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Великая Отечественная Война (1941-1945 гг.). Историческая роль СССР в разгроме фашизма

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Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao A?aaeaeaineie
Aaeaoeee

Eaoaae?a aoiaieoa?iuo e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo iaoe

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ? 2

ii «Ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee»

Oaia: «Aaeeeay Ioa/anoaaiiay Aieia (1941 – 1945 aa.). Enoi?e/aneay ?ieue
NNN? a ?aca?iia oaoecia»

nooaeaioa 1 eo?na

cai/iiai oaeoeueoaoa

Oaao?aoeeia

Eaaia Eaaiiae/a

Iineaa 2007

Ieai:

Aaaaeaiea.

1. Enoi?e/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?aca?iia oaoecia.

1.1 Ioeaiea ?iee NNN? a Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie Aieia.

1.2 AEa?oaaiiay aeiey niaaoneiai ia?iaea ia aeoa?ue iiaaaeu iaae
oaoeciii.

Caeeth/aiea.

Aaaaeaiea

Aieia – nouanoaeoaeueiia iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea: iao naiuee, eioi?ie au
ia einioeinue aa aeuoaiea. Iioiio-oi Aaeeeay Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia aua
aeieai aoaeao aini?eieiaoueny ia i?inoi eae /anoue enoi?e/aneie
o?iiieiaee eee no?i/ea yioeeeeiiaaeee. Oaeie oae auea aieia, /oi,
eaaeaony, aeuiu aa ana aua noaethony iaae caieath.

Aoi?aeaiea, eioi?iio aieaa iieoaaea, i?iecioei ia oieueei aioo?ue
no?aiu, eiaaea ia oniaaaee cae?aoeaaoue ea?oo /a?iui. Iii i?iieeei a
iaoe aeooe, inoaaea a ieo iaecaeaaeeiue neaae. Aoi?aeaiea ana aua
aeeeony ai a?aiaie. Oae caeii/eeanue ee ai?yiue oa aieia, iaea?aeaia ee
a iae iiaaaea e nei?i ee ia/iaony ianoiyuaa «iineaaiaiiia a?aiy», anee
aianoi aeaeaiiiai iieiy, aeaaiiieo/ey ia?iaeu iaoe ieacaeenue auiioaiu
aeooiaii, ?aci?aiu yeiiiie/anee? Oa, eoi aoi?any a iaoe i?aaeaeu a 1941
aiaeo, iioa?iaa caoai nie?ooeoaeueiia ii?aaeaiea, iaoee a naaa neeu
caoai iiaeiyoueny iinea ?aca?iia, ecaea/ue o?iee ec enoi?ee, ioeacaoueny
io oaoenoneiai oioaeeoa?ecia, ia?ainiuneeoue eaeath ?aaaioecia, eae
aeaaeueioth aeey iaiaoeeie iaoeee, e, iaeiiaoe nicaeaoue aiaaoia,
ioe?uoia aeey ie?a aeaiie?aoe/aneia iauanoai.

A /anoue aaeeeie iiaaaeu no?iyony o?eoioaeueiua a?ee, a?aiyo ia?aaeu,
caaiyo oaioa?u, ii yoa iiaaaea aeieaeia aeaoue iai e o?ie: iaiaaenoue ia
iiaeao aeieai inoaaaoueny a /aeiaaea. E ia ii?iaa o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey
iaiaoiaeeii caaeoiaoueny, /oi enoi?ey ?acaeaaaony ii nie?aee, iocaoe
iiiaeo naaiaeiyoieo iaoeo i?iaeai – a aiaiiuo ni?ieiauo. Iiyoiio aeey
ian inoaaony aaaeiui i?aaaeeaia inaauaiea anao aii?inia Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, ciay, /oi a Noaeeineoth e A?aaeiaaneoth yiioe
enoi?ey Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu oaeueneoeoee?iaaeanue a oaiaeo yoei
i?aaeoaeyi.

1. Enoi?e/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?aca?iia oaoecia

?aca?ii oaoecia aue aeinoeaioo niaaeeiaiiuie oneeeyie ainoaea?noa
aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee e nee Nii?ioeaeaiey a ieeoie?iaaiiuo no?aiao.
Eaaeaeay no?aia aianea naie aeeaae a iiaaaeo, nua?aa naith ?ieue a yoie
ie?iaie noaaoea. Enoi?e/aneay ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?aca?iia oaoecia
ninoaaeyao iaoeeiiaeueioth ai?aeinoue ia?iaea, ii?aaeaeyao aaoi?eoao
no?aiu a iineaaiaiiii ie?a e iieeoe/aneee aan a ?aoaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aii?inia. Eiaiii iiyoiio caiaaeiay enoi?eia?aoey noa?aaony i?eieceoue e
eca?aoeoue ?ieue NNN? ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia.

Enoi?e/aneay ?ieue NNN? ai Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
Niaaoneee Nithc aue aeaaiie aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie neeie, iaoneiaeaoae
iiaaaeiue oiae aieiu, aa ?aoeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou e a eiia/iii eoiaa –
caueoo ia?iaeia ie?a io ii?aaiuaiey oaoeciii.

1.1 Ioeaiea ?iee NNN? a Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie Aieia

Iauay ioeaiea ?iee NNN? a aieia ?ane?uaaaony a neaaeothueo eiie?aoiuo
iieiaeaiey:

1. Niaaoneee Nithc – aaeeinoaaiiay a ie?a neea, eioi?ay a ?acoeueoaoa
aa?ie/aneie ai?ueau inoaiiaeea a 1941 a. iai?a?uaiia iiaaaeiia oanoaea
aa?annee oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee ii Aa?iia.

Yoi aeinoeaiooi a oio ia?eiae, eiaaea iiuue aeoea?ianeie aiaiiie iaoeiu
auea iaeaieueoae, a aiaiiua aiciiaeiinoe NOA oieueei ?acaa?ouaaeenue.
Iiaaaea iiae Iineaie ?acaayea ieo i iaiiaaaeeiinoe aa?iaineie a?iee,
niinianoaiaaea iiaeuaio aeaeaeaiey Nii?ioeaeaiey e oe?aieea
aioeaeoea?ianeoth eiaeeoeeth.

2. NNN? a iaeanoi/aiiuo n?aaeaieyo n aeaaiie neeie oaoenoneiai aeiea-
aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaieae aeiaeeny ei?aiiiai ia?aeiia a oiaea Aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu a iieueco aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee a 1943 a.

Iinea ii?aaeaiey iiae Noaeeia?aaeii Aa?iaiey, a ca iae e ssiiiey ia?aoee
io ianooiaoaeueiie aieiu e iai?iieoaeueiie. A Eo?neie aeoaa
ieii/aoaeueii neiieaia niiniaiinoue aeoea?ianeie a?iee i?ioeainoiyoue
ianooieaieth niaaoneeo aiene, a oi?ne?iaaiea Aeiai?a ioe?uei iooue e
inaiaiaeaeaieth Aa?iiu.

3. Niaaoneee Nithc a 1944 – 1945 aa. auiieiee inaiaiaeeoaeueioth ienneth
a Aa?iia, eeeaeaee?iaaa oaoenoneia ainiiaenoai iaae aieueoeinoaii
ii?aaiuaiiuo ia?iaeia, nio?aiea eo ainoaea?noaaiiinoue e enoi?e/anee
ni?aaaaeeeaua a?aieoeu.

4. Niaaoneee Nithc aian iaeaieueoee aeeaae a aaaeaiea iauae aii?oaeaiiie
ai?ueau e ?aca?iiee iniiaiua neeu a?iee aeoea?ianeiai aeiea, iaoneiaea
yoei iieioth e aaciaiai?i/ioth eaieooeyoeeth Aa?iaiee e ssiiiee.

Yoio auaiae iniiauaaaony ia neaaeothueo n?aaieoaeueiuo iieacaoaeyo
aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueau E?aniie A?iee e a?iee aiaei-aia?eeaineeo
nithcieeia:

– E?aniay A?iey aaea aiaaua aeaenoaey i?ioea iniiaiie iannu aiene
aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee. A 1941 – 1942 aa. i?ioea NNN? n?aaeaeenue aieaa
3/4 anao aiene Aa?iaiee, a iineaaeothuea aiaeu ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii
o?iioa iaoiaeeeinue aieaa 2/3 /enea niaaeeiaiee aa?iaooa. Iinea ioe?uoey
aoi?iai o?iioa Ainoi/iue o?iio aeee Aa?iaiee inoaaaeny aeaaiui, a 1944
a. i?ioea E?aniie A?iee aeaenoaiaaei 181,5 iaiaoeeeo aeeaecee,
aiaei-aia?eeaineei aieneai i?ioeaiaeaenoaiaaee 81,5 iaiaoeeeo aeeaecee;

– ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa aiaiiua aeaenoaey aaeenue n iaeaieueoae
eioaineaiinoueth e i?ino?ainoaaiiui ?aciaoii. Ec 1 418 aeiae aeoeaiua
aie oee 1 320. Ia naaa?iao?eeaineii o?iioa niioaaonoaaiii ec 1 068 –
309; eoaeueyineii ec 663 – 49. I?ino?ainoaaiiue ?aciao ninoaaee: ii
o?iioo 4 – 6 oun.ei, /oi a 4 ?aca aieueoa naaa?iao?eeaineiai,
eoaeueyineiai e caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai o?iioia aianoa acyouo;

– E?aniay A?iey ?aca?iieea 507 iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo e 100 aeeaecee aa
nithcieeia, ii/oe a 3,5 ?aca aieueoa, /ai nithcieee ia anao o?iioao
Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa aii?oaeaiiua neeu
Aa?iaiee iiianee aieaa 73% iioa?ue. Caeanue oie/oiaeaia iniiaiay ianna
aiaiiie oaoieee aa?iaooa: aieaa 75% naiieaoia (nauoa 70 oun.), aei 75%
oaieia e ooo?iiauo i?oaeee (ieiei 50 oun.), 74% a?oeeea?eeneeo i?oaeee
(167 oun.);

– iai?a?uaiia no?aoaae/aneia ianooieaiea E?aniie A?iee a 1943 – 1945 aa.
a aunieeo oaiiao nie?aoeei aeeeoaeueiinoue aieiu, nicaeaei aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey aaaeaiey aiaauo aeaenoaee nithcieeaie e aeoeaece?iaaei eo
aiaiiua oneeey ec-ca aiycie “iiicaeaoue” n inaiaiaeaeaieai Aa?iiu.

Yoe enoi?e/aneea oaeou caiaaeiay enoi?eia?aoey e i?iiaaaiaea ouaoaeueii
caiae/eaatho eee a?oai eneaaeatho, i?eienuaay ?aoathuee aeeaae a iiaaaeo
NOA e Aiaeee.

2.2 AEa?oaaiiay aeiey niaaoneiai ia?iaea ia aeoa?ue iiaaaeu iaae
oaoeciii

Auiaaoay ia aeieth NNN? enoi?e/aneay ?ieue a ?aca?iia oaoecia noieea
oyaeaeuo iioa?ue. Niaaoneee ia?iae i?eian ia aeoa?ue iiaaaeu iaae
oaoeciii naioth aea?oaaiioth aeieth. Niaaoneee Nithc iioa?ye a aieia
26,6 iei. /aeiaae, aeanyoee ieeeeiiia ?aiaiu e eneaea/aiu, ?acei oiaea
?iaeaeaaiinoue, ia?iiiue oua?a iaianai caei?iaueth; ana niaaoneea ethaee
eniuoaee oece/aneea e i?aanoaaiiua no?aaeaiey; oiae aeeciaiiue o?iaaiue
ianaeaiey.

Ia?iiiue o?ii iaianai ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao. NNN? iioa?ye 30%
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa. Noieiinoue oua?aa ninoaaeea 675 ie?ae. ?oa.
?ac?ooaiu e niaeaeaiu 1 710 ai?iaeia e iinaeeia, aieaa 70 oun.
aea?aaaiue, aieaa 6 iei. caeaiee, 32 oun. i?aaei?eyoee, 65 oun. ei
aeaeaciuo aei?ia. Aieia iionoioeea eacio, i?aiyonoaiaaea nicaeaieth
iiauo oeaiiinoae a ia?iaeiii aeinoiyiee, i?eaaea e ?yaeo io?eoeaoaeueiuo
iineaaenoaee a yeiiiieea, aeaiia?aoee, ineoieiaee, i?aanoaaiiinoe, /oi a
niaieoiiinoe ninoaaeee einaaiiua ecaea?aeee aieiu.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiua iioa?e Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee (aeeth/ay aienea EAA
e IAAe), o. a. iiaeaee, oia?ee io ?ai, i?iiaee aac aanoe, ia aa?ioeenue
ec ieaia e iaaiaaua iioa?e, ninoaaeee ca aiaeu aieiu n o/aoii
Aeaeueiaainoi/iie eaiiaiee 8 668 400 /aeiaae, a oii /enea a?iee e oeioa
8 509 300 /aeiaae. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iioa?ue i?eoiaeeony ia 1941 –
1942 aa. (3 048 800 /aeiaae). A aiyo ca inaiaiaeaeaiea ia?iaeia Aa?iiu e
iieiue ?aca?ii oaoecia neiaeeee aieiau nioie ouny/ niaaoneeo aieiia: i?e
inaiaiaeaeaiee Iieueoe – 600 oun., *aoineiaaeee – 140 oun., Aaia?ee –
140 oun., ?oiuiee – ieiei 69 oun., THaineaaee – 8 oun., Aano?ee – 26
oun., Ii?aaaee – aieaa ouny/e, Oeieyiaeee – ieiei 2 oun., nauoa 100 oun.
niaaoneeo aieiia iieaaei ia caiea Aa?iaiee.

Aioeniaaoneay i?iiaaaiaea ca ?oaaaeii e iaeioi?ua ?inneeneea n?aaenoaa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, i?iaiaeyuea oaeoth aea eaeaieiae/aneoth ia?aaioeo
ianaeaiey, eiuoinoaaiii aeiiaee?otho oeeo?aie iioa?ue a Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia. N?aaieaay ?aciua aeaeu iioa?ue a NNN? e Aa?iaiee,
aeaeatho auaiae i “iai?aniuo ?aeao e?iae” e “ai?ao o?oiia” niaaoneeo
aieiia, aiceaaay aeio ca ieo ia “niaaoneoth nenoaio”, noaay iiae
niiiaiea naio iiaaaeo NNN? iaae oaoeciii. Oaeueneoeeaoi?u enoi?ee ia
oiiieiatho i oii, /oi oaoenoneay Aa?iaiey aa?ieiiii iaiaea ia Niaaoneee
Nithc, ia?ooea ia ie?iia ianaeaiea ianniaua n?aaenoaa ii?aaeaiey.
Aeoea?iaoeu i?eiaiyee aan/aeiaa/ioth aeieaaeo ai?iaeia (a Eaieia?aaea io
aieiaea iiaeaei 700 000 /aeiaae), aiiaa?aee?iaee e iano?aeu ie?iiai
ianaeaiey, i?iaiaeeee ianniaua ?anno?aeu ie?iuo aeeoaeae, naiiyee
a?aaeaeaineia ianaeaiea ia eaoi?aeiua ?aaiou e a eiioeaio?aoeeiiiua
eaaa?y, aaea iie iiaeaa?aaeenue ianniaiio oie/oiaeaieth. Niaaoneee Nithc
aea no?iai auiieiye niaeaoaiey i niaea?aeaiee aiaiiiieaiiuo, i?iyaeye e
iei aoiaiiia ioiioaiea. Niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ecaaaaei aaaeaiey aiaauo
aeaenoaee a aonoiianaeaiiuo ?aeiiao, a a ?yaea neo/aaa aeaaaei
aiciiaeiinoue aeoea?ianeei aieneai aani?aiyonoaaiii oeoe ec ieo.
?ai?annee i?ioea a?aaeaeaineiai ianaeaiey ia caiyouo niaaoneeie aieneaie
oa??eoi?eyo ia i?iaiaeeeinue. Ionthaea iiiyoia ?aciinoue iioa?ue n?aaee
a?aaeaeaineiai ianaeaiey NNN? e Aa?iaiee.

Niaeanii iineaaeiei enneaaeiaaieyi (?inney e NNN? a aieiao XX a. Iioa?e
aii?oaeaiiuo nee: Noaoenoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea Iiae ?aae. A. O.
E?eaioaaaa. – I., 2001.) aacaica?aoiua iioa?e iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aii?oaeaiiuo nee (iiaeaiiui iaoeo e ca?oaaaeiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae) a
E?aniie A?iee aianoa n nithcieeaie – iieueneeie, /aoineiaaoeeeie,
aieaa?neeie, ?oiuineeie aieiaie – e eiioeo aieiu ninoaaeee 10,3 iei.
/aeiaae, ec ieo niaaoneea aieiu – 8 668 400, aeeth/ay iiaeaoeo a ieaio
(ii ioeoeeaeueiui a?oeaiui aeaiiui). Iioa?e oaoenoneiai aeiea
ian/eouaaee 9,3 iei. /aeiaae, ec ieo 7,4 iei. – oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee, 1,2
iei. aa naoaeeeoia a Aa?iia e 0,7 iei. – ssiiiee a Iaiue/aeo?neie
iia?aoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, anee eneeth/eoue iaoe iioa?e, naycaiiua ni
caa?neei ia?auaieai aeoea?iaoeaa n aiaiiiieaiiuie, oi ?anoiaeaeaiea n
aiaauie iioa?yie Aa?iaiee nianai iacia/eoaeueii, ianiio?y ia oyaeaeaeoea
oneiaey ia/aea aieiu.

Aiai?y i iioa?yo, iaaei iiiieoue aeaaiia – eoia aieiu. Niaaoneee ia?iae
ionoiye naith iacaaeneiinoue, NNN? aian ?aoathuee aeeaae a iiaaaeo iaae
oaoeciii, ecaaaea /aeiaa/anoai io ii?aaiuaiey naiie ?aaeoeeiiiie
nenoaiie eiia?eaeecia. Oaoenoneay Aa?iaiey iiaa?aeaia, aeoea?eci
enei?aiai, a Aa?iia ii/oe iienoieaoey ia auei aiaiiuo noieeiiaaiee.
Niaaoneee Nithc iieo/ee aa?aioe?iaaiioth aaciianiinoue naieo aa?iiaeneeo
a?aieoe.

Niaaoneee Nithc auaea?aeae oyaeaeaeoaa iaoanoaea e iaea?aeae aaee/aeooth
iiaaaeo ai anae ouny/aeaoiae enoi?ee ?innee. A /ai enoi/ieee neeu
niaaoneiai ia?iaea a yoie aeaaioneie aeoaa? Ioaao ia yoio aii?in
ninoaaeyao aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea iaeiiai ec aaaeiuo o?ieia enoi?ee XX a.
aeey nia?aiaiieeia e iioiieia. Caiaaeiay enoi?eia?aoey, eae i?aaeei,
ooiaeeo io yoiai aii?ina, eeai nnueaaony ia ioeaee iaiaoeeiai
eiiaiaeiaaiey, no?iaua eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey ?innee, o?aaeeoeeiiioth
auiineeainoue ?onneiai nieaeaoa, “aeanoieinoue oioaeeoa?iiai niaaoneiai
?aaeeia” e o. i. Iao/iue iiaeoiae e aiaeeco enoi/ieeia iiaaaeu enoiaeeo
ec no?iaiai niaethaeaiey iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia enoi?e/aneie iaoee –
iauaeoeaiinoe, enoi?ecia, nioeeaeueiiai iiaeoiaea a eo i?aaie/aneii
aaeeinoaa.

Caeeth/aiea

N iieiui iniiaaieai iu ieoai i i?ia?anneaiii aicaeaenoaee ?aca?iia
oaoecia ia ?acaeoea anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, iiae/a?eeaaai ?aoathuoth ?ieue
NNN?. Ii iiaaaea, nio?aiea e oi?i/ea iacaaeneiinoue iaoae no?aiu,
iaeiia?aiaiii oe?aieea aeeeoaoo?o Noaeeia; iia ?ac?ooeea oaoenoneea
?aaeeiu a no?aiao Oeaio?aeueiie e THai-Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, ii
?ani?ino?aieea ia ieo aeeyiea noaeeiecia. Eiia?neea oaiaeaioeee
noaeeineie aeeieiiaoee, iauay aa i?ioanneiiaeueiay ia?aie/aiiinoue
yaeeenue iaeiie ec i?aaeiinueie aicieeiiaaiey “oieiaeiie aieiu”. Yoiio
niinianoaiaaee e ia?iiiua aiaiiua iioa?e NNN?, ii?iaeeaoea
naiioaa?aiiinoue i?aayueo e?oaia IAOI.

Iaeiinoi?iiia enoieeiaaiu iiea enoi/ieee iiaaaeu. Iaoeie i?eciaiu
eneeth/eoaeueiay ?ieue iaeaaeaaoae iannaie eaeae caueou ?iaeeiu,
i?eia?aooaai iiaia niaea?aeaiea iao?eioecia, eneeth/eoaeueiia ioaeanoai
a?iee e ia?iaea, eo niiniaiinoue i?aacieoe i?ioeaieea a aiaiiii
eneonnoaa e oaoieea. Iaeiaei enoi?eee, ii nouanoao, aeoaiei ia
enneaaeotho aioeenoi/iee – noaeeieci, oaeanyoa?eaoee aea?oau ia?iaea. Ia
i?aiaeieaiu ?acee/iua i?iyaeaiey ia?niieoeeaoeee enoi?ee. Ianoi ia?iaea
e a?iee a iaoeo o?oaeao ana aua caieiatho Noaeei, aai ie?oaeaiea aea
nioiy-ae?oaay aa?iaa-iaeeii/ae.

Iniiaiua /a?ou, naienoaaiiua noaeeiecio e iaoaaeoea naia iaeaieaa y?eia
i?iyaeaiea ai a?aiy aieiu, – iaeiiiaoaioiinoue, aeanoieinoue,
ath?ie?aoeci. Aua ia XX nuacaea EINN auei ni anae ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth
neacaii: «Aaeeiiaeanoea Noaeeia i?eaaei e iniai oyaeeei iineaaenoaeyi a
oiaea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu». Iaeiaei e aei neo ii? iaeioi?ua
iuoathony ii?iaa?aiooue yoo iuneue, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi Noaeei, aai
ie?oaeaiea ai a?aiy aieiu oia?eee naith aeanoieinoue, niya/eee
eiiaiaeii-?ai?anneaioth nenoaio, /oi iinea Noaeeia?aaeneie aeoau Noaeei
aoaeoi au iaeaaeae iieeiaiae/aneei eneonnoaii. Ii Noaeei ia aue
iieeiaiaeoeai, oai aieaa «aaeeeei». A oneiaeyo naiiaeanoey ii acye ia
naay ?oeiaiaenoai aieiie, ia eiay aeey yoiai aeaaea oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee. Noaeei caiye a 1941 aiaeo ana iuneeiua
aeieaeiinoe a Ainoaea?noaaiiii Eiieoaoa Iai?iiu, OeE AEI(a), Niaia?eiia
NNN?, Ia?eiiaoa iai?iiu e ae?. Aieath noaeaa noaaoee aiaiii-iieeoe/aneei
?oeiaiaeeoaeai iaeiie ec e?oiiaeoeo aea?aeaa ie?a, Noaeei ia iaeaaeae
oaeeie iaiaoiaeeiuie ea/anoaaie, eae niaoeeaeueiua ciaiey, iauay
eoeueoo?a e iao/iay eiooeoeey, aeoaieee e aeaeee iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth
aicieeathueo i?iaeai, oiaiea aua?aoue aeaaioth ec ieo. Iaeiiiaoaioiinoue
Noaeeia e iiiaeo aai i?eaeeaeaiiuo ieacuaaeanue iniaaiii iaaoaiie i?e
ie/ai ia ia?aie/aiiie aeanoe «aiaeaey», naa?oaeanoeie oeaio?aeecaoeee,
aai no?aieaiee acyoue ana ia naay – io iai?iiu eaeie-ieaoaeue aunioee
aei eiino?oeoeee ienoieaoa-ioeaiaoa, a oaeaea ec-ca neiaaiiinoe
eieoeeaoeau ae?oaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, ec no?aoa ia?aae aeeeoaoi?ii.

1418 aeiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu – yoi ia oieueei aaaeiaeoay
ninoaaiay /anoue aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu, ii e e?oiiaeoaa aiaiiia
noieeiiaaiea anao a?aiai. Ie iaeii ec ieo ia aoyioei iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
iaeanoi/aiiua n?aaeaiey oaeia ia?iiiia /enei ethaeae, ia
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue oaeeie aeaaioneeie /aeiaa/aneeie e iaoa?eaeueiuie
iioa?yie. Ei iiiaei /a?oai yoiai niauoey i?eiaieiu i?eeaaaoaeueiua
i?aainoiaeiie noaiaie. Ii iiaeii ioiaoeoue e neeueiaeooth
i?ioeai?a/eainoue: n iaeiie noi?iiu – e?aeia iani?aaaaeeeaua, iianiua
aeey anaai ie?a oeaee aa?anni?a, i?ae?anii i?aaieciaaiiiai, iao/aiiiai e
aii?oaeaiiiai. Oaoenoneia ?oeiaiaenoai ia naycuaaei naay ieeaeeie
ii?iaie ii?aee e i?aaa, iniaaiii ioiineoaeueii “iaa?eeneeo ia?iaeia”. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu – yoi naiua aunieea oeaee caueou ?iaeeiu e anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa, yoi ioaeanoai a?iee e ia?iaea, niiniaiuo i?aacieoe
i?ioeaieea e a aiaiiii eneonnoaa, e a aiaaie oaoieea.

Aaeeeay Ioa/anoaaiiay… 1418 aeiae e ii/ae aooaaae iaiiue aieiu, oaeaay
ethaeae e oie/oiaeay ana, /oi auei nicaeaii eo o?oaeii. Aeanyoee
ieeeeiiia nuiiaae e aei/a?ae iioa?yea iaoa ?iaeeia – iaoue. Iao naiuee,
eioi?ie au ia einioeanue aieia. *ai ecia?eoue aeoaeio oo?aou e neeo
iaoae nei?ae? Aeaaea oaia?ue, noieueei eao nionoy iinea Iiaaaeu, iaoa?e
aeaeoo nuiiaae, aeaiu – ioaeae, aeaoe – iooeia. Iaiyoue e iaaeaaeaea.
Iie aeeaoo anaaaea n iaie e a ian.

Ia ecaeeou iiea e ecaanoiua ii aiaiiui a?aiaiai i?aaenoaaeaiey: “eaeay
aieia aac aea?oa”, “aieia nieoao ana”, “iiaaaeeoaeae ia noaeyo”. E oioy
naaiaeiy oaea o?oaeii eiai-eeai oaaaeeoue a oii, aoaeoi ia auei a?oauo
i?in/aoia ?oeiaiaenoaa NNN? iaeaioia e a oiaea aieiu, iaii?aaaeaiiuo
iioa?ue, iu ia?aaeei ana aua iuoaainy iauaaeeieoue aeia?i e cei a aa
enoi?ee iiae aunieeie neiaaie “aa?ie/aneia e o?aae/aneia”.

Aeinoeaeaieai aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu auei nicaeaiea I?aaiecaoeee
Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee – i?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaeoaeueii anaie?iie, n
yooaeoeaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie iiaeaea?aeaiey ie?a, aeoeaii i?iaeieaeathuae
naith aeayoaeueiinoue e a iaoa ianiieieiia a?aiy. Ca aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiie iaiaaeeaiii ia iineaaeiaae anaiauee ie?, ii ia a yoii ninoiye aa
eoia. Oaeaeinue inaiaiaeeoue ia?iaeu io iaoeecia.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. «1418 aeiae aieiu. Ec ainiiieiaiee i Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia».
I.,Ecae-ai iieeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, 1990.

2. «Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia: aeaa acaeyaea». I.,Iuneue, 1995.

3. Aieiaeia A. «A/a?a auea aieia». AEo?iae «Iaiiae»,?25 1991.

4. Iaaeaiei I. «Enoi?ey aieiu aua ia iaienaia». AEo?iae «Iaiiae», ? 25.
1989.

5. Ai?aaoia A. «Aiaeu e aieiu». I., Aiaiecaeao, 1965.

6. Aaneeaaneee A. «Aeaei anae aeecie». I., Iieeoecaeao, 1988.

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