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Великие мыслители древней Греции

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Aaeeeea iuneeoaee ae?aaiae A?aoeee.

Ieaoii Aoeeneee

Aaeeeee iuneeoaeue, iniiaaoaeue Aeaaeaiee – oeeinioneie oeieu, Ieaoii
Aoeeneee ?iaeeeny a 427 a. aei i. y. e aeiaeee aei 347a. aei i. y.
Iniiaaiiay ei oeeinioneay oeiea i?inouanoaiaaea ii/oe 1000 eao – aei
529a. i. y. Ieaoii caieiaeny aii?inaie nioai?aiey Ie?a. Ia aii?in, eaeei
ia?acii iia iiyaeoueny aa?iiie/ii ono?iaiiue ie?, Ieaoii ioaa/ae, /oi ii
aue nioai??i niaeanii ii?aaeae?iiiio ieaio. Ii oaaaeaeaieyi Ieaoiia,
ie?, caaeoiaiiue e nicaeaiiue Aa/iinouei Aiaii, iaeooaae?i e aiaeanoaai.

Ieaoii a iaeiii ec naieo aeeaeiaao ienae: «Aanue yoio caiunae
Aa/iinouaai Aiaa ioiineoaeueii Aiaa, eioi?iio oieueei i?aaenoiyei auoue,
o?aaiaae, /oiau oaei einiina auei nioai?aii aeaaeeei…iaeeiaeiai
?ani?ino?ai?iiui ai ana noi?iiu io oeaio?a… A aai oeaio?a iino?ieaoee
aeae ianoi aeooa, ioeoaea ?ani?ino?aiee a? ii anaio i?ioyaeaieth e
aaeiaaaie iae?e ath oaei ecaia».

A ni/eiaieyo Ieaoiia aia?aua a aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a ano?a/aaony eaeay
aaeeiiai Aiaa – Oai?oea. Aai Ieaoii iacuaaao Aeaieo?aii, /oi cia/eo
Ianoa?. Ii iiaieth Ieaoiia, Aeaieo?a aeey ono?ienoaa Anaeaiiie nicaeae
iniaia aauanoai a aeaea niane aeaoo nouiinoae – «iaaeaeeiie eaeaaeueiie»
e «aeaeeiie iaoa?eaeueiie». Iioii Aeaieo?a «?ann?e ninoaa ii aeeeia ia
aeaa /anoe», naa?ioe eo e ec iaeiie naeaeae iaai iaiiaeaeaeiuo ca?cae, a
aoi?oth – caaioiaeo inoaeueiuo iaaaniuo oae – «?acaeaeee ia naiue
ia?aaiuo e?oaia, nio?aiyy /enei aeaieiuo e o?ieiuo eioa?aaeia».

Yoi aeaeaiea, ii?aaeaeythuaa ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo Caie?e e i?aeoaie
naaoee, iacuaatho ieaoiiianeie aa?iiieae noa?.

Ioiineoaeueiua ?annoiyiey io Caiee aei naaoee iieo/eeenue oaeeie:

Eoia – 1, Nieioea – 2, Aaia?a – 3, Ia?eo?ee – 4 , Ia?n – 8, THieoa? -9,
Naoo?i – 27.

Ia naiii aeaea i?aaeeiaeaiiua Ieaoiiii eioa?aaeu ieeae ia naycaiu n
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth, iie eiatho oieueei enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea. Ii a
?acaeoee ano?iiiiee i?eioeei iienea caeiiiia?iinoae a ?acia?ao i?aeo
nua?ae aeinoaoi/ii aaaeioth ?ieue.

A iaeiii ec iaeaieaa iicaeieo naieo aeeaeiaia – «Oeiaa» Ieaoii oiiiyioe
i iiaeaeaeiinoe Caiee: «Caiea aea ei?ieeeoea iaoae, ii (Aeaieo?a (aao).)
ii?aaeaeee a?auaoueny aie?oa ine, i?ioiaeyuae /a?ac Anaeaiioth, e
iinoaaee a? aethnoeoaeueieoeae aeiy e ii/e».

Yoi aeaeaeaiea Caiee i?ioeai?a/eei a?auaieth, eioi?ia oeeinio i?eienuaae
iaao e ca?caeai.

Aiciiaeii, Ieaoii a naieo auaiaeao ii aeaeaeaieth iaaaniuo oae
niiiaaaeny e ia ii?aaeaeeeny, eaeia a?auaiea i?aaeii/anoue.

A iniiaaiiie Ieaoiiii Aeaaeaiee Oeeinio /eoae eaeoeee i nicaeaiee ie?a,
i i?aanoaaiiinoe. *oi eanaaony i?aanoaaiiinoe, oi iaeiei ec i?eia?ia aai
oaaaeaeaiee yaeyaony oi, /oi ii ia iaeia?ye aei?iaea ia?yaeu ia iieiaeuo
ethaeyo e aeaaea inoaeaeae yoo, eae ii ooaa?aeaeae, aeaineoth no?anoue e
ia?yaeai e oe?aoaieyi. Ii iiieiae, /oi iieiaeui ethaeyi oioaeinue
i?aaeoueny, /oi iie /oanoaiaaee naay ai?acaei eo/oa a aei?iaeo e
e?aneauo ia?yaeao, /ai a iaeiioeaaoiie oeaieaea, ii iiiaieaoiea i?eau/ee
Ieaoiia ia niaeaoathony n aeiaiaeaie aai ?acoia. Ii aue oe?ieiiea/,
e?anea, noaoai – ii aeaai?iaeai. E i?inoie ia?yae, n/eoae oeeinio, eeoue
iiae/??eeaae aai aeaai?iaenoai.

Ec oeieu oeeinioee Ieaoiia auoei iiiai o/aieeia, noaaoeo aiineaaenoaee
iuneeoaeyie, o/?iuie, eiaeeaie. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo neaaeiaaee acaeyaeai
naiaai o/eoaey, ae?oaea ia ai an?i niaeaoaeenue n aaeeeei oeeinioii e
nicaeaaaee naie, i?ioeaiiieiaeiua eaeayi Ieaoiia oai?ee. Oae
ca?iaeaeaeanue iaoea – a i?ioeai?a/eyo e nii?ao, iaaei neacaoue, e ia
oieueei a ae?aaiea aaea. Oae iia ?acaeaaaony e ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Aiai?y i i?aaeeueiuo e ioeai/iuo oi/eao c?aiey ia iiiai/eneaiiua
i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie i?eoeinue noieeiooueny Ieaoiio, oi/aony ioiaoeoue,
/oi anoue «aa/iua» aii?inu, ioaaou ia eioi?ua e nae/an yaeythony
iaiaeiicia/iuie. Aii?in i nioai?aiee ie?a, o. a. i aicieeiiaaiee
Anaeaiiie – iiaeao ee eiaaea-ieaoaeue eoi-oi oi/ii eee n aieueoie
noaiaiueth aa?iyoiinoe ioaaoeoue – eae yoi i?iecioei.

Eee, e i?eia?o, aaea eneaoue Aoeaioeaeo? *oi i?iecioei ia ieaiaoa a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea en/acea Aoeaioeaea? Ii?aceoaeueii, ii a nai? a?aiy Ieaoii
oaeaea ienae i eaoano?ioa, i?eaaaeoae e aeaaee aoeaioia e eo n?aaeu
iaeoaiey. Ieaoii a naieo ?aaioao oeacuaae, /oi Aoeaioeaea ?aniieaaaeanue
ca i?ieeaii Aea?aeoa? a Aoeaioeea. Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee o/?iue i?ea?e aeaa
aanueia i?eaeeceoaeueiua aeaou aeaaee Aoeaioeaeu: iaeeiiaaeoeaoue e
aeaaiaaeoeaoue ouny/ eao iacaae, anee aanoe n/?o io iaoaai a?aiaie.

I i?ae?aniii ino?iaa e iiao/ai ainoaea?noaa aoeaioia iiaaaeae ie?o, oau,
oieueei ii iaeei, aaeeeee oeeinio Ae?aaiae A?aoeee – Ieaoii. Ii Ieaoii
aea, ii aai ooaa?aeaeaieth, iie?aeny ia ?anneac ia Aoeaioeaea naiaai
i?aaeea ii iaoa?eineie eeiee, «ioae?aeoaai ec naie ioae?uo», Nieiia.
(Aiae ?iaeaeaiey Nieiia ia onoaiiaeai, ii ecaanoii, /oi a 594 a. aei i.
y. ii aue a?oiioii a Aoeiao. Aeaoa aai nia?oe oaeaea ia ecaanoia.
Aeiaeee Nieii aei aeoaieie noa?inoe).

Iieoeaaaiaea?iay – iieoenoi?e/aneay ?iaeineiaiay Nieiia e Ieaoiia
iaiau/aeii eioa?ania. ?iaeiia/aeueieeii eo aue ia eoi eiie, eae nai aia
Iinaeaeii. Oio naiue Iinaeaeii, /oi «iniiaae Aoeaioeaeo e ianaeee a?
naieie aeaoueie».

I?aaioeii nuia Iinaeaeiia Iaeay aue aoeineee oea?ue Eiae?. Nieii aue
iioiieii Eiae?a, a Ieaoii – i?ai?aaioeii Eiae?a. Iooaoanoaoy ii Aaeioo,
a?a/aneee ioae?aoe Nieii ociae io ae?aoeia, a auoue iiaeao i?i/?e a
o?aia aiaeie Iaeo a Naena, enoi?eth Aoeaioeaeu.

A ni/eiaieyo Ieooa?oa niiauaaony i oii, /oi Nieii ia/ae «iaoe?iue o?oae»
ia Aoeaioeaea, ii ia caeii/ee aai. Io yoiai o?oaea, e niaeaeaieth, aei
iaoeo aeiae ie/aai ia aeioei. Nionoy 200 eao iioiiie Nieiia Ieaoii
iiaaaeae ie?o a naieo aeeaeiaao «Oeiae» e «E?eoee» neacaiea Nieiia ia
Aoeaioeaea, oneuoaiiia ei io aioea Nieiia, E?eoey. Yoi neacaiea
ii?aaeaao aiia?aaeaiea iaoeo nia?aiaiieeia oi/iinoueth niaiaaeaiee
iiiaeo i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo ia ieaiaoa, i?eaaaeoeo e aeaaee
caaaaei/iiai ino?iaa, n aeaiiuie nia?aiaiiuo o/?iuo. Ieaoii ?anneacuaaao
i aaeeeii e iiao/ai ia?iaea aoeaioia, ia eo i?ae?aniii ino?iaa e aunieie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Ieaoii ienae: «Aeanoue nithca oea?ae i?inoe?aeanue ia
aanue ino?ia, ia iiiaea ae?oaea ino?iaa e ia /anoue iaoa?eea. A ii yoo
noi?iio i?ieeaa aoeaiou iaeaaeaee Eeaeae aei Aaeioa e Aa?iiie aieioue
aei Oe??aiee (Yo?o?ee), iineieueeo oeio aoeaioia aac?acaeaeueii
ainiiaenoaiaae ia ii?yo». Ieaoii ?anneacuaaao i ainoaea?noaaiiii
ono?ienoaa aoeaioia. Ii iienuaaao o?aiu, aeai?aoe, eieueoeaaua eaiaeu,
iinou, aaaaie. ?anneacuaaao Ieaoii e i o?aae/aneie aeaaee i?ae?aniiai
ino?iaa – a ?acoeueoaoa a?aiaeeiciie eaoano?iou ino?ia iiaeioeei ii?a.
Ie iaeei ienueiaiiue enoi/iee ae?aaieo, e?iia aeeaeiaia Ieaoiia ia
niiauaao ie/aai ia Aoeaioeaea.

A?enoioaeue Noaae?neee

O/aiee Ieaoiia A?enoioaeue neacae «Ieaoii iia ae?oa, ii enoeia
aei?iaea». Neiaa yoe noaee iiaiai?eie, ii iaei eiio ecaanoii, /oi iaeiie
ec i?e/ei, eioi?ay iiaoaeeea A?enoioaey i?aaeii/anoue «enoeio» naiaio
o/eoaeth, auea an? oa aea enoi?ey n Aoeaioeaeie. I?eaiai?, auianaiiue
Aoeaioeaea A?enoioaeai, iao?e iiaeaea?aeeo o o?enoeaineeo aeiaiaoeeia:
aaaeue a n?aaeiea aaea aue oi?ioi ecaanoai aiae nioai?aiey ie?a – 5508
a. aei i. y. Inia?eaaoue nae oaeo ia ?ac?aoaeinue: n a?aoeeaie iinooiaee
e?ooi.

Ii ia oieueei Aoeaioeaea auea i?e/eiie ?aciuo «enoei» o/aieea e o/eoaey.

Yoi auee ia?aua nicaeaoaee oeeinioneeo o/aiee, oai?aoe/aneeo noai e
iiaeaeae. Iie aeeee ca ianeieueei noieaoee aei i. y.

Iaeei ec aaee/aeoeo oeeinioia e o/?iuo ?iaeeeny a 384 a. aei i. y. a
Noaae?a, a?a/aneie eieiiee ai O?aeee, aaeece Aoiia.

Aai ioaoe Ieeiiao e iaoue Oanoeaea auee aeaai?iaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

Ioaoe aue i?eaeai?iui a?a/ii iaeaaeiineiai a?a/a Aieiou o?aoueaai, oo
aea aeieaeiinoue ii i?i/ee naiaio iaeue/eeo.

Ieeiiao ia?aiia/aeueii nai iao/ae nuia a?a/aaiiio eneonnoao e oeeinioee,
a oi a?aiy ia?acaeaeueiie n iaaeeoeeiie. Ii ii ?aii oia? e ia?aae
nia?oueth i/aiue ai?aaae, /oi ia oniae aei eiioea iao/eoue nuia
eneonnoao a?a/aaaiey, e oai naiui ia iaania/ee aio ianoi i?e oea?a, ii
aai neiaa – eo/oaa ianoi i?e eo/oai oea?a.

Ia?aae nia?oiui /anii ioaoe iiniaaoiaae nuio i?e aeinoeaeaiee 17 eao
eaeoe a Aoeiu, a oi a?aiy – noieeoeo anae yeeeineie ioae?inoe, e iaeoe
oai naaa ianoiyueo o/eoaeae aeecie.

Ioaoe ianoiyoaeueii ?aeiiaiaeiaae nuio caiiiieoue eiy Ieaoiia, eioi?ue,
ii aai neiaai, aaae?o naie ?iae io Nieiia, eioi?ue aue nuiii Aiieeiia.
Iineieueeo iao ?iae ciaoai, eai iu iioiiee Aneeaiey, – aiai?ee ioaoe
nuio, a a eii niaaeeieony ioae?inoue Aneeaiey e ioae?inoue Aiieeiia, oio
e noaiao naiui ioae?ui ec ethaeae e i?eaeeceony e aiaai.

A?enoioaeue iieeyeny, /oi oae e naeaeaao, e i?e aeinoeaeaiee ei 17 eao,
oaea ia neaaeothuee aeaiue ioi?aaeeny a Aoeiu, e Ieaoiio.

A 367 a. aei i. y. ii iinooiee a oeieo, iniiaaiioth Ieaoiiii – o/aieeii
Nie?aoa (469 -399 a. aei i.y.) a ianoa/ea Aeaaeaiey, iaaeaeaei io Aoei.

Iinea 20 eao o/?au A?enoioaeue iniiaae a Aoeiao naith oeeinioneoth
oeieo, a iaeioi?ii ?iaea i?ioeai?a/eaoth Aeaaeaiee Ieaoiia.

Iinea nia?oe Ieaoiia A?enoioaeue aianoa n ethaeiui o/aieeii iineaaeiaai
Enaiioiioii ia?aaoae e aoa?iaeneiio oe?aio Aa?ieia. AEaieaoenue ia aai
ieaiyiieoea Ieoiaaea, A?enoioaeue iinaeeeny n iath a Ienoeeaia, ioeoaea
aue i?ecaai iaeaaeiineei oea??i Oeeeiiii ia ainieoaiea aai nuia.
Aeaai?iaeiue aeoo ainieoaiieea, aaee/ea aai iiaeaeaia aiai?yo i
aeeaioai?iii e aeaaiaeaoaeueiii aeeyiee aaeeeiai oeeinioa ia iaeue/eea,
noaaoei aiineaaenoaee ciaiaieoui iieeiaiaeoeai Aeaenaiae?ii.

Ia?aaoaa a 334 a. aei i. y. niiaa a Aoeiu, A?enoioaeue iniiaae oai naith
oeieo, iieo/eaooth iacaaiea ia?eiaoaoe/aneie.

I?e aeecie A?enoioaeue ia aue ethaei e ia anaaaea i?eciai, i?aa?aoiinoe
noaeueau neacaeenue ia oii, /oi iaeioi?ua ?aaiou ieacaeenue iaiieiuie e
io?uai/iuie. Ai?i/ai, iiiaeo o/?iuo, eioi?ua aeeee cia/eoaeueii iicaea,
iinoeaea oa aea o/anoue.

Ia?oaeiinoue o/?iiai ia ioee/aeanue i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoueth. Ii aue ?inoa
iaaieueoiai, nooiuaa, aeeci?oe, ea?oaa. N ycaeoaeueiie oeuaeie ia aoaao,
ii aue oieiaeai e ianiaoeea. I?ioeaieee aiyeenue aai ?a/e, anaaaea
eiae/iie e eiaeie, ino?ioiiie e na?eanoe/aneie, /oi niinianoaiaaei,
eiia/ii, iiyaeaieth aieueoiai eiee/anoaa a?aaia.

Io?eoeaoaeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea a?aeia e A?enoioaeth i?aneaaeiaaei e iinea
nia?oe. I?e aeecie aai iaaeiyee a aacaiaeee, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
62-eaoiee, ii iieeioe Aoeiu e ia?anaeeeny a Oaeien ia Yaaa, aaea /a?ac
ianeieueei ianyoeaa oia? io aieacie aeaeoaeea.

Ca iei ia ino?ia iineaaeiaaea a?oiia o/aieeia. Naith aiaaooth aeaeeioaeo
e ?oeiaiaenoai oeieith ii caaauae Oaio?anoo Y?aceeneiio

A?enoioaeue iaienae aieaa 300 ?aaio. Ii nicaeae oai?eth iiciaiey,
oi?iaeueioth eiaeeo, oai?eth iiycee, iaoaieeo, iienaoaeueioth aeieiaeth
e oeceieiaeth.

Ii e?eoeeiaae naiaai o/eoaey Ieaoiia e no?aieeny caieiaoueny ia oieueei
iaueie aii?inaie, ii e aiaeece?iaaoue eiie?aoiua yaeaiey. Aai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i ie?a aiaoia iaei ioee/aeenue io ieaoiiianeeo, ii ii
nooe naiae auee ei i?ioeaiiieiaeiu.

A?enoioaeue n/eoae ie? aa/iui e iaeciaiiui, aeeaouei ii oece/aneei
caeiiai. Ii oeceea A?enoioaey ?acei ioee/aeanue io iaoae e a? aaoi?eoao
a N?aaeiea aaea a eaeie oi iiiaio noaea naea?aeeaaoue i?ia?ann yoie
iaoee.

Nia/aea oeeinio iainiiaae eaeath i oii, /oi ai Anaeaiiie anoue iniaay
oi/ea – oeaio?, e eioi?iio a neeo naiae i?e?iaeu no?aieeenue oyae?eua
yeaiaiou: caiey e aiaea. Aaaeue anee au oaeiai oeaio?a ia auei, iaaeaiea
i?aaeiaoia i?iaeieaeaeinue au aa/ii, aac inoaiiaee. Ec-ca no?aieaiey
yeaiaioia e oeaio?o ie?a Caiey iieo/eea oi?io oa?a. E?aeea yeaiaiou –
aicaeoo e iaiiue – iai?ioea, no?aieeenue io oeaio?a, ii ia ooiaeeee ca
a?aieoeu «iieoaeaiiie noa?u». Ca iae ia/eiaeinue oea?noai iaaaniuo oae,
iino?iaiiia ec iniaiai, iyoiai yeaiaioa – «eaeioynnaioeee», yoe?a.

Aeaeaeaiea e oeaio?o e io iaai A?enoioaeue n/eoae «anoanoaaiiuie», ana
inoaeueiua aai aeaeu o?aaiaaee i?eeiaeaiey neeu e iacuaaeenue
«i?eioaeeoaeueiuie». *oiau iauynieoue, ii/aio iaaaniua oaea aeaeaeoony,
oeeinio aa?e iaeee aiaeanoaaiiue ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue, ?aniieaaaaoeeny o
aiaoieo i?aaeaeia ie?a. A eae iauynieoue iie?o iouaiiie no?aeu eee
a?ioaiiiai eaiiy? Aaaeue iie eaoyo, eiaaea neea oaea ia aeaenoaoao.
Niaeanii A?enoioaeth, eo ian?o aicaeooiue aeo?ue. Eaiaiue ?acaeaeaaao
aicaeoo, oio iaoiaeeo eaoyuaa oaei, oaea?yao ii iaio ncaaee e oai naiui
iiaeaea?aeeaaao aeaeaeaiea. Yoa no?aiiay aeey ian oeceea ia aeiioneaea
aeaaea inaaiai a?auaiey Caiee.

Oaeaio iuneeoaey A?enoioaey i?ea?e e iauyniaieth iiiaeo yaeaiee e
i?ioeannia a i?e?iaea. Nae/an iu ciaai, /oi a iaeioi?uo auaiaeao ii
caaeoaeaeaeny. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa yoe ioeaee ioiinyony e oece/aneei
yaeaieyi. Oae, iai?eia?, iianaaeiaaiua iaaethaeaiey nicaeatho
aia/aoeaiea, /oi aeaeaeaiea oae n iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth o?aaoao
ii?aaeae?iiuo oneeee.

A iaoaieea A?enoioaey yoio auaiae iieo/ee oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea, ia
naycaiiia n ia?auaieai e yenia?eiaioo.

Ei noi?ioee?iaai i?eioeei «i?e?iaea aieony ionoiou», o. a. i?ino?ainoai
caiieiaii iaoa?eae, eioi?ay ieacuaaao nii?ioeaeaiea ethaiio aeaeaeaieth
oae. Iiyoiio aeey aeaeaeaiey oae n iinoiyiiie nei?inoueth iaiaoiaeeii
iinoiyiii i?eeeaaeuaaoue neeo. Ionthaea neaaeoao auaiae, /oi a
ionoonoaea nee aeaeaeaiea iaaiciiaeii.

Aaoi?eoao A?enoioaey a ae?aaiai ie?a e a n?aaeiea aaea aue ianoieueei
aaeee, /oi iio?aaiaaeinue ii/oe aeaa ouny/aeaoey, /oiau i?aiaeieaoue
neiaeeaoeany acaeyaeu ia i?iaeaio aeaeaeaiey oae e nicaeaoue iiaoth,
iaiieieaaeioth oai?eth.

A ?yaeo iiiai/eneaiiuo o/aiee A?enoioaeue noi?ioee?iaae oai?eth oeaaoia.
Ii iieaaae, /oi iniiaiui yaeyaony nieia/iue, o. a. aaeue naao, a ana
inoaeueiua oeaaoa iieo/athony ec iaai aeiaaaeaieai ?acee/iiai eiee/anoaa
o?iiiai oeaaoa. Oaeei ia?acii, ii aai oai?ee auoiaeeei, /oi oeaaoa
?aaeoae neiaeiua, a nieia/iue naao i?inoie. Yoi o/aiea i naaoa
i?iaeieaeaei ainiiaenoaiaaoue a iaoea aieioue aei naiiaaeoeaoiai aaea.

*oiau ia neiaeeeinue iiaiey, /oi any oai?ey A?enoioaey auea ioeai/iie,
caiaoei, /oi a oeceea ii aaniethoii aa?ii iauyniee i?e?iaeo caoea.
Enoiaey ec iaaethaeaiee, ii naeaeae auaiae i oii, /oi cao/auaa oaei
nicaea?o iiia?aiaiiia naeaoea e ?ac?aaeaiea aicaeooa, a aeaaiaea?y
oi?oainoe aicaeooa yoe /a?aaeothueany aicaeaenoaey ia?aaeathony aeaeueoa
a i?ino?ainoai – io neiy e neith.

Iaeiaei, caaeoaeaeaeny oeeinio e iuneeoaeue e a oii, /oi ooaa?aeaeae,
aoaeoi i?e iaaeaiee oyae?eua oaea aeaeaeoony ni nei?inoueth,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie eo aano. Nei?aa anaai, ii i?eo?e e yoiio auaiaeo ia
iniiaa iaaethaeaiee: aeaenoaeoaeueii, aaaeue eeno aoiaae iioneaaony ia
caieth iaaeeaiiaa, a eaiaiue eaoeo i?yii aiec cia/eoaeueii auno?aa.
A?enoioaeue ioeany, ia o/oy nii?ioeaeaiey aicaeooa.

Oi anoue ioeaee a aai oai?ee auee, ii yoi auei ca?iaeaeaiea iaoee.
Iiiaea aii?inu auee iinoaaeaiu aia?aua, ioaeaeueiuo iaoe au? ia
nouanoaiaaei, iuneeoaee ae?aaiinoe eneaee ioaaou, iieaaaynue a iniiaiii
ia naie iaaethaeaiey, ia eiay oaeoe/anee ieeaeeo i?eai?ia.

A?enoa?o Naiinneee

A?enoa?o aeee ieiei 310 – 250 aa. aei i. y. ?iaeeeny ia ino?iaa Naiin.

Ii aue o/aieeii oeceea No?aoiia ec Eaiinaea. Aai o/eoaeue i?eiaaeeaaeae
e oeiea A?enoioaey e a eiioea aeecie aeaaea ?oeiaiaeee Eeeaai,
nicaeaiiui A?enoioaeai.

A?enoa?o aue iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae ciaiaieoie Aeaenaiae?eeneie
aeaeeioaee e Ionaeiia – aeaaiiai iao/iiai oeaio?a iicaeiae aioe/iinoe.

Ii-aeaeeiiio, caeanue n?aaee ia?aiai iieieaiey o/?iuo Aeaenaiae?ee,
o/eeny e ?aaioae A?enoa?o.

Eiy A?enoa?oa eae – aoaeoi auiaaeaao ec naiae yiioe. Ii, yaeyynue
o/aieeii oeieu A?enoioaey, ii aue oeeinioii ni naiei ie?iaicc?aieai,
aianoee ii?aaeae?iiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea iaoee aioe/iiai a?aiaie.

A /anoiinoe, ecaanoiu aai auaiaeu a iaeanoe ano?iiiiee.

AeI iaai oai?ee iaaa no?ieeenue /enoi oiic?eoaeueii, ia iniiaa
oeeinioneeo a?aoiaioia. Eia/a e auoue ia iiaei, iineieueeo iaai
?anniao?eaaeinue eae ie? eaeaaeueiiai, aa/iiai, aiaeanoaaiiiai. A?enoa?o
iiiuoaeny ii?aaeaeeoue ?annoiyiey aei iaaaniuo oae n iiiiuueth
iaaethaeaiee. Eiaaea o iaai yoi iieo/eeinue, ii naeaeae aoi?ie oaa, e
eioi?iio ia auee aioiau ie aai nia?aiaiieee, ie o/?iua iiiai aaeia
iicaeiaa. Eae A?enoa?o ?aoee ia?aoth caaea/o, ecaanoii oi/ii.
Aaeeinoaaiiay nio?aieaoayny aai eieaa «I ?acia?ao Nieioea e Eoiu e
?annoiyieyo aei ieo» eae ?ac iinayuaia yoie i?iaeaia.

Nia/aea A?enoa?o ii?aaeaeee, ai neieueei ?ac Nieioea aeaeueoa Eoiu. Aeey
yoiai ii ecia?ee oaie iaaeaeo Eoiie, iaoiaeeaoaeny a oaca /aoaa?oe, e
Nieioeai (yoi iiaeii naeaeaoue i?e caoiaea eee ainoiaea Nieioea, eiaaea
Eoia eiiaaea aeaeia iaeiia?aiaiii n iei). Anee, ii neiaai A?enoa?oa,
«Eoia eaaeaony iai ?anna/?iiie iiiieai, oaie, eiathuee eoio naiae
aa?oeiie, i?yiie». A?enoa?o ecia?ee oaie iaaeaeo Eoiie e Nieioeai, a
aa?oeia eioi?iai iaoiaeeeanue Caiey. Ec iieo/aiiuo ei oaeia A?enoa?o
ii?aaeaeee, /oi ?annoiyiea io Caiee aei Nieioea a 19 ?ac aeeeiiaa
?annoiyiey aei Eoiu. Ia yoii auaiaea – Nieioea a 19 ?ac aeaeueoa Eoiu –
A?enoa?o inoaiiaeeny. Ia naiii aeaea Nieioea a 400 ?ac aeaeueoa Eoiu, ii
n eino?oiaioaie oiai a?aiaie iaeoe oi/iia cia/aiea yoiai ?annoiyiey auei
iaaiciiaeii.

A?enoa?o ciae, /oi aeaeeiua aeenee Nieioea e Eoiu i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiau.
Ii nai iaaethaeae nieia/iia caoiaiea, eiaaea aeene Eoiu iieiinoueth
cae?uaae aeene Nieioea. Ii anee aeaeeiua aeenee ?aaiu? a ?annoiyiea aei
Nieioea a 19 ?ac aieueoa, oi aeeaiao? Nieioea a 19 ?ac aieueoa aeeaiao?a
Eoiu.

Inoaaaeinue aeaaiia: n?aaieoue Nieioea e Eoio n Caie?e. Aa?oeiie iao/iie
niaeinoe oiaaea auea eaeay, /oi Nieioea i/aiue aaeeei, aiciiaeii, aeaaea
ii/oe oaeaea aaeeei, eae any A?aoeey.

Iaaethaeay eoiiua caoiaiey, eiaaea Eoia i?ioiaeeo /a?ac oaiue Caiee,
A?enoa?o onoaiiaee, /oi aeeaiao? Eoiu a aeaa ?aca iaiueoa caiiie oaie.

N iiiiuueth oeo?ioiiuo ?annoaeaeaiee ii aeieacae, /oi Eoia iaiueoa Caiee
a 3 ?aca. Ii Nieioea aieueoa Eoiu a 19 ?ac, a cia/eo a? aeeaiao? a 6 n
eeoiei ?ac aieueoa caiiiai (a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a 109 ?ac).

Aeaaiui a ?aaioa A?enoa?oa aue ia ?acoeueoao, a nai oaeo auiieiaiey,
aeieacaaoee, /oi iaaeinoeaeeiue ie? iaaaniuo oae iiaeao auoue iiciai n
iiiiuueth ecia?aiee e ?an/aoia.

Ana yoe auaiaeu, ii-aeaeeiiio, iiaeoieeioee A?enoa?oa e aai aaeeeiio
ioe?uoeth. Aai eaeay aeioea aei ian a ia?aneaca A?oeiaaea. A?enoa?o
aeiaaaeaeny, /oi aieueoia Nieioea ia iiaeao ia?auaoueny aie?oa
iaeaiueeie Caiee. Aie?oa Caiee a?auaaony oieueei Eoia. Nieioea anoue
oeaio? Anaeaiiie. Aie?oa iaai ia?auathony e ieaiaou. Yoa oai?ey iieo/eea
iacaaiea aaeeioeaio?e/aneie. Niaio aeiy e ii/e A?enoa?o iauyniye oai,
/oi Caiey a?auaaony aie?oa naiae ine. Aai aaeeioeaio?e/aneay iiaeaeue
iauyniyea caiaoiia eciaiaiea aeanea Ia?na, iaoeaia?aciia aeaeaeaiea
ieaiao, aucaaiiia ia?auaieai Caiee aie?oa Nieioea.

A naiae oai?ee o/?iue o/?e oio oaeo, /oi iaaethaeaoaeue ia aeaeaeouaeny
Caiea aeieaeai caiaoeoue eciaiaiea iieiaeaiea ca?cae – ia?aeeaeoe/aneia
niauaiea. A?enoa?o iauyniye eaaeouothny iaiiaeaeaeiinoue ca?cae oai, /oi
iie i/aiue aeaeaee io Caiee, e a? i?aeoa aaneiia/ii iaea ii n?aaiaieai n
yoei ?annoiyieai.

Oai?ey A?enoa?oa ia iiaea auoue i?eiyoa aai nia?aiaiieeaie. Iaaiciiaeii
auei iiaa?eoue, /oi iaoa iii?a ia iieieony, a a?auaaony e aeaeaeaony e
iniciaoue ana iineaaenoaey oiai oaeoa, /oi Caiey oiaea iaaaniia oaei,
iiaeiaiia Aaia?a eee Ia?na. A yoii neo/aa ?ooioea au ouny/aeaoiyy eaeay
Iaaa, aaee/anoaaiii ace?athuaai ia caiiie ie?.

Nia?aiaiieee A?enoa?oa ioaa?aee aaeeioeaio?eci. Aai iaaeieee a
aiaiooeuenoaa e ecaiaee ec Aeaenaiae?ee. *a?ac ianeieueei aaeia Eeaaaeee
Ioieaiae iaeae?o e oaaaeeoaeueiua oai?aoe/aneea aeiaiaeu, ii?iaa?aathuea
aeaeaeaiea Caiee. Iio?aaoaony niaia yiio, /oiau aaeeioeaio?eci niia
aieoe a niciaiea ethaeae.

A?oeiaae

A?oeiaae ec Ne?aeoc aeee a 287-212 a. aei i. y.

Auaeathueeny iaoaiaoee, iniiaiiieiaeiee noaoeee e aeae?inoaoeee, iioee,
eiaeaia? e ecia?aoaoaeue, ii oaea a nai? a?aiy caaiaaae ia?iiioth neaao.

A iieiaeinoe A?oeiaae o/eeny a Aeaenaiae?ee o iaoaiaoeea Eiiiia.
Aa?iyoii, /oi oai ii iiciaeiieeny n iaiieiaeui oaea A?enoa?oii.

Aa?ioaoenue a Ne?aeocu, o/?iue noae «aeaaiui aiaiiui eiaeaia?ii
ai?iaea».

Nicaeaiiay ei nenoaia iai?iiu e aiaiiua iaoeiu, aeeth/ay «aeaouea
ca?eaea» e «aeaeaciua eaiu» (iaieioeyoi?u, oiieaoea aeanaioiua noaea
?eieyi), naeaeaee ai?iae iai?enooiiui.

Iiae noa?inoue A?oeiaaeo i?eoeinue o/anoaiaaoue a iai?iia Ne?aeoc,
eioi?ua, eioi?ua ai a?aiy aoi?ie Ioie/aneie aieiu auee inaaeaeaiu
?eineei iieeiaiaeoeai Ia?eii Ia?oeaeii. Ai?iae aea?aeaeny aieueoa aiaea
e aue caoaa/ai eeoue a ?acoeueoaoa i?aaeaoaeuenoaa. Ai a?aiy
?aca?aaeaiey Ne?aeoc A?oeiaae aue oaeo ?eineei nieaeaoii.

Aia?aua a enoi?ee iaoee A?oeiaae i?eiaiee iaoaiaoeeo e ?aoaieth
i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/. Ei ioe?uo iniiaiie caeii ay?inoaoeee e nicaeaia
oai?ey ?aaiiaaney aeeaeeinoae e aacia. Aai o?oaeu iineoaeeee iniiaie
aeey nicaeaiey aeae?aaee/aneeo aiia?aoia, iai?eia?, ii?oiaauo ianinia.

Nae/an eaaeaeue o/aiee, eco/athuee oeceeo, ciaao, eae ii?aaeaeeoue
?aaiiaeaenoaothuoth iiaa?oiinoiuo nee, aeaenoaothueo ia a?onie –
ia?aeeaeaieiaae ieiuaaeueth iniiaaiey 1/2, iia?oaeaiiue a aeeaeeinoue
ieioiinoueth ? ia aeoaeio h. ?aaiiaeaenoaothuay yoeo nee, iacuaaaiay
auoaeeeaathuae, iai?aaeaia aa?oeeaeueii aaa?o e ii?aaeaeyaony ii caeiio,
eioi?ue nae/an iineo eiy A?oeiaaea.

Niaeanii caeiio A?oeiaaea, ia oaei, iia?oaeaiiia a aeeaeeinoue eee aac,
aeaenoaoao auoaeeeaathuay neea, iai?aaeaiiay aa?oeeaeueii aaa?o e ?aaia
aano auoaniaiiie ei aeeaeeinoe (aaca).

A?oeiaae ?anniao?eaae i?iaeaio ?aaiiaaney iaoaie/aneie nenoaiu, a
/anoiinoe, ei aue iaeaeai caeii ?aaiiaaney ?u/aaa, o. a. oa??aeiai oaea
n cae?aie?iiie inueth a?auaiey. Aai ciaiaieoia aineeeoeaiea – «Aeaeoa
iia oi/eo iii?u, e y ia?aaa?io Caieth!» – aiai?eo i oii, /oi oai?eth
anaaaea iiaeii e ioaeii oiaoue i?eiaiyoue ia i?aeoeea. Ii?aaeaeeoue,
neieueei cieioa a «cieioie » ei?iia, eee, iai?eia?, a cieioie iaaeaee
ieeiieeoea iiaeii aeaaiaea?y caeiio A?oeiaaea.

A?oeiaae ?ac?aaioae iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey oeaio?a oyaeanoe, ecia??e
iiiaeanoai iaoaieciia aeey iiaeiyoey oyaeanoe e iiaeu?ia aiaeu, aiaiiua
iaoaoaeueiua iaoeiu.

Aaaeiue aeeaae A?oeiaae ai?n a ?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee. Ii nicaeae oai?eth
au/eneaiey ieiuaaeae ieineeo oeao? e iau?iia, aia?aua au/eneee aeeeio
ie?oaeiinoe, iieuecoynue aienaiiuie e iienaiiuie iiiaioaieueieeaie.
Aeieaey aei 96- noi?iiiaai iiiaioaieueieea, iao?e i?eaeeae?iiia cia/aiea
/enea ? a i?aaeaeao 223/71

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