeie
iioa?yie aeey aiene, /ai i?e aeeeoaeueiuo inaaeao. I?e ooo?ia Eciaeea
iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oaeoeea eieiii e ?annuiiiai no?iy. Aienea
ooo?iiaaee eieiiiaie, aia?aaee eioi?uo aeaenoaiaaee no?aeee a ?annuiiii
no?ith. A yoii aiaaii ii?yaeea oe?iei eniieueciaaeenue iaiiue e iaiaa?.
Ia oeeoeao ai?iaea aienea aaee aie a ?annuiiii no?ith. Iiaaaea auea
aeinoeaiooa ia oieueei aeaaiaea?y iieeiaiae/aneiio eneonnoao Noai?iaa,
ii e aunieei ii?aeueiui ea/anoaai ?onneeo aieiia. (A iaiyoue ia yoii
niauoee onoaiiaeai Aeaiue aieineie neaau – 24 aeaeaa?y.)

3. Aeaiue caueoieea Ioa/anoaa

Nauoa naie aeanyoeeaoee 23 oaa?aey a iaoae no?aia ioia/aeny Aeaiue
Niaaoneie a?iee e Aiaiii-Ii?neiai Oeioa. 10 oaa?aey 1995 aiaea Ainaeoia
i?eiyea Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «I aeiyo aieineie neaau (iiaaaeiuo aeiyo)
?innee», eioi?ue i?aaeienuaaao ioia/aoue 23 oaa?aey eae «Aeaiue iiaaaeu
E?aniie a?iee iaae eaeca?ianeeie aieneaie Aa?iaiee (1918 aiae) – Aeaiue
caueoieea Ioa/anoaa».

Ii eae a ia?aii, oae e ai aoi?ii neo/aa aeaoa 23 oaa?aey 1918 aiaea, eae
ecaanoii, aanueia oycaeia a enoi?eei-iao/iii ioiioaiee. Ieeaeeo ?aoaiee
i nicaeaiee ?aai/a-e?anoueyineie E?aniie a?iee a yoio aeaiue ia?aia
niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia i?eieiaei. Iii auei i?eiyoi aua 15 yiaa?y
oiai aiaea e ioi?ieaii aeae?aoii Niaia?eiia.

Eaeeo-eeai aieueoeo oniaoia ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa 23 oaa?aey
oaeaea aeinoeaiooi ia auei, oioy aianoieeiiaaiey n iaiaoeeeie aieneaie
iiae Ineiaii e Ia?aie i?ienoiaeeee.

Aianoa n oai i?aaeeiaeaiey ioia/aoue aeaiue E?aniie a?iee iiyaeeenue
aaeaa ee ia n?aco iinea aa nicaeaiey e aicieeaee iaiaeiie?aoii. ?a/ue
i?e yoii aaeanue ia i ainoaea?noaaiiii i?acaeieea, a ia aaeoaoeeiiiii
?aciaii ia?ii?eyoee, eaeiauo a aiaeu A?aaeaeaineie aieiu i?iaiaeeeinue
iaiaei. N?aaee ieo aeie «eiiioienoe/aneie iieiaeaaee»,
«e?aniia?iaeoea-o?iioiaeea», «e?aniiai ioeoea?a» e ae?oaea. Iai?eia?, 3
yiaa?y 1919 aiaea ii iinoaiiaeaieth AOeEE ia anae oa??eoi?ee ?NON?
i?iaiaeeeny Aeaiue aeioiaee n oeaeueth iiaeeeciaaoue ianaeaiea ia naea/o
iaoiaeyuaainy o iaai ia ?oeao i?oaeey a niioaaonoaee n aeae?aoii NIE io
10 aeaeaa?y 1918 aiaea. A ii iinoaiiaeaieth eiiennee i?e AOeEE «E?aniue
iiaea?ie» ia aine?anaiuea 9 oaa?aey iaia/aeny Aeaiue E?aniiai iiaea?ea n
oeaeueth nia?aoue iaoa?eaeueiua e aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa aeey E?aniie
a?iee.

A ia?aua aeie yiaa?y 1919 aiaea aniiiieee e i i?eaeeaeathuaeny
aiaeiaueia aeae?aoa NIE ia i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/a-E?anoueyineie E?aniie
a?iee. 10 yiaa?y i?aaenaaeaoaeue Aunoae aiaiiie einiaeoeee ?EEA Ieeieae
Iiaeaieneee iai?aaee a I?aceaeeoi AOeEE ienueii n i?aaeeiaeaieai
ioi?acaeiiaaoue aiaeiaueio nicaeaiey E?aniie a?iee, i?eo?i/ea
i?acaeiiaaiea e 28 yiaa?y, aeith ecaeaiey aeae?aoa, eee e aeeaeaeoaio
aine?anaiueth aei eee iinea 28 yiaa?y.

A nayce n oai, /oi ca ei?ioeia a?aiy neiaeii auei i?aaieciaaoue e
iiaeaioiaeoue ana iiiai/eneaiiua ia?ii?eyoey, i?aaeeaaaaoeany
Iiaeaieneei, auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i?eo?i/eoue aeaiue i?acaeiiaaiey
E?aniie a?iee ei Aeith E?aniiai iiaea?ea, eioi?ue eiae i?yiia ioiioaiea
e E?aniie a?iee. Ii ii oaoie/aneei i?e/eiai Aeaiue E?aniiai iiaea?ea aue
ia?aianai ia aine?anaiuea 23 oaa?aey. 5 oaa?aey «I?aaaea» e ae?oaea
aacaou iioaeeeiaaee neaaeothuoth eioi?iaoeeth: «Ono?ienoai aeiy E?aniiai
iiaea?ea ii anae ?innee ia?aianaii ia 23 oaa?aey. A yoio aeaiue ii
ai?iaeai e ia o?iioa aoaeao i?aaieciaaii i?acaeiiaaiea aiaeiaueiu
nicaeaiey E?aniie a?iee, eniieieaoaeny 28 yiaa?y».

Ana auoaneacaiiia oaaaeeoaeueii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aeaoa
i?acaeiiaaiey ia?aciaaiey E?aniie a?iee auea ii?aaeaeaia neo/aeiui
noa/aieai ianoiyoaeuenoa, ia iicaieeaoeo iiaeaioiaeoue e i?iaanoe
i?acaeiee naiaa?aiaiii – 28 yiaa?y.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a iinoaiiaeaiee I?aceaeeoia AOeEE, i?eiyoii 18
yiaa?y 1923 aiaea, aia?aua iinea 1919 aiaea iauyniyeanue i?e/eia
i?acaeiiaaiey aeiy E?aniie a?iee eiaiii 23 oaa?aey. A aeieoiaioa
ooaa?aeaeaeinue: «23 oaa?aey 1923 aiaea E?aniay a?iey aoaeao
i?acaeiiaaoue 5-th aiaeiaueio naiaai nouanoaiaaiey. A yoio aeaiue, iyoue
eao oiio iacaae, aue iioaeeeiaai Aeae?ao Niaaoa Ia?iaeiuo Eiienna?ia io
15 yiaa?y oiai aea aiaea, eioi?ui auei iieiaeaii ia/aei
?aai/a-E?anoueyineie E?aniie a?iee, iieioo i?ieaoa?neie aeeeoaoo?u».

Ii oaea /a?ac 10 eao E.A. Ai?ioeeia ioe?uoi auneacae niiiaiea a
i?aaiia?iinoe onoaiiaeaiey aeaou i?acaeieea. A iioaeeeiaaiiie 5 ia?oa
1933 aiaea a «I?aaaea» noaouea «15 eao E?aniie a?iee» ii ienae: «Enoaoe
neacaoue, i?eo?i/eaaiea i?acaeianoaa aiaeiaueiu ?EEA e 23 oaa?aey iineo
aeiaieueii neo/aeiue e o?oaeii iauynieiue oa?aeoa? e ia niaiaaeaao n
enoi?e/aneeie aeaoaie».

A 1938 aiaeo auoea a naao «Enoi?ey AEI(a). E?aoeee eo?n», a eioi?ie
eceaaaeanue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaay aa?ney i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeaou
i?acaeieea 23 oaa?aey, niaa?oaiii ia naycaiiay n aeae?aoii NIE io 15(28)
yiaa?y 1918 aiaea. A eieaa ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi a 1918 aiaeo iiae Ia?aie
e Ineiaii «iaiaoeeei ieeoiaioai aue aeai ?aoeoaeueiue ioii?. Eo
i?iaeaeaeaiea ia Iao?ia?aae auei i?einoaiiaeaii. Aeaiue ioii?a aieneai
aa?iaineiai eiia?eaeecia – 23 oaa?aey – noae aeiai ?iaeaeaiey iieiaeie
E?aniie a?iee».

A i?eeaca Ia?iaeiiai eiienna?a iai?iiu NNN? io 23 oaa?aey 1942 aiaea
Noaeei, enoiaey ec caaea/ aieiu, iiaeei??aeoe?iaae auoai?eaaaeaiioth
oi?ioee?iaeo: «Iieiaeua io?yaeu E?aniie a?iee, aia?aua anooieaoea a
aieio, iaaieiao ?acaeee iaiaoeeeo caoaao/eeia iiae Ineiaii e Ia?aie 23
oaa?aey 1918 aiaea. Eiaiii iiyoiio aeaiue 23 oaa?aey aue iauyaeai aeiai
?iaeaeaiey E?aniie a?iee».

Iaeiaei neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iaa oi?ioee?iaee ioeai/iu ii
oaeoe/aneiio niaea?aeaieth, oae eae a oiaea aiaa, ia/aaoeony 23 oaa?aey
1918 aiaea, iaiaoeeea aienea ?aca?iieaiu ia auee. Aieaa oiai, 24 oaa?aey
iie i?i?aaeenue e noaioeee Ineia-1, a 28 oaa?aey caoaaoeee aanue ai?iae.

Aianoa n oai iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi 21 oaa?aey a nayce n ia?ooaieai
Aa?iaieae ia?aie?ey e ia?aoiaeii aa aiene a ianooieaiea ia Iao?ia?aae
aue iioaeeeiaai aeae?ao-aiccaaiea «Nioeeaeenoe/aneia Ioa/anoai a
iianiinoe!», eioi?ue iieiaeee ia/aei ianniaie caiene aeia?iaieueoeaa a
?yaeu Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee ?anioaeeee, iiiaea ec eioi?uo aeeeenue a
e?aniia?iaeneea iieee, i?aa?aaeaeaaoea ianooieaiea iaiaoeeeo aiene ia
?aaiethoeeiiioth noieeoeo.

E a iiaie ?innee 23 oaa?aey -ciaeiaay aeaoa, i?acaeiee anaai ioaeneiai
ianaeaiey, iaycaiiinoueth eioi?iai ecae?aaea yaeyaony caueoa
ainoaea?noaa. Yoio i?acaeiee oeaeaniia?acii e a aeaeueiaeoai
eniieueciaaoue a eioa?anao aiaiii-iao?eioe/aneiai ainieoaiey iieiaeaaee,
ia?aaea/e ae eo/oeo o?aaeeoeee caueoieeia Ioa/anoaa.

4. Eaaeiaia iiaieua 1242 a.

Eaiaeiaenoa? Oaaoiineiai i?aeaia Aiae?aan oii Oaeueaai i?eaae ia eaae
*oaeneiai ica?a 10—12 oun. aieiia. A ninoaa oaaoiineiai aienea e?iia
i?aeaineeo a?aoueaa-?uoea?ae aoiaeeee io?yaeu Aea?ioneiai aieneiinoaa e
iiiai/eneaiiue io?yae aeaoneeo ?uoea?ae.

Caeiaaiiui a eaou e?anoiiinoeai Aeaenaiae? i?ioeaiiinoaaee iiie/aiea
/eneaiiinoueth a 15—17 oun. aieiia. Ii anee oaaoiioeu — yoi oi?ioi
aii?oaeaiiua e iao/aiiua i?ioanneiiaeu, oi aieueooth /anoue ?onneiai
aienea ninoaaeyei aeaeaei ia ?aaiioeaiiia ei ii aiaaui ea/anoaai
iiaai?iaeneia iaoaa iiie/aiea, iaa?aiiia ec ?aianeaiieeia e aeeoaeae
iinaaea. Eiyaeaneay ae?oaeeia, a eiaiii iia yaeyea niaie aeaaioth neeo,
ninoaaeyea iaiueooth /anoue.

?uoea?neea aienea Aa?iiu aei Eaaeiaiai iiaieua i?iaaee iiiai oniaoiuo
n?aaeaiee i?ioea iaoioiuo iiie/aiee ?aciuo ia?iaeia. Caeiaaiiua a
aeiniaoe anaaeieee ia neeueiuo eioaaeyo, iiaeiaii oa?aio, ?aneaeuaaee
iaoee no?ie iaaeaia, caoai ae?iaeee ia aieaa iaeeea a?oiiu e oie/oiaeaee
eo ii /anoyi. Oa?aeoa?o ?uoea?neiai aiy niioaaonoaiaaei e aiaaia
iino?iaiea e?anoiiinoeaa, eioi?ia eaoiienaoe ia?acii iacaae «aaeeeay
naeiuey». «Naeiuey» no?ieeanue oaeei ia?acii, /oi a aa aieiaiii ?yaeo
auei i?eia?ii io iyoe aei aeanyoe /aeiaae, a a eaaeaeii iineaaeothuai —
ia aeaa aieueoa. Oaeia iino?iaiea auaeyaeaei eae eeei, ino?eai
iai?aaeaiiue ia i?ioeaieea. Eeei ninoiye ec iiuoiuo e oi?ioi
aii?oaeaiiuo ?uoea?ae. Iicaaee eeeia, iinoaiaiii ?anoe?yynue a aeoaeio,
noaiiaeeenue io?yaeu i?oaeaiinoeaa e eiaooia. N oeaiaia ana aienei
i?ee?uaaeinue ?uoea?yie, iino?iaiiuie a iaeei-aeaa ?yaea. Neea oaea?a
oaeiai aienea, anee ii?yaeie aai ia?aae oai ia ia?ooaeny, auea
aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie. A ?acoeueoaoa oaea?a oceie aieiaie «naeiuee»
?ac?uaaeenue ?yaeu i?ioeainoiyuaai aienea, aiaaie ii?yaeie i?ioeaieea
ia?ooaeny e aeaeaa oaea eaa/a auei aeiaanoe aie aei iiaaaeiiai eiioea.

Ii nio?aieoue aiaaie ii?yaeie «naeiuee» iinea iaianaiey aeaaiiai oaea?a
auei ii/oe iaaiciiaeii. Yoiio i?aiyonoaiaaea a?iiicaeeinoue e
aeanoeinoue iino?iaiey. Aea e niaa?oeoue iaiaa? i?e aiacaiii
eciaieaoaeny a oiaea aiy neooaoeee auei i/aiue neiaeii.

Yoe neaaua noi?iiu ?uoea?neie «naeiuee» ?aoee eniieueciaaoue Aeaenaiae?
ss?ineaae/ a n?aaeaiee. Iniiaie aiaaiai ii?yaeea ?onneeo aiene oiai
a?aiaie auee o?e iieea: «/aei» — iiee, iaoiaeyueeny a oeaio?a, e iieee
«i?aaie e eaaie ?oee», ?aniieiaeaiiua ii oeaiaai. Ana o?e iieea
ninoaaeyee iaeio eeieth. I?e/ai «/aei» oi?ie?iaaeinue ec iaeaieaa
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aieiia. Ii iiaai?iaeneee eiycue niaei iioae ia ia?ooaiea
o?aaeeoeee e iino?iee naie aienea a aeaea aeaoo ?acaeaeaathueony, a
iioii ioaaouaathueo e naeeiathueo eeauae. Iniiaiua neeu, aeaaiui ia?acii
eiiieoeo, ii nin?aaeioi/ee ia e?ueueyo, a eiyaeaneoth ae?oaeeio iinoaaee
ia eaaii oeaiaa a canaaeo aeey iaoiaea e oaea?a a oue ?uoea?neie
«naeiuea». A oeaio?a ?aniieiaeeeinue iiaai?iaeneia iiie/aiea, eioi?ia
aeieaeii auei i?eiyoue ia naay ia?aue e iaeaieaa oyaeaeue oaea?.
Aia?aaee «/aea» eiycue ?aniieiaeee eo/ieeia, eioi?ua iai?a?uaiie
no?aeueaie aeieaeiu auee iiiuoaoueny ?anno?ieoue no?ie ?uoea?ae.

N?aaeaiea ninoiyeinue 5 ai?aey 1242 a. Ia ?annaaoa ?uoea?e aeaeioeenue a
aoaeo. ?onneea eo/ieee ano?aoeee a?aaa eeaiai no?ae. Ii caeiaaiiui a
eaou oaaoiioeai iie ii/oe ia i?e/eiyee a?aaea, oioy ianooiaaoay ?yaeii n
e?anoiiinoeaie /oaeue iiianea iuooeiua iioa?e. Iinoaiaiii eo/ieee
iyoeeenue e ?yaeai iaoiou e iaeiiaoe neeeenue n iae. ?uoea?e i?eoii?eee
eiiae e a?oaeeenue a ?aniieiaeaiea iiaai?iaeneie iaoae ?aoe. Ia/aeanue
ia?aaiay na/a. Ia yoii e?eoe/aneii aeey ?onneeo aiene yieciaea
eaoiienaoe aiai?eo: «E iaioee e /thaeue i?iaeoany naeiueae neaicue
iieeu». Ii aia?aua i?ioeaiee ?uoea?ae iinea ?anna/aiey aiaaiai ii?yaeea
ia iiaaaeae n iiey aiy, ia?aeay naay ia nia?oue. Neaaa e ni?aaa ia
oaycioaoeo a iiaai?iaeneeo iaooeao ?uoea?ae ia?ooeeenue iaa e?uea
?onneiai aienea, a n ouea, niaa?oea iaoiaeiie iaiaa?, oaea?eea ioai?iay
ae?oaeeia eiycy Aeaenaiae?a. «E aunoue oo na/a cea e aaeeea iaioeai e
/thaee, e ia aa aaaeaoa eaaeo, iie?u ainy e?iaeth».

Ie?oaeaiiuo, naeaoeony a eo/o ?uoea?ae iiaai?iaeoeu noaneeaaee n
eioaaeae e?th/ueyie e aeiaeaaee ia caiea. Aeoaa i?iaeieaeaeanue iaaeieai
e caeii/eeanue iieiui ii?aaeaieai oaaoiioeaa. Ia?auie iiaaaeaee eiaoou,
ca ieie ia?aoeeenue a aaanoai ?uoea?e. *anoue eo ?onneea ae?oaeeiieee
caaiaee ia o?oieee eaae, eioi?ue ia auaea?aeae e i?ieiieeny iiae
oyaeanoueth caeiaaiiuo a eaou e?anoiiinoeaa e eo eiiae.

A yoii n?aaeaiee, ia n/eoay iiiaeanoaa i?inouo aieiia, iiaeaei iyouenio
ciaoiuo ?uoea?ae, a iyoueaeanyo oaaoiineeo «ia?i/eouo aiaaiae» auei
acyoi a ieai. I?e oi?aeanoaaiiii auacaea eiycy a Iiaai?iae ana iie
iaoeii oee ca aai eiiai. Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ iieo/ee ii/aoiia eiy
«Iaaneee».

Ii ie?iiio aeiaiai?o, caeeth/aiiiio ianeieueeeie ianyoeaie nionoy.
I?aeai ioeacuaaeny io anao i?eoycaiee ia ?onneea caiee e aica?auae
oa??eoi?ee, caoaa/aiiua ?aiaa. Aeaaiaea?y aiooeoaeueiui aiaiiui
iiaaaeai, Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ inoaiiaee oe?ieoth aa?anneth
e?anoiiinoeaa ia caiaaeiua a?aieoeu ?one.

Niaeanii Oaaea?aeueiiio caeiio «I aeiyo aieineie neaau (iiaaaeiuo aeiyo)
?innee» io 13 ia?oa 1995 a. 18* ai?aey ioia/aaony a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee eae Aeaiue iiaaaeu ?onneeo aieiia eiycy Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai
iaae iaiaoeeeie ?uoea?yie ia *oaeneii ica?a.

5. Iaaneay aeoaa 1240 a.

A ia?auo /eneao ethey 1240 a. oaaaeneia aienei /eneaiiinoueth aei 5 oun.
aieiia ia 50 oiaeao aioei a onouea Iaau.

I aoi?aeaiee a?aaa ii/oe n?aco noaei ecaanoii a Iiaai?iaea, aaea
iinoiyiii ianea ?aoioth neoaeao eeoue iaaieueoay eiyaeaneay ae?oaeeia.
Ii i?iaeaeaeaiea iai?eyoaey neaaeiaaei inoaiiaeoue eae iiaeii nei?aa, e
iiyoiio iieiaeie iiaai?iaeneee eiycue Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ iiniaoee
aunooieoue iaiaaeeaiii. Ei aue noi?ie?iaai io?yae ec 300 eiyaeaneeo
ae?oaeeiieeia, 500 ioia?aiiuo iiaai?iaeneeo eiiieeia e noieueeeo aea
iaoeo iiie/aioeaa. Iie auno?ui oiaeii iai?aaeeenue a noi?iio Eaaeiae,
aaea e io?yaeo i?eniaaeeieeinue 150 eiiiuo aieiia-eaaeiaeai.

Oaaaeu iinea aeeeoaeueiiai ii?neiai ia?aoiaea inoaiiaeeenue ia ioaeuo e
?acaeee eaaa?ue ia eaaii aa?aao Iaau, /ooue auoa aiaaeaiey a iaa ?aee
Eaei?u. N i?e/aeeaoeo ei?aaeae ia nooo auee ia?aa?ioaiu noiaeie. *anoue
aienea inoaaaeanue ia oiaeao, iaeaieaa ciaoiua aieiu ?aniieiaeeeenue a
ianiao nii?oaeaiiii eaaa?a. Oaaaeu aunoaaeee iinou, eioi?ua
eiio?iee?iaaee iaaneee aiaeiue iooue. Aiaaua eiie ianeenue a i?ea?aaeiuo
eoaao. Iaiaaeaiey n nooe i?ioeaiee ia iaeeaeae.

A eaoiieniii ?anneaca i Iaaneie aeoaa io/aoeeai ainnicaeaaony caiunae
Aeaenaiae?a. Oaea? iaoae ae?oaeeiu aaeieue aa?aaa Iaau io?acae au
oaaaeia io ei?aaeae, a eiiieoea, aeaenoaoy ni noi?iiu nooe /a?ac oeaio?
eaaa?y, aeieaeia auea caaiaoue iai?eyoaey a oaie, ia?acoaiue aa?aaaie
Eaei?u e Iaau, caieiooue ie?oaeaiea e oie/oiaeeoue i?ioeaieea.

Iieiaeie iieeiaiaeaoe aeanoyua ?aaeeciaae niaeue ieai. ?aii oo?ii 15
ethey, ne?uoii iiaeia?aaoenue e eaaa?th, iiaai?iaeneay ae?oaeeia iaiaea
ia iai?eyoaey. Caoaa/aiiua a?anieio oaaaeu auee iieiinoueth
aeaii?aeeciaaiu e ieacaeenue ia niiniaiuie aeaoue aeieaeiue ioii?.
Ae?oaeeiiee Naaaa i?iaeeny e oeaio?o eo eaaa?y e iiae?oaee noiea,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaoee ceaoiaa?oee oaoa? oaaaeneiai i?aaeaiaeeoaey. Iaaeaiea
oao?a aua aieueoa aiiaeooaaeei ?onneeo ?aoieeia. Iiaai?iaeaoe Cauneaa
sseoiiae/, «iaaaeaeay iiiaaaeaeu, aueaoaony aaeeiui oiii?ii, ia eiay
no?aoa a na?aeoee». Aa?ie aeoau Aaa?eei Ieaene/, i?aneaaeoy ionooiathueo
oaaaeia, ia eiia ii noiaeiyi ai?aaeny ia oiaeo e oai ?oaeeny n a?aaaie.
Na?ioaiiue a ?aeo, ii aiiaue aua?aeny ia aa?aa e anooiee a aie n «naiei
aiaaiaeith iin?aaee iieeo eo, e oaueai aunoue aiaaiaea eo».
Iaeiia?aiaiii n eiiiie ae?oaeeiie ioaeanoaaiii n?aaeaeinue e iaoaa
iiie/aiea iiaai?iaeoea Ieoe. Iaiaa ia a?aaeaneea ei?aaee, «iaooeu»
iioiieee o?e ec ieo.

A aoua aiy iaoiaeeeny e eiycue Aeaenaiae?: ?anii?yaeaeny eae
iieeiaiaeaoe e aeeny eae i?inoie aiei. Eaoiienue ioia/aao, /oi eiycue
n?aaeaeny n iaeiei ec oaaaeneeo aiaaiae e «aiceiaee ia/aoue ia eeoei aai
ino?ui naiei eiiueai».

?aca?ii oaaaeia aue iieiue. Iie aaaeaee ia ei?aaeyo, inoaaea ia aa?aaao
Iaau iiiai ?aiaiuo e iiaeaoeo. ?onneay ae?oaeeia n aieueoeie o?ioayie e
ieaiiuie anei?a aa?ioeanue a Iiaai?iae. Eiycue Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/
iieo/ee ii/aoiia eiy «Iaaneee».

Iaaneay iiaaaea i?aaeioa?aoeea oo?aoo Iiaai?iaeii aa?aaia Oeineiai
caeeaa e ia aeaea i?a?aaoue oi?aiaue iaiai ?one n Caiaaeii. A iiiaio
anaiauae iiaeaaeaiiinoe e niyoaiey io iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai eaa ia?iae a
iiaaaea Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai oaeaeae i?aie aueie neaau ?onneiai i?oaeey
e i?aaeciaiaiiaaiea naiaai aoaeouaai inaiaiaeaeaiey.

A iaiyoue yoie iiaaaeu Iao? I a 1710 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa iniiaae
Aeaenaiae?a-Iaaneee iiianou?ue (iuia Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneay eaa?a).

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aieeia O.Ae. Enoi?ey ?innee. – I., 2006.

2. AEoeia A. ?inney – ninoiyiea – ia?niaeoeau – i?ioeai?a/ey ?acaeoey –
I., 2007.

3. Coaeiaa A.A. Enoi?ey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa – I. 2004.

4. Enoi?ey ?innee: O/. iin. o.2. I.E. Ai?eeia, A.A. Ai?neee, A.A.
Aeaeeeia – I., AEAAeIN, 2007.

5. Enoi?ey ?innee Ioi/aaa O.I., Onoeiia A.I.: O/aaiee aeey Aocia – I.,
2004.

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