.

Великие государственные деятели России

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2305
Скачать документ

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee Oieaa?neoao Yeiiiieee e Oeiainia.

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

Oaeia Ieoaeea Ieoaeeiae/a Nia?aineiai:

aeeciue, ainieoaiea, ia?aciaaiea, eaeae e iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu.

Nooaeaioea I eo?na Ai?iouineay

Naaoeaia Aeaenaiae?iaia.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1998 aiae.

Ieoaee Ieoaeeiae/ Nia?aineee.

01.01.1772 – 11.02.1839

I. I. Nia?aineee, nui naeueneiai nayuaiieea, ?iaeeeny 1-ai yiaa?y 1772
aiaea a iaaieueoii naea *a?eooeii ai Aeaaeeie?neie aoaa?iee,
ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea iieo/ee ai Aeaaeeie?neie naieia?ee e a
aeaaiie naieia?ee a Iaoa?ao?aa, a ia?eiae n 1803 ii 1807 aiaea ii aue
aee?aeoi?ii aeaia?oaiaioa ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae, n 1807 aiaea –
noaon-nae?aoa?ue eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a I, n 1808 a. – caianoeoaeue
ieieno?a thnoeoeee, a 1812 aiaeo Nia?aineee aue oaieai n
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau e nineai a Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae, a caoai a Ia?iue,
a 1819 aiaeo Nia?aineee noaiiaeony aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Neae?e; a 1838
aiaeo aue i?aaenaaeaoaeai aeaia?oaiaioa caeiiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
niaaoa, a 1835 – 1837 aiaeao i?aiiaeaaae eo?n th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ianeaaeieeo i?anoiea (aoaeouaio Aeaenaiae?o I), a ia/aea 1839 aiaea
iaa?aaeaeaaony a?aoneei oeooeii, e 11 oaa?aey 1839 aiaea Nia?aineee
oie?aao.

Ieai ?aoa?aoa.

Anooieaiea.

Ia?aciaaiea.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aicauoaiea.

Iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey.

Nnueea.

Nia?aineee e A?ae/aaa.

Eiaeeoeeaoeey caeiiia.

Iaae eai ?oaaaony neaiie e aoeiue aae,

Ii /ae aunieee eee a a?yaeouai iieieaiuea

Iiyoa
i?eaaaeao a ainoi?a e oieeaiuea.

E Nia?aineiio iiaeii i?eeiaeeoue neiaa iiyoa, ia?auaiiua ei e
ae?oaiio aeayoaeth oie aea yiioe, eioi?ue oaeaea iiian ca niaa?oaiiue ei
iiaeaea iacaneoaeaiioth ea?o iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.

Ia aeieth Nia?aineiai auiaea iaeia ec oao no?aiiuo o/anoae, eioi?ua
ia?aaeei iinoeaatho ainoaea?noaaiiuo ethaeae, i?ecaaiiuo aeaenoaiaaoue
ia ca?a iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey. Ieeoi, eiia/ii, ia i?eaeaeae aieiaiey
iauanoaa oae neeueii e oae aeieai. Auaeathueeny ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeayoaeue ?innee a?aiai oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a I e Ieeieay I. Ii/oe
ni?ie eao Nia?aineee ia noiaeee n ainoaea?noaaiiiai iii?eua; n aai
eiaiai naycaiu aeaa aaee/aeoea ?aoi?iu iiaiai a?aiaie, eioi?ua aei neo
ii? aicaoaeaeatho iiiai oieeia; ii ia oieueei aai aeayoaeueiinoue –
naiua i?ienoanoaey aai aeecie aeieai inoaaaeenue, e io/anoe inoathony e
aei neo ii?, niaa?oaiiith caaaaeeie. Aeaaiaea?y oiio iieonaaoo, a
eioi?ii, aei iaoaai a?aiaie, niaa?oaeanue iieeoe/aneay aeeciue ?innee,
ia?aay iieiaeia yoie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aa?aoeeanue a eaeoth-oi eaaaiaeo
aua aei nia?oe Nia?aineiai. Ie iiiai/eneaiiua a?aae, ie iaiiiaea
no?anoiua iieeiiieee ia iiaee iiaeiyoue caaanu, ca eioi?ie ne?uaaeanue
iuneue ainoaea?noaaiiiai /aeiaaea. Ceiiaia?aiiay eeaaaoa e
eaaeiiuneaiiia neiai niia?ie/aee a /a?iaiee aai iaiyoe. Aei neo ii? iu
ciaeiieiny n aeaeii Nia?aineiai anaai aieaa ec iocuaia ethaeae, eioi?ua
noiyee a ?yaeao aai i?ioeaieeia eee iaoiaeeeenue iiae neeueiui eo
aeeyieai.

Nia?aineee ?iaeeeny 1-ai yiaa?y 1772 aiaea a naiuea aeuey/ea.
?iaeeiie aai auei iaaieueoia noa?eiiia naei *a?eooeii Aeaaeeie?neie
aoaa?iee, iaoiaeeaoaany ai aeaaeaiee eiycae Naeoueiauo. ?iaeeoaee aai
auee iaa?aiioiu e ia ioee/aeenue iniaie aeeoaeneie ioae?inoueth.
Ainiiiaee iaeue/oaai ?in a oneiaeyo auoa e?aiinoiie aea?aaie. Aua n
aeaonoaa ii ioee/aeny iaiaueiiaaiiie iiiyoeeainoueth e o?oaeiethaeai.
Aai aeeaie, aa/ii aeayoaeueiue oi canoaaeye aai eneaoue caiyoee e
iiiieiyoue nianoaaiiui o?oaeii e /oaieai oi, /aai ia iiaei aio aeaoue
ianoi ainieoaiey. A iai ?aii i?inioeny eioa?an e ciaieyi, ii aai
iinaaeeee /eoaoue “/anu e aiinoie”. Eiaaea iaeue/eeo eniieieeinue 7 eao,
?iaeeoaee ioaacee aai e aeyaethoea, a nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy ii aue
ii?aaeaeai ai Aeaaeeie?neoth aeooiaioth naieia?eth e iieo/ee oaieeeth
Nia?aineee (aai ?iaeeoaee naiae oaieeee ia eiaee).

Ia?aciaaiea Nia?aineiai.

I aiaeao iao/aiey Nia?aineiai ai Aeaaeeie?neie naieia?ee, aaea ii
iieo/ee ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea, iu eiaai aeiaieueii oi/iua e
iiae?iaiua naaaeaiey ec aai nianoaaiiuo ainiiieiaiee e ec caienie
ae?oaeo naieia?enoia. Iaoa?eaeu iicaieytho caeeth/eoue, /oi Nia?aineee
ioee/aeny ioiaiiui o?oaeiethaeai e ii?aceoaeueiuie niiniaiinoyie.
Iniaaiii io/aoeeai i?iyaeeenue i?aaiaoe/aneea ea/anoaa, oiaiea ia
oieueei i?eia?aoaoue ciaiey, ii e iieacuaaoue eo.

Aai oa?aeoa? oiaea ia/eiae ia?aciauaaoueny. A neoaeiuo ecaanoeyo
yoie yiioe oaea i?iaeyaeuaatho oa ea/anoaa, eioi?ua iu aeaeei a iai
iicaea, a iieiii ?acaeoee. Ie/aai, iai?eia?, ia iiaeao auoue
oa?aeoa?iaa, eae oa ecaanoey, eioi?ua nio?aieeenue i aai ethaeiuo
caiyoeyo. ssniue, aiaeeoe/aneee oi aoaeouaai aaeieieno?aoi?a, aieaa
naaoeue, iaaeaee aeoaieee, au?aaeaeny a i?eno?anoee e oi/iui iaoeai e a
iaaeiaa?ee e ioaea/aiiui auaiaeai oeeinioee, eioi?ie ii iaeiaei
caieiaeny, ianeieueei iia i?e oiaaeaoieo aai naaaeaieyo. sscuee
ninoaaeyee i?aaeiao iniaaiiuo aai oneeee. Ianiio?y ia i?aaenoiyuaa aio
iii?eua, Nia?aineee noa?aaony ia oieueei ociaoue o?aioeocneee ycue, ii e
iaeaaeaoue ei niaa?oaiii. Aai eeoa?aoo?iua oi?aaeiaiey ienaiu io/anoe
ii-o?aioeocnee, e iaeuecy ia iiaeeaeoueny eaaeinoe, n eioi?ie Nia?aineee
onaiee naaa a ei?ioeia a?aiy ycue, niaa?oaiii iaecaanoiue aio i?aaeaea
e, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, i?aiiaeaaaaoeeny ieioi. Aua ethaiiuoiaa iaiiiaea
inoaaoeany a iaiyoe aai naa?noieeia /a?ou aai i?aanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a.
*oanoaeoaeueiue e aeia?ue, Nia?aineee aeaaeae oie niiniaiinoueth
i?eaeaeaoue e naaa e iiae/eiyoue ethaeae naiaio aeeyieth, eioi?ay
iaueiiaaiii ioee/aao ana aunoea iaoo?u. Oiaa?eue aai ethaeee. N
iaeioi?uie ec ieo o iaai ia?aciaaeenue i?i/iua nayce, e e /anoe
Nia?aineiai iaaeiaii neacaoue, /oi ii eo nio?aiee e a oi a?aiy, eiaaea
noaeueaa iinoaaeea aai ia ae?oaia, aieaa aeaeiia iii?eua. Ii
caia/aoaeueii, /oi, iyaeee e iaycaoaeueiue n aeaeo, ii ie n eai ia
aeaeeeny naiei aioo?aiiei ie?ii. Ieeoi ec aai oiaa?euae ia oiae
niiaueoue iiae?iaiinoae i i?aanoaaiiii aai ?acaeoee, eioi?iai
naeaeaoaeuenoaii inoaeenue iaeie iieoooeaeaaoea e aannayciua io?uaee aai
caienie. Oiieinoue e aeeoaeneee oaeo, naienoaaiiua aeeaie iaoo?a,
?acaeeenue iiae aeaniioe/aneei, iiaeic?eoaeueiui iaaeci?ii
iieoiiiaoaneiai ainieoaiey. A Nia?aineii (neaaeai neiaaie aa?iia Ei?oa)
“oaea yaeyeny ca?iaeuo oie eiaeie ae?aae/eainoe, oiai oiaiuey aueacaoue
naay… eioi?ua inoaeenue i?e iai ia anth aeeciue”. Ia neeoeii
yia?ae/iue, ii oiae noiaeeoueny ni anaie, oiae eaaeeoue e n
ia/aeueieeaie, e n oiaa?euaie e aeinoaoi/ii auno?i iaoiaeee n ethaeueie
iauee ycue, /oi, eae ecaanoii, ninoaaeyao aeaaiia cao?oaeiaiea
oeieueiiai auoa. A iai ca?iaeaeaeanue e oa iyaeay, io?eoeaoaeueiay
yia?aey, eioi?ay aeayoaeueioth ai?ueao caiaiyao oii?iie i?eaycaiiinoueth
e aeaeo e, ia oiay iaeieaoue i?aiyonoaee, ieeiaaea iaeiaei ia iieeaeaao
ethaeiie iunee. I?eaaaei e yoiio, /oi ?aiiea oniaoe aeieaeiu auee
aiooeoue aio oo aa?o a naay, eioi?ay auea oae ioaeia aio a aeaeueiaeoae
aeecie. Yoa oaa?aiiinoue oaea neuoeony a naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?eaiao aai
ia?auo eeoa?aoo?iuo iiuoia.

Iiyoiio ieeoi ia oaeeaeeny, eiaaea Nia?aineee aue ii?aaeaeai
eaeaeieeii i?e ?aeoi?a naieia?ee. Iineaaenoaey oaeiai iacia/aiey
ieacaeenue ianeieueei iaiaeeaeaiiuie: ethaiciaoaeueiue naieia?eno
iieo/ee aeinooi a ?aeoi?neoth aeaeeioaeo, ii oai a?aiaiai aeinoaoi/ii
aiaaooth. Eieae noaee aai no?anoiui oaea/aieai. Aieueoia, ie n /ai ia
n?aaieiia aeaeaiea o/eoueny ia iiaei auoue oaeiaeaoai?aii ca n/ao oiai
ieieioia ciaiee, eioi?ue aeaaaee naieia?enoai. A iaeiii ec naieo ienai
Nia?aineee aeaaea auneacuaaao aeaeaiea ia?aeoe o/eoueny a Iineianeee
oieaa?neoao.

Neo/ae ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeee aeaeueiaeooth aai noaeueao. A 1789
aiaeo a Iaoa?ao?aa auea ioe?uoa iniiaiay aeaaiay naieia?ey (iinea
ia?aeiaiiaaiiay a aeooiaioth aeaaeaieth) i?e Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneii
iiianou?a e a /enei aa nooaeaioia iinooieee eo/oea o/aieee aia?oeaeueiuo
naieia?ee. Ai Aeaaeeie?a auai? ia iiaeeaaeae niiiaieth, e eae eo/oee
o/aiee Aeaaeeie?neie naieia?ee Nia?aineee aue i?eiyo a iiaia o/aaiia
caaaaeaiea, aianoa n aeaoiy oiaa?euaie, ia eacaiiia niaea?aeaiea. Yoi
aue ia?aue, n/anoeeaue iiai?io a noaeueaa /aeiaaea, eioi?iio iioii
i?eoeinue ecaaaeaoue oae iiiai iacaneoaeaiiuo oaea/ e aua iaiaa
caneoaeaiiuo ian/anoee. Eo?n iaoe i?aaeiieaaae caeanue iao/aiea ii
oaeoaeaiiie i?ia?aiia e, iiieii o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeey aeooiaiuo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee i?aaeiaoia, aeeth/ae iaoaiaoeeo, oeceeo, o?aioeocneee ycue.
Caeanue aea ninoiyeinue ia?aia ciaeiinoai n eaeayie o?aioeocneiai
I?inaauaiey. Ai?i/ai, nai Nia?aineee aniiieiae ia yoii, eae i caaaaiii
iaaei?acoiaiee, ianoieueei o?oaeii auei iiaa?eoue, /oi iiaeiaiua
acaeyaeu iiaee i?iieeiooue ca noaiu iiianou?y. “A Aeaaiie naieia?ee, –
ienae ii aiineaaenoaee, – iu iiiaee e iaeiiio oaeiio o/eoaeth, eioi?ue,
eee iueyiue eee o?acaue, i?iiiaaaeiaae iai Aieueoa?a e Aeeaea?ioa”. Oi,
/oi Nia?aineee aniiiiee ia yoii nionoy 20 eao, oaea iaoiaeynue a nnueea,
eeoiee ?ac iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi a naia a?aiy ii ia ioianny aaco/anoii e
yoei i?iiiaaaeyi.

N?aaee o/aieeia Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneie naieia?ee auei iaiaei niiniaiuo
thiioae. Caeanue o/eeenue E. E. Ia?ouiia, I. A. Neiaoeia, noaaoea
aiineaaenoaee ecaanoiuie ?onneeie i?inaaoeoaeyie. N?aaee ae?ocae
Nia?aineiai ii naieia?ee neaaeoao iacaaoue i?aaeaea anaai Neiaoeiaa: iie
“acaeiii… ?acaeaeyee naie ai?anoe, naie iaaeinoaoee: neo/aeinue, /oi
iiia?aiaiii iineee iaeio ?oaaoeo”. Eo naycuaaea oyaa e ciaieyi. Aianoa
iie oii?ii caieiaeenue naiiia?aciaaieai. Ii aaeeiiaeooiiio i?eciaieth
o/aieeia Nia?aineee aue eo/oei ec naieia?enoia, oioy nai ii aia?aaee
naay anaaaea noaaee Neiaoeiaa.

Oaea a ia?auo thiioaneeo i?iiiaaaeyo Nia?aineiai niaea?aeaeny
i?ioano i?ioea iauanoaaiiie iani?aaaaeeeainoe. A 1791 aiaeo ei auei
i?iecianaii “Neiai a iaaeaeth iyniionoioth”, aaea ii y?inoii ae/oao
oe?aiia aeanoue eioueo, caeiiii?anooiieeia e “eciaaeaiiuo aaaea ?ineioe
e ?aca?auaiey”. N iniaie neeie ?enoao Nia?aineee ia?iaeiua aaaenoaey,
cayaeye, /oi i?eaeao a?aiy e ia?iae i?aaeuyaeo oe?aiai naie iaaeiaiey.
Auaiae aai iaoiieei e ii-thiioanee i?yiieeiaai: “*oia o?iiooue aan, aai
iaaeiaii a?iiu”. Oai naiui ii i?aaeinoa?aaae, /oi e?aiinoiie aiao e
aani?aaea iiaoo aucaaoue ia?iaeiue ac?ua.

A ae?oaie i?iiiaaaee, i?i/eoaiiie Nia?aineei a ieoya?a 1791 aiaea
(“Ia aieny, ionaea aoaeaoe /aeiaaea eiay”), i?ineaaeeaaaony aeeyiea
eaeae o?aioeocneiai I?inaauaiey. A iae aeieacuaaaony, /oi /aeiaa/aneia
iauanoai aicieeei ia iniiaa acaeiiiai aeiaiai?a, eee, eae ienae
Nia?aineee, “ia acaeiiuo auaiaeao”. Yoi yaeyaony iniiaie iauanoaa,
eioi?ay iicaeiaa auea ia?ooaia. Aunooiay ca “ia?aie/aiea neeu aeanoe” ii
iieaaae, /oi inouanoaeoue yoi aiciiaeii aeaaiaea?y ananeeeth ?acoia,
eioi?ue nicaeano eo/oea caeiiu e “i?aaeoniio?eo iiaouea ano?aoeoueny
cao?oaeiaiey”. Nia?aineee aunooiaao eae noi?iiiee i?inaauaiiie iiia?oee,
ii ia oie, eioi?ay nouanoaiaaea a ?innee i?e Aeaoa?eia I. Ia?auaynue e
iiia?oo, ii ienae: “Anee ou ia aoaeaoue ia o?iia /aeiaae, anee na?aeoea
oaia ia i?eciaao iaycaoaeuenoa /aeiaa/anoaa, anee ia naeaeaaoue aio
ethaaciuie ieeinoue e ie?, ia iecieaeaoue n i?anoiea aeey io?aiey neac
iineaaeiaai ec oaieo iiaeaeaiiuo, anee oaie ciaiey aoaeoo oieueei
iieaaaoue iooue oaiaio aeanoiethaeth, anee ou oiio?aaeoue eo oieueei
oiio, /oia eneoniaa iiceaoeoue oeaie ?aanoaa, /oia iai?eiaoiaa
iaeiaeeoue eo ia /aeiaaeia e /oia oiaoue eacaoue ethaiaue e ia?iaeo, a
ec-iiae caiaaanu aaeeeiaeooey, eneoniaa iioeuaoue aai noyaeaiea ia
i?eoioe naiaai neanoiethaey e oaieo ethaeioeaa, /oia iiaeaea?aeaoue
anaiauaa caaeoaeaeaiea, /oia ecaeaaeeoue niaa?oaiii iiiyoea naiaiaeu,
/oia nie?iaaiiaeoeie iooyie i?iaanoe e naaa ana nianoaaiiinoe oaieo
iiaeaeaiiuo, aeaoue /oanoaiaaoue ei oyaeanoue oaiay aeanieoeu e no?aoii
oaa?eoue eo, /oi ou aieaa iaaeaee /aeiaae; oiaaea, ni anaie oaieie
aea?iaaieyie, ni anai oaiei aeaneii, ou aoaeaoue oieueei n/anoeeaue
ceiaeae; oaie eaneaoaee aianoo eiy oaia cieiouie aoeaaie a nienee oiia
aaee/aeoeo, ii iicaeiyy enoi?ey /a?iie eenoueth i?eaaaeo, /oi ou oe?ai
naiaai ioa/anoaa”. Iaee/eoaeueiay neea yoeo neia ianiiiaiia. Ii n
aieueoie oi/iinoueth ?enoao ii?i/iua noi?iiu naiiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaeaiey,
ii i?ioea oea?ecia eae oi?iu iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa ainoaea?noaa ia
aunooiaao, iaeaii iieaaay, /oi enoeiiue iiia?o iiaeao niecieoe aei
eioa?ania ia?iaeiuo iann.

I?iiiaaaee auee i?i/eoaiu e, ii neiaai Neiaoeiaa, eiaee aieueoie
oniao o neooaoaeae. Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea oi, /oi aea?ceee oii
i?iiiaaaeae ia aucaae ieeaeeo ia?aeaiee ni noi?iiu oea?eiaiiai
ia/aeuenoaa. Aeaaea iai?ioea, a aae?an Nia?aineiai auee aucaaiu iioaaeu.
Oae, iieiaeie i?iiiaaaeiee, ianiio?y ia naie, iaee/eoaeueiua ?a/e,
i?iecaae aeaaii?eyoiia aia/aoeaiea ia ieo?iiieeoa iaoa?ao?aneiai e
iiaai?iaeneiai Aaa?eeea. ?aeoi?o naieia?ee auei ii?o/aii “oaaaeaeaoue”
Nia?aineiai anooieoue a iiiaoaneee nai. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a naieia?ee
auea aeaaii?eyoiay aoiinoa?a aeey oi?ie?iaaiey o aa ainieoaiieeia
ia?aaeiauo acaeyaeia.

Niiniaiiio thiioa i?i/eee aieueoia aoaeouaa, aeanoyuoth oea?eiaioth
ea?uea?o. Iaeiaei iaiaeeaeaiii aeey ie?oaeathueo ii ioeacaeny i?eiyoue
ia naay aeooiaiia caaiea.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue Nia?aineiai.

N 1792 aiaea ia/eiaaony ia?eiae i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
Nia?aineiai, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaeny iaaeieai. Nia/aea aio auei ii?o/aii
i?aiiaeaaaiea iaoaiaoeee, a nionoy ianeieueei ianyoeaa aeiaaaeee aua
aeaa eo?na – oeceeo e e?anii?a/ea.

I i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe Nia?aineiai ii/oe ia
nio?aieeinue enoi/ieeia. Ii ainiiieiaieyi iaeiiai ec aai o/aieeia –
Enaiioiioa Aeeeaeoi?neiai ecaanoii, /oi eaeoeee “ii ecuyniye aeanoyuei,
aeaaea ianeieueei ecuneaiiui neiaii; ii oaeaeay naieo neooaoaeae e
iiae?aaeaieth, ia iia ia?aaeaoue ei oiai aeona, eioi?ue i?aaeio?aiye aai
io iaaeooie aunieiia?iinoe”. Ia eaeoeee Nia?aineiai niae?aeanue
aeiaieueii iiiai/eneaiiay aoaeeoi?ey (aei o?eaeoeaoe /aeiaae), eioi?ay
neooaea aai n aieueoei oaea/aieai. Ia?aaeei caiyoey i?iaeieaeaeenue a
iaeaiueeie eaeuea Nia?aineiai, eoaea i?eoiaeeee iaeaieaa
ethaiciaoaeueiua naieia?enou.

Auo Nia?aineiai aue e?aeia i?ino e iai?eoycaoaeai. Ec-ca
ia?aie/aiiinoe n?aaenoa aaeaaeiaaiue aai iaaae ninoiy e ec iioeaaee n
e?ioaiie naaeeie e aiayaeeiie, aea?eiai ia neiai?iaea e eenaey. Ii caoi
ii iicaieye naaa auaaoue a oaao?a.

Iaycaiiinoe o/eoaey aeey Nia?aineiai ia auee iniaaiii
ia?aiaieoaeueiuie, e cia/eoaeueioth /anoue a?aiaie ii iinayuaao
eco/aieth o?oaeia auaeathueony oeceeia e oeeinioia. Eae ioia/aao
Neiaoeia, “a 1794 aiaeo y iaoae aai ca Iaaoiiia”, a ia/eiay n 1795 aiaea
ii “aeaa aiaea i?iaae… a e?eoe/aneii ?anniio?aiee oeeinioneeo nenoai,
ia/eiay n Aeaea?oa, Eieea, Eaeaieoea e ae?oaeo aei Eiiaeeeueyea, oiaaea,
neaaeaoaainy”. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai e?eoe/aneiai ?anniio?aiey yaeeenue
ia?aua aai ?aaiou oeeinioneiai niaea?aeaiey.

Iaeaieaa ynii e iieii oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey Nia?aineiai eceiaeaia
a aai ?aiiae ?aaioa “I neea, iniiaa e anoanoaa”, a eioi?ie ?acae?aaony
aii?in: “Nouanoaiaaea ee aei auoey aauae eo aiciiaeiinoue?”. Yoio
oeeinioneee aii?in ?ac?aoaaony Nia?aineei iaeiicia/ii: “Aauue aiciiaeia,
eae nei?i iiaeii aa i?aaenoaaeoue”. Ii aai iiaieth, nouiinoue yaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeytho iiiyoey. Nia?aineee, eae
i?aaenoaaeoaeue iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia, ?anniao?eaaao ie? n oi/ee
c?aiey aaeeinoaa “ia?acia auoey”, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio niciaieth oao oeeinioia, eioi?ua “?acae?iaeee
aaeeinoai ie?a”. Aunooieaiea i?ioea noauaeoeaecia a oeeinioee i?eaaei
Nia?aineiai e ?aciiaeaneyi n ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eiaueth.

Aiaeu, i?iaaaeaiiua a naieia?ee, eiaee i/aiue aieueoia cia/aiea
aeey oi?ie?iaaiey acaeyaeia Nia?aineiai. Noa?ay, n?aaeiaaaeiaay
oeeinioey iao/aiey iiiiaea o/aieeo n ?acaeouie niiniaiinoyie
i?iieeiooueny ioa?auaieai e noieanoeea, a oneeaiiia eco/aiea eaoeineiai
ycuea, ii nianoaaiiui neiaai Nia?aineiai, ieacaei aieueooth oneoao i?e
/oaiee enoi/ieeia aecaioeeneiai e ?eineiai i?aaa. Naiaiaeii aeaaeay
eaouiueth, ii iia aiineaaenoaee iciaeiieoueny n o?oaeaie oeeinioia,
ienaaoeie ia yoii ycuea, – A?ioeeai, Aiaanii, Ioooaiaei?oii e ae?oaeie.

Y?oaeeoeey Nia?aineiai auea /?acau/aeii auniea. A iaeiie ec ?aiieo
?aaio “I?aaeea aunoaai e?anii?a/ey”, iaienaiiie a 1792 aiaeo eae iiniaea
e eaeoeee ii ?eoi?eea, ano?a/athony nnueee ia Aaeueaaoeey, Ae’ Aeaiaa?a,
Iiioaiy, Eaa?thea?a, ?e/a?aeniia, THia, Oeaoa, Ainnthyoa, ?ieeaia;
Ianneeueiia, ?onni, Aaeea?eie e iiiaeo ae?oaeo.

Naia ii naaa yoa ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an eae ni/eiaiea,
auaeathuaany aeey naiaai a?aiaie. A iae Nia?aineee aunooiaao eae
iineaaeiaaoaeue I. A. Eiiiiiniaa e I. E. Iiaeeiaa. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
“ieaiaiiiai ia?a” ii i?eaiaeeo ia?aaiae ia ?onneee ycue noeoioai?aiey
?onni “I n/anouea”, auiieiaiiue I. A. Eiiiiiniaui.

Nia?aineee n/eoaao, /oi iniiaie e?anii?a/ey yaeyaony aiieiuaiea
no?anoe a neiaa. Ionthaea ii aeaeaao auaiae, /oi “e?anii?a/ea iniiaaii
ia iaaeinoaoea enoeiiiai i?inaauaiey. N oao ii?, eae na?aeoea noaei
iaoaoueny a aeaea ?acoia…, n oao ii? no?anoe e i?aaeoaaaeaeaiey
iieo/eee aaaeiue aiein ai anao noaeaeaieyo; e aa?iue niinia oaaaeeoue
?acoi e auea?aoue aeaei enoeiu anoue aaanoe a naie aeaeu na?aeoea e
ainiaeeoue aiia?aaeaiey. Ia nae neaainoe e aanneeee oia iniiaaee i?aoi?u
ana oaeinoaa aeoeenoaa… Anee eiaaea-ieaoaeue oi noaiao ia nae aunioa
i?inaauaiey…, oiaaea, a oo naioth ieiooo, ?ac?ooeony any iaoea
e?anii?a/ey… e ia eo ?acaaeeiao ooaa?aeeony aa/iue i?anoie anaiauaai
niunea”.

Yoio auaiae eioa?anai eae iieacaoaeue anae oeeinionei-ynoaoe/aneie
iniiau ?eoi?eee Nia?aineiai. N iaeiie noi?iiu, eae iiioey?ecaoi? eaeae
I. A. Eiiiiiniaa, ii aunooiaao i?ioea ia?i/eoiai oe?aoaoaeuenoaa ?a/e; n
ae?oaie – i?e anai no?aieaiee ?aoi?ie?iaaoue iaeanoue e?anii?a/ey,
iineaaeiaa aio ana-oaee i?aaenoaaeyeinue eneonnoaaiiie nenoaiie ?a/e,
iai?aaeaiiie ia noieueei ia oi, /oiau ?acuynieoue enoeio, neieueei ia
oi, /oiau aiooeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua no?anoe e neeiieoue neooaoaeae a naith
noi?iio.

Aaniie 1795 aiaea Nia?aineee aue iacia/ai i?aoaeoii
Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneie naieia?ee. Iaeiaei iieiaeaiea aai a naieia?ee auei
iai?i/iui. Ionoonoaea aeooiaiiai caaiey cae?uaaei aeey iaai ea?uea?o
oea?eiaiineoaeeoaey, aeaeaa aeieaeiinoe i?aoaeoa ii i?iaeaeiooueny ia
iia e, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, ia eniuouaae iniaiai aeaeaiey.

Aicauoaiea Nia?aineiai.

Nia?aineee ai aeanoe ia/ou i aeia?iaeaoaeueiuo iinooieao, i
iieueca, eioi?oth eaaeaeue /aeiaae iaycai i?eianoe iauanoao.
“Oaa?ueoanue ae?ocuey iie, – ienae Nia?aineee, – /oi auoue n/anoeeaui e
auoue aeia?ui anoue niaa?oaiii iaeii e oi aea”. E aeaeaa:
“Ianiaa?oainoai n/anouey aeieacuaaao eeoue ianiaa?oainoai iaoeo
aeia?iaeaoaeae”. Iieiaeie i?aoaeo no?aieony anaie neeaie ecaaaeoue naay
io “/a?iiai iaeaea”. Ii ana aieueoa e aieueoa ia?auaao naie aci?u ia
a?aaeaeaineoth neoaeao. Ii aac aeeyoaeueiuo iie?iaeoaeae iooue ooaea aue
cae?uo. A yoi aaniineiaiia a?aiy ?aciuo iiai?ioia oi?ooiu, eiaaea naii
neiai neo/ae iieo/eei oaoie/aneia cia/aiea, iaeei ec oaeeo neo/aaa,
niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiii, auiae ia aeieth iieiaeiai i?aiiaeaaaoaey.
Eiycth Eo?aeeio, eioi?ue iiae eiiaoe oea?noaiaaiey Aeaoa?eiu oi?aaeye
o?aoueae yeniaaeeoeeae Naiaoa aeey naeaeaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
n/aoia, iiiaaeiaeeny aeiiaoiee nae?aoa?ue aeey ?onneie ia?aienee. Aio
aue ?aeiiaiaeiaai Nia?aineee, eioi?ue ia/ae n /anoiie neoaeau o eiycy ii
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ieo?iiieeoa Aaa?eeea. A. A. Eo?aeei aue iie?iaeoaeai
Nia?aineiai i?e ia?auo oaaao iineaaeiaai ia neoaeaaiii iii?eua.
Nio?aieeinue i?aaeaiea, /oi i?e ia?aii naeeaeaiee n eiycai Nia?aineee
ecoiee aai auno?ui i?eaioiaeaieai e ianoa?neei neiaii ioeoeeaeueiuo
ienai, eioi?ua auee aio caeacaiu a aeaea iiuoa. Ii yoi ecoieaiea ia
iiiaoaei Eo?aeeio aea?aeaoue aai /ai-oi a?iaea neoae. Iinooiay ia
neoaeao a aeii Eo?aeeia, Nia?aineee ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeny i?aaeaea anaai
i?aeoe/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie – iiiieieoue naie neoaeiue athaeaeao, ii
auee, aeaeeii, e ia?niaeoeaiua ieaiu – caaanoe iieaciua ciaeiinoaa aia
noai naieia?ee.

N oie ieioou, eiaaea Nia?aineee anooiee a aeii Eo?aeeia, noaeueaa
aai, iiaeii neacaoue, auea oaea a nianoaaiiuo aai ?oeao. Noieo i?i/anoue
ethaoth eaioeaey?neoth aoiaao eo/oeo aeaeueoeia yoiai a?aiaie, /oiau
iiiyoue, eaeia aeanoyuaa eneeth/aiea ninoaaeye iaaeaeo ieie Nia?aineee.
Ia oieueei ioeoeeaeueiay ia?aienea 90-o aiaeia, ii aeaaea eiua iaieoanou
Aeaoa?eiu e Iaaea ienaiu ycueii aeaeaei ia ecyuiui, e aeaaea ia anaaaea
i?aaeeueiui. Uaaieaaaoay e o?acaay o?aca Nia?aineiai aeieaeia auea
eacaoueny ia?acoeii neiaa. Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi aeiiaoiee nae?aoa?ue
ia caiaaeeee ia?aeoe a ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao. Aeaaiaea?y
ianoiyoaeuenoaai, yoio ia?aoiae niaa?oeeny i?e iniaaiii aeaaii?eyoiuo
oneiaeyo.

A aeiia Eo?aeeia Nia?aineee iiciaeiieeny n iaeei iaioeai
A?theia?ii, eniieiyaoei caeanue iaycaiiinoe aoaa?ia?a. Ie/ai ia
i?eia/aoaeueiue ia ia?aue acaeyae ianoaaiee, a oaeia io noa?iai eiycy
aue aieueoei ii/eoaoaeai Aieueoa?a e yioeeeeiiaaeenoia. Yoi ciaeiinoai,
i?iaeieaeaaoaany ianeieueei eao, eiaei aaaeiua iineaaenoaey. A oneiaeyo
aacaoiie eioi?iaoeee i niauoeyo a Aa?iia A?theia? aue aeey Nia?aineiai
aaaeiui enoi/ieeii naaaeaiee. E?iia oiai, ii iieo/ee aiciiaeiinoue
iinoiyiiiai iaiaia iiaieyie ia iieeoe/aneea oaiu.

A eiioea 1796 aiaea Nia?aineee ieii/aoaeueii ii?uaaao n
Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneie naieia?eae, oeacuaay a naiai oiaeaoaenoaa, /oi
iaia?ai e aeaaea iaoiaee “n/anoeai anooieoue a noaoneoth neoaeao”.
“AEaaeaea o/aiey, – iicaeiaa aniiieiae ii ia yoi naiai ii?uaa, –
iiaoaeeea iaiy ia?aeoe ec aeooiaiiai caaiey a naaoneia. ss iaaeayeny
aoaoue ca a?aieoeo e oniaa?oainoaiaaoue naay a iaiaoeeeo oieaa?neoaoao,
ii aianoi oiai caaeaeny neoaeaie”.

Ni nia?oueth Aeaoa?eiu Eo?aeei auno?i aicauneeny e caiye aaaeiia
ianoi aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a. Aeey iiaiai oaai?eoa ia auei ioiuia ie/aai
iaaiciiaeiiai, e Eo?aeei iia iaa?aaeeoue naiaai nae?aoa?y “ia a i?eia?
ae?oaei”. Oi auei a?aiy auno?uo aicauoaiee e ianeuoaiiuo ieeinoae. 5-ai
ai?aey 1797 aiaea Eo?aeei ii?aaeaeee Nia?aineiai a naith eaioeaey?eth n
/eiii oeooey?iiai niaaoieea, ii caaieth iaaeno?a e ia?aue ioeaiee aai
auaeathueany niiniaiinoe e oaeaioeeaia ia?i. Ionthaea ia/aei neoaeaaiie
ea?uea?u Nia?aineiai, ionthaea e ia/aei naiiia?aciaaiey aai ee/iinoe.
Aaaeiue, i?eieaeaiiue naieia?eno, ia niaaoee nia/aea aeaaea iaaaeaoue ca
iaeiei noieii n i?ethoeaoei aai aaeueiiaeae, ana neeu aeanoyuaai naiaai
oia e iaiau/aeiiai oiaiey i?eniiniaeyoueny iai?aaee ii ia oi, /oiau
noaoue ia ieaea, a ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo e auoa oie n?aaeu, a eioi?oth
iinoaaeea aai noaeueaa. N /?acau/aeiie eaaeinoueth ii aeiaa?oee naaoneia
naia ainieoaiea, ouaoaeueii eco/ea i?e oii iiaua ycuee e aa?iiaeneoth
eeoa?aoo?o, a ia neoaeaaiii iii?eua noiae naeaeaoueny iaiaoiaeeiui ii
naiae ?aaioiniiniaiinoe e ciaieth aeae ia oieueei aeey Eo?aeeia, ii e
aeey o?ao aai i?aaiieeia, eae ie iaei iie auee iioiaee ae?oa ia ae?oaa.
E 18-ai naioya?y 1798 aiaea ii oaea aue i?iecaaaeai a eieeaaeneea
ananni?u – /ei, i?eiineaoee iioiinoaaiiia aeai?yinoai.

Neoaeaa a aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?neie eaioeaey?ee, eoaea a oi a?aiy
noaeaeanue aieueoay /anoue naiuo aaaeiuo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeae, auno?i
auaeaeioea Nia?aineiai e naeeceea aai ni iiiaeie aaeueiiaeaie. Ii anei?a
naeaeaeny ianoiyuei i?aaeoaeai aeae, oioy ana a?aiy iinee oeooe
yeniaaeeoi?a (o.a. ia/aeueieea ioaeaeaiey) e inoaaee yoi caaiea, oaea
iieo/ea ianoi noaon-nae?aoa?y i?e eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a.

Yoio /aeiaae ianoie/eaie aiee e aeaeaciie auaea?aeee, ia/aa neoaeao
aua i?e Iaaea, noae auaeaeaaoueny a ia?aua aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey
Aeaenaiae?a.

*oiau ec ?yaeiaiai iiiiae/a auaeaeiooueny ia naioth aa?oeio
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai Ieeiia, ?aaieai iaa?aaaaioth aeey “naieo” aeaaeiuie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ia?aainoaothuaai nineiaey”, anae neeie ?iaenoaa,
naycae, oaai?ecia e i?ioaeoeee, iaaei auei iaeaaeaoue aieae e
niiniaiinoyie, aeaeaei auoiaeyueie ec ?yaea.

A eeoa?aoo?a iiaeii ia?aaeei ano?aoeoue inoaeaeaiea ca aai
ea?uea?eci. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeey iaai ea?uea?a auea aaeeinoaaiiui
n?aaenoaii au?aaoueny ec oie ?ooeiu, eioi?ay oea?eea a eaioeaey?ee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aaaeiinoa. Iaeiaei ea?uea?a ieeiaaea ia auea aeey iaai
eiia/iie oeaeueth, e a ioaaonoaaiiua iiiaiou ii aue aioia aeaenoaiaaoue
aeaaea a oua?a naaa. A yoii ioiioaiee iieacaoaeai neaaeothuee i?eia?:
anooiea ia a?aaeaeaineoth neoaeao, Nia?aineee “iiaeaao ?oeo nianaiey”
Neiaoeiao, inoaeaeaiiiio Neiiaeii a 1794 aiaeo e caeeth/aiiiio a
Aaeaaineii iiianou?a. I?e o/anoee Nia?aineiai eaoii 1797 aiaea Neiaoeia
aue inaiaiaeaeai e i?eiyo a eaioeaey?eth aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a. Aeey
ia/eiathuaai /eiiaieea ai a?aiaia Iaaea I yoi aue ?eneiaaiiue oaa.

Ii yoi auno?ia aicauoaiea ia aea?ii aeinoaaaeinue Nia?aineiio. Aua
a oea?noaiaaiea Aeaoa?eiu, aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a iacuaaee ia?aui ieieno?ii,
a i?e Iaaea ia?aua ieieno?u, anee auno?i aicauoaeenue, oi oae aea auno?i
e iaaeaee. A /aou?a aiaea, n eiioea 1796 ii 1801, niaieeanue /aou?a
aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a. Ca ia?aui iao?iiii Nia?aineiai oaea a 1798 aiaeo
neaaeiaae eiycue Eiiooei. *a?ac aiae Eiiooei aue iecaa?aioo, aneaaenoaea
?aciuo eio?ea, aeeyiey aa?aea?iaiaenoa?a (o.a. eaia?aeeia?a) ainoaea?y
Eooaeniaa, eioi?ue, a aiae?aaaneie eaioa e n aaaeiui /eiii, nio?aiye
naia i?aaeiaa, ne?iiiia ianoi. Ca oai aue iacia/ai Aaeeaiaoaa; ii e oio
iaiaaeieai: aua /a?ac aiae aai niaiyao Iaieueyieiia…

Nia?aineiio iiiaaeiaeeanue any ae?aae/eainoue, ana oiaiea
iaoiaeeoueny a cao?oaeieoaeueiii iieiaeaiee. Iaeuecy ia niciaoueny, /oi
/anoiethaeaue /eiiaiee ia i?aiaa?aaae, i?e neo/aa, aeaaea e aiaoieie
n?aaenoaaie. Ona?aeii caieiaynue ?aaioie, eioi?ie aoeaaeueii aue
caaaeai, ii noa?aeny nieneaoue ieeinoeaia aieiaiea ia/aeueieea e ee/iuie
niioaieyie. Oae, eiaaea Iaieueyieiia, ia ia?auo aea ii?ao naiaai
oi?aaeaiey, caioaae /eiiaieeia aeeeei aaoainoaii i?aaa e ieiuaaeiuie
?oaaoaeuenoaaie – Nia?aineee caaeoiaeny e ia/ae eneaoue n?aaenoaa
ooeaeaoue a aaeieieno?aoeaiii o?aaaia, eioi?ue ?ac?aceeny iaae
aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?neie eaioeaey?eae. Aio eae iienuaaao aa?ii Ei?o aai
ia?aia naeaeaiea n yoie ciaiaieoinoueth iniaaiiiai ?iaea: “Iao
yeniaaeeoi? iiieiae, /oi iiiaia aeieaeii ?aoeoueny ia?aui naeaeaieai,
ia?aui aia/aoeaieai; e aio, a iacia/aiiue aeaiue e /an, ii yaeyaony a
ia?aaeithth naiaai a?iciiai ia/aeueieea. I iai aeieeaaeuaatho, e aai
aaeaii aionoeoue. Iaieueyieiia, eiaaea Nia?aineee aioae, neaeae ca
ienueiaiiui noieii, nieiie e aeaa?e. *a?ac ieiooo ii iai?ioeeny e, oae
neacaoue, inoieaaiae. Aianoi iaoeethaeaai, o?aiauouaai, ?aaieaiiiai
iiaeuey/aai… ia?aae iei noiye iieiaeie /aeiaae i/aiue i?eee/iie
ia?oaeiinoe, a iieiaeaiee ii/oeoaeueiii, ii aac anyeie ?iainoe eee
caiaoaoaeuenoaa, e i?eoii – /oi, eaaeaony, anaai aieaa aai ii?aceei – ia
a iaueiiaaiiii ioiaee?a, a ai o?aioeocneii eaooaia ec na?iai a?ia?aia, a
/oeeao e aaoiaeao, a caaeoeao e ioae?a, – neiaii, a naiii ecuneaiiii
ia?yaea oiai a?aiaie… Nia?aineee oaaaeae, /ai acyoue iaae yoie a?oaie
iaoo?ie. Iaieueyieiia oio/an i?aaeeiaeee aio nooe e aiiaua iaioaeny n
iei oae aaaeeeai, eae oieueei oiae”. E?iia yoiai eneonnoaa eaaeeoue n
ia/aeuenoaii, Nia?aineee oiae oaeaea iaoiaeeoue iiaeaea?aeeo a oao
eeoeao, n eioi?uie aai naiaeeee neoaeaaiua ioiioaiey. A /enea aai
iie?iaeoaeae iu iaoiaeei a?aoa ?anoii/eia, aiineaaenoaee iaeiiai ec
iai?eie?eiuo aai a?aaia. Ii ie oeeii/eainoue, ie iinoi?iiiyy caueoa ia
iiaee nianoe Nia?aineiai io anao iaacaiae oiaaeaoiae neoaeau. Ia?aaeei
neaaua aai ia?au ia auiineee neoaeaaiuo no?iainoae, e oiaa?eue canoaaaee
aai a neacao io a?iciuo “?aniaeaiee” Iaieueyieiiaa.

Oae auno?i, oioy ia nianai aaciyoaaeii, i?ioiaeee aaeieieno?aoeaiue
eneon Nia?aineiai. Aei?iai a oi a?aiy aeinoaeinue oaeaioo aai i?eciaiea,
aeaaea anee ii nei?i iiaeaeaaeny ii aei?iaa ii/anoae? Ia aoaeai iaeiaei
neeoeii no?iae e /aeiaaeo, eioi?iai naii ainieoaiea i?eo/eei e
aaconeiaiiio iiae/eiaieth. Oaiaeeeainoue, yoa ia eo/oay aai /a?oa
oa?aeoa?a, eneoiaaony aai iinoiyiiui o?oaeii e ae?oaeie naienoaaie aai
enoeiii aoiaiiie ee/iinoe. E oiio aea, i?aau oiai a?aiaie auiineee
iiiaia, e iaoiae/eainoue Nia?aineiai auea ia i/aiue aeiiaiui i?oaeeai
n?aaee aanno?aoiuo aeoycae oiaaeaoiae aaeieieno?aoeee.

E yoiio ao?iiio ia?eiaeo ioiineony aeaieoueaa Nia?aineiai. Aoaeo/e
iieeiiieeii Caiaaea, acye a aeaiu aiaee/aieo. Iaeuecy ia oiiiyiooue i
aai naiaeiie aeecie, eioi?ay aunoaaeyao aai a iniaaiii i?eaeaeaoaeueiii
naaoa. Eeoeaoenue aeaiu i/aiue nei?i, ii ia?aian anth naith ethaiaue ia
aei/ue, i eioi?ie caaioeeny, n?aaee aeae e a nnueea, n eaeie-oi aeaineie
iaaeiinoueth e eioi?ie aiooee e naaa neeueioth, no?anoioth
i?eaycaiiinoue. Aiiaua a naiuea Nia?aineee aue niaa?oaiii ae?oaei
/aeiaaeii. Caeanue ii iieeaeae naith inoi?iaeioth naea?aeaiiinoue e
i?eiinee n niaie iaeeaeaiiue ?acaiai? e ynioth, oeooth aanaeinoue.

Iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu Nia?aineiai.

E iiiaioo iinooieaiey ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao o Nia?aineiai
oaea auee ii?aaeaeaiiua acaeyaeu ii iiiaei aii?inai iauanoaaiiie aeecie
e ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa. Iie neiaeeeenue iiae aeeyieai
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo oneiaee oie n?aaeu, ec eioi?ie auoae
Nia?aineee, e iinoaaeee aai aeeaea anao ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeai?yineie
eioaeeeaaioeee e ia?iaeo, iicaieeee aio eo/oa ae?oaeo ciaoue iano?iaiey
“iecia” iauanoaa. I?ienoiaeaeaiea, ainieoaiea e ia?aciaaiea naeeaeaee
aai n oae iacuaaaiui o?aoueei nineiaeai. Nai yoio oa?iei caeanue ia
neo/aai, eai Nia?aineee ia i?iaiaeee a?aieoeu iaaeaeo e?anoueyinoaii,
ai?iaeneeie iecaie e ao?aeoaceae. Aeey iaai yoi auei aaeeiie iannie
aani?aaiuo ethaeae. Iaeiaei eae iieeoe/anee aeoeaiay oeao?a Nia?aineee
ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoueny n iiiaioa iinooieaiey ia neoaeao e iieo/aiey
aeai?yinoaa. Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a ?innee iineoaeai ia?aaeiaie
eaeaieiaee auei eiaiii yoi nineiaea.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea acaeyaeia Nia?aineiai ieacaee
o?aioeocneay ao?aeoaciay ?aaiethoeey eiioea XVIII aaea e ?onneay
?aaiethoeeiiiay iuneue. Eiathony iiiai/eneaiiua i?yiua e einaaiiua
aeaiiua i ciaeiinoaa Nia?aineiai n i?iecaaaeaieyie ?aaeeuaaa e aeaaea i
i?eciaiee ei iiiaeo iuneae yoiai aaoi?a. Oae, aiai?y i ninoaaa eiiennee
ii ?ac?aaioea oeiaeaiey, ii auaeaeaae ?aaeeuaaa ia ia?aia ianoi,
ooaa?aeaeay, /oi “?aaeeuaa iiaeao n niaa?oaiiui oniaoii ninoaaeoue
enoi?eth caeiiia – oai?aiea iaiaoiaeeiia e a eiai ii aea?iaaieyi aai e
naaaeaieyi a ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee ii iiaeao i?ieeoue naao ia oueio, ian
iaeaaeauoth”.

?aciiia?acea eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia, eioi?uie iieueciaaeny
Nia?aineee, iicaieeei aio ninoaaeoue aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiue e
onoie/eaue acaeyae ia ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iauanoaa. Iaeiaei a?yae ee
neo/aeiui auei aai i?aaeii/oaiea aaoi?ai, eioi?ua au?aaeaee oia?aiioth
oi/eo c?aiey ia inouanoaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee.

Eeaa?aeeci Nia?aineiai au?in ia ii/aa e?eoeee ioaeeaoeo
oaiaeaeueiuo ii?yaeeia. Iiae aeeyiea aioo?aiiaai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee, ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey
a Aa?iia e?aiinoie/aneay nenoaia a eiioea XVIII – ia/aea XIX a. anooiaao
a iieino e?ecena. Ieii/aoaeueii auea iia?aaaia eaeay i?inaauaiiie
iiia?oee. Iaaae I oaa?aei noiye ia oi/ea c?aiey, /oi iiia?o iiaeao
oi?aaeyoue, iie?aynue eeoue ia aaoi?eoa?ioth neeo. Eaeay aaniethoiie
aeanoe naiiaea?aeoea auea aeiaaaeaia ia i?aeoeea aei aaniethoiiai
i?aaeaea. Ianoaiiaea a i?aayueo e?oaao ?innee auea e?aeia ia?aiciie.
Aan/eneaiiua i?iecaieueiua niauaiey ioaaonoaaiiuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe
ii?iaeaeaee iaoaa?aiiinoue aeaaea o i?aaenoaaeoaeae ainiiaenoaothuaai
eeanna.

Iaoiaeynue ia neoaeaa a eaioeaey?ee aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a, Nia?aineee
oaaaeeeny a ii?i/iinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaeaiey a ?innee. Naia
neoaeaa iaiiieiaee nei?aa oneoaeaiea. “Iaeiiio iaaeiaii auei oaiaeaeaoue
oae, – aniiieiae ii, – ae?oaiio eia/a; aeey iaeiiai auei aeinoaoi/ii
eni?aaiinoe a aeaeao, aeey ae?oaiai aieaa oiai o?aaiaaeinue auoue a
ioae?a, a ioiaee?a, i?e oiaaa”. Ia niaio iaeiiai aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a
iacia/aeenue ae?oaea, e ieeoi ec ieo ia eiae ca iea/aie ie ia?aciaaiey,
ie iiuoa aaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae. Eaaeaeiio ec ieo aue ioaeai
/aeiaae, ia eioi?iai iiaeii auei au iieiaeeoueny, e eaaeaeue ec ieo
iaoiaeee naaa iii?o a Nia?aineii. Aiineaaenoaee ii aniiieiae, /oi “i?e
anao /aou?ao aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?ao, ?acee/iuo a oa?aeoa?ao, i?aaao,
niiniaiinoyo, aue y, anee ia ii eiaie, oi ia naiie aaue i?aaeoaeai eo
eaioeaey?ee”. A yoi a?aiy a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e?oaao eiy Nia?aineiai
auei oaea oe?iei ecaanoii. Aiaoia yoi aue oeoee e o?oaeiethaeaue
/eiiaiee, eioi?ue caiaoii auaeaeyeny ec ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu naiae
ia?aciaaiiinoueth. Iaeiaei naieo acaeyaeia ioe?uoi ii ia au?aaeae. Ca
a?aiy neoaeau a eaioeaey?ee aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a ei ia auei iaienaii ie
iaeiie naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou. Any aai aeayoaeueiinoue caeeth/aeanue a
ninoaaeaiee ?acee/iuo aeieoiaioia, eioi?ua auoiaeeee ec eaioeaey?ee ca
iiaeienueth aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a. Nia?aineee oi?ie?iaaeny eae
ainoaea?noaaiiue /eiiaiee e i?eia?aoae ia oieueei iaauee aaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae, ii e iaeioi?ua io?eoeaoaeueiua /a?ou ath?ie?aoa,
n oa/aieai a?aiaie aeaaaaoea ana aieueoa i naaa ciaoue.

E iiiaioo aioea?aiey Aeaenaiae?a I Nia?aineee oaea aue
ciaiaieoinoueth, anee ia neacaoue ia?aie ciaiaieoinoueth, n?aaee
iieiaeiai iieieaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae. I?eia?ii oiio neoaeeo
aai o/anoea a iiaeaioiaea “A?aiiou ?inneeneiio ia?iaeo” a nayce n
anooieaieai Aeaenaiae?a I ia i?anoie. O/anoea Nia?aineiai naaeinue eeoue
e iaeioi?ui noeeenoe/aneei iii?aaeai oaenoa, eioi?ua ieeae ia iiaeeyee
ia niaea?aeaiea A?aiiou, ii naii i?eaea/aiea aai e iiaeaioiaea A?aiiou
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i aai aic?inoai aeeyiee.

A naiii ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a I a aunoeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo noa?ao auyaeeenue aeaa eaoaai?ee ethaeae: “eeai
yeiaeioeu, eeai eai?aeu”. Ioiineoaeueii iineaaeiae I. A. Ei?o ienae:
“Oiu yoi ?ac?yaea, ?aooy i?ioea anyeiai i?aia?aciaaiey, i?ioea anyeie
iunee, ia nouaeeeenue aeaaea ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aacaea?iay
iin?aaenoaaiiinoue iieaciaa aeey aeae, iaaeaee ethaee aea?iaeoue, e /oi
iineaaeieo aeieaeii aiyoueny”.

*oi aea eanaaony “yeiaeioeaa”, oi yoi auee i?aaenoaaeoaee
iieiaeaaee, eioi?ua i?e neo/aa auee aioiau ionoeoue “yeiaeineia”
neiaoei, auneacaiiia a iieueco “eiaeaena e caeiiia”, ii eioi?ua ii
nouanoao auee ethaee naiaai nineiaey e i?e iaeaeoai iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia
i?aaa aeai?yinoaa ioa?anuaaee anyeoth iuneue i i?aia?aciaaieyo,
noaiiaynue y?inoiuie e?eoeeaie iiaiaaaaeaiee. A yoii ioiioaiee
“yeiaeioeu” iaei /ai ioee/aeenue io “eai?aeia”. Caeanue aaaeii ae?oaia –
oi, /oi naie ii naaa ?acaiai?u i i?aia?aciaaieyo aicaoaeeee o?aoueth
eaoaai?eth aeai?yinoaa, a eiaiii noi?iiieeia ?aoi?i ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa.

E /eneo yoie iaiiiai/eneaiiie a?oiiu i?eiaaeeaaeae e Nia?aineee.
Yoi oaea aue ia i?aaeiee o/eoaeue aeooiaiie naieia?ee, ia?aaeaaaoeeny n
oeaaa ia aiaeo. E oiio a?aiaie Nia?aineee oaea aue iaeaaeaoaeai aeaoo
ouny/ aeanyoei caiee a Na?aoianeie aoaa?iee, ii/aoiuo /eiia e caaiee,
i?eiineaoeo aio cia/eoaeueiue aeioiae.

Nia?aineee aue ia?aui a ?innee, eoi i?enooiee e nenoaiaoe/aneiio
iainiiaaieth eeaa?aeecia: ii ?ac?aaaouaae ia oieueei aii?inu oaeouae
iieeoeee, ii e i?iaeaiu iauaiieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Eiaiii iiyoiio
acaeyaeu Nia?aineiai i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an aeey eco/aiey ?onneiai
eeaa?aeecia a i?ioeanna aai ca?iaeaeaiey.

Eae ienae Ea?aicei, Nia?aineee n aieueoei eioa?anii ioiineeny e
eco/aieth enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai. N?aaee aai aoiaa nio?aieeenue,
iai?eia?, auienee ec enoi?ee Aiaeee THia, e?aoeea ecaea/aiey ec
ni/eiaiey A. Iaoeaaaneiai “Enoi?ey neaayineeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoa”.
Iniaaiii ouaoaeueii ei eco/aeenue aii?inu ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee. N?aaee
aoiaa, eioi?ua auee ?acia?aiu iinea aai nia?oe, auei iaeaeaii i/aiue
iiiai eiiee n enoi?e/aneeo aeieoiaioia XVIII aaea e aua aieaa ?aiieo.
Aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii aai aieiaiey auee ae?aaia?onneea caeiiiaeaoaeueiua
aeou a eo eciaiaiee e ?acaeoee. Nia?aineee n/eoae, /oi ana ?onneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ia/eiay io ?onneie I?aaaeu e aieioue aei Niai?iiai
Oeiaeaiey 1649 aiaea, auei naiinoiyoaeueiui, eeoaiiui caeinoaiaaiey ec
eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo th?eaee/aneeo nenoai, o.a. ii n/eoae, /oi ?onneia
ainoaea?noai eiaao ae?aaithth i?aaiaoth eoeueoo?o e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?e ninoaaeaiee iiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeii iie?aoueny
i?aaeaea anaai ia iau/ae, eioi?ua auee oa?aeoa?iu aeey ?onneiai ia?iaea.

Enoi?eth ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa Nia?aineee aeaeeo ia /aou?a
ia?eiaea: “1. Yiioa ?onneie I?aaaeu, io 1020 aei 1550 aiaea; 2. Yiioa
Noaeaaieea, io 1550 aei 1649 aiaea; 3. Yiioa Niai?iiai Oeiaeaiey, io
1649 aei 1689 aiaea; 4. Yiioa Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a
Aaeeeiai, io 1689 aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie”.

Nia?aineee aeaao nianoaaiioth ia?eiaeecaoeeth ?onneie enoi?ee,
ioi?aaiuie ioieoaie eioi?ie yaeeenue eciaiaiey ?onneiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A ?aieao yoie ia?eiaeecaoeee ca?iaeaeaiey e
ieii/aoaeueiia ?acaeoea naiiaea?aeaaey ii ioiineo ei aoi?iio ia?eiaeo.
Ia/eiay n Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a, ii aai iiaieth, i?iyaeeanue
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ia?aie/aiee aaniethoiie aeanoe. Ii oiaaea
inouanoaeaieth yoiai i?aiyonoaiaae ieceee o?iaaiue i?inaauaiey.
Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aie/aiey aicieeea oieueei a oea?noaiaaiea Iao?a I. I?e
Aeecaaaoa e Aeaoa?eia yoi no?aieaiea i?iaeieaeaei ?acaeaaoueny iiae
aeeyieai oniaoia a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaea. A ia?aua aiaeu
oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a I oaiaeaioeey e iieeoe/aneie naiaiaea
aeinoeaea, ii aai iiaieth, iaeaunoae oi/ee. Oniaoe oeeaeeecaoeee e
no?aieaiea e naiaiaea a ?innee iaaiiytho oaiiu eo ?acaeoey a ae?oaeo
no?aiao Aa?iiu. Enoiaey ec yoiai Nia?aineee i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieeoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a ?innee.

Nia?aineee i?eciaaae, /oi naiiaea?aeaaea yaeyaony enoi?e/aneie
oi?iie i?aaeaiey, o.a. eiathuae naia ia/aei e eiiaoe. A yoii ioiioaiee
ii naeaeae oaa aia?aae ii n?aaiaieth ni naieie nia?aiaiieeaie, aeeth/ay
oaeeo ecaanoiuo enoi?eeia, eae A. I. Oaoeuaa e I. I. Ea?aicei, eioi?ua
n/eoaee naiiaea?aeaaea ecia/aeueiie e aa/iie oi?iie aeanoe a ?innee.

Aiai?y i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaa, Nia?aineee anoaao ia ia
oi/eo c?aiey ?onni i n/anoeeaie aeecie ethaeae a anoanoaaiiii ninoiyiee,
a ia oi/eo c?aiey Aiaana, aeaeaaoaai a anoanoaaiiii ninoiyiee aieio anao
i?ioea anao. Aua a ?aiieo naieo caieneao Nia?aineee ienae, /oi “
“yaieci” e “neeu” naiiethaey eee /anoiiai eioa?ana oaeaeatho aai
(/aeiaaea. – E. A.) e iaoo?aeueiiio nin?aaeioi/aieth – e nianoaaiiie
iieueco”, o.a. nianoaaiiinoe. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaa /aeiaae ana
aieaa “/oanoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiei?eoueny caeiio; i?eau/ee e oeoie
aeecie, aeaeaiea oaeinoiaa?eoue nianoaaiiinoue naith ca i?aaeaeii a?iaa
– ana ioaeeo aai e oai caeii noaiiaeony neeueiaa”.

Iiyaeaiea ainoaea?noaa Nia?aineee ?anniao?eaaao eae ?acoeueoao
?acaeoey nianoaaiiinoe. Ii n/eoaao, /oi ainoaea?noai – iauanoaaiiue
nithc, eioi?ue aiciee, /oiau iaania/eoue “naia eaaeaeiio”. Ainoaea?noai
no?ieony ia “1) acaeiiii i?eciaiee naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, 2)
nianoaaiiinoe”. Ainoaea?noai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nithc iieuec. Iuneue ia
iauanoaaiiie iieueca i?ineaaeeaaaony ai anao ?aaioao Nia?aineiai.
Iieueca yaeyaony enoi/ieeii i?aaa: “Iiaeaoe niae?athony ia ii i?aao, ii
ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe e iieueca, ioiyoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue e oiaaea iiaeaoe
aoaeoo iani?aaaaeeeau”. I?eioeei iieuecu aue acyo ia aii?oaeaiea
Nia?aineei iiae aeeyieai ni/eiaiee Aaioaia, ii i?eiye eiie niune.
Nia?aineee ia noaaeo iieueco ia neoaeao /anoiuo eioa?ania, eae yoi eiaei
ianoi o Aaioaia. Iai?ioea, ?acaeaeyy acaeyae ?onni ia iauanoaaiiii
aeiaiai?a, ii aunooiee eae noi?iiiee ?acoiiiai ni/aoaiey ee/iuo
eioa?ania n iauanoaaiiuie. Nia?aineee iuoaaony iainiiaaoue iuneue, /oi
i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea eiatho oa ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ua iainiiaaiu ia
iauanoaaiiie iieueca.

A yoii ioiioaiee, eae n/eoaao Nia?aineee, ?inney ia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie eneeth/aiey. “Any Aa?iia, – ienae ii, – ia eneeth/ay ?inneth,
eiaea iaeiaaea naiaiaeioth eiinoeoooeeth. Ia iae ooaa?aeaeaeenue aeaaea
e ia?aua iniiaaiey oaiaeaeueiiai i?aaeaiey. Ii oaeaeueiua aeaaeaeueoeu,
aeaeay eaaeaeue auoue iacaaeneiui, ?anoi?aee iauaa i?aai”. Nouanoaiaaiea
naiaiaeiie eiinoeoooeee a ?innee Nia?aineee ioiinee ei a?aiaie
nouanoaiaaiey Eeaaneie ?one e aua aieaa ?aiiaio ia?eiaeo.

Iaeaieaa iiuiuie aeaeaeoueie neeaie iauanoaa ii i?iaicaeaoaao
nianoaaiiinoue e oi?aiaeth. Aeaaeaeueoeu eiouanoaa aaa?eee naie i?aaa
ainoaea?th. Ia ia?auo ii?ao aai aeanoue oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue “aeaeii
oia?aiiinoe” e “aeaai?acoiey”. Iaeiaei “ii ia?a, eae i?e/eiu,
ia?aie/eaaaoea aeanoue a?aiaiai e i?eau/eith, ineaaeyeenue, ii ia?a, eae
aieueoea iaaeaeaeeiua (caiaeueiua. – E. A.) aeaaeaiey ?acae?iaeyeenue e
iaeue/aee, aeanoue aa?oiaiay ?anoe?yeanue e naeeaeaeanue n
naiiaeanoeai”. Yoi i?ioeai?a/eei “aeooo a?aiaie”, iineieueeo “aeaeaeeiua
eiouanoaa” aic?anoaee, “auoiaeeee oaea ec ia?aiai aic?anoa eo
i?eia?aoaiey e aoiaeeee a aic?ano nio?aiaiey: Io naai a naiii ia?aca
i?eia?aoaiey iineaaeiaaee aaaeiua ia?aiaiu. Iiyaeeenue eaieoaeenou, o.a.
ethaee, eie aeaeaee aeaoue aeaeaeeiiio eiouanoao ana naienoaa
iaaeaeaeeiiai iin?aaenoaii caeiia.

Io naai oi?aiaua i?aaei?eyoey naeaeaeenue neiaeiaa, iaoe?iaa.
Iai?ioea, ?aceeie i?eia?aie iii iieacaei, /oi iaeeaeaoue io iaai
aeieaeii oai, aaea i?eia?u nee ii?aaeaee aeaeaeeiua e iaaeaeaeeiua
eiouanoaa niaieoiii, oai iaa neeu nee niaaeeieeenue, eni?iaa?aee
naiiaea?aeaaea e ainnoaiiaeee (auaeaeaii iiie. – E. A.) i?aaeiee aauae
ii?yaeie – eiinoeoooeeth”. Nia?aineee a ioee/ea io iaeioi?uo ?onneeo
i?inaaoeoaeae (iai?eia?, N. A. Aeanieoeeiai) i?eciaaae oaiaeaeueiue
oa?aeoa? naiiaea?aeaaey. Iaeiaei oaiaeaeeci ii iiieiae eeoue eae nenoaio
th?eaee/aneeo ii?i, eae ii?aaeaeaiioth oi?io ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Nia?aineee n/eoae, /oi ii ia?a enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey,
naiiaea?aeaaea ia?anoaei ioaa/aoue ”aeooo a?aiaie”, eeoeei ethaeae eo
anoanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey – a?aaeaeaineie naiaiaeu. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aauae
ia iiaei oaeiaeaoai?eoue oneeeaaaoothny ao?aeoaceth, eioa?anu eioi?ie
ia?aieaoaeenue n eioa?anaie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, e oiaaea i?ienoiaeeo
“?aaiethoeeiiiue ac?ua”, ainnoaiaaeeaathuee eiinoeoooeeth.

Nia?aineee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi enoi?ey anoue i?ioeann ?acaeoey
naiaiaeu. A?aiaiaie yoi ?acaeoea iiaeao i?a?uaaoueny ?acee/iuie
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, ii iineieueeo naiaiaea – ninoiyiea anoanoaaiiia, oi
aica?auaiea e iae iaecaaaeii.

Iiiyoea naiaiaeu Nia?aineee ii?aaeaeyao a i?aanoaaiiii niunea e eae
enoi/iee i?aaa. I?aanoaaiiay naiaiaea yaeyaony “iaiauaieaiie /anoueth
nianoaaiiinoe” eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, eae “aea? Aiaeee”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
naiaiaea aa/ia, e iiyoiio “eoi eeoaao /aeiaaea naiaiaeu aiee, oio eeoaao
aai ee/iinoe, ia?auaao aeoo a aauanoai, iinyaaao ia aea? Aiaeee”.
*aeiaaea iiaeii eeoeoue naiaiaeu, ii oieueei ia a?aiy, eai a eaaeaeii
eiaeeaeaeooia “eiee/anoai naiaiaeu” io i?e?iaea caeiaeaii iaeeiaeiai.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naiaiaea e ?aaainoai ethaeae aeey Nia?aineiai
ia?acaeaeeiu.

Niune i?aanoaaiiie naiaiaeu caeeth/aaony a aiciiaeiinoe auai?a.
“*aeiaae iiaeao neacaoue naaa: y oi/o auoue n/anoeeaui oaia?ue, oioy
ciath, /oi y aiineaaenoaee aoaeo ian/anoeea; ooo anoue auai?,
neaaeiaaoaeueii inoaaony naiaiaea”. Naiaiaea auai?a inoaaony o /aeiaaea
a ethauo oneiaeyo. Ia?auay aieiaiea ia yoi, Nia?aineee ienae:
“Niiniaiinoue ecae?aoue – anoue naiaiaea, ia eiaaea neaaeoao ecae?aoue
iaaeaeo aenaeeoeae e iaiai, anoue ee yoi naiaiaea? Neaaeiaaoaeueii
niiniaiinoue ecae?aoue oieueei oiaaea anoue naiaiaea, eiaaea iiaeii e ia
ecae?aoue?”. E aeaeaa: “… enoeiiay naiaiaea anoue naiaiaea io anao
iiaoaeaeaiee… aac iianiinoe iioa?youe auoea”. Caeanue Nia?aineee
iienuaaao oaeia ninoiyiea /aeiaaea, eiaaea ii i?aaeinoaaeai nai naaa.
Yoe ?annoaeaeaiey iinyo /enoi oai?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa? aeey auyniaiey
no?aieaiey /aeiaa/anoaa. Aiciiaeiinoue oaeie naiaiaeu Nia?aineee
i?aaeiieaaaao i?e iaeiii oneiaee – “aeaaeu/anoaa ?acoia iaae /oanoaaie”.
Iineieueeo auiieieoue yoi oneiaea i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii, oi iieiay,
eee, eae iacuaaao aa Nia?aineee, “niaa?oaiiay naiaiaea iaaiciiaeia, eai
iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie “iaeaaeaiea i?aa aac iaycaiiinoae”.

Anoue ae?oaay naiaiaea, “ioiineoaeueiay”, o.a. “niaa?oaiiay”
naiaiaea, ia?aie/aiiay “anoanoaaiiuie i?aaeaeaie”. Oaeay naiaiaea aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa. “Aeaa eeoea
naiinoiyoaeueiua e iaeii io ae?oaiai iacaaeneiua ia iiaoo aianoa
oniaaaoue a naieo iieuecao, ia i?eciaaay iaia?aae acaeiii, /oi eaaeaeiio
ec ieo i?eiaaeeaaeeo naia”. Oi anoue naiaiaea aeieaeia auoue iniiaaia ia
acaeiiii aeiaiai?a, eioi?ue ia?aie/eaaao “naiaei?unoea eaaeaeiai”.
Iiyoiio “naiaiaea, i?eaaaeaiiay a ecaanoiua i?aaeaeu, a aeaea ee/iiai
ninoiyiey ia oieueei naia ii naaa nooue i?aai, ii e ninoaaeyao iniiaaiea
anao ae?oaeo i?aa”. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaie /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, ii
iiaieth Nia?aineiai, yaeyaony naiaiaea, ii ia?aie/aiiay acaeiiui
aeiaiai?ii, o.a. i?aaii.

I?aaa ii?iaeaeatho iaycaiiinoe: “Acaeiiia i?eciaiea naiaai
eaaeaeiio ninoaaeyao aeey iaeiiai i?aai, aeey ae?oaiai iaycaiiinoue.
Aeey oiai, io eiai i?eciaiea ecuyaeyaony, iii ninoaaeyao iaycaiiinoue”.
Niaea?aeaiea anao ?annoaeaeaiee Nia?aineiai i naiaiaea a eiia/iii eoiaa
naiaeeony e i?iaicaeaoaieth i?aa nianoaaiiinoe.

Eniuouaay ninoiyiea ii?aaeaeaiiie yeoi?ee, Nia?aineee n/eoae, /oi a
?innee no?aieaiea e naiaiaea iaia?oaeeaatho ana nineiaey: “*aai aeaeaao
a ?innee aeai?yiei-iiiauee? I?aaiaiai noaea e oaa?aeie nianoaaiiinoe,
o.a. caeiia e naiaiaeu e neaaeiaaoaeueii eiinoeoooeee.

*aai aeaeaao eoiaoe? I?aaiaiai noaea e oaa?aeiai e?aaeeoa, o.a.
oiai aea caeiia e oie aea naiaiaeu.

*aai aea aeaeaao, iaeiiaoe, naiue e?aiinoiie e?anoueyiei? I?aai
iaieiaoue caiee naiiaeanoiith oeaiith, ii aeia?iaieueii: ii oi/ao caeiia
e naiaiaeu”.

Oaeay ia?aioeaiea “no?aieaiey” anao nineiaee e naiaiaea ai iiiaii
i?aaeii?aaeaeeea aiineaaenoaee noaeueao aai iieeoe/aneeo ?aoi?i. Ii aai
iiaieth, a ?innee iao naiaiaeu aiiaua: ie aeey e?anoueyi, ie aeey
iiiaueeia. “Eoae, – ienae ii, – aianoi anao iuoiuo ?acaeaeaiee
naiaiaeiiai ia?iaea ?onneiai ia naiaiaeiaeoea eeannu aeai?yinoaa,
eoia/anoaa e i?i/eo, y iaoiaeo a ?innee aeaa ninoiyiey: ?aau
ainoaea?aau e ?aau iiiaue/uee. Ia?auie iacuaathony naiaiaeiuie oieueei a
ioiioaiee ei aoi?ui, aeaenoaeoaeueii aea naiaiaeiuo ethaeae a ?innee
iao, e?iia ieueo oeeinioia”.

Oaeei ia?acii, a naiiaea?aeaaee Nia?aineee aeaeeo naiinoiyoaeueioth
neeo, eioi?ie i?ioeainoiyo ana nineiaey. Ono?aieoue naiiaea?aeaaea – e
n?aco ainoi?aeanoaoao caeii e naiaiaea. E?iia oiai, ?ac naiiaea?aeaaea
naiinoiyoaeueiay neea, oi iii iiaeao ono?aieoueny naii, aac na?ueaciuo
i?aiyonoaee ni noi?iiu iauanoaa. Yoi iaeei ec iniiaiiieaaathueo oacenia
Nia?aineiai. Ii ianoaeaae ia iai aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea aeeciue ia
i?aeoeea aai ii?iaa?aaea. Nia?aineee no?aieony iieacaoue, /oi
nianoaaiiinoue n naiiai iiyaeaiey ?acaeaaeanue ia iniiaa anoanoaaiiiai
i?aaa ethaiai /aeiaaea aeaaeaoue aauueth. Ii nianoaaiiinoue ie a eiae
ia?a ia iiaeao auoue ?ani?ino?aiaia ia aeaaeaiea ee/iinoueth ae?oaiai
/aeiaaea, iineieueeo yoi i?ioeai?a/eo anoanoaaiiiio i?aao. “Eeoea iiaoo
e iai eiaoue iaycaiiinoe, – ienae ii, – iu iiaeai eiaoue iaae ieie
aeanoue, ii iie ia iiaoo auoue iaoath i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e iu ia iiaeai
eie aeaaeaoue eae aauaie”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii e e?aiinoiia i?aai auei
ia?ooaieai anoanoaaiiiai ninoiyiey /aeiaaea, iii, ii aai iiaieth, auei
io?eoeaoaeueiie noi?iiie naiiaea?aeaaey.

Iainiiauaay anoanoaaiiua i?aaa /aeiaaea, Nia?aineee ?anniao?eaaao
eo eae auoaeathuea ec niaea?aeaiey iauanoaa. “A /anoiii aeaea anoue
i?aai anoanoaaiiia e anoue i?aai iauanoaaiiia: iaeii aac aa?aioee, a
ae?oaia n aa?aioeae, a iauai aeaea ia iiaeao auoue i?aaa anoanoaaiiiai,
eai iao iieuecu anoanoaaiiie; ana iie auoaeatho ec iauanoaa e nooue
naiia iauanoai”. Ia?aie/aiea anoanoaaiiuo i?aa iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
aeaenoaiaaoue ai eiy iauanoaaiiie iieuecu neoaeeo iainiiaaieai
nouanoaiaaiey i?aaa eeoe. Caeanue Nia?aineee ia?aie/eaaao i?aaa
eiaeeaeaeoia iauanoaaiiie iieuecie. Nouanoai eo caeeth/aaony a “naiaiaea
iieeoe/aneie” e “naiaiaea a?aaeaeaineie”. Ia?aay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
naiaiaeo “io caeiiia iani?aaaaeeeauo”, aoi?ay naiaiaea – “io i?iecaiea
/anoiuo eeoe”. Aaeain i?aa iieacai aeey eaaeaeiai, iineieueeo, “iaeaaay
iaycaiiinoe, iie aiciaa?aaeaeatho nea ia?aie/aiea ae?oaeie iieuecaie,
ae?oaeie i?aaaie, e neaaeiaaoaeueii iouaietho /anoe nee a ae?oaii aeaea,
/oiau oiiiaeeoue eo e ?anoe?eoue oie aea naiie aiee a ae?oaii”. Oaeei
ia?acii, a?aaeaeaineay naiaiaea – i?aaeaea anaai oaaaeaeaiea /aeiaaea a
aai aaciianiinoe. *oiau iaeaaeaoue yoie naiaiaeie, iaiaoiaeeii
iauanoaaiiia ono?ienoai, i?e eioi?ii iaeei /aeiaae iiaeao ia aiyoueny
ae?oaiai. Aeaoue oaeia ni?aaaaeeeaia ono?ienoai iiaeao ainoaea?noai,
eioi?ia aeieaeii iaania/eaaoue oi?aeanoai i?aaa.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ainoaea?noai, ii iiaieth Nia?aineiai,
yaeyaony iauanoaaiiui nithcii, i?ecaaiiui iaania/eoue “naia eaaeaeiio”.
Yoi aeaaiay caaea/a ainoaea?noaa. Aneaae ca iae anoaao e ae?oaay caaea/a
– “ono?ieoue, /oiau naia eaaeaeiio aeinoaaaeinue neieue iiaeii oaeiaiaa,
/oiau o?oae aue i?eauoi/ai a ianoiyuai e ieiaeu aai i?i/iu a aoaeouai,
neiaii, /oiau neeu ainoaea?noaaiiua e neeu /anoiua ia ia?aieiaeenue, ii,
acaeiii naaa niaeaenoaoy, iinoaiaiii e iai?a?uaii aic?anoaee”.
Ainoaea?noai aeieaeii ia oieueei cae?aieoue nianoaaiiinoue, ii e
nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. Yoi i/aiue
aaaeii. Ainoaea?noai iiaeao oaeinoiaa?eoue nianoaaiiinoue, ii ia
noeioee?iaaoue iauanoaaiiue i?ia?ann. A yoii neo/aa ainoaea?noai ia
aoaeao au?aaeaoue i?eioeei iieuecu, eioi?ue o Nia?aineiai aunooiaao a
ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoaai e?eoa?ey i?e ioeaiea i?aaa ia nouanoaiaaiea oiai
eee eiiai ainoaea?noaa.

Eaeei ia?acii iiaeii iaania/eoue ana yoi? Ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
iie?aoueny ia “neeo”. Yoeie neeaie, ii iiaieth Nia?aineiai, aeieaeiu
auoue “no?ao e iaaeaaeaea”. “Ia?aue ?iae nee iaycaoaeueiuo, aiaoiaa
iiioaeaeaiea, i/aaeaeii i?eiaaeeaaeeo e ii?yaeeo nee iauanoaaiiuo;
aoi?ie – aioo?aiiaa iiaoaeaeaiea /anoe e niaanoe – i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
ii?yaeeo nee i?aanoaaiiuo”. I?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u a ainoaea?noaa iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu i?e iaeiii oneiaee, anee oio eee eiie neo/ae
“ii?aaeaeai caeiiii n oi/iinoueth, aeieacai n aeinoiaa?iinoueth, e
neaaeiaaoaeueii oi?aaeyao aac noaniaiey nouanoaaiiuo iieuec iauanoaa”.
Ana inoaeueiua neo/ae ia eiatho ioiioaiey e ainoaea?noao e yaeythony
“caeiiaie i?aanoaaiiuie”, o.a. “/anoe e niaanoe”. Ec yoiai neaaeoao
auaiae, /oi iniiaiiieaaathuei a ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony i?aai.

Iiae i?aaii Nia?aineee iiieiaao “aeanoue, caueuaiioth caeiiii”.
Caeii e i?aai ia iaeii e oi aea. “I?aai a aai nianoaaiiii ia/aea ia
ia?aie/aii; caeii aea, iai?ioea, no?aieony e aai ia?aie/aieth n o/aoii
iauanoaaiiie iieuecu. Oi anoue caeii i?ecaai iaania/eoue naiaiaeo
eaaeaeiio, ii aac oua?aa eioa?ania iauanoaa a oeaeii. Oaeia aaeeinoai e
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue caeiia e i?aaa ei?aiiui ia?acii i?ioeai?a/eei
aaniethoe/aneie oi?ia ainoaea?noaa e e?aiinoie/aneiio ainiiaenoao, i?e
eioi?ii ainoaea?noaa iiaei auoue iniiaaii ia caeiia, ii yoio caeii ia
iia iaania/eoue i?aa, oae eae ii ia iaania/eaae naiaiaeu eaaeaeiio”. A
ainoaea?noaa aeieaeii auoue aaeeinoai iaaeaeo caeiiii e i?aaii, a naii
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii auoue ieeoeaoai?aieai oi?aeanoaa i?aaa. Yoi iaeei
ec oacenia a oai?aoe/aneii iainiiaaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe eeeaeaeaoeee
naiiaea?aeaaey, eioi?ia ia iiaeao iaania/eoue i?aaiii?yaeea a no?aia.

Nia?aineee enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi ethaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aeieaeii
o/eouaaoue eioa?anu /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ainoaea?noai ia iiaeao
ecaeaaaoue caeiiu naii aeey naay. “Iaeuecy aiia?aceoue naaa ainoaea?noai
aac iauaaoaeae e neaaeiaaoaeueii i?aaenoaaeoue caeiiu iieaciua
ainoaea?noao e aaniieaciua aeey /anoiuo eeoe. I?aaaea, anoue
nianoaaiiinoue /anoiay e anoue nianoaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiay, ii a nai
oaaaeaiee i?eaaoiui caeiiai aeieaeii auei i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue oaeaea
caeiiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oicyenoaa, a ia aiiaua caeiiu, e /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia i?eiaaeeaaeauea”. Nia?aineee caeanue aunooiaao ca
?aaainoai a i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, ia aeaeay eneeth/aiey aeaaea ?aaee
ainoaea?noaa. A ae?oaie ?aaioa ii i?yii auneacuaaaony: “Caeiiu /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe nooue caeiiu aeey anao iiaeaeaiiuo iauea”. A iniiao
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aeieaeiu auoue iieiaeaiu aeaiie?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu.

Iiiyoea nianoaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony Nia?aineei ianeieueei
aano?aeoii. Iaeaaeaao ath eaaeaeue, iineieueeo “enoeiiay nianoaaiiinoue
/aeiaaea nooue neeu aai”. Yoa iuneue eioa?ania oai, /oi a ne?uoie oi?ia
ianao a naaa io?eoeaiea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe iaeiiai eeoea iaae ae?oaei,
eai i?aai nianoaaiiinoe caeeth/aaony a iono?aiaiee nianoaaiieeii anyeiai
ae?oaiai eeoea io iieueciaaiey i?aaeiaoii. Ii eeoeoue /aeiaaea aai
ee/iuo nee iaaiciiaeii, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaaiciiaeii e nianoaaiiinoue
iaeiiai eeoea iaae ae?oaei.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai i?aaenoaaeyeinue Nia?aineiio
eneeth/eoaeueii i?iecaaaeaieai ?acoia, ieiaeii ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai
oai?/anoaa. Oaeia aicc?aiea nei?aa aine?aoaei acaeyaeu XVIII aaea
(eiaaea oe?ieei ?ani?ino?aiaieai iieueciaaeinue iieeiiaiea anaiauaio
?acoio a oneiaeyo i?inaauaiiie iiia?oee), /ai ioiineeinue e
iinea?aaiethoeeiiiie yiioa ia/aea XIX aaea (eiaaea ai aanue ?ino anoaea
eaeay anaia?iaeiiai noaa?aieoaoa, i?inoe?aaoayny aieioue aei
ianeeuenoaaiiiai naa?aeaiey iiia?oee). Ii i?eaeaao iniaia cia/aiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao e i?aaiai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Oaeia iai?aaeaiea
iunee aaei e oyniaieth ?iee ainoaea?noaa, ii inoaaeyei a oaie iiaeeeiii
ia?iaeiua eioa?anu e eo iniaaiiinoe a caaeneiinoe io nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u iauanoaa. Aieiaiea auei nin?aaeioi/aii ia iino?iaiee
eiae/aneie iiaeaee ainoaea?noaa aac o/aoa aeoeaiie ?iee ia?iaea, ia
inoaaeyy a ?yaea neo/aaa ca iei aiiaua ieeaeie ?iee.

Nia?aineee – noi?iiiee eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee. A caienea “I
ei?aiiuo caeiiao ainoaea?noaa” ii i?yii oeacuaaao, /oi aoaeouei no?iai
aeieaeiu auoue eee “ia?aie/aiiay iiia?oey, eee oia?aiiay a?enoie?aoey”,
iniiaaiiua ia eiinoeoooeee. Yoi icia/aao: “1) /oi ei?aiiua caeiiu
ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu auoue oai?aieai ia?iaea; 2) ei?aiiua caeiiu
ainoaea?noaa iieaaatho i?aaeaeu naiiaea?aeaaiie aiee”. I?eciaiea ei ?iee
ia?iaeiuo iann i?e ninoaaeaiee eiinoeoooeee eaaeaony aanueia
?aaeeeaeueiui auaiaeii, ii yoio oacen ia iieo/ee o iaai aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey, iiyoiio ia?aioeaieaaoue aai ia neaaeoao.

Caeii, ii iiaieth Nia?aineiai, n/eoaaony ia oieueei ia?aie/aieai
aeanoe naiiaea?aeaaey, ii e nin?aaeioi/eai neeu ainoaea?noaa. Nia?aineee
i?eoiaeeo e oaaaeaeaieth, /oi “naiiaeanoea” – i?eciae neaainoe
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Yoi iniaaiii iaaeyaeii, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, i?iyaeyeinue
a ?innee, aaea “aeanoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia ia?aie/aia, a iioiio enoeiiay
neea i?aaeoaeuenoaa a nai ioiioaiee anaaaea o ian auea neaaa e i?aaoaeao
oaeiaith, iieoaea caeii ia onoaiiaeo ay a enoeiiuo ay ioiioaieyo”.
Aeaiiay iuneue neoaeeo eae au aua iaeiei aniaeoii a iainiiaaiee
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aia?aciaaiee – i?aa?auaiea naiiaea?aeaaey a
“enoeiioth”, o.a. eiinoeoooeeiiioth, iiia?oeth.

Iaeioi?ua nia?aiaiieee Nia?aineiai i?eienuaaee aio ?anioaeeeaineea
acaeyaeu. Iai?eia?, Aeaaeue ienae, /oi “Nia?aineiio oioaeinue
?anioaeeee, a oii iao ieeaeeo niiiaiee”, oioy a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ii
aue aeaeae io ?anioaeeeaiecia. Iauyniaiea oaeie ia?aioeaiee caeeth/aaony
n no?aieaiee eiina?aaoi?ia ia oieueei i?aaenoaaeoue aai iiceoeeth
iieeoe/anee a aieaa iianii naaoa, ii e a oii, /oi a nia?aiaiiie
Nia?aineiio eeoa?aoo?a iiae ?anioaeeeie /anoi iiieiaei ia nianoaaiii
?anioaeeeaineoth oi?io ainoaea?noaa, a anyeoth ainoaea?noaaiioth oi?io
(aoaeue oi ?anioaeeea eee iiia?oey), iniiaaiioth ia eiinoeoooeee.
Iaeiaei aeaaea n oneiaeai o/aoa yoie aeaoaee acaeyaeu Nia?aineiai ia
iiaoo auoue ?anoeaiaiu eae ?anioaeeeaineea.

A nio?aiaiee iiia?oee Nia?aineee aeaeae i?ioeai?a/ea n anoanoaaiiui
i?aaii, ii yoi ii n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ai eiy oie aea iauanoaaiiie
iieuecu. Caeanue Nia?aineee iuoaaony niaianoeoue ianiaianoeiia e
iaaieueii aiaaeaao a i?ioeai?a/ea. A iaeiie noi?iiu, ii ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi i?aaa iiia?oa nayuaiiu e iai?eeiniiaaiiu, a n ae?oaie – n/eoaao, /oi
“iie iiaoo auoue oaeeie oieueei ii caeiio, a ia ii i?e?iaea”, caauaay,
/oi caeii yaeyaony ia?ooaieai iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe i?aa iiia?oee.

*?acau/aeii aaaeiui auei aeey Nia?aineiai aua?aoue ii?aaeaeaiioth
nenoaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aeey aoaeouaai ono?ienoaa ii n/eoae
iai?eaieaiie nenoaio ?eineiai i?aaa eae a aeaea eiaeaena THnoeieaia, oae
e n oaie eni?aaeaieyie, eioi?ua auee aianaiu i?e iineaaeothuae aai
?aoeaioeee. Iauyniyaony yoi oai, /oi ana yoe aa?eaiou iineee ia naaa
ia/aoue oaiaeaeueiuo i?a?iaaoea; iie iaoiaeeeenue ia neoaeaa o
oaiaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noa Aa?iiu. Ao?aeoacey ia oieueei no?aieeanue
ii-eiiio oieeiaaoue ?eineia i?aai, ii e eniieueciaaea aieaa ?aiiea aai
iaiyoieee, io?aaeaaoea a aieueoae noaiaie ii?iu iau/iiai i?aaa. Oi/ii
oae aea e Nia?aineee, ia i?eciaaay iicaeieo ?eineeo eiaeaenia, ia
ioaa?aae ?eineia i?aai a i?eioeeia. A iaeiie ec naieo caienie ii ienae,
/oi ni a?aiaiai “?eineea caeiiu” aoaeoo i?eniiniaeaiu e “nenoaia
?inneeneiai oeiaeaiey”. A ?eineii i?aaa aeey iaai i?aaenoaaeyei
oeaiiinoue nenoaia io?aiu /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Iai?eaieaiuie auee, n aai oi/ee c?aiey, e ae?oaea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Aa?iiu, aeaaiui ia?acii iioiio, /oi iie ia io?aaeaee
niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ?innee. Aiciiaeiu eeoue ioaeaeueiua
caeinoaiaaiey. Yoi /?acau/aeii aaaeii o/eouaaoue, eai a enoi?e/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a ia?aaeei iiaeii ano?aoeoue ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi Nia?aineee
no?aieeny ianaaeeoue a ?innee iaeio ec iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo oiaaea a
Aa?iia nenoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa – o?aioeocneoth eee i?onneoth. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea Nia?aineee iuoaeny au?aaioaoue nianoaaiii ?onneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

Oaeei ia?acii acaeyaeu Nia?aineiai eiatho y?ei au?aaeaiioth
ao?aeoacioth iai?aaeaiiinoue e iie?athony ia aeaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiua
eaeai – nianoaaiiinoe e naiaiaeu. N oeaeueth iainiiaaiey naiae
iieeoe/aneie aeieo?eiu ii i?eaaaioe e anoanoaaiii-i?aaiaie oai?ee,
eioi?ay neoaeeea i?oaeeai ai?ueau i?ioea oaiaeaeueiie eaeaieiaee. Ii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeye oaiaeaeueiui “i?aaai”, inayuaiiui ?aeeaeae, o?aaeeoeeae
e enoi?eae anoanoaaiii-i?aaiaie ii?yaeie, “anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea”,
ioe?uoia /aeiaa/aneei ?acoiii. Aoaeouaa ao?aeoaciia iauanoai, ii aai
iiaieth, aeieaeii i?aaenoaaeyoue inouanoaeaiiia “anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea”
naiaiaeu eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, io?aiyaiie aeanoueth. A yoii caeeth/aaony
iacia/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.

Nia?aineee aeaeae, /oi ia?iae ia/eiaao auoiaeeoue ec ianneaiiai
ninoiyiey e i?aa?auaaony a aeoeaioth iieeoe/aneoth neeo. Ia?aae aeacaie
Nia?aineiai iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaae i?eia? ia?iaeiuo aeaeaeaiee a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, iniaaiii ai O?aioeee. E?iia oiai, ?aaiethoeeiiiua
niauoey a Aa?iia eiaee iineaaenoaey e aeey ?innee, iineieueeo “ieeaeia
ae?oaia ainoaea?noai Aa?iiu, a nayce n i?i/ei noiyuaa, ia iiaeao auoue
aeieaia a?aiy aeaniioe/aneei… iaaeiaii oieueei acaeyiooue ia iauoth
noaiaiue i?inaauaiey, ia i?eeea e ioeea iuneae, ia i?eia?u ninaaeieo, ia
/oanoaa aioo?aiiea, iaaei oieueei i?eneooaoueny e ia?iaeiiio aeooiio
ioaieineo, /oiau ioe?uoue e ioaeaeo nae ia?aiaiu e ociaoue noaiaiue
iaueo iaaeaaeae e aeaeaiee”. ?aii eee iicaeii i?aia?aciaaiey ana ?aaii
aeieaeiu auoue i?iecaaaeaiu, iiyoiio eo/oa ecaaaeaoue
“oniaa?oainoaiaaiee i?eioaeaeaiiuo”, eioi?ua “ianeeotho i?e?iaeo”.
I?eaaaeaiiua auneacuaaiey niaea?aeao iaeio ec aaaeiaeoeo iiceoeee
eeaa?aeecia – iinoaiaiiay o?ainoi?iaoeey iauanoaa, i?iaaaeaiea
i?aia?aciaaiee aei oiai, eae iie noaioo auioaeaeaiiuie.

Nia?aineee au?aaeaao o?aaiao, i?aaeaeaey o/anoea ia?iaea a
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa: “Ia?iae anaaaea e aeey anao oaeanai, eiaaea aiieue
aai niaieoieony aiaaeeii”. Eae i?aaeioa?aoeoue ia?iaeiua aunooieaiey?
Eaeeie n?aaenoaaie ainiieueciaaoueny, /oiau ecaaaeaoue ioe?uoie ai?ueau,
anee ethaee ia aiyony aeaaea “aiaaa Aiaeey”, a “aeanoue caiiay eiaao ia
aieaa n?aaenoa eae aeanoue iaaaniay”? Ia?iaeiua aeaeaeaiey, ii iiaieth
Nia?aineiai, inoaiiaeoue iaaiciiaeii. Aicieeatho iie “io neeueiuo
iio?ynaiee ainoaea?noa, io aioo?aiieo iaaeaeioniaee, io ecauoea
oaiaoaiee eee io iianiie aiaoiae aieiu”. Aeey oiai, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
“oayuaeny oa?icu”, iaiaoiaeeii niaethaeaoue i?aaeei: “eeoea oi?aaeythuea
aeieaeiu ciaoue naie ia?iae, aeieaeiu ciaoue a?aiy”. Oaeei ia?acii,
Nia?aineee i?ecuaaao i?aaeoaeuenoaa o/eouaaoue iieeoe/aneea oneiaey
aieaa aieiaoaeueiui ia?acii. N aai oi/ee c?aiey, i?aia?aciaaiey iiaoo
iieacaoueny ia ia?aue acaeyae i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiuie, ii iie aeieaeiu auoue
inouanoaeaiu aeey iioiinoaa.

Nia?aineee ia aunooiaao eae noi?iiiee iauanoaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa. Ii
n/eoaao, /oi “a aaeeeeo enoeiao e neaaua iiuou eiatho oeaio”. A /ai aea
aeieaeiu ninoiyoue ia?aiaiu? “A i?aa?auaiee ee ninoiyiee? A
i?eeiniiaaiiinoe e i?aaai i?anoiea?” Iao, Nia?aineee i?ioea oaeeo
ia?aiai. Iieeoe/aneea ia?aiaiu aeieaeiu ninoiyoue “a niaeaoaiee naai
iuooeoaeueiiai i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ia o ian anoue iaaeaeo aeaeeiith
oi?iie i?aaeaiey e aioo?aiiath, a eniieiaiee ia naiii aeaea oiai, i /ai
a i?iaeieaeaiea oeaeiai aaea ainoaea?e oaa?aeyo ia?iaeo, a ooaa?aeaeaiee
i?anoiea ia ia nia ia?iaea e i/a?iaaiee i?aae?annoaeeia, ii ia oaa?aeuo
noieiao caeiia e anaiauaai ii?yaeea”. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, Nia?aineee ia
aunooiaao ca iieiue neii noa?uo ainoaea?noaaiiuo oi?i. Ii iaaeaaony
i?eie?eoue noa?ua ainoaea?noaaiiua einoeooou, aeeth/ay iiia?oeth, n
iiauie i?aaiauie iniiaaie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey.

N 1797 aiaea Nia?aineee ia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa a aeieaeiinoe
caaaaeothuaai eaioeaey?eae aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a ?inneeneie eiia?ee.

Ia?aiaia, eioi?ay anei?a i?iecioea a noaeueaa ?innee, aeieaeia auea
aua aieaa auaeaeiooue Nia?aineiai. N aioea?aieai Aeaenaiae?a I, eiaaea a
i?aayueo noa?ao i?iyaeeny “coae” e ?aoi?iai e ioaea/aiiua i?eioeeiu
ioaeii auei i?eiaiyoue e ?onneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a o?aioeocneea aeeaeiae
ia?aaiaeeoue ia ?onneee ycue, Nia?aineee ieacaeny naiui niiniaiui aeey
aeaea /aeiaaeii, iiyoiio ii ia iia ia ia?aoeoue ia naay aieiaiey. A 1801
aiaeo O?iueineee, ii aiooaieth eioi?iai aue iniiaai ainoaea?noaaiiue
niaao a aai ia?aii aeaea, iiianoee Nia?aineiai, /aeiaaea ia?aciaaiiiai,
aeaeiai, oiiiai, eioi?ue aeaaii oaea eniiaeaieue aioiaeeny e iii?euo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey, a eaioeaey?eth niaaoa, n caaieai
noaon-nae?aoa?y. Ii aeayoaeueiinoue aai ia ia?aie/eaaeanue yoei. Anei?a
iaeei ec naiuo aeeceeo ethaeae e ainoaea?th, a?ao Ei/oaae, noae
ii?o/aoue aio, aac aaaeiia O?iueineiai, ?aciua ?aaiou; a noaa, 8
naioya?y 1802 aiaea ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae, a?ao oaea/ii i?eaeaeaao
Nia?aineiai e naaa, e Ieoaee Ieoaeeiae/ ia?aoae niaa?oaiii a
ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae, ii ianoiyieth Ei/oaay e aneaaenoaea
aeieeaaea naiiio ainoaea?th.

E oaea a 1803 – 1807 aiaeao Nia?aineee – aee?aeoi? aeaia?oaiaioa
ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae. A yoe aiaeu Nia?aineee ninoaaee ianeieueei
“caienie” (i?iaeoia), n?aaee ieo “Caieneo ia ono?ienoaa noaeaaiuo e
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee” (1803). Aeaaiaea?y naiaio auaeathuaiony
ainoaea?noaaiiiio oio, iaoe?iui iiciaieyi, yia?aee e iaiau/aeiie
?aaioiniiniaiinoe, Nia?aineee auno?i naeaeae naaa aeanoyuoth ea?uea?o.
Ana aaaeiua caeiiu, ia/eiay n 1802 aiaea ninoaaeyeenue e
?aaeaeoe?iaaeenue Nia?aineei. Iaieoanoii 1802 aiaea aianoi eieeaaee
o/?aaeaeaeinue 8 ieienoa?noa.

Nia?aineee, nui nayuaiieea, yaeye niaie niaa?oaiii iiaue oei
ath?ie?aoe/aneiai ?aoi?iaoi?a. Ii naeaeae no?aieoaeueioth ea?uea?o a
ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae, ca ei?ioeia a?aiy (1802 -1807)
aeineoaeeaoenue aei caianoeoaey ieieno?a. A oaeii ea/anoaa ii ano?aoeeny
n Aeaenaiae?ii I. Nia?aineee aue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaaeaaeiui
nio?oaeieeii ni a?aiaie ?aiieo ?aoi?i, a n ae?oaie – ia i?eiaaeeaaeae e
aunoae a?enoie?aoee. Ii anaaaea inoaaaeny oioy e aeanoyuei, ii caaenyuei
io naiiaea?aeoea aaeieieno?aoi?ii.

Ee/iia ciaeiinoai Aeaenaiae?a ni Nia?aineei ia/aeinue oieueei a
1806 aiaeo, eiaaea a?ao Ei/oaae ai a?aiy naiae aieacie iinueae Ieoaeea
Ieoaeeiae/a aianoi naay n aeieeaaeaie ainoaea?th, e oiaaea aea?iaeoue
aeieeaae/ee iaai?iaeee aai naiei yniui oiii, eneonnoaii iaoiaeeoue
i?aeoe/aneia au?aaeaiea aeey ooiaiiuo eeaa?aeueiuo i?eioeeiia, eieie
i?iieeioo aue Aeaenaiae? I e aai “eiieoao iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe”.
Ieeoi ia oiae oae ynii, oieeiai e oaaaeeoaeueii ienaoue eacaiiua aoiaae,
eae Nia?aineee, ieeoi eo ie?oaeathueo oea?y ia oiae oae no?iai e eiae/ii
iuneeoue. Ainoaea?ue i?eaeecee Nia?aineiai e naiae iniaa. Yoe ee/iua
niioaiey n eiia?aoi?ii anei?a noaiiayony eioeiiuie. Nia?aineee inoaaeyao
ieienoa?noai e, nio?aiyy caaiea noaon-nae?aoa?y Aeaenaiae?a I, ia
eioi?ue ii aue iacia/ai a 1807 aiaeo, ?aaioaao oieueei ii ii?o/aieth
naiiai ainoaea?y.

E 1807 – 1811 aiaea – a?aiy iiaouanoaa e neaau Nia?aineiai, eioi?ue
noae ia?aui eeoeii a ainoaea?noaa iinea eiia?aoi?a. N 1808 ii /eai
Eiiennee ninoaaeaiey caeiiia e oiaa?eu

(caianoeoaeue) ieieno?a thnoeoeee. A eiioea 1808 aiaea iu iaoiaeei aai a
eiia?aoi?neie naeoa, ia y?oo?oneii naeaeaiee e a /enea eeoe,
iieuecothueony iniaaiiui aeiaa?eai Aeaenaiae?a. ?anneacuaatho, /oi
Iaiieaii iinea /aniaie aanaaeu ni Nia?aineei iiaeaae aai e eiia?aoi?o
Aeaenaiae?o e neacae: “Eaeiai /aeiaaea au eiaaoa i?e naaa! ss ioaeae au
ca iaai ei?ieaanoai!” e iinea ii iocuaaeny i Nia?aineii eae i
“aaeeinoaaiii naaoeie aieiaa a ?innee”. Ii aica?auaiee n Y?oo?oneiai
naeaeaiey, aaea ii /anoi ?acaiaa?eaae n Oaeae?aiii, Nia?aineee caiaoee
oea?th, /oi a ?innee eo/oa ethaee, a a Aa?iia – onoaiiaeaiey. (Ni:
Aiaaeaiiae/ O. Aeaenaiae? I, 1914, n 44). Aeaenaiae? I ii?o/ee
Nia?aineiio ?ac?aaioeo ii caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei ia?acoeai ieaia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee ?innee a eeaa?aeueiii aeooa, n
o/?aaeaeaieai Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu e Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa. E a
1808 – 1812 aiaeao iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoia ia?aono?ienoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey auea nin?aaeioi/aia a Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae e
oea iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii I.I. Nia?aineiai.

Ia ?ieue naiaai ia?aiai iiiiuieea Aeaenaiae? ii?aaeaeee niiniaiiai
e aeinoaoi/ii aeaeiai I. I. Nia?aineiai, eioi?ue ia ?acaeaeye
?aaeeeaeueiuo aicc?aiee /eaiia Iaaeaniiai eiieoaoa e ia ioaae eiia?aoi?a
naiae ianoie/eainoueth e iaoa?iaieai, eae aai iieiaeua ae?ocuey.

Aiineaaenoaee Nia?aineee ienae, /oi Aeaenaiae? ia/ae caieiaoue aai
“iinoiyiiaa i?aaeiaoaie aunoaai oi?aaeaiey… Ionthaea i?iecioae ieai
anaiauaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey”. Oae a ieoya?a 1809 aiaea
yaeeny aeieoiaio “Aaaaeaiea e oeiaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiiia”,
i?aaenoaaeyaoee niaie ieai i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ue aue iiaeaioiaeai
Nia?aineei ii ii?o/aieth eiia?aoi?a. E niiaa Aeaenaiae? nai, ii
nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa, iie?aynue ia aua?aiiiai ei aea /aeiaaea,
i?enooiee e i/a?aaeiiio oo?o ?aoi?i. I?aa aue niaoeeaeueii caieiaaoeeny
yoei aii?inii nia?aiaiiue enoi?ee N. A. Ie?iiaiei, eiaaea ienae:
“I/aaeaeii, /oi naiinoiyoaeueii, aac naieoeee oea?y e aai iaeia?aiey,
Nia?aineee ieeiaaea ia ?aoeeny au ia i?aaeeiaeaiea ia?, /?acau/aeii
?aaeeeaeueiuo a oneiaeyo oiaaeaoiae ?innee. Inouanoaeaiea eo icia/aei
au, aac niiiaiey, ?aoeoaeueiue oaa ia iooe i?aa?auaiey ?onneiai
e?aiinoie/aneiai aaniethoecia a ao?aeoacioth iiia?oeth”.

Ieai ei?aiiie ?aoi?iu aunoaai oi?aaeaiey auno?i nic?ae a aieiaa
Nia?aineiai.

Yoi aue i?iaeo ?aoi?i, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee auoue i?iaaaeaiu
naa?oo e nio?aiyee i?e yoii naiiaea?aeaaioth aeanoue oea?y, oioy
i?enoonoaiaaee aiaoiea oi?iu eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee (auai?iinoue
/eiiaieeia, ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae, aaaaeaiea a?aaeaeaineeo e iieeoe/aneeo
i?aa e o.ae.). Iicaeiaa, oaea iinea naiae iiaeu, Nia?aineee ienae i
ieaia yoeo i?aia?aciaaiee oea?th: “Iie ia auee i?aaeeiaeaiu iiith, y
iaoae eo aiieia ia?aciaaaoeieny a Aaoai oia”. (Oeeueaea? I.E. Oeac. Ni/.
– O. 3. – NIa., 1897 – N. 45).

A ieaia Nia?aineiai auea ?ac?aaioaia no?ieiay nenoaia
oeaio?aeueiiai e ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey ia i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae –
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie, i?e iacaaeneiinoe
noaeaaiie e ioaaonoaaiiinoe eniieieoaeueiie ia?aae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie.
Yoi aeaeaiea, aei oao ii? nouanoaiaaaoaa oieueei a aoaa?iee, a ia?aue
?ac aianaii auei a aunoaa oi?aaeaiea. Aaiaeeeanue auai?iinoue a
?anii?yaeeoaeueiua e eniieieoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe /aou?ao noaiaiae – ia
o?iaia aieinoe, aoaa?iee e eiia?ee. Ii o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii eeoue eeoeai, iaeaaeaaoei ii?aaeaeaiiui eiouanoaaiiui
oeaicii. Ii i?iaeoo Nia?aineiai iieeoe/aneea i?aaa iieo/aee oieueei
aeai?yia, eoioeu, iauaia, ainoaea?noaaiiua e?anoueyia. Iniaui oeacii
Nia?aineee ia?aie/ee i?eaeeaaee aeai?yinoaa. Ii aai iunee, ana i?aaa
aeieaeiu iiae?acaeaeyoueny ia o?e a?oiiu: 1) iauea a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa
aeey anao aeeoaeae ?innee, iacaaeneii io eo iauanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey; 2)
iniaua a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa aeey oiai eee eiiai eeanna; 3) iieeoe/aneea
i?aaa, aeaaaaiua oieueei nianoaaiieeai.

Iiae?acoiaaay, /oi e?aiinoiia i?aai aoaeao oie/oiaeaii, ii
i?aaeiieaaae nouanoaiaaiea o?ao eeannia: “ aeai?yinoaa, n?aaeiaai
ninoiyiey e ia?iaea ?aai/aai”.

Aunoei ?anii?yaeeoaeueiui i?aaiii yaeyeanue Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia,
eioi?ay noiyea ai aeaaa caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e ?oeiaiaeeea
naoueth aieinoiuo, ie?oaeiuo e aoaa?ineeo aeoi. A niioaaonoaee n
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aac?acaeaeueiii noaa?aieoaoa, eioi?ue, eae e i?aaeaea,
inoaaaeny a ?oeao ?onneiai eiia?aoi?a, aiiaue nicaeaiiay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia aeieaeia auea ea?aoue eiinoeueoaoeaioth ?ieue a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii i?ioeanna. I?aaeeaaaeinue nicaeaoue ieienoa?noaa ai
aeaaa eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe e Naiao – ai aeaaa noaeaaiuo i?aaiia, n
niioaaonoaothueie ieaeanoiyueie o/?aaeaeaieyie. O/?aaeaeaeny oaeaea e
ae?oaie aa?oiaiue i?aai, i?ecaaiiue iauaaeeieoue aeayoaeueiinoue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie aeanoae, –
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, caeiiiniaauaoaeueiia o/?aaeaeaiea i?e
eiia?aoi?a, eioi?ue iaeaaeae aunoae eniieieoaeueiie aeanoueth. *eaiu a
iaai ia ecae?aeenue, a iacia/aeenue naiei eiia?aoi?ii, iiyoiio yoio
i?aai ia iaania/eaae o/anoey iauanoaa a oi?aaeaiee. Yoi i?eaaei au e
i?aia?aciaaieth iiia?oee ec noaeaaiie a eiinoeoooeeiiioth.

Naie i?aaeeiaeaiey Nia?aineee a eiioea eiioeia i?aaenoaaee oea?th,
e i?iaeo Nia?aineiai aue a yiaa?a 1810 aiaea a i?eioeeia i?eciai
Aeaenaiae?ii I “oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui e iieaciui”, iaeiaei ii ano?aoee
i?ioeaiaeaenoaea naiaoi?ia, ieieno?ia e ae?oaeo aunoeo naiiaieeia,
n/eoaaoeo aai neeoeii ?aaeeeaeueiui e “iianiui”. Aeaenaiae? I iioae
iaano?a/o eo o?aaiaaieyi, e i?iaeo Nia?aineiai eiia?aoi? ?aoee
inouanoaeyoue iiyoaiii. Nia?aineee i?enoonoaiaae, neaey ii i?aaoth
noi?iio io oea?y, ia aaeaiaaeaeueiuo canaaeaieyo nicaeaiiiai ei e
ian/eouaaaoaai 35 /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa. Oaeaeinue
inouanoaeoue eeoue iaeioi?ua /anoe ieaia Nia?aineiai: ii ia noiae
iiiyoue aeaienoaaiiinoe oa?aeoa?a eiia?aoi?a, iaioaaiiiai yaiie
iiiiceoeeae aeai?yinoaa iiaui, eeaa?aeueiui oa/aieyi, ia noiae
ca?o/eoueny e niaeaenoaeai ciaoe e i?eaeai?iuo e?oaia, ii ana-oaee 1
yiaa?y 1810 aiaea auei iauyaeaii i nicaeaiee iiaiai aunoaai i?aaia
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe – Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa, e ninoiyeinue aai
ia?aia canaaeaiea. Iaeiaei a iaieoanoa oea?y ia ooaa?aeaeaiee
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa ieacaeanue auoieiuaiiie iniiaiay iuneue,
auneacuaaaoayny ?aiaa e Aeaenaiae?ii, e Nia?aineei, – i ?acaeaeaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, noaeaaiie e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoae, aeaenoaea
eioi?uo eii?aeeie?iaae au Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao. Oaia?ue aio aiaiyeenue
a iaycaiiinoue eeoue caeiiiniaauaoaeueiua ooieoeee i?e eiia?aoi?a. A
1810 aiaeo aaiaeeony ?ac?aaioaiiia Nia?aineei “Iauaa o/?aaeaeaiea
ieienoa?noa”, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyei ninoaa, i?aaeae aeanoe e
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ieienoa?noa. A a 1811 aiaeo caaa?oaia ?ai?aaiecaoeey
ieienoa?noa.

Iniaaiiia aieiaiea Nia?aineee ia?aoee ia ninoiyiea oeiainia.
?onneea oeiainu iaoiaeeeenue a oi a?aiy a aeiaieueii aacio?aaeiii
ninoiyiee. Ia?eiaee/aneea eieaaaiey, eioi?ui yoa /anoue iaoaai
oi?aaeaiey iiaeaa?aaaony n oao ii?, eae nouanoaoao, aiciaiiaeeenue a
ia/aea

oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a I. A nouiinoe iaeiaei iieiaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eacia/aenoaa

ia auei ooaea oiai, eioi?ia i?iaeieaeaeinue ai aanue XVIII aae, ca
eneeth/aieai eo/oeo aiaeia Aeaoa?eiu; ii iaycaiiinoe, eaaeaaoea ia
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aaeaeo aiaoieo noieeiiaaiee e aioo?aiieo ?aoi?i,
aeaeaee cao?oaeiaiey aieaa /oanoaeoaeueiuie; e yoiio iaaei i?eaaaeoue,
/oi

ianeieueei i?aaeieo ioeai/iuo ia? canoaaeyee iianaoueny ianoiyuaai
e?ecena. Aeaoa?eia

aaaea a ia?aue ?ac nenoaio anneaiaoeee; yoa ia?a, aac anyeiai niiiaiey,
auea iieacia, ii

iioii, aneaaenoaea aani?anoaiiuo aeaoeoeeoia, auea naeaeaia aaaeiay
ioeaea: iaoia?aiiue

auione anneaiaoeee ia?aiaiee aeaiaaeiue ?uiie e iiaae e iinoaiaiiiio
oiaaeeo. I?aaeoaeuenoai ia ciaei, /ai iiiieieoue a?iciue iaaeinoaoie
n?aaenoa, noaiiaeaoeeny caiaoiaa n eaaeaeui aiaeii. Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aeiea aic?anoae auno?i. Athaeaeao ia 1810 aiae i?aaenoaaeye
iaooaoeoaeueiua oeeo?u: 125 iei. aeioiaea, 230 iei. ?anoiaea, 577 iei.
aeieaa, ie iaeaeoaai caiana oiiaea e ie iaeiiai aioiaiai enoi/ieea
aeioiaea! Oeiainiaay /anoue iaoiaeeeanue a ?oeao ethaeae, oi niaa?oaiii
ianiiniaiuo, oi ia aicauoathueony iaae o?iaiai i?inoie i?aeoe/aneie

iiuoiinoe. A 1810 aiaeo inoaaaeinue ia iiiai ethaeae e iineaaeiaai
?iaea. Eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae?

ia ciae, eiio aaa?eoue yoi ieienoa?noai, e ii?o/ea aai iaeiiaoe, ca
ioeacii io ae?oaeo, Ao?ueaao, iio?aaiaae io Nia?aineiai ieaia
aiciiaeiiai i?aia?aciaaiey. A oaa?aea 1810 aiaea Nia?aineiio auei
ii?o/aii ?aoaiea oaeie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie (ioeeaaeuaaaoaeny ni a?aiai
Aeaoa?eiu I) e ino?i noiyaoae i?iaeaiu, eae icaei?iaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia.

Yoio ieai iiniae n oie ecoieoaeueiie auno?ioie, c eaeie iaueiiaaiii
nic?aaaee aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?iaeou Nia?aineiai. A iaieoanoa ia
ia?aciaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa oaea

oiiieiaeinue i iiauo ia?ao, e anei?a ia?iiiue aeieeaae a 238 noaoae
eaaeae ia?aae ainoaea?ai.

Nia?aineee ioi?aaeyeny io iunee, /oi “anyeee oeiainiaue ieai,
i?aaeeaaathuee niiniau eaaeea e ia iiiiaathuee ia?aie/aieth a ?anoiaeao,
anoue yaiue iaiai, aeaeouee ainoaea?noai

a iiaeaaeue. *oiau auaanoe ?inneth ec aa ian/anoiiai iieiaeaiey, ii
o?aaiaae neeueiuo ia? e

aaaeiuo iiaea?oaiaaiee”. Yoe neeueiua ia?u caeeth/aeenue:

1) a i?ana/aiee auionea anneaiaoeee,

2) a nie?auaiee ?anoiaeia,

a onoaiiaeaiee eo/oaai eiio?iey iaae ainoaea?noaaiiuie ecaea?aeeaie e,
iaeiiaoe,

a iiauo iaeiaao.

I?aaeaea anaai Nia?aineiio oaeaeinue eniieieoue oo /anoue i?iaeoa,
eioi?ay ioiineeanue e nie?auaieth ?anoiaeia. Ii athaeaeaoo 1810 aiaea
?anoiaeu auee nie?auaiu aieaa /ai ia 20 ieeeeiiia. *oiau aianoe
i?aaeeueiinoue a oiio?aaeaiea aeioiaeia, yeiiiie/aneea noiiu anao
aaaeiinoa iauyaeaiu i?eiaaeeaaeaueie ainoaea?noaaiiiio eacia/aenoao e
cai?auaiu anyeea ecaea?aeee aac i?aaenoaaeaiey io ieieno?a oeiainia e
ooaa?aeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiui niaaoii. Aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey e?aaeeoa e
oiaaeoae oeaiiinoe anneaiaoeee ia?aciaai iniaue eaieoae iiaaoaiey. Ii
aeieaeai aue ninoaaeoueny iin?aaenoaii iinoaiaiiie i?iaeaaee
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue a oa/aiee iyoe eao.
Naa?o oiai i?aaeiieaaaeinue ioe?uoue aioo?aiiee n?i/iue caai ia noiio ia
nauoa 100 ieeeeiiia, ?acaeaeaiioth ia iyoue /anoae. Eiienney iiaaoaiey
aeieaia i?eieiaea aeeaaeu ia iaiaa 1000 ?oa. Na?aa?ii io eeoe anao
ninoiyiee e auaeaaaea ia ieo iaeeaaoeee, ii eioi?ui oiea/eaaea
aaeaaiaeii ii 6 i?ioeaioia, a ii enoa/aiee n?iea aica?auaea naiue
eaieoae, i?iecaiaey ana yoe ieaoaaee na?aa?yiith e cieioith iiiaoie.
Anneaiaoeee, aica?aoeaoeany e i?aaeoaeuenoao /a?ac aeeaaeu, naeeaaeenue.
Naia eiienney iieo/eea oaeie ninoaa, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue aiooeoue e iae
aeiaa?ea oi?aiauo eeannia; a iae i?enoonoaiaaee eeoea eae io ei?iiu, oae
e ii auai?o io eoia/anoaa. Iaeiiaoe, Nia?aineee caiyeny iieiaeaieai
?aciaiiie iiiaou. Ca aeaaioth iiiaoioth aaeeieoeo i?eiyo aue na?aa?yiue
?oaeue, eioi?ue n oao ii? iinoiyiii nio?aiye yoi cia/aiea. I?eiyou ia?u
aeey oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa iaeeie na?aa?yiie iiiaou, eioi?ie Nia?aineee
aeaeae niaa?oaiii caiaieoue iaaeioth, inoaaea iineaaeithth oieueei a
iaaieueoii /enea e i?aa?aoea aa a aeeeii. *a?ac yoi ii aeoiae
iinoaiaiii ainnoaiiaeoue aeiaa?ea e anneaiaoeeyi, iaeaa/ea eo ?aciai ia
iiiaoo, e i?ae?aoeoue eieaaaiey a naiie iiiaoiie nenoaia.

Ana yoe iia?aoeee oaeaeenue oieueei io/anoe. Aioo?aiiee caai oae
iaaeo?ii, e ia?aay /anoue aai auea iie?uoa a ia/aea neaaeothuaai aiaea.
Ii i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa auea i/aiue iacia/eoaeueia e ia
iie?uaaea ioaeae eacia/aenoaa. Eacaiiuo eiaiee auei i?iaeaii a
i?iaeieaeaiee 1810 aiaea ia noiio, ninoaaeyaooth ieiei iyoie /anoe oie,
eioi?oth i?aaeiieaaaeinue au?o/eoue. Ethaiiuoiu i?e/eiu eioi?ui iioii
Nia?aineee i?eienae iaoaea/o yoie ia?u. Iie ninoiyee a neaauo n?aaenoaao
oi?aaeaiey e a iaaeinoaoea aa?iuo naaaeaiee i ainoaea?noaaiiii
oicyenoaa. Aeey i?iaeaaee eiaiee iio?aaiaaeinue ninoaaeaiea iienae,
i?iaeieaeaaoaany i/aiue aeieai; ioeaiea auea naeaeaia i?aoaaee/aiiay, a
ianoiua eiiennee, ia iaoiaey

a i?iaeaaea ieeaeie aeey naay auaiaeu, oyioee aeaei anaie niiniaaie.
Oi/ii oae aea ia oaeaeinue e i?aaeeiaeaiiia nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia.
Aeaenoaeoaeueiue iai?io 1810 aiaea i?aacioae athaeaeao ia 56 ieeeeiiia
e, aianoi iaeeaeaaiiai inoaoea, iaaeiaii auei aua aeiaaaeoue yoo noiio.
Yoi iai?aaeaeaeaiiia ia?aiaiaiea eacia/aenoaa ia auei aeiie Nia?aineiai:
iii auei neaaenoaeai aiaiiuo i?eaioiaeaiee ?innee, ii iicaea iii ia ?ac
noaaeeinue aio a oi?ae. Aua aieaa aeaeia aucuaaea oa ia?a, ia?aae
eioi?ie oae aeieai ionooiaee ?onneea oeiainenou e eioi?oth ?aoeoaeueiue
Nia?aineee ia oniiieeny acyoue ia naay, – oaaee/aiea iaeiaia. Ii
caia/aieth aai, a oa/aiee n eeoeii aeaaaeoeaoe eao “eaaeaeue /eai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa oioae neiaeeoue n naay a?aiy nae oei?eciu; iaaeeaaeaei
iaeiaei ae, /oia eoi-ieaoaeue aa iiian”. Iaeiae aeaee n?aaenoai, ii
e?aeiae ia?a, oiaiueoeoue aeaoeoeeo e, aac anyeiai niiiaiey, iiiai
iiiiaee i?aaeoaeuenoao n?aaee iieeoe/aneeo aai cao?oaeiaiee. Ana yoe
ia?u auee iiiieiaiu oa?eoii, eiaaoei aeaaiaeaoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iaoo
oi?aiaeth, e iniaaiii ia aiaoiea niioaiey n Aiaeeae.

Ia aoiaey a iiae?iaiue ?acai? oeiainiaiai ieaia Nia?aineiai,
caiaoei, /oi ei a ia?aue ?ac aianaiu ia/aea io/aoiinoe e iiaa?ee a oo
/anoue iaoaai oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ay ioaeaeaynue a ieo anaai aieaa, aeieaa
anao inoaaaeanue a niaa?oaiiii ?anno?ienoaa. Yoi aue aaaeiue e oyaeaeue
iiaeaea. Ia?aue na?ueaciue athaeaeao ?innee, ianoaeaeaiiue ia iaeiei eee
aeaoiy eeoeaie, a iinoiyiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai, aue
ninoaaeai Nia?aineei. A ia?aue ?ac ono?aiyeny i?iecaie a oeiainiauo
ia?ao, e ?anii?yaeaiey aeanoe iiaee?aieyeenue ia?auaieai e aeiaa?eth
iauanoaa e aeaniinoueth iia?aoeee. Iaeiiaoe, a ?anoiaeao a ia?aue ?ac
aue eaeie-ieaoaeue ii?yaeie. Nai Nia?aineee oae ecia?aaeaao
i?iecaaaeaiioth ei ia?aiaio: “Aianoi oiai, /oi i?aaeaea eaaeaeue ieieno?
iia ii/a?iaoue naiaiaeii ec oae iacuaaaiuo yeno?ai?aeeia?iuo noii, a
iiaii ii?yaeea iaaeeaaeaei ana aiineoue a aiaeiaoth niaoo, iioii
eaaeaeue ii/oe ?oaeue iiaeaa?aaoue o/aoo a aeaoo einoaioeeyo niaaoa,
/anoi oa?iaoue ioeacu e anaaaea ii/oe oiaiueoaiea, e a eiioea anaai
iaeeaeaoue aua ?aaecee eiio?iea?a”. Aeaaiaea?y yoei ia?ai aeioiaeu a
oa/aiea aeaoo eao auee n eeoeii oaeaiaiu. A 1810 aiaeo eo n/eoaeinue
oieueei 125 ieeeeiiia, e 1812 aiaeo noiia eo aeioiaeeea aei 300
ieeeeiiia. Iianaiey, aicaoaeaeaiiua e?ooui iiai?ioii a oeiainao, ia
ii?aaaeaeenue. Ianiio?y ia ?iiio iauanoaa ia iaeiae, a ieieno?ia – ia
eiio?ieue e io/aoiinoe, ianiio?y ia i?a/iua i?aaeneacaiey ni anao
noi?ii, i?aaeoaeuenoai inaiaiaeeeinue io aeaaiuo naieo cao?oaeiaiee.

“Aia?aua i?iyaeeanue oaa?aeay aiey e oiio, /oiau ia aeiioneaoue
?anoi/eoaeueiinoe e ii-ianoiyuaio oi?aaeyoue iaoeeiiaeueiui aiaaonoaii,
– ioia/aao E?aeianeee. – Oeiainiaay ?aoi?ia ianea n niaie neeoeii iiiai
auaiae, /oiau ia noiaoue ooaa?aeeoueny. Iinea Nia?aineiai ?inney noaea
iaeaaeaoue ianoiyuae nenoaiie oi?aaeaiey oeiainaie, eioi?ie iia auea aei
yoiai eeoaia…”. Iaeiaei a eiioea eiioeia ana caoae iioa?iaee iaoaea/o
ec-ca iio?aaiinoe a aeaiueaao aeey aioeiaiieaiiianeeo iioiaeia.

I?iaiaeeiua Nia?aineei ?aoi?iu aucuaaee iaaeiaieuenoai o iiiaeo.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi aucaaei iaaeiaieuenoai /eiiaieeia e i?eaeai?iuo. Eo
iaiaaenoue aucaae iiaeaioiaeaiiue Nia?aineei oeac 1809 aiaea, niaeanii
eioi?iio ana eeoea, eiaaoea i?eaeai?iue /ei, aeieaeiu auee eca?aoue
eaeoth-eeai ?aaeueioth neoaeao, o.a. i?eaeai?iue /ei i?aa?auaeny eeoue a
ii/aoiia caaiea, oa?ye noaoon aeieaeiinoe. E caoai e yoiio i?eaaaeeinue
o?aaiaaiea, /oiau iinooiathuea ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao /eiiaieee
naeaaaee yecaiai, aucaaa oai naiui aeeaaeoaa iaoaeiaieuenoaea aacaea?iuo
i?aoaiaeaioia ia aeieaeiinoe.

Ai-aoi?uo, yoi ana aucuaaei iaaeiaieuenoai aeai?yinoaa.

Aaeiaay ionoaeinoue no?aiu, oyaeanoue e?aiinoiuo ii?yaeeia,
eiina?aaoeaiinoue, /aainoai e ooiinoue iniiaiie iannu aeai?yinoaa
iaoaea?aeeii oyioee no?aio iacaae. Ii niiaa iu aeieaeiu aeieoue a yoei
ia oieueei a?aiy, ii e naiiai Aeaenaiae?a, iinoiyiii eieaaaaoaainy,
no?aoeaoaainy aiciiaeiiai iaaeiaieuenoai aeai?yinoaa. A iii, yoi
iaaeiaieuenoai, oaea i?e ia?auo iiuoao Aeaenaiae?a e Nia?aineiai ii
ainoaea?noaaiiiio ia?aono?ienoao ?innee a?icii aeaei i naaa ciaoue.
Auaoee iaeiei ec ?oii?ia ?aaeoeeiiiie /anoe aeai?yinoaa, iiia/eoaeue
iaoa?ao?aneiai o/aaiiai ie?oaa Ae. I. ?oie/ n aiciouaieai ienae i oii,
/oi “naiiaea?aeaaea oea?y ni/aoaeinue n iiaieai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
niaaoa”, “naiue iaaeaeueiiaeaeiue /aeiaae iiieiae, /oi anei?a ianooiyo
iiaua ii?yaeee, eioi?ua ia?aaa?ioo aaa?o aeiii aanue nouanoaothuee
no?ie. Ia yoii oaea aiai?eee ioe?uoi, ia ciay aua, a /ai ninoieo
oa?iaeathuay iianiinoue. Aiaaoua iiiaueee, eiathuea e?aiinoiuo, oa?yee
aieiao i?e iunee, /oi eiinoeoooeey oie/oiaeeo e?aiinoiia i?aai e /oi
aeai?yinoai aeieaeii aoaeao onooieoue oaa aia?aae ieaaayi.
Iaaeiaieuenoai aunoaai nineiaey auei anaiauaa”.

Oaeaea aeayoaeueiinoue I.I. Nia?aineiai aucaaea iaaeiaieuenoai
eiina?aaoeaiiai aeai?yinoaa, aunooiaaoea i?ioea i?aia?aciaaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy ?innee, eioi?ia iaaeiyei aai a ainoaea?noaaiiie
eciaia e aeiaeeinue aai ionoaaee. Iaeioi?ua ioe?uoi iacuaaee Nia?aineiai
a?aaii aeai?yinoaa. I.I. Ea?aicei, ciaiaieoue ienaoaeue e enoi?ee,
yaeyaoeeny au?aceoaeai eaeae e no?aieaiee ?onneiai aeai?yinoaa yoiai
a?aiaie, aunooiee n ?aceie e?eoeeie Nia?aineiai a 1811 aiaeo a naiae
ciaiaieoie caienea-ienueia “I ae?aaiae e iiaie ?innee”. N/eoay
ianaiaa?aiaiiuie ana ia?ii?eyoey i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aeaenaiae?a I, Ea?aicei
iiaeaa?a eo ?aceie e?eoeea. Io?aaeay iano?iaiey aeai?yinoaa,
o?aaiaaaoaai ioeaca io eaeeo-eeai ?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i, ii iieaaae, /oi
aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?aia?aciaaieth ?innee, inouanoaeyaiay eiia?aoi?ii,
ia niioaaonoaoao enoi?e/aneie o?aaeeoeee ?onneiai ia?iaea, /oi ioaeiu ia
?aoi?iu, a o?aaeeoeeiiiay neeueiay aeanoue eiia?aoi?a, aai
aeia?iaeaoaeue e io?aieoaeueiua ooieoeee iiia?oa.

?anoouay iai?yaeaiiinoue a ioiioaieyo n O?aioeeae iaiin?aaenoaaiii
neacaeanue ia aioo?aiiae iieeoeea ?innee. Aeai?yineay iiiiceoeey,
iaaeiaieueiay nicaeaieai ii o?aioeocneiio ia?acoeo eeoeay a Oea?neii
Naea, eae, ai?i/ai, e anae ?aoi?iie ia?aciaaiey, oaia?ue naeaeaea
iiaeaioiaeaiiue Nia?aineei a 1812 aiaeo i?iaeo A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena
Iaiieaiia, iiaiaeii aeey ?aoeoaeueiiai e oniaoiiai oaea?a ii
?aoi?iaoi?neei oaiaeaioeeyi, oa?aeoa?iui aeey ia?aiai aeanyoeeaoey
i?aaeaiey Aeaenaiae?a.

E oiio aea a Y?oo?oa, aaea Iaiieaii ieacuaae Nia?aineiio ciaee
iniaiai aieiaiey, ii nioaeny n o?aioeocneeie caeiiiaaaeaie Eie?a, Eaa?a,
Aethiii aea Iaio?ii e aeiaeeny eo iacia/aiey /eaiaie-ei??aniiiaeaioaie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eiiennee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa. Iaia?aaaynue
“?acaoue ii aeeaiio, e?ieoue ec oeaeiai eonea” ii ia/oae i a?aaeaeaineie
naiaiaea, i ?aaainoaa ia?aae caeiiii, ia ioiaia e?aiinoie/anoaa. Aai
?aoi?iu , oeiaeaiea caeiiia e a iniaaiiinoe aai ainoeuaiea Iaiieaiiii
aucaaee y?inoiia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu aeai?yinoaa. Aaeeeay
eiyaeiy Aeaoa?eia Iaaeiaia, ieieno?u A?ioaeueae, Ao?ueaa, Aaeaoia,
A?ae/aaa iao?aaeeaaee ia iaai Aeaenaiae?a.

A a-o?aoueeo, ana yoi ia ono?ieei Aeaenaiae?a I.

?aoi?iu ia/aea XIX aaea ia niiaee cao?iiooue iniia naiiaea?aeaaey,
oioy anai auei ynii, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiey ?aoi?iaoi?ia auee iai?aaeaiu ia
eeeaeaeaoeeth i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaiiuie einoeoooaie
i?aaeiae oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneie iiia?oee. Ia aeaea oea?ue, eae e
i?aaeaea, aaeeiiee/ii ?aoae iiiaea aaaeiaeoea aii?inu. O?aaeeoeee
naiiaea?aeaaey i?iaeieaeaee aeaenoaiaaoue, e oea?ue ieacuaaeny ia?aui,
eoi eo aeoeaii iiaeaea?aeeaae, i?iaiaeee a aeeciue. A eiia a?aiy, a
aieaa iaiaaeaiiie oi?ia, a aieueoeo ianooaaao iiaoi?eeinue oi, /oi
i?iecioei a naia a?aiy n Iaaeaniui eiieoaoii: niiaa n?aaioaea nenoaia,
niiaa /aeiaae nenoaiu, ianiio?y ia aeaaea aeaeea?aoeee e iiaeoaeeeaaiea
naieo niiaeaeaeieeia e ?aoi?iai, a ?aoathuee iiiaio naeaeae oaa iacaae.
E ia oieueei iioiio, /oi nai ii aue ia aioia e ?aoi?iai, ii e iioiio,
/oi e iei auee ia aioiau ?inney, ?inneeneia iauanoai, iaaeeaiii e
oyao/a, a niioaaonoaee n iauei oa/aieai aeecie, aoyaeaaaoaany a iiaia
iauanoaaiiia ?onei.

Ii iii?iaoai ii?aaeaeeoue i?e/eiu, ii eioi?ui eiia?aoi? naeae naie
iiceoeee e a iineaaeiee iiiaio ioeacaeny io i?iaaaeaiey oao ?aoi?i,
eioi?ua nai aea e iaeia?ee.

Aeaenaiae? i?aaeii/eoae inoaaaoueny i?e iaii?aaeaeaiii-?anieua/aoie
oi?ioea iaioeoeeaeueiiai eiieoaoa i aiciiaeiinoe niaianoeoue naiaiaeo n
naiiaea?aeaaeai; iayniinoue, iaoeiaeiinoue yoie oi?ioeu eae ?ac e
ninoaaeyei aeaaioth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue aa a aeacao Aeaenaiae?a.

Nionoy ianeieueei eao oyaeaeua eniuoaiey io iaoaea/ ia?auo
eiaeeoeee i?ioea Iaiieaiia iinoaaeea ?aa?ii aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iieeoe/aneee ?aoi?iu. Oaia?ue oaea ia eaaeiaoiua ?aciuoeaiey i
aicauoaiiuo i?eioeeiao, a inycaoaeueiay i?aeoe/aneay iio?aaiinoue
anaiauaa iaaeiaieuenoai e ?iiio, oeiainiaue e?ecen, ?anoaoaiiinoue
ainoaea?noaa ianoie/eai iaiiieiaee i iai?eaiaeiinoe noa?uo oi?i
i?aaeaiey. E io ?anieua/aouo ia/oaiee i iieeoe/aneie naiaiaea
i?eoiaeeeinue ia?aeoe e ninoaaeaieth oi/iiai ieaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aia?aciaaiey. Yoa iio?aaiinoue auaeaeioea ia aaainoeaio aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee aaeeeiai nenoaiaoeea – Nia?aineiai. Eaaei iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa, n eaeei /oanoaii /eoae Aeaenaiae? i?iaeou Nia?aineiai! Aaaeue yoe
i?iaeou iecaiaeeee aicaeooii-aanieioioth ia/oo i iieeoe/aneie naiaiaea
ia noaiaiue nooeo eiae/aneeo oi?ioe, oi/iuo ii?aaeaeaiee, caeii/aiiuo
ia?aa?aoia. Ana iieo/aei iieioth inycaoaeueiinoue, i?eioeeiu
oi?ioee?iaaeenue a o/?aaeaeaiey, e aeaeaciay eiaeea anao yoeo “onoaaia”
e “iaeacia” ia inoaaeyea ianoa ieeaeei caiai/eaui iaaeiiieaeai e
iiyoe/aneei iayniinoyi. E aeaaiia – ieai Nia?aineiai aue ?ac?aaioai a
oeaeyo iaiaaeeaiiiai eniieiaiey, i?e eioi?ii i?aaenoiyei nae/an aea
inycaoaeueii ii/oanoaiaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua iineaaenoaey aaaaeaiey iiaiai
ii?yaeea ia ianoi i?aaeieo i?eau/iuo ioiioaiee. Ieai Nia?aineiai
aeieaeai aue aicaoaeeoue a Aeaenaiae?a iai?eyoiia /oanoai aieaa anaai
eiaiii naiath caeii/aiiinoueth. E aei ian aeaenoaeoaeueii aeioee
oeacaiey ia oi, /oi Aeaenaiae? au?aaeae naia iaaeiaieuenoai
i?iecaaaeaieai Nia?aineiai e aeaeiaaeny, /oi Nia?aineee eneacee
ia?aiia/aeueiua i?iaeou Eaaa?ia e neeoeii ii?aaeaeaiii ia?aie/ee
i?a?iaaoeau iiia?oa. Aeaenaiae? aue aieueoie ioioiee aei e?anii?a/eauo
aaaaeaiee a eiinoeoooeeiiiie oa?oee, ii ii ioithaeue ia iaeia?ye oi/ioth
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue a ia?aa?aoao eo oaenoa. E ia ioae?aii, /oi Aeaenaiae?
auno?i ia?aoae io ia?aiia/aeueiie iunee i aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea i?iaeoa
Nia?aineiai oeaeeeii e /anoe/iiio inouanoaeaieth eeoue iaeioi?uo aai
io?uaeia.

A eiia/iii n/aoa Aeaenaiae? ia onoiye ia?aae iaoeneii aeai?yinoaa,
o?aaiaaaoaai oa?aoue “i?anooiieea, eciaiieea e i?aaeaoaey” – I. I.
Nia?aineiai. *aeiaae, n eioi?ui Aeaenaiae? caiuoeye naie ia?aua ?aoi?iu,
aue ioi?aaeai a nnueeo, eiia/ii, ia ca iieiua nayce n Iaiieaiiii, a a
oaiaeo eiina?aaoeaiiio aieueoeinoao aeai?yinoaa, e i?aaeaea anaai
?aaeoeeiiii iano?iaiiie /anoe – a?enoie?aoe/aneie ath?ie?aoee, ii o
oea?y oaaoeei ioaeanoaa i?eciaoueny naiaio ae?oao A. I. Aieeoeuio: “Anee
o oaay ionaeee ?oeo, ou, iaaa?iia, e?e/ae au e aeaeiaaeny, /oi oaaa
aieueii. O iaiy i?ioeie ii/ueth ioiyee Nia?aineiai, a ii aue iiae
i?aaith ?oeith”. (Oeeo. ii Oaaei?ia A.A. Oeac. Ni/. – N. 61).

Eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? aue i?aa: Nia?aineiai ioiyee, ioiyee ia
oieueei o iaai, ii e o oeaeie ?innee. Ainoaea?ue inoaeny ie?oaeaiiue
ethaeueie aac iieeoe/aneie iunee e /anoi i?aaeaiiuie ee/iui eioa?anai.
Aeey ?innee – cae?uaaeanue ii?a aioo?aiiaai iaiiaeaiey, e eo/oea
iaia?aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa inoaiiaeeenue ii iaaeinoaoeo i?oaeee. Aunoaa
oi?aaeaiea niiaa iia?oceeinue a oain neo/aeiuo ia?, ec eioi?uo ia a?aiy
iii auei auaaaeaii niaeui oiii ainoaea?noaaiiiai /aeiaaea.

Iaeiaei iaaeaiea Nia?aineiai iaoneaaeeaaeinue, eae ecaanoii,
iiiaiia?aciuie i?e/eiaie. Ii a?yae ee iu ioeaainy, i?aaeiieiaeea oaeaea,
/oi oa eaaeinoue, n eioi?ie Aeaenaiae? iioae iaano?a/o
iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeyi Nia?aineiai, iauyniyaony a iineaaeiai n/aoa aeoaieie
?aciinoueth iaoo? yoeo aeaoo ethaeae. O Nia?aineiai auei ana oi, /oi
iaaeinoaaaei Aeaenaiae?o: no?iai eiae/aneee oi, eneeth/eoaeueiay
o?oaeiniiniaiinoue, yniinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiinoue e a?iiaaeiay
ianoie/eainoue. Ana, /oi auei aeinoeaiooi a niunea oii?yaei/aiey
oi?aaeaiey, auei naeaeaii Nia?aineei. Ii iaae iei oyaioaea, yeiau
eieaaethuayny, ?anieua/aoay, a a nouiinoe iai?aeeiiiay aiey
“aacaieueiiai” oea?y; e Nia?aineiio oaeaeinue naeaeaoue eeoue oi
iaiiiaia, /oi oaiaeii auei aeiionoeoue Aeaenaiae?o. Iiyoiio Ieoaee
Ieoaeeiae/ enioaae Aeaenaiae?a, iieacaa aio a eiie?aoii-aiieiuaiiii
aeaea aai niooioth e aanoi?iaiioth ia/oo. E ni/eiaiiua Nia?aineei
ia?aa?aou anoaee ia?aae oinoaaiiui aci?ii Aeaenaiae?a eae aeeaie oii?
aai ia/oaoaeueiie ianneaiinoe, eae i?aaeuyaeaiiue e oieaoa oi/ii
iiaeaaaeaiiue n/ao. E aio ii/aio, oioy Aeaenaiae? I e oeaieyeny ca
Nia?aineiai, iiaeioynue iaiaoiaeeiinoe, eae ca iacaiaieiiai ?aaioieea, a
oi a?aiy, eiaaea ia i/a?aaee noiyee eiie?aoiua eiinoeoooeeiiiua
i?aia?aciaaiey, ii iaaeaeo ieie ieeiaaea ia iiaei onoaiiaeoueny
ianoiyuae eioeiiie aeooaaiie aeecinoe, eae ieeiaaea ia iiaoo
n?iaeieoueny aeooii ia/oaoaeue e ?aaeecaoi?. Eiaaea aea Nia?aineee noae
iaoaeiaai, eiaaea Aeaenaiae? oaaaeeeny, /oi ?aoi?iaoi?neea no?aieaiey
Nia?aineiai eaeoo aeaeueoa oea?neeo iaia?aiee, ii niieieii i?aaeae aai.
Aeaenaiae?, eioi?ue ieeiaaea ia n/eoaeny n anaiauae iaiaaenoueth e
A?ae/aaao, aae?oa iiaeaeaeny iiaeic?aieyi i?ioea Nia?aineiai, eioi?ui
nai ie ieioou ia aa?ee, e ioi?aaee aai a nnueeo, e a 1812 aiaeo n
iiiuoeaie ?aoi?i auei iieii/aii. Eeoue oieueei Nia?aineee en/ac n
aa?oeiu ainoaea?noaaiiie ie?aieaeu, Aeaenaiae? aiiaue iia?oceeny a
oaioaniaai?e/aneee ie? aanoi?iaiiuo ia/oaiee. I?eiya eiia iai?aaeaiea,
yoe ia/oaiey ia oo?aoeee naiaai i?aaeiaai oa?aeoa?a.

Ana yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi iieeoe/aneee e?ao anaiiaouaai
noaon-nae?aoa?y Nia?aineiai ia oieueei a yoii aeanyoeeaoee, ii e ai anai
i?aaeaiee Aeaenaiae?a.

Nnueea.

N 1810 – 1812 aiaea Nia?aineee i?iaae ?yae ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
oe?aieaiea oeiainia no?aiu e aucaaaoeo iaaeiaieuenoai aeai?yinoaa.
I?eaeai?iay eeeea any/anee e?eoeeiaaea Nia?aineiai eae “iiiiae/a”,
“aunei/eo”, ia iaai nuiaee aeiiinu. A ?acoeueoaoa eio?ea ia?aae ia/aeii
aieiu a na?aaeeia ia?oa 1812 aiaea eiia?aoi? iiaea?oaiaae Nia?aineei a
caeia i?eie?aiey naiaai n iiiiceoeeae, e, iaaeiaiiue a niioaieyo n
Iaiieaiiii, iainoi?iaeiue e iianiue “parvenu” aue ioi?aaeai a ionoaaeo.

17-ai ia?oa 1812 aiaea, a aine?anaiuea, Nia?aineee ca iaaaeii
iieo/ee /a?ac oaeueaeuaaa?y i?eeacaiea yaeoueny e ainoaea?th a 8 /ania
aa/a?a. Yoe i?eaeaoaiey neo/aeenue /anoi, e Nia?aineee niieieii iiaoae a
Ceiiee aeai?aoe. A nae?aoa?neie eiiiaoa aeiaeeaeaeenue aeaaeo?iue
aaia?ae-aaeuthoaio e aeaa ieieno?a; ii ainoaea?noaaiiue nae?aoa?ue aue
iicaai i?aaeaea eo. Oeaeua aeaa /ana i?iaeieaeaeanue aoaeeaioeey.
Iaeiiaoe aeaa?ue ioai?eeanue, e Nia?aineee auoae aeaaeiue e
acaieiiaaiiue. Oi?iieeai oeiaeea a ii?ooaeue aoiaae e i?inoynue n
ieieno?aie, ii ioi?aaeeny aeiiie. Caeanue aai oaea iaeeaeae aai ieieno?
iieeoeee Aaeaoia. Eaaeiao aai aue iia/aoai. O Nia?aineiai ia aeinoaei
aeooo i?inoeoueny n naiaenoaii. Iicaeii ii/ueth ii auaoae ec Iaoa?ao?aa,
a nii?iaiaeaeaiee /anoiiai i?enoaaa, a nnueeo, eioi?ie ianoii aue
iacia/ai Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae. Aai aeeaeaeoee i?eyoaeue Iaaieoeeee,
aiineaaenoaee oae o?aa?i ia?aoaaeoee a ae?oaie eaaa?ue, aue oiaea
a?anoiaai ii/ueth e nineai. *oi i?ienoiaeeei iaaeaeo Aeaenaiae?ii e aai
i?aaeiei ae?oaii, inoaeinue oaeiie. Ie a iiiai/eneaiiuo caieneao oiai
a?aiaie, ie a aeeeiiuo, ii?aaaeaoaeueiuo ienueiao naiiai Nia?aineiai ia
aeaeii, a /ai ninoiye aeiiin ia iaai. O naay aeiia ii oaeaeae ieieno?a
iieeoeee aaia?aea Aaeaoiaa, eioi?ue ii auni/aeoaio iiaaeaieth i?eeacae
aio iaiaaeeaiii ioi?aaeyoueny a Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae iiae no?iaee iaaeci?
iieeoeee. AEaiaea?ineee ioeoea? aeaeae o ai?io n o?ieeie eioaaeae. Caoai
ii iiaiio aeiiino Nia?aineee aue nineai a Ia?iue, ia O?ae. Aoaeo/e
a?aaii Nia?aineiai, aaeeeay eiyaeiy Aeaoa?eia Iaaeiaia iiiai
niaeaenoaiaaea aai iaaeaieth, ecaanoiinoe Ea?aiceia e aicauoaieth
?inoii/eia.

Eiaaea yoio ia?aue ni?aoiee oea?y, ii/eoay Iaiieaiia, o?oaeeeny ia
iieueco nithca n O?aioeeae e iinayuae naay aioo?aiiei ?aoi?iai,
Aeaenaiae? aio ia i?aiyonoaiaae, iaeiaei nai oea?ue ia ia?anoaaae aanoe
iiaeeii iiae nithc n O?aioeeae, eioi?ue nai aea eiaaea-oi ainoaaeye…
Aanoue ia iiaea Nia?aineiai auea n ainoi?aii aini?eiyoa a ?innee eae
ia?aay iiaaaea iaae eiia?aoi?ii o?aioeocia.

Ia eo/oay ii?a ia/aeanue aeey naiiai Nia?aineiai; aai oa?aeoa?,
aieaa aeaeee, iaaeaee oaa?aeue, ia auaea?aeae oyaeeiai oaea?a. Nia/aea
ii eae aoaeoi ia oioae aa?eoue aacaica?aoiinoe naiaai iaaeaiey. A
oaa?aeie iaaeaaeaea ia naith iaaeiiinoue, ii ieoao, iaeii ca ae?oaei,
ienueia e ainoaea?th. Ii ienueia ia aeioiaeyo eee inoathony aac ioaaoa.
Iaaeaeo oai iieiaeaiea aai a nnueea noaiiaeony iaauiineiui. Ca iei
neaaeyo oaa ca oaaii, eaaeaeay o?aca aai aeioiaeeo aei Iaoa?ao?aa n
?aciuie oieeiaaieyie, e a oi a?aiy, eiaaea ii aeaeao iaeaa/aiey o/anoe,
aeiaieueii iaeiiai iainoi?iaeiiai neiaa, /oia oaeaeee aai ec Ieaeiaai
Iiaai?iaea a Ia?iue. Caeanue, inoaaeaiiue anaie, caeeaeiaiiue eiaiai
eciaiieea, e aeaaea aac iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa aeecie, ii iaaeaao
aeooii. Oii aai ia?aienee iinoaiaiii iiieaeaaony. Aianoi inei?aeaiiiai
aeinoieinoaa, eioi?ui aeuoao ia?aua ienueia, ii ia/eiaao oiieyoue i
ieeina?aeee. Ec nnueee Nia?aineee ia?auaeny e Aeaenaiae?o I n ienueiaie,
a eioi?uo iuoaeny ii?aaaeaoue naie i?aia?aciaaiey. A 1814 aiaeo, eiaaea
iaeioi?uo ec a?aaia aai oaea ia auei ia naaoa, ii ia?aoeeny e ainoaea?th
n ienueiii, iaienaiiui a oii ienoe/aneii oiia, eioi?ue noae ioee/aoue
aai ni a?aiaie nnueee. A yoii ienueia ii i?ineo iicaieaiey iinaeeoueny a
naiae iaeaiueeie iiaai?iaeneie aea?aaia, Aaeeeiiieuea. I?inueaa aai auea
oaaaeaia, e ii inaiaiaeeeny ii e?aeiae ia?a io neeoeii noanieoaeueiiai
iieeoeaeneiai iaaeci?a. Eaaeaony, iaeiaei, /oi e a yoi a?aiy ii ia
iioa?ye aua ieii/aoaeueii iaaeaaeaeu. A 1814 Nia?aineiio auei ?ac?aoaii
i?iaeeaaiea iiae iieeoeaeneei iaaeci?ii a naiai iaaieueoii eiaiee
Aaeeeiiieuea Iiaai?iaeneie aoaa?iee. Iinea ii aiai?ee, /oi “ia?aia
aeaeaeaiea ainoaea?y auei aucaaoue aai a Iaoa?ao?a, aoi?ia – i?iaiaeeoue
ca i?eniio?ii a aea?aaith”. A Aaeeeiiieuea ia/aeueiay enoeia
ieii/aoaeueii ioe?ueanue ia?aae iei: ii iiiye, /oi i?aaeiei ioiioaieyi
ia ai?ioeoueny, e noae eneaoue iii?u o ethaeae, n eioi?uie a eo/ooth
naith ii?o ia eiae ie/aai iauaai. Caeanue ii ano?a/aeny n A. A.
A?ae/aaaui, iinauae aai eiaiea naei A?oceii, /a?ac iaai oiaeaoaenoaiaae
ia?aae Aeaenaiae?ii I i naiai iieiii “i?iuaiee”. Oa?aeoa?ii i?eciaiea
naiiai A?ae/aaaa: “Aoaeue o iaiy o?aoue oia Nia?aineiai, y aue au
aaeeeei /aeiaaeai”. N oao ii? iiaeueiue a?aiaiuee oaea ia aica?aoee naaa
i?aaeiaai cia/aiey, oioy, onooiay i?inueaai A?ae/aaaa, i?e aai
niaeaenoaee, eiia?aoi? a 1816 aiaeo e iacia/ee Nia?aineiai nia/aea
iaicaineei aoaa?iaoi?ii, a caoai neae?neei aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii, aaea
i?iaae aaeieieno?aoeaioth ?aoi?io. A 1821 Nia?aineee aue aica?auai a
Iaoa?ao?a, iacia/ai /eaiii Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e Neae?neiai
eiieoaoa, oi?aaeythuei eiiennee ninoaaeaiey caeiiia, iieo/ee caiee a
Iaicaineie aoaa?iee.

Ii, eiaaea Nia?aineee aa?ioeny a Iaoa?ao?a, aai caeanue iaeeaeaei
iiaia ?aci/a?iaaiea. Ii iaaeayeny anee ia ia i?aaeithth aeecinoue, oi ia
i?eie?aiea e iieiia i?eciaiea naiae iaaeiiinoe. Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai ia
neo/eeinue. A?aiaia ia?aiaieeenue. “Aac eanoe i?aaeaiiue” A?ae/aaa noiye
o o?iia; ia/eiaeanue “nenoaia eiaeiuo no?aoia e iiaeic?aiee”, i eioi?ie
Nia?aineee aiai?ee a naiai ia?ineii ienueia e Aeaenaiae?o. Auaoaio
ainoaea?noaaiiiio nae?aoa?th ia auei ianoa a yoie nenoaia, e anei?a ii
ii/oanoaiaae yoi. Eiia?aoi?a ia auei a Iaoa?ao?aa ai a?aiy aai i?eacaea.
N iaoa?iaieai iaeeaeae aai aica?auaiey Nia?aineee. Iaeiiaoe ainoaea?ue
i?eaoae, ii naeaeaiea e ooo caiaaeeeeinue. Oieueei /a?ac aeaa iaaeaee
iie naeaeaeenue a ia?aue ?ac iinea iaiyoiie aoaeeaioeee 1812 aiaeo.
Naeaeaiea ieii/eeinue aac anyeeo iauyniaiee; ia?aue ?acaiai? i i?e/eiao
nnueee aue oaea /a?ac aeaa ianyoea. Ia yoii ?acaiai?a nio?aieeinue
oieueei e?aoeia ecaanoea a aeiaaieea naiiai Nia?aineiai. Ec iaai iiaeii
caeeth/eoue, /oi iauyniaiea ia?aie/eeinue iaeiei oeacaieai ia
niaea?aeaiea aeiiina. Ee/iua niioaiey aai n ainoaea?ai ieeiaaea oaea ia
i?eieiaee i?aaeiaai oa?aeoa?a. A ieo caiaoii iinoaiaiiia ioeaaeaeaiea.
Aeey Aeaenaiae?a ii oaea aue /oaeei /aeiaaeii. Nia?aineee yoi iiiye, ii
ia eiae aeooa oaeaeeoueny io aeai?a, aaea ia?aian noieueei inei?aeaiee,
e n iaeiaeooeai, ecaeieoaeueiui oieueei aeey /aeiaaea iiiai
no?aaeaaoaai, ia/ae eneaoue iiaeaea?aeee a naycyo n neeueiuie ethaeueie.
Ianeieueei yoi oaeaaaeinue aio, iiaeii aeaeaoue ec oiai, /oi ii n
o?oaeii aui?aoeaae naiua iaeiaaaeiua ianoa aeey eeoe, eioi?ui
iie?iaeoaeuenoaiaae, aea e oi ia anaaaea i?yii o ieieno?ia, a aieueoa o
aee?aeoi?ia aeaia?oaiaioia. E yoiio a?aiaie ioiineony aai naeeaeaiea n
a?enoie?aoe/aneei e?oaii, eioi?iai ii oae ai?aei /oaeaeaeny a ia/aea
naiaai iii?eua. Aai ia/aee ano?a/aoue a naeiiao aunoaai iauanoaa,
i?inoeaoaai i?eyoiiio niaanaaeieeo i?ioeua a?aoe niaeiai iiaiaaiaeeoaey.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua o?oaeu aai auee iacia/eoaeueiu. Ii i?eieiae o/anoea a
canaaeaieyo niaaoa, aue /eaiii neae?neiai eiieoaoa e i?eiyeny iiyoue ca
i?aaeithth ?aaioo iaae a?aaeaeaineei oeiaeaieai; ii ana yoe caiyoey
inoaaaeenue ii/oe aac ?acoeueoaoia. Ia ieo io?aaeaeny oio canoie,
eioi?ue iinea 1815 aiaea iiiaiiiao iaeaaeae iauanoaaiiie aeeciueth.

Iiaiey ?acee/iuo enoi?eeia ii iiaiaeo oiai, eaeei /aeiaaeii
aa?ioeny Nia?aineee ec nnueee, ?anoiaeyony.

Iaeioi?ua i?eaea?aeeaathony iiceoeee, /oi, eiaaea a 1821 a.
A?ae/aaa oniae aeiaeoueny aica?auaiey “ae?oaa” naiaai Nia?aineiai a
Iaoa?ao?a n iacia/aiea aai /eaiii Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, oi ooo
Aeaenaiae?o oaeaeinue oi, e /aio ii anaaaea no?aieeny: ii neiiee aieth
yoiai neeueiiai /aeiaaea e naeaeae aai naiei ?aaii aei oiai, /oi
ecaiaiiee yoio ieacaeny cia/eoaeueii i?aia?aceaoeiny: n iaeiie noi?iiu,
inoaeaeay i?aaeiea i?aia?aciaaoaeueiua ieaiu, ii iaoae, /oi
“aiciiaeiinoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai nineiaey, neeueiiai e i?inaauaiiiai,
aanueia iaei i?aaenoaaeyao aa?iyoiinoe”, n ae?oaie – noae i?aniueaoueny
ia?aae A?ae/aaaui e iaia/aoae aio iioaaeueiia neiai e aiieiaeth aai
aiaiiui iinaeaieyi.

Nia?aineee e A?ae/aaa.

Ii iocuaai nia?aiaiieeia, Nia?aineee naieie oaaaeaeaieyie ?acei
auaeaeyeny ec oie n?aaeu, e eioi?ie i?eiaaeeaaeae.

Caia/aoaeueioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo Nia?aineiai aeaao E. I. Oienoie a
“Aieia e ie?a”: “Any oeao?a Nia?aineiai eiaea iniaaiiue oei, ii eioi?iio
nae/an iiaeii auei ociaoue aai. Ie o eiai ec oiai iauanoaa, a eioi?ii
aeee eiycue Aiae?ae, ii ia aeaeae yoiai niieienoaey, naiioaa?aiiinoe,
iaeiaeeo e ooiuo aeaeaeaiee, ie o eiai ii aeaeae oaeiai oaa?aeiai e
aianoa iyaeiai acaeyaea iieocae?uouo e ianeieueei aeaaeiuo aeac, ia
aeaeae oaeie oaa?aeinoe ie/aai ia cia/auae oeuaee, oaeiai oiieiai,
?iaiiai, oeoiai aieina e, aeaaiia, oaeie iaaeiie aaeeciu eeoea e
iniaaiii ?oe, ianeieueei oe?ieeo, ii iaiaueiiaaiii iooeuo, iaaeiuo e
aaeuo.”

I?e aeaeueiaeoai ciaeiinoaa ni Nia?aineei eiycue Aiae?ae Aieeiineee
“aeaeae a iai ?acoiiiai, no?iai iuneyuaai, ia?iiiiai oia /aeiaaea,
yia?aeae e oii?noaii aeinoeaoaai aeanoe e oiio?aaeythuaai aa oieueei
aeey aeaaa ?innee. Nia?aineee, a aeacao eiycy Aiae?ay, aue eiaiii oio
/aeiaae, ?acoiii iauyniythuee ana yaeaiey aeecie, i?eciathuee
cia/eoaeueiui oieueei oi, /oi ?acoiii, e ii anaio oiathuee i?eeaaaoue
ia?eei ?acoiiinoe, eioi?ui ii nai oae oioae auoue. Ana i?aaenoaaeyeinue
oae i?inoi, ynii a eceiaeaiee Nia?aineiai, /oi eiycue Aiae?ae iaaieueii
niaeaoaeny n iei ai anai.”

Eae ioia/ae A. N. Iooeei, Nia?aineee e A?ae/aaa, eae iaeaieaa
caiaoiua oeao?u a yiioo Aeaenaiae?a I, noiyee “a aeaa?yo
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo yoiai oea?noaiaaiey, eae aaiee cea e aeaaa”. A aeaiiii
neo/aa Iooeei au?aaeae ia oieueei naia nianoaaiiia iiaiea, ii e oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiioth oi/eo c?aiey, eioi?ay naycuaaea eeaa?aeueioth
oaiaeaioeeth a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeea i?e Aeaenaiae?a I n eiaiai
Nia?aineiai.

E neaaeoao einiooueny enoi?ee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo yoeie
niiaeaeaeieeaie eiia?aoi?a. A?ae/aaa i/aiue aeanoeay iaoo?a, e
nouanoaoao iiiai i?eia?ia aai a?oaiai ecaeaaaoaeuenoaa iaae
iiaeaeanoiuie ethaeueie, i?e eioi?ii ia o?aaiaaeinue ieeaeie
ecia?aoaoaeueiinoe e iaoiae/eainoe e aeinoaoi/ii auei iaeiie oieueei
aeooaaiie iecinoe. Iaeiaei ii oiae i?e neo/aa aeaniooue e oiieei
eiaa?noaii, oiae ia aac ea?eainoe iicaaaaeoueny iaae niia?ieeii, eae eio
iaae iuoueth. N iniaaiiie ae?ooiciinoueth i?iyaee ii oaeaiou yoiai ?iaea
a niioaieyo ni Nia?aineei.

Iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao neaaeothuee yieciae. A oi a?aiy,
eiaaea caacaea A?ae/aaaa anoiaeeea ana auoa ii iaaineeiio oea?neeo
ieeinoae, Nia?aineee oiieeny a Ia?ie, ia ia?anoaaay oineeeai ia/oaoue i
aiciiaeiinoe aa?iooue i?ioeia. Nia?aineea i?ioae i?e yoii anth aaiio
onooiie, eioi?uo iio?aaiaaea io aai ai?aeinoe oyainoue aai iieiaeaiey.
Nia/aea – ienueia e ainoaea?th, iieiua /oanoaa nianoaaiiiai
aeinoieinoaa, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i niciaiee naiae i?aaiou; iioii oaea
i?ineoaeueiua, nie?aiiua iineaiey e neeueiui ethaeyi, a oii /enea e e
A?ae/aaao. Iaaeaeo i?aaeiei e iiaui ethaeioeaie Aeaenaiae?a caaycaeanue
ia?aienea, eioi?ay aa?ii oa?aeoa?ecoao eo iaieo. O?oaeii neacaoue,
eioi?ue ec aeaoo aunoaaeyaony a iae a eo/oai naaoa. A ?iaeeo e euenoeauo
au?aaeaieyo Nia?aineiai ia neuoii ioaeanoaaiiiai aieina, eioi?ui ii
caueuae naie ?aoi?iu a aeieeaaeao 1810 e 1811 aiaeia. Ii iaiaa
ianoie/eai o?aaoao aeaniiai noaea n iaaeieoaeyie e aeiaieuenoaoaony
aeaaea i?inoui ii?aaeaeaieai ia neoaeao. Ii euenoeo i?a/iui no?aiiinoyi
naiaai iie?iaeoaey, ciaao no?iaiai a?aiaiueea “aeia?ui ionouiieeii”, e
ia nouaeeony aeaaea iacuaaoue ciaiaieoia A?oceii “nayoie iaeoaeueth”.
A?ae/aaa ioaa/aao aio eeoeaia?ii-nie?aiiui oiiii, ia eeoaiiui e?iiee e
aaea i?iaeyaeuaaao aeaeaiea oeieioue /aeiaaea, aua iaaeaaii noiyaoaai ai
aeaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aai i/aaeaeii oaoeo i?aanoaaiiay neaainoue
/aeiaaea, oae aeieai inei?aeyaoaai iiiaeo naiei oinoaaiiui
i?aainoiaenoaii. ?acoeueoaoii yoeo niioaiee, ia eioi?uo iai?eyoii
inoaiaaeeaaoueny, auei iaeiiaoe i?iuaiea Nia?aineiai, ii eaeia i?iuaiea!
A?ae/aaa aei?iai i?iaeaaae naie ieeinoe e, niaeaoaynue i?ioyiooue
Nia?aineiio ?oeo, aiyeny iaeiaei aeaeaoue aai a Iaoa?ao?aa.

Caoai – ee/iia iaeiiie/anoai a A?oceii e aeaaea… ia/aeueiay
aiieiaey aiaiiuo iinaeaiee! A?ae/aaa, ieeiaaea ia i?inoeaoee Nia?aineiio
oiai, /oi iaeiaaea, ia e?aoeee iiiaio, Nia?aineee caneiiee io iaai
ainoaea?y, n oi?aeanoaii neaaeee oaia?ue ca yoeie ia/aeueiuie oneeeyie
naiaai aueiai niia?ieea ecaaaeoueny io iiaeu oeaiith oyaeaeuo ii?aeueiuo
onooiie. E a?aiy io a?aiaie A?ae/aaa iiaeaaaeye ai?a/e a aeooo
Nia?aineiai, ia oioneay neo/ay oeieioue aai aeooaaiua ?aiu oiieie
oieeueeie yaeiaeoie ianiaoee. A 1816 aiaeo Nia?aineee, iaeiiaoe,
aeicaieaii auei inoaaeoue Iaico. A iaeeaeaiee ?aoaiey naiae aeaeueiaeoae
noaeueau ii aeee a aaeeeiiieueneii eiaiee e ioooaea iaienae A?ae/aaao
ienueii, eioi?ia Iiaiaeei ii ni?aaaaeeeainoe iacaae “ia?acoeii yniinoe,
oaaaeeoaeueiinoe, e?aoeinoe, neeu.” Ienueia ieacaeinue iaaeinoaoi/ii; e
Nia?aineee ee/ii iinaoee A?oceii. Oaia?ue, aeoiaeinue aio, eniuoaiea
eii/aii, e i?ioeia aoaeao ca/a?eiooi. E aio, 30 aaaonoa 1816 aiaea
auaoee ainoaea?noaaiiue nae?aoa?ue, oaieaiiue aac noaea, ii iaeiiio
iiaeic?aieth, aue iacia/ai aoaa?iaoi?ii a Iaico, ii a oeaca i iacia/aiee
auea anoaaeaia ciaiaiaoaeueiay o?aca: “AEaeay i?aiiaeaoue niinia
ona?aeiith neoaeaith i/enoeoue naay a iieiie ia?a.” Aio iii, oiieia
ino?ea a?ae/aaaneiai aeaea: “Oaay i?eieiatho ia neoaeao, ii ou aua ia
i?iuai, ca oiaith ana aua neaaeyo iiaeic?eoaeueiua e iaaeiaa?/eaua
aci?u”, – oaeia niune yoiai oeaca ii ioiioaieth e Nia?aineiio. I?eacae a
Iaoa?ao?a ia aue ?ac?aoai aio. Nia?aineee nai i?eienuaae A?ae/aaao yoo
oieceoaeueioth oi?io iiieeiaaiey.

Ii ii aue neeoeii neiieai, /oiau inoaiaaeeaaoueny ia?aae oaeeie
niia?aaeaieyie e i?eiye naia iacia/aiea ia aac ?aaeinoe. Iii iaeeaeei
aai iaaeaaeaeu. Ii oii?ii aeaeae a iai ia?aue oaa e iieiiio
ainnoaiiaeaieth naiae /anoe e ia niouaeny oai, /oi a Iaica aio ia
oaeaaaeinue aieoe a ee/iua niioaiey n ainoaea?ai. Caia/aoaeueii, /oi
oi/ii oae aea aeoiaee aai a?aae. Iaeaeoay ieeinoue e Nia?aineiio ioaaea
eo. Ei a?aceeny anaiiaouee ?aoi?iaoi? niiaa a ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa,
aeooith oeaeiai oi?aaeaiey. Ana aiyeenue “le revant”, eae iacuaae aai
eiycue Aieeoeui, e a niioaieyo n iei aaaeiuo ethaeae yoio no?ao
aani?anoaiii i?iaeyaeuaaao. Nai Nia?aineee iaaieueii oaeaeaaony
i?aaeieie i?eau/eaie; aai aeiianaiey i?eieiatho eiiaaea iiaaeeoaeueiue
oii i?aaeiaai a?aiaie. Ii yoi oieueei a?aiaiiua aniuoee: ?yaeii n iei ii
?anoi/aao eaneaoaeuenoaa ethaeyi, eioi?uo ia oaaaeaao, ii a eioi?uo
ioaeaeaaony. Oae auei ai ana a?aiy aai neoaeau a Iaica.

I?ioei ieiei o?ao eao. Nia?aineee ii-i?aaeiaio no?anoii oioaeinue
iieo/eoue iacia/aiea a Iaoa?ao?a, oioy au ia ia?aia a?aiy ia ianoi
naiaoi?a. Aeieaei eneonii ii aeoiae eoieoue naaa i?aai ai?ioeoueny a
Iaoa?ao?a; iuneue ia yoii ia iieeaeaea aai e naeaeaeanue iaeiiaoe
eaeei-oi aieaciaiiui /oanoaii. Ii aio i?eoeinue aua aeieai ioeaaoueny a
naieo ?an/aoao. Ianiio?y ia ia?acoeiaia oi?aaeaiea aoaa?iee, aaea ii
inoaaee ii naaa i?i/ioth iaiyoue, aai ia oieueei ia aucuaaee, ii aeaaea
ia aeaaaee aio ioionea. Oa?iaiea aai ia/aei enoiuaoueny. Iaeiiaoe a
ia/aea 1819 aiaea ii iieo/aao eiaiiie oeac e n o?aiaoii ?ania/aouaaao
aai, iaeeaeay iaeoe a iai iiaaeaiea yaeoueny. Yoi aue oeac i iacia/aiee
aai neae?neei aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii. Nia?aineiai ?aoaeenue iiauneoue, ii
i?ecaaoue aai a Iaoa?ao?a auei neeoeii no?aoii. “Ia ecaaaeae-oaee y
Neae?e,! – ienae a iaeiii ienueia Nia?aineee, neeueii ?aci/a?iaaiiue
yoei iacia/aieai. I?e yoii-oi neo/aa A?ae/aaa niiaa aeae aieth eieeie
ea?eainoe naiaai ia?a. Ii iaienae Nia?aineiio aeeeiiia ienueii. Ienueii
ia/eiaeinue n oaa?aiee a oii, /oi A?ae/aaa anaaaea aeooaaii ethaee
Nia?aineiai: “ss ethaee aan aeooaaii oiaaea, eae au auee aaeeee e eae au
ia niio?aee ia iaoaai a?aoa, ethaee aan e oiaaea, eiaaea ii
iaeniiaaaeeiui noaeueaai Anaauoiaai no?aaeaee”. A caoai A?ae/aaa
ooeu?aiii aa?aaeeo aeooaaioth ?aio Nia?aineiai, iaa?anuaay ia?aae iei
caaaaeiii ianauoi/ioth ea?oeio aai iiaiai aicauoaiey: “Noaiiaynue noa? e
neaa caei?iaueai, y aeieaeai aoaeo i/aiue nei?i iniiaaoue naia
anaaaeaoiaa i?aauaaiea a naiai a?oceineii iiianou?a, ioeoaea aoaeo
ooaoaoueny, eae enoeiii ?onneie, iiaai?iaeneie, iao/aiue aeai?yiei, /oi
aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiua iaoiaeyony o oiiiai /aeiaaea, iiuoiiai eae ii
aeaeai ainoaea?noaaiiui, oae aieaa aua ii aeaeai noao ie?a naai e a
neo/aa iaueiiaaiiiai, ii ian/anoueth nouanoaothuaai o ian a ioa/anoaa
iaueiiaaiey aaniieieoue oaeaeeaoeony io aeae ethaeae, a iaiaoiaeeiii
oieueei neo/aa ioianoenue niath e e aai, ieeinoeaiio ainoaea?th”.

Ei?o, i?eaaaey yoi ienueii, ni?aaaaeeeai caia/aao: “Anee
i?eiiiieoue, /oi yoe no?iee ienae aicaaee/aiiue a?aiaiuee e a?aiaiueeo
oiaaoaio, aaeiaaiue ieeinoe e n/anoey e iiaeueiiio, oi iaeuecy ia
niaeaneoueny, /oi o?oaeii auei aeiaeeoue a ieo iiae aiaoiath iaiei/eith
i?inoina?aea/iiai aeia?iaeooey, aieaa ycaeoaeueiie e?iiee e n oai aianoa
iieacaoue iaiaa aaeeeiaeooey”. Nia?aineee ie/aai ia ioaaoee ia yoi
ienueii. “Anoue ia?a oaiaeeeainoe e eaneaoaeuenoaa, – ni?aaaaeeeaa
aiai?eo oio aea Ei?o, – eioi?oth e ian/anoea e?aniaao ia?anooieoue;
Nia?aineee nio?aiee oaaaeaiea e naiiio naaa e i?iiie/ae – ana, /oi aio
iicaieyei aai iieiaeaiea”.

Eiaeeoeeaoeey caeiiia.

Aeaenaiae? I, i?icaaiiue Aeaaineiaaiiui oia? aacaeaoiui, e iinea iaai ia
i?anoie anooiee aai a?ao Ieeieae I.

Aeayoaeueiinoue niiaa ia/aeanue aeey Nia?aineiai oaea i?e
eiia?aoi?a Ieeieaa. Iia ia iioiaeeea ia i?aaeithth. Iiaue ainoaea?ue
oeaiee aai aaeieieno?aoeaioth iiuoiinoue, ii, ii e?aeiae ia?a nia/aea,
ia eiae e iaio aieueoiai aeiaa?ey. Iaaeiaiey, io eioi?uo Nia?aineiio oae
iai?anii oioaeinue ii?aaaeaoueny, a?inaee ia iaai oaiue. 13 aeaeaa?y
1825 Nia?aineee ninoaaee i?iaeo iaieoanoa i anooieaiee ia i?anoie
Ieeieay I, iinea 14 aeaeaa?y, iacia/aiiue eiia?aoi?ii Ieeieaai I a /eaiu
Aa?oiaiiai noaea iaae aeaeaa?enoaie, Nia?aineee i?eiye iniaia o/anoea a
ninoaaeaiee i?eaiai?a iaae ieie.

Iiaue ainoaea?ue ia?aoee aieiaiea ia aanii?yaeee a oi?aaeaiee e ia
ceioiio?aaeaiey /eiiaieeia, i?ienoiaeeaoeo iooiai, /oi o ian ia auei
oi/iuo caeiiia. Ni a?aiaie ecaeaiey Oeiaeaiey i?e Aeaenaa Ieoaeeiae/a ia
auei naeaeaii iiaiai nai?ieea caeiiia, e ca neeoeii iieoi?anoa eao
iaeiieeinue iiiaeanoai oeacia, ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/, ecaeaiiuo a
?aciia a?aiy e ia?aaeei i?ioeai?a/eaoeo ae?oa ae?oao. Eaaeaeue /eiiaiee
eee noaeuey iia oieeiaaoue eo ii-naiaio. Oiaaea 31 yiaa?y 1826 aiaeo ii
?anii?yaeaieth Ieeieay I auei ia?aciaaii Aoi?ia ioaeaeaiea nianoaaiiie
Aai Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa eaioeaey?ee ai aeaaa ni naiei auaoei
o/eoaeai I. A. Aaeoaueyineei, oioy oaeoe/anee aai aicaeaaeye e aue
aeooie anaai aeaea ?aaaeeeoe?iaaiiue Nia?aineee – iaeei ec naiuo e?oiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae ?innee ca anth aa iiiaiaaeiaoth enoi?eth,
eioi?ia auei i?ecaaii iaaanoe ii?yaeie a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eiia?ee,
o.a. nicaeaoue iieiue naiae caeiiia, ia/eiay n Niai?iiai oeiaeaiey 1649
aiaea e naiae aeaenoaothueo caeiiia. (ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai e oaia?ue
aua oi?aaeyaony ?inney.) Oiaaea oi e iaoae caneoaeaiiia i?eiaiaiea
oaeaio ?aiaa iaoiaeeaoaainy a oaie I. I. Nia?aineiai, eioi?ue aue
aica?auai a 1821 aiaeo ec neae?neie nnueee. Ii aue i?eaea/ai e
eiaeeoeeaoeee ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e aaeeeieaiii ni?aaeeny n
yoie iaiaueiiaaiii o?oaeiie ?aaioie.

A 1826 aiaeo, eiaaea aio aue ii?o/ai aeaaiue iaaeci? iaae
ninoaaeaieai naiaea caeiiia, ainoaea?ue neacae i iai Aaeooueyineiio:
“Niio?e aea, /oia ii ia iaaeaeae oaeeo aea i?ieac, eae a 1810 aiaeo, ou
o iaiy aoaeaoue ioaa/aoue ca iaai”. Iicaea, iiaeic?aiey, eaaeaony,
?annayeenue, ii eiia?aoi? aeaeae a iai oieueei naiaai “?aaeaeoi?a” e ia
aue ?aniieiaeai aeaaaoue aieueoie i?inoi? nianoaaiiie aai iunee.
Ai?i/ai, Nia?aineee aaeaa ee oaea aue niiniaai e neeueiie,
naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A iai ia auei ie i?aaeiae neeu iunee,
ie i?aaeiae yia?aee. Acaeyae aai eciaieeny eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a,
i?eiaieeny e ianoiyoaeuenoaai. A naieo caieneao yoiai a?aiaie ii aiai?eo
ycueii, a eioi?ii iao e neaaeia oiai Nia?aineiai, eioi?ue i?aia?aciaae
aunoaa oi?aaeaiea. Oae i?ioiaeeee iineaaeiea aiaeu ciaiaieoiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai /aeiaaea. Oieueei a /anoiie aeecie e a aai iaooiieiuo
eaaeiaoiuo o?oaeao aeaeiu i?iaeanee eiaaea-oi iaeeaeyaoaai aai
aeayoaeueiiai aeooa. Nia?aineee ia?aian a /anoiua caiyoey naia
aaieaeueiia o?oaeiethaea, aeey eioi?iai oaea ia auei ianoa a
iieeoe/aneie noa?a. Caeanue iu iiyoue iiaeai oaeeaeyoueny iaenoiueiiio
caiano nee aai i?e?iaeu. N?aaee oyaeaeie a?onoe, eioi?ay iaeaaeaea ei ai
a?aiy nnueee, ii ?aaioaao, eae thiioa, eniieiaiiue iaaeaaeae. A Ia?ie ii
o/eony aa?aeneiio ycueo, a Iaica ociaao iaiaoeeee. Iuoeeaay iuneue aai
ia?auaaony ei anaio. Iooaoanoaoy ii Neae?e, n?aaee anyeeo iaoaeianoa e
ii/oe iyoeaeanyoe eao, ii /eoaao Oeaaaey e Ieeea?a. Ia aoaeo/e ianoiyuei
o/aiui, ii i?eia?ae iaeiaei ?acii?iaeioth e aieueooth ia/eoaiiinoue. N
oao ii?, eae ian/anoey neiieee aai aeooo, ethaeiui /oaieai aai auei
?aeeaeiciia. A yoii iai?aaeaiee ii aue niaa?oaiii ene?aiai, oioy, ii
naienoao aai iyaeie i?e?iaeu, ?aeeaey ?acaeea a iai iaeii iaceiaea e ia
iiaea aeaoue aieueoie oaa?aeinoe aai oa?aeoa?o. A iai niaaeeieeinue oi,
/oi ia?aaeei ano?a/aaony a iaaiaeiuo ethaeyo: ?aeeaeiciay
ia/oaoaeueiinoue n oii?iith i?eaycaiiinoueth e aiaoiei oaeianoaai e n
iaeioi?ie oaiaeeeainoueth ie?o. Ii a naiaeiii e?oao neaaua noi?iiu aai
oa?aeoa?a, ?acoeueoao aeieaie e ia?aaiie ai?ueau n ianoiyoaeuenoaaie,
en/acaee ia?aae aeia?uie naienoaaie. Aai aunieay oa?ieiinoue e ethaeyi,
aeioiaeeaoay aei oiai, /oi i ceaeoeo naieo a?aaao ii aiai?ee niieieii
“eaeea /oaeaee” eee “aacoiiua ethaee!”; aai iaaeiay i?eaycaiiinoue e
aeeceei aio eeoeai e iinoiyiiia aeaeaiea aeaaa aiooaee anai, eoi
ie?oaeae aai, eaeia-oi aeaaiaiaaiea. Yoei iauyniyaony no?anoiay
i?eaycaiiinoue e iaio ae?ocae, ianiio?y ia eai?ecu, eioi?ua auaaee o
iaai a iieiaeinoe. A noa?inoe e yoe ia?iaiinoe naeaaeeeenue.
I?eaeeaeaiiua e iaio /eiiaieee, eioi?ua nei?i aeaeaeenue /eaiaie aai
naiuee, iaaea?ii iacuaaee aai: “noa?ee aiaeee”. Aeeyiea aai ia anao, eoi
n iei naeeaeaeny, auei iaio?aceiia. Ii aue iaycai ei ia noieueei
iaoe?iinoe oia, eioi?ue, i?e anae aai neea, aue ianeieueei
iaeiinoi?iiai, ii /aeiaa/aneei naienoaai e oiio aeooo anai?iuaiey, n
eioi?ui ii eii/ae naith ao?ioth aeeciue. Ai eiy yoie /aeiaa/aneie
iaoo?u, i?eie?ythuae ni anaie iaaeinoaoeaie /aeiaaea. Nia?aineiio iiaeii
i?inoeoue aai iaeiaeooioth i?eaycaiiinoue e aeai?o e iaoiaiea
ioaa?iooueny io ethaeae, oae aaniiuaaeii inei?aeaoeo a iai iaeiiai ec
aaeeeeo a?aaeaeai naiaai ioa/anoaa. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoe ia/aeueiua
naienoaa iaaeaao ia iaai: iia eaaeeo aac?acaeaeueii ia oie ia?oayuae
n?aaea, eioi?ay naoaeea eo/oea aai neeu e n eioi?ie, i?e oiaaeaoiai
ninoiyiee iauanoaa, ai?ueaa auea ia oieueei o?oaeia, ii aeaaea
iaaiciiaeia.

Ii Nia?aineiio ia noaeaeaii auei oia?aoue aaniieaciui iinaoeoaeai
a?enoie?aoe/aneeo naeiiia. Aio i?aaenoiyei niaa?oeoue ia aeaai ?innee
aua iaeei aaeeeee iiaeaea. N 1826 aiaea ii aue niiaa naeaeai
?anii?yaeeoaeai ?aaio eiiennee ninoaaeaiey caeiiia, i?aia?aciaaiiie ai
2-a ioaeaeaiea nianoaaiiie eaioeaey?ee. N yoiai a?aiaie iieiaeaii auei
ia?aia, oaa?aeia ia/aei ?onneie eiaeeoeeaoeee.

Nia?aineee i?aaeeiaeee Ieeieath ?acaeoue ?aaioo ia o?e yoaia. Ia
ia?aii nia?aoue ana caeiiu, ecaeaiiua iinea Oeiaeaiey 1649 aiaea (/oi
auei oaea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie naeaeaii), e ?aniieiaeeoue eo a
o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea, caoai ia yoie iniiaa ninoaaeoue naiae
aeaenoaothueo caeiiia, ?acaeoue eo ia oiia ii noa?ai i?eiaiaiey, e,
iaeiiaoe, iiaeaioiaeoue ieii/aoaeueiue oaeno iiaiai oeiaeaiey, ioa?inea
onoa?aaoea ii?iu e iiiieiea caeiiu iiauie noaoueyie, aieaa
niioaaonoaothueie aeooo a?aiaie.

?anniio?aa i?aaeeiaeaiey Nia?aineiai, Ieeieae ooaa?aeee oieueei
aeaa ia?auo, ioaa?aioa eaeath nicaeaiey iiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
Nia?aineee auioaeaeai aue iiae/eieoueny. E 1830 aiaeo aeaaioneay ?aaioa
ii iiaeaioiaea Iieiiai nia?aiey caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee auea
caaa?oaia. Iieiia nia?aiea caeiiia ninoiyei ec 45 oiiia, eoaea aioei
aieaa 30 ouny/ caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia n 1649 aiaea ii 3 aeaeaa?y 1825
aiaea. Ia/aoaiea anao oiiia caiyei aac iaeiai aeaa aiaea e auei ieii/aii
1 ai?aey 1830 aiaea. Oe?aae ecaeaiey ninoaaee 6 ouny/ yecaiiey?ia.
Iaeiia?aiaiii auee iiaeaioiaeaiu e anei?a aea iaia/aoaiu oanoue oiiia
i?iaeieaeaiey.

E 1833 aiaeo auei iiaeaioiaeaii 15 oiiia Naiaea caeiiia. 17 yiaa?y
1833 aiaea ninoiyeinue iauaa nia?aiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa, eioi?ia
i?eciaei Naiae caeiiia aaeeinoaaiiui iniiaaieai aeey ?aoaiey anao aeae e
onoaiiaeei, /oi ii aaiaeeony a aeaenoaea n 1 yiaa?y 1835 aiaea. Oaeei
ia?acii, ca i/aiue ei?ioeia a?aiy I. I. Nia?aineei auea i?iaaaeaia
eieinnaeueiay ?aaioa ii naiaeo e nenoaiaoecaoeee caeiiia. Iaeiaei
ieeaeeo ?aaeeeaeueiuo eciaiaiee a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?innee ia
i?iecioei. Ieeieae I ?aoeoaeueii oeeiiyeny io iaiiaeaiey e oeo/oaiey
caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee, iiyoiio iioaeeeiaaiiue “Naiae caeiiia” eeoue
eiinoaoe?iaae o?aaeeoeeiiioth naiiaea?aeaaioth no?oeoo?o aeanoe e
e?aiinoie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Auei au aaniieacii aiai?eoue i iieueca, eioi?oth i?eianei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ecaeaiea “Naiaea”. Ii iiaeaa?aaeny e iiaeaa?aaaony
iiiaei ia?aeaieyi, a eioi?uo, aac niiiaiey, anoue cia/eoaeueiay aeiey
i?aaaeu. Nia?aineee ia eiae na?ueaciiai th?eaee/aneiai ia?aciaaiey e ia
iia ii/a?iiooue aa?iiai iiieiaiey i?aaa ec nianoaaiiiai iiuoa, eae
aeaeae yoi a aaeieieno?aoeee. Nenoaia, i?eiyoay ei, acyoa ec /oaeaeiai
i?aaa e oieueei i?eeiaeaia e iaoaio. Io oiai ia iae eaaeeo oa?aeoa?
aiaoiinoe. Ii eia/a e auoue ia iiaei a no?aia, aaea aeaei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia iiaeaioiaeaii iaoeie. Aaaeiaa ae?oaea oi?aee – a
iaaa?iii iiieiaiee niunea oao ?onneeo caeiiia, ec eioi?uo ecaea/aiu
noaouee “Naiaea”, a aicaaaeaiee /anoiuo neo/aaa a iauea i?aaeea, a
niiinoaaeaiee ia/ae, eioi?ua, anee ia i?yii, oi einaaiii, i?ioeai?a/ao
ae?oa ae?oao; a iiaoi?aieyo e a iayniinoe; iaeiiaoe, a oii, /oi,
i?eieiay ca enoi/iee iaeie caeiiu, “Naiae” noae a i?ioeai?a/ea n
noaeaaiie i?aeoeeie e i?eiye oaeea i?aaeea, eioi?uo ianinoiyoaeueiinoue
oaea auea aeieacaia iiuoii. Ia neaaeoao iaeiaei neeoeii aaconeiaii
inoaeaeaoue “Naiae caeiiia” e n yoie oi/ee c?aiey. Yoe iaaeinoaoee auee
iaecaaaeiu i?e oii oaioe/aneii ninoiyiee, ec eioi?iai ii aeieaeai aue
auaanoe iaoa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Niae?aoue, eni?aaeyoue e iiiieiyoue a
iaeia a?aiy – iaaiciiaeiay caaea/a. Iia-oi eiaiii e iiaoaeea a ca?iaeuoa
ana i?aaeiea ?aaiou. Ai anyeii neo/aa “Naiae” aeinoea naiiai aaaeiiai
?acoeueoaoa: ii i?eaae a ecaanoiinoue iaaeinoaoee ?onneiai i?aaa e
aiaeai?ee a iaoeo noaeao ianeieueei aieaa caeiiiinoe. Anee eni?aaeaiea
iaaeinoaoeia iiaeaeaaeinue n oao ii? aeiaieueii iaaeeaiii, oi i?e/eia
yoiai ia a “Naiaea”, a a oii niiniaa, eioi?ui aiineaaenoaee iiiieiyeinue
iaoa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, e anaai aieaa a neaainoe th?eaee/aneiai
ia?aciaaiey, aei neo ii? oae iaei ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai a ?innee.

Yoi auea iineaaeiyy naiinoiyoaeueiay ?aaioa Nia?aineiai.

Aunooiay ia canaaeaiee, Ieeieae niaoeeaeueii iiae/a?eioe, /oi
ono?ienoai i?aainoaeey auei aeaaiie aai caaioie iinea anooieaiey ia
i?anoie. Canaaeaiea caeii/eeinue oi?aeanoaaiiui aiioaicii niaa?oaiii a
aeooa Ieeieay I. Ii iiaeicaae e naaa Nia?aineiai e, iaiya a i?enoonoaee
anao, iaaeae ia iaai niyooth n naay Aiae?aaaneoth caacaeo – aunooth
iaa?aaeo eiia?ee.

Aiiaua, anee aaeoiaoueny, oi?aeanoai naiiaea?aeaaey 17 yiaa?y 1833
aiaea auei a oi aea a?aiy o?aaaaeeae aeecie aaeeeiai ?onneiai
?aoi?iaoi?a. O?aaaaeeae, eioi?oth ii, aeaeeii, nai ieeiaaea aei eiioea
ia iniciae. A Naiaea caeiiia oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caieiaei
iiaeaioiaeaiiia I. I. Nia?aineei nia?aiea caeiiia e iinoaiiaeaiee XVIII
– ia/aea XIX aaea ia iniiaao ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy ?innee, iieo/eaoaa
iacaaiea “Iniiaiua caeiiu ?inneeneie eiia?ee”. Ia?aay noaouey “Iniiaiuo
caeiiia” ii?aaeaeyea oi?io i?aaeaiey a ?innee: “Eiia?aoi? ?inneeneee
anoue iiia?o naiiaea?aeaaiue e iaia?aie/aiiue. Iiaeiiaaoueny aa?oiaiie
aeanoe ia oieueei ca no?ao, ii e ca niaanoue nai Aia iiaaeaaaao”.
Inoaeueiua noaouee ?acaeaaee e aeiiieiyee iniiaioth iuneue. E nicaeaiea
oaeiai aeieoiaioa auiaei ia aeieth /aeiaaea, eioi?ue aue niaa?oaiii
oaaaeaeai a iaiaoiaeeiinoe ao?aeoaciuo ?aoi?i a ?innee, eioi?ue a
oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenaiae?a I aioiaee a?aiaeeiciua ieaiu i?aia?aciaaiey
no?aiu ii caiaaeiiio ia?acoeo, ia/oae i ia?iaeii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e
ia?eaiaioa, iiieiae iaiaoiaeeiinoue e iaecaaaeiinoue ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae. Ca yoi aio a?iceee a?ano, iiiaieaoiyy nnueea. Ii noieei aio
oiio?aaeoue naie oaeaio e ciaiey ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ioi?ieaiea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ia/ae e i?eioeeiia, eae ii aue inuiai ieeinoyie e
iaeaneai aeanoyie. Nia?aineee iacia/aeny ai ana nae?aoiua eiieoaou 1826
– 1839, n 1838 ii – i?aaenaaeaoaeue aeaia?oaiaioa caeiiia
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa, a 1835 – 1837 i?aiiaeaaae eo?n th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ianeaaeieeo i?anoiea (aoaeouaio Aeaenaiae?o I). Ii eieoeeaoeaa
Nia?aineiai a 1834 auea o/?aaeaeaia aunoay oeiea i?aaiaaaeaiey aeey
iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo th?enoia.

Iaa?aaeaeaiiue a ia/aea 1839 aiaea a?aoneei oeooeii n
oa?aeoa?enoe/aneei aeaaecii a aa?aa “in adversis sperat” (A iaacaiaea
oiiaaao (eao).), ii anei?a oia?, inoaaea ii naaa eaeoth-oi
niiieoaeueioth iaiyoue, ia eioi?ie aeieai eaaeaee ?acee/iua oi?aee.

A 1839 aiaeo Ieeieae I, ociaa i nia?oe Nia?aineiai, aiai?ee I. A.
Ei?oo: “Ieoaeea Ieoaeeiae/a ie ana iiieiaee e ia ana oiaee aeiaieueii
oeaieoue; nia?aa y e nai a yoii aieaa anao, iiaeao noaoueny, i?ioea iaai
a?aoee. Iia noieueei auei iaaiai?aii i aai i?aa?aoiuo eaeayo, i aai
caiuneao; eeaaaoa iniaeeea einiooueny aai aeaaea e ii neo/ath enoi?ee
14-ai aeaeaa?y! Ii iioii a?aiy e iiuo oie/oiaeeee ai iia aeaenoaea anao
yoeo iaaiai?ia. ss iaoae a iai naiiai aa?iiai e ?aaiinoiiai neoao, n
ia?iiiuie naaaeaieyie, n ia?iiiith iiuoiinoueth, n iaonoaaaaoath
ieeiaaea aeayoaeueiinoeth. Oaia?ue ana ciatho, /ai y, /ai ?inney aio
iaycaiu, e eeaaaoieee aeaaii caiie/aee”. Ei auee iiaeaioiaeaiu “Iieiia
nia?aiea caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee”, aeeth/athuaa ana ?onneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia/eiay n Niai?iiai Oeiaeaiey 1649 aiaea, e “Naiae
caeiiia”, a eioi?ii auee nia?aiu aeaenoaothuea caeiiu.

ss aeoiath, /oi ia yoii neaaeoao i?a?aaoueny, iioiio /oi iaeuecy
aei eiioea iiiyoue yoo caia/aoaeueioth ee/iinoue, a /ueae aeecie aeey
ian inoaioony “oaiiua ianoa”. E oaieee aai aeooe inoaioony cae?uouie
aeey ian ia anaaaea. Anee i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ethaee, aeeaoea a oo
yiioo, ia iiaee ioeaieoue aai aeeaae a ?acaeoea ?innee; e iiiaea
enoi?eee aei neo ii? ia iiaoo i?eeoe e aaeeiiio iiaieth ii ioaeaeueiui
aii?inai, e ia ia?anoatho nii?eoue iaaeaeo niaie, oi iai inoaaony
oieueei aua?aoue iaeaieaa aeeceoth aeey ian iiceoeeth a naaoa
nia?aiaiiuo acaeyaeia ia ?acaeoea iaoaai iauanoaa e iinoa?aoueny
ionoiyoue aa, iniiauaaynue ia oao aeaiiuo, eioi?uie iu ?aniieaaaai.

Eeoa?aoo?a, eniieuecoaiay a ?aoa?aoa:

Aaeeeea ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee ?innee. Iiae ?aae. A. O. Eenaeaaa.
1996 aiae.

Ciaiaieoua ?inneyia XVIII – XIX aaeia: Aeaeeia?aoee e ii?o?aou XVIII e
XIX noieaoee. 1995 aiae.

Enoi?ey ?innee a eeoeao n ae?aaiinoe aei iaoeo aeiae: Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee
neiaa?ue.

Enoi?ey ?innee. Iiniaea aeey iinooiathueo a aoc. /Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae
aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe, i?ioanni?a A. A. Noa?eiaa. Ecaeaoaeuenoai
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Oieaa?neoaoa Yeiiiieee e
Oeiainia. 1998 aiae.

Enoi?ey. Ni?aai/iee aaeoo?eaioa. Iineaa. 1997 aiae.

I. Ino?iai?neee. O/aaiee ?onneie Enoi?ee. Oaeeeii. 1992 aiae.

?inneeneea naiiaea?aeoeu (1801 – 1917). 1993 aiae.

N. Ethaio. Iineaaeiea ?iiaiiau. Eieaiecaeaoaeuenoaa “Iao?ia?aae”. E-I.
1924 aiae.

?onneea oea?e 1547 – 1917. Iiae ?aae. Oaina-Eiaoeia Oi?ea.
?inoia-ia-Aeiio, “Oaieen”, Iineaa, “Caa”. 1997 aiae.

Aaeeiooii Ai?e. Aeaenaiae? I. 1991 aiae.

Eecaaaooa?. A.A. Enoi?e/aneea neeoyou. 1997 aiae.

Ie?iiaiei N.A. No?aieoeu oaeiie enoi?ee Naiiaea?aeaaey: iieeoe/aneay
enoi?ey ?innee I iieiaeiu XIX noieaoey. 1989 aiae.

Aeieo?eaaa A.I. Nia?aineee e aai ainoaea?noaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue.
THiinoue, 1996 aiae, ? 7.

PAGE

PAGE 1

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019