.

Великая французская революция конца XVIII в.

Язык:
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3212
Скачать документ

Naieia?: Aaeeeay o?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey eiioea XVIII a.

1.I?e/eiu Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee

1.1 Iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey O?aioeee a 18 aaea

Ainoaea?noaaiiay eacia auea enoiuaia e ia?aiaiaia a?iiaaeiui aeieaii,
n?aaeiee e iniaaiii iecoee eeannu auee ia?aiaiaiu iaiineeueiuie iaeiaaie
e au?aaeaee yaiia iaoaeiaieuenoaea i?eaeeaaeyie aeai?yinoaa e
aeooiaainoaa e ceioiio?aaeaieyie aaeieieno?aoeee. Ana oeacuaaei ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ei?aiiuo ?aoi?i. O/eouaay iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, Ethaeiaee
XVI i?e naiii anooieaiee ia i?anoie oie/oiaeee iaiiioey?iua ia?eaiaiou,
oaieee a ionoaaeo ieienoa?noai e ninoaaee iiaia, a eioi?ii auaeathuaany
iieiaeaiea caiye ieieno? oeiainia Oth?ai, ia?aciaaiiue a aeooa
«i?inaauaiey XVIII a.». Ii ninoaaee iaoe?iue ieai ?aoi?i, eioi?ua
aeieaeiu auee oeo/oeoue yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea no?aiu e oie/oiaeeoue
i?e/eiu ia?iaeiiai iaaeiaieuenoaa. I?aaeiieaaaeinue oie/oiaeeoue
i?iecaie /eiiaieeia, nicaeaoue auai?iia i?iaeioeeaeueiia naiioi?aaeaiea;
aeiionoeoue n?aaeiaa nineiaea ei anai ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaeiinoyi;
oie/oiaeeoue iiaeiiinoe e?anoueyi ii ioiioaieth e iiiaueeai;
?ani?ino?aieoue iaeiae ia caiee aeai?yinoaa e aeooiaainoaa; ia?aie/eoue
/?acia?iua ?anoiaeu aeai?a; iiaeiyoue oi?aiaeth e i?iiuoeaiiinoue
oie/oiaeaieai aioo?aiieo oaiiaeai e oeaoia; nicaeaoue aa?ioa?ieiinoue;
iiaeiyoue ia?aciaaiea; ineaaeoue oeaico?o e o. ae. Ii aaeaa oieueei
/anoue ia?ii?eyoee Oth?ai auea i?eaaaeaia a eniieiaiea, eae aucaaea
oaeie neeueiue i?ioano a i?eaeai?iuo e?oaao e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo eeannao,
/oi neaaioa?aeoa?iue ei?ieue aeae aio ionoaaeo. N ooiaeii Oth?ai auee
oie/oiaeaiu e ana aai iiaiaaaaeaiey.

Caeeth/aiiue n Aiaeeae oi?aiaue aeiaiai?, nieaeaaoee iioeeiu ia aaic
aiaeeeneeo i?iiuoeaiiuo ecaeaeee, iaian na?ueaciue oaea? o?aioeocneei
iaiooaeoo?ai, iiiaea cae?ueenue. A i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaea ianooiee
e?ecen. Ia/aeanue aac?aaioeoea. Iao?iaeae aucaae aei?iaiaecio e
iaaeinoaoie i?iaeiaieuenoaey. A ai?iaeao o/anoeeenue ia?iaeiua aieiaiey.

Oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie oeiainaie auei ii?o/aii auaoaio aaiee?o
Iaeea?o, eioi?ue ainnoaiiaee neeueii oiaaoee aei iaai ainoaea?noaaiiue
e?aaeeo iooai caeiia, a oaeaea nie?auaieai iainee, ia?aie/aieai
?anoiaeia aeai?a, oiaiueoaieai /enea /eiiaieeia e ae?oaeie ia?aie ii a
oa/aiea 5 eao aac oaaee/aiey iaeiaia noiae o?aaiyoue i?eoiae n
?anoiaeii, ianiio?y ia aieueoea ?anoiaeu ia aieio n Aiaeeae. Iaeiaei
caeiu oaaee/eaaee ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea, ia?aiaiyy ainoaea?noai
ieaoaaeii i?ioeaioia. Ii aai niaaoo ei?ieue niaeaneeny nicaaoue a 1787
a. Aaia?aeueiua ooaou aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey iiauo iaeiaia.

I?iecaaaeaiiua auai?u aeaiooaoia io o?aoueaai nineiaey aeaee iiiai
ia?aciaaiiuo th?enoia (noaeae e aaeaieaoia) e eioaeeeaaioiuo e ciathueo
eeoe. Iniaaiii auaeaeyeenue aaaao Neaean e a?ao Ie?aai, eioi?ua aieaa
ae?oaeo niinianoaiaaee i?iaaaeaieth a aeeciue «iaeacia» o?aoueaai
nineiaey, a eioi?uo auneacuaaeenue ia oieueei aeaeaiey ono?aieoue ana,
/oi noaniyei i?e noa?uo ii?yaeeao (ia?aaiiia?iia iaeiaeaiea iiaeaoyie,
i?eaeeaaee aeai?yinoaa e aeooiaainoaa, iaaeeaiiia e i?eno?anoiia
noaeii?iecaiaenoai), ii e ia?aie/eoue ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue, aeaoue
naiaiaeo e ?aaainoai a?aaeaeai e o ae.

Aeaiooaou o?aoueaai nineiaey iaia?oaeeee oaeoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue,
eioi?ay ia oieueei ?aoeea a eo iieueco nii?iue aii?in, ii iinoaiaiii
ia?aaeaea a eo ?oee anth ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue. Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth
aaaaoa Neaeana iie iauyaeee naay Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai,
aeieaeainoaiaaaoei auiieieoue oo caaea/o, ia eioi?oth eo oiieiiii/eee
ecae?aoaee; aeaee eeyoao ia ?anoiaeeoueny, iiea ia eii/ao naiaai aeaea,
e iauyaeee ee/iinoue aeaiooaoia Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey
iai?eeiniiaaiiie. Ei?ieue onooiee e i?eeacae aeaiooaoai io aeai?yinoaa e
aeooiaainoaa aieoe a ninoaa Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey.

Ei?iey caiiaeic?eee a iaene?aiiinoe, eiaaea ii iiae i?aaeeiaii
iiaeaea?aeaiey ii?yaeea e niieienoaey noyioe ieiei Ia?eaea e Aa?naey aei
35 ouny/ aienea, ninoaaeaiiiai ii i?aeiouanoao ec eiino?aioeaa.
Ia?eaeneay /a?iue noaea aii?oaeaoueny, ?aca?aaea i?oaeaeiua ianoa?neea e
aiaiiua iaaaceiu. Ca i?oaeea acyeenue ?aianeaiieee, ?aai/ea, iiaeaiueee,
a oaeaea oi?aiaoeu Oaeei ia?acii, a ainnoaiee i?eieiaee o/anoea ia
oieueei ai?iaeneea iecu, ii e i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeeie ao?aeoacee.

Ai?iaeneia naiioi?aaeaiea Ia?eaea, /oiau i?aaeio?aieoue naay, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, io ei?ieaaneeo aiene, a n ae?oaie — io ianeeee /a?ie,
ia?aciaaei ec eo/oae /anoe ai?iaeneie iieiaeaaee Iaoeeiiaeueioth
aaa?aeeth (i?aeiouanoaaiii ec ao?aeoa, oae eae iie aeieaeiu auee ia naie
n/ao i?eia?anoe ia?yaeiue aei?iaie ioiaee?), eioi?ie auea i?enaiaia
iniaay eiea?aea e o?aooeaaoiia ciaiy, naeaeaaoaany iioii ciaiaiai
?aaiethoeee. Ia/aeueieeii aue iacia/ai ia?eec Eaoaeao. Ia?aciaaiea
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee i?eaeaei iniaia cia/aiea ai?iaeneiio
naiioi?aaeaieth, eioi?ia ia?yaeo n Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai ia?aciaaei
aoi?oth neeo, ia?aie/eaaaooth ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue e ea?aaooth
aiineaaenoaee aanueia aaaeioth ?ieue.

Ii naiaio ainoaea?noaaiiiio ono?ienoao a XVIII aaea O?aioeey auea
aaniethoiie iiia?oeae, iie?aaoaeny ia ath?ie?aoe/aneoth oeaio?aeecaoeeth
e ia iinoiyiiia aienei. Oai ia iaiaa, iaaeaeo ei?ieaaneie aeanoueth,
eioi?ay auea niaa?oaiii iacaaeneia io ainiiaenoaothueo eeannia, e
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuie nineiaeyie nouanoaiaae naiaai ?iaea nithc — ca ioeac
aeooiaainoaa e aeai?yinoaa io iieeoe/aneeo i?aa ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue
anae naiae neeie e anaie auaoeie a a? ?anii?yaeaiee n?aaenoaaie io?aiyea
nioeeaeueiua i?eaeeaaee yoeo aeaoo nineiaee.

Aei iaeioi?iai a?aiaie n ei?ieaaneei aaniethoeciii ie?eeanue
i?iiuoeaiiay ao?aeoacey, a eioa?anao eioi?ie i?aaeoaeuenoai oiaea
aeaeaei iaiaei, oneeaiii caaioynue i «iaoeeiiaeueiii aiaaonoaa», oi
anoue, i ?acaeoee ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee. Iaeiaei,
ieacuaaeinue ana aieaa o?oaeiui oaeiaeaoai?youe aeaeaieyi e o?aaiaaieyi
e aeai?yinoaa e ao?aeoacee, a naiae acaeiiie ai?ueaa eneaaoeo
iiaeaea?aeee o ei?ieaaneie aeanoe.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, e oaiaeaeueiay, e eaieoaeenoe/aneay yenieoaoaoeey ana
aieueoa aii?oaeaea i?ioea naay ia?iaeiua iannu, naiua caeiiiua eioa?anu
eioi?uo niaa?oaiii eaii?e?iaaeenue ainoaea?noaii. A eiioea eiioeia,
iieiaeaiea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe ai O?aioeee naeaeaeinue e?aeia
cao?oaeieoaeueiui: anyeee ?ac, eiaaea iia ionoaeaaea noa?ua i?eaeeaaee,
iia ano?a/aeanue n eeaa?aeueiie iiiiceoeeae, eioi?ay oneeeaaeanue — e
anyeee aea ?ac, eiaaea iieo/aee oaeiaeaoai?aiea iiaua eioa?anu,
iiaeieiaeanue eiina?aaoeaiay iiiiceoeey, aeaeaaoayny ?ac io ?aca aieaa
?aceie.

Ei?ieaaneee aaniethoeci oa?ye e?aaeeo a aeacao aeooiaainoaa, aeai?yinoaa
e ao?aeoacee, n?aaee eioi?uo ooaa?aeaeaeanue iuneue, /oi aaniethoiay
ei?ieaaneay aeanoue yaeyaony oco?iaoeeae ii ioiioaieth e i?aaai nineiaee
e ei?ii?aoeee (oi/ea c?aiey Iiioaneuea) eee ii ioiioaieth e i?aaai
ia?iaea (oi/ea c?aiey ?onni).

Aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe Aieueoa?a, Iiioaneuea, ?onni e ae?oaeo
ienaoaeae, ec eioi?uo iniaaiii aaaeiu a?oiiu oeceie?aoia e
yioeeeeiiaaeenoia, aeaaea a oiao ia?aciaaiiie /anoe o?aioeocneiai
iauanoaa i?iecio?e ia?aai?io. Iiyaeeinue ianniaia oaea/aiea
aeaiie?aoe/aneie oeeinioeae ?onni, Iaaee, Aeeae?i e ae?.
Naaa?iaia?eeaineay aieia ca iacaaeneiinoue, a eioi?ie i?eiyee o/anoea e
o?aioeocneea aeia?iaieueoeu, e naii i?aaeoaeuenoai, eae au iiaeneacuaaea
iauanoao, /oi e ai O?aioeee aiciiaeii inouanoaeaiea iiauo eaeae.

1) *oi i?aaeoniao?eaae caeeth/aiiue oi?aiaue aeiaiai? iaaeaeo Aiaeeae e
O?aioeeae?

2) Eaeea ia?ii?eyoey i?iaiaeee Iaeea? aeey i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena?

3) Eaeea neie ianaeaiey auee iaaeiaieueiu iieeoeeie i?aaeoaeuenoaa?

1.2 E?ecen o?aioeocneiai aaniethoecia a 18 a.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. ana ianaeaiea O?aioeee ii-i?aaeiaio
iiae?acaeaeyeinue ia o?e nineiaey, i?e/ai ia?aua aeaa — aeooiaainoai e
aeai?yinoai — nio?aiyee ana naie noa?eiiua i?eaeeaaee. Ao?aeoacey,
e?anoueyinoai, ieaaaeneea iannu ai?iaeia i?eiaaeeaaeaee e o?aoueaio
nineiaeth. I?eaeeaae?iaaiiua nineiaey Eae ie ie/oiaeai aue /eneaiii
aanue eiioeiaaio aeooiaainoaa (iaeia aeaoonioay /anoue ianaeaiey
O?aioeee), nioeeaeueiua eiio?anou, oa?aeoa?iua aeey anae no?aiu,
aini?iecaiaeeeenue aioo?e yoiai nineiaey n ii?aceoaeueiie ?aceinoueth.
Iiiaea aea?aaaineea nayuaiieee auee aaaeiu, a ii naiaio nioeeaeueiiio
i?ienoiaeaeaieth iie auee iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n o?aoueei nineiaeai.
Nianai eiui auei iieiaeaiea oea?eiaiie a?enoie?aoee: a?oeaieneiiia e
aieneiiia (anaai 135 /aeiaae), aaaaoia e aaaaoen, aicaeaaeyaoeo 1100
ioaeneeo e 678 aeaineeo iiianou?ae (a iauai e iiiaoanoaothuaio
aeooiaainoao i?eiaaeeaaeaei ieiei 60 oun. /aeiaae). Aiaeiaua aeioiaeu
iaeioi?uo a?oeaieneiiia aeioiaeeee aei 100 — 200 oun. eea?ia.
A?oeaieneiiu e aieneiiu aeeee, eae naaoneea a?enoie?aou, a ?ineioiuo
aeai?oeao, /anoi ono?aeaay iuoiua i?eaiu e uaae?i iaea?yy naieo
oaai?eoia e oaai?eoie. I?e Ethaeiaeea XV n?aaee aieneiiia auee aua
auoiaeoeu ec o?aoueaai nineiaey, iaeiaei a neaaeothuaa oea?noaiaaiea, a
80-o aiaeao, eeoeai iaaeai?yineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey aue iieiinoueth
cae?uo aeinooi ia oieueei a aieneiiao, ii e ei anai ae?oaei
neieueei-ieaoaeue auaiaeiui oea?eiaiui aeieaeiinoyi. Ia aeiaa?yy iecoaio
aeooiaainoao, Ethaeiaee XVI aini?aoee i?eoiaeneei nayuaiieeai
niae?aoueny ia nuacaeu aac ?ac?aoaiey aia?oeaeueiuo aeanoae. Aieneiiu
ia?aiauaee naeueneeo nayuaiieeia ec iaeiiai i?eoiaea a ae?oaie ii naiaio
i?iecaieo. Aoi?ia nineiaea — aeai?yinoai ninoiyei ec aeaoo ?acee/iuo
a?oii: «aeai?yinoaa oiaae» e «aeai?yinoaa iaioee». Aeaaiie
iaycaiiinoueth aeai?yinoaa oiaae auea aiaiiay neoaeaa. Iaeiaei a 1789
a., ii iiaen/aoo Eaaoacuea, oieueei 18 323 aeai?yieia auee
aeaenoaeoaeueii niiniaiu iineoue i?oaeea. Aeai?yinoai oiaae, eae e
aeooiaiia nineiaea, ia auei iaeii?iaeii. Eiui aeai?yiai e oiaao eoieoue
auei ia ia /oi. A iaeiii e oii aea aoi?ii nineiaee auee e aaccaiaeueiua,
e iaeeiiiianoiua aeai?yia, e naiuei?u, aeaaeaaoea ouny/aie aaeoa?ia
caiee, i?aeiouanoaaiii oeooeiaaiiay ciaoue: aa?oeiae, ia?eecu, a?aou e
aeeiiou. A 1771 a. ai O?aioeee auei 70 oun. aeai?yi, ec ieo 3 oun.
oeooeiaaiiuo. Ei?ieaaneee aeai? — yoa, ii au?aaeaieth ia?aaeiauo
nia?aiaiieeia, «iiaeea iaoeee» — i?eaeaeae a?enoie?aoia, iieeaeaaoeo
naie iiianouey, /oiau aanoe ia?aceoe/aneia nouanoaiaaiea a Ia?eaea eee a
Aa?naea ca n/ao ei?ieaaneeo ieeinoae e noaneaeee. Aania/iay, ?acaoeueiay
aeeciue e iinoiyiiia aacaeaeuea n/eoaeenue oa?aeoa?iuie e iaiaoiaeeiuie
i?eciaeaie iiaeeeiiiai aa?noaa. Ei?ieue e i?eioeu iieacuaaee i?eia?
?anoi/eoaeueiinoe. Ninoiyiea aa?oeiaa I?eaaineiai, ?iaenoaaiieea ei?iey
ii ieaaeoae eeiee Ao?aiiia, ioeaieaaeinue a 114 iei. eea?ia, a aai
aeieae — a 74 iei. eea?ia. Oaiaeaeay ei?ieth e aai oaai?eoai, aeai?yia
aeeee auoa naieo n?aaenoa, aeaeaee aeieae e aeaaea aiaaoaeoea ec ieo
ia?aaeei ?aci?yeenue. I?iaeioeeaeueiia aeai?yinoai ioiineeinue
iaae?oaeaethaii e aeaaea a?aaeaeaaii e aeai?yinoao i?eaeai?iiio, a
noa?ua a?enoie?aoe/aneea naiuee i?ace?aee aunei/ae-oaai?eoia, /anoi
i?eia?aoaaoeo oeooeu e aeeyiea i?e aeai?a. Nouanoaiaaee, iaeiaei, e
ai?acaei aieaa aaaeiua ?acee/ey a n?aaea aeai?yinoaa: iacaaeneii io
ae?aaiinoe ?iaea iaeie aeai?yia auee oaiaoe/aneeie caueoieeaie
oaiaeaeueiuo ii?yaeeia, ae?oaea neeiiyeenue e ?aoi?iai, e
eaieoaeenoe/aneei, a ia e oaiaeaeueiui iaoiaeai yenieoaoaoeee
e?anoueyinoaa. Ioaeaeueiua a?enoie?aou auee i?e/anoee e eieiieaeueiie
oi?aiaea. Aaiee?neea iia?aoeee, ?inoiaue/anoai, eiiia?/aneia
aeiiiaeaaeaiea, aeiauaathuay e ia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
eioa?aniaaee yoeo aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo aeai?yi ioithaeue ia iaiaa, /ai
eiiia?naioia, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e aani?aaiiio o?aoueaio nineiaeth. E
aeai?yinoao iaioee ioiineeanue noaeaeneay ciaoue, /eaiu aunoeo noaeaaiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee — ia?eaiaioia e aunoeo oeiainiai-aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia.
A XVI—XVII aa. yoa /eiiaiay ciaoue iineea aua iacaaiea ethaee iaioee e
?acei ioee/aeanue io aeai?yinoaa oiaae naiei i?ienoiaeaeaieai: ethaee
iaioee auee auoiaeoeaie ec o?aoueaai nineiaey. Ii iinoaiaiii eo nayce n
o?aoueei nineiaeai oo?a/eaaeenue, e iie i?aa?auaeenue a i?ineieeo
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna oaiaeaeia — aeai?yinoai iaioee, eioi?ia a XVIII
a. auei oaea oanii naycaii a eeoea naieo aeaeiaeoeo naiaenoa n
?iaeiaeoie ciaoueth. Nioeeaeueiia eeoei iniiaiie iannu aeai?yinoaa
iaioee e aai ?aaeoeeiiioth ?ieue a XVIII a. aiaaii oa?aeoa?eciaaee
ao?aeoaciua i?inaaoeoaee. «Aunoay noaeaaiay iaaeno?aoo?a, — ienae
Aeeae?i, — iaoa?ieia, oaiaeanee eeoeaia?ia, aeoia; iia o?aieo naie
aioneea e aaiaeaeueneea iau/ae … e aeaaeii no?aieony aiaoeaaoueny ai
ana — a ?aeeaeth, a ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea, oeiainu, eneonnoai e iaoeo e
aneaaenoaea naiaai iaaaaeanoaa, ei?unoe e i?aae?annoaeeia anaaaea ana
caioouaaao». Ao?aeoacey, i?aaei?ieaoa?eao e e?anoueyinoai. E e?oiiie
ao?aeoacee i?eiaaeeaaeaee ioeoiueee, aaiee?u, noaeiaeaaeaeueoeu,
eoioeu-iioiaeee, iiiaea aeiiiaeaaeaeueoeu-eiiia?naiou, e?oiiua
i?iiuoeaiieee—iaiooaeoo?enou. Aiciiaeiinoueth auno?ie iaaeeau ca n/ao
aani?aaiiai e ana aieaa ?aci?yaiiai ia?iaea iniaaiii oe?iei
iieueciaaeenue ioeoiueee iaeiaia. I?ia?anneaiay /anoue o?aioeocneiai
iauanoaa ioiineeanue e ioeoiueeai n iane?uaaaiui i?ac?aieai. A iaeiii
aiaaoii aeiia, eoaea aue i?eaeaoai Aieueoa?, ana ainoe iaycaeenue
?anneacaoue /oi-ieaoaeue i ?acaieieeao. Eiaaea aeioea i/a?aaeue aei
Aieueoa?a, ii neacae: «AEee-aue iaeei ioeoiuee… Ainiiaea, inoaeueiia y
iicaaue». Caaeieaeaiiinoue ainoaea?noaa aiieia ioaa/aea eioa?anai
ioeoiueeia, aaiee?ia, anao i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e?aaeeoi?ia. Ecaanoii, /oi
Ia?en n/eoae ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea iaeiei ec naiuo neeueiuo ?u/aaia
ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiua e?aaeeoi?u ninoaaeyee
iaeaieaa aa?iiiiaeaeaiie/aneoth /anoue ao?aeoacee. Eeoue n iiyaeaieai
iianiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaie?ionoaa ioiioaiea e yoie /anoe
ao?aeoacee e i?aaeoaeuenoao eciaieeinue. Iiiai/eneaiiay iaeeay
ao?aeoacey ninoiyea ec oeaoiauo ianoa?ia, eaai/ieeia, aeaaeaeueoeaa
iaeeeo ianoa?neeo eaieoaeenoe/aneiai oeia. E iaeeie ao?aeoacee
ioiineeanue e /anoue ?aaioieeia ?annayiiie iaiooaeoo?u, iai?eia? iiiaea
eeiineea oaeeioea/e, eiaaoea ii o?e-/aou?a noaiea, aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
eioi?uo naie ianoa?a iinoiyiii iaieiaee oea/ae-iiaeianoa?ueaa. Ana yoe
i?ineieee iaeeie ao?aeoacee iaei ?acee/aeenue ii iaoa?eaeueiiio
iieiaeaieth e auee iauaaeeiaiu iaiaaenoueth e caneeueth
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo. I?aaei?ieaoa?eao aua ia auaeaeyeny caiaoii ec
iauaia?iaeiie iannu, aue neaa e n?aaieoaeueii iaiiiai/eneai. E ?acee/iui
i?ineieeai yoiai eeanna i?eiaaeeaaeaee ?aianeaiiua iiaeianoa?uey,
iiaeaiueee, o/aieee, ?aai/ea iaiooaeoo?, ii?oiaua a?oc/eee, oaooa?u.
Oaea caaeieai aei ?aaiethoeee i?ienoiaeeea aeoaieay nioeeaeueiay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey a n?aaea o?aioeocneiai e?anoueyinoaa. Iiaeaaeythuoth
ianno naeueneiai ianaeaiey ninoaaeyea aaaeiioa. Oaeanathuay ieuaoa
oe?ieeo neiaa e?anoueyinoaa canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaia iiiaeie
nia?aiaiieeaie, a oii /enea e i?aaenoaaeoaeyie oiaaeaoiae
aaeieieno?aoeee. A 1742 a. iaeei /eiiaiee ec Oaeaca ienae naiaio
ia/aeueieeo, eioaiaeaioo: «Iaeioi?ua i?eoiaeu ieaoyo i/aiue iaei
(iaeiaia), ae?oaea aea — /?acau/aeii ia?aiaiaiu, /oiau ia neacaoue —
?acaeaaeaiu, e aeeoaee yoeo i?eoiaeia iiaeaatho a ieuaoa. Yoe ethaee
aieu, eae /a?ae, /a?iu, eae iaa?u, ieoathony anth naith aeeciue
ai?iaieiaeue e naiie aeo?iie ieuae». Ianniaua aeaeaeaiey ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XVIII a. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. eae a ai?iaea, oae e a
aea?aaia ii/oe ia i?ae?auaeenue ia?iaeiua aieiaiey. A iaeiie Ii?iaiaeee,
aaea, ii i?eciaieth ianoiiai ia?eaiaioa, aieiae canoaaeye oeaeua
aea?aaie ia?aoiaeeoue «ia ieuo aeeaioiuo», e?anoueyineea ainnoaiey
aniuoeaaee oanoue ?ac a oa/aiea iaaieueoiai ia?eiaea — n 1752 ii 1768 a.
A aiaeu oaiaeaeueiie ?aaeoeee e?anoueyineea aieiaiey oneeeeenue,
iniaaiii a Ioaoo, Aecee?, ?aeiia Naaaiineeo ai?, a Aeaa??, AEaaiaeaia.
Aeaeaeaiey ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey auee oiaea aeiaieueii /anou. Ac?uau
iaaeiaieuenoaa iecia ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ioia/aeenue a 1770 a. a ?oaia
e ?aeina, a 1775 a.— a Aeeaeiia, Aa?naea, Nai-AEa?iaia, Iiiooaca,
Ia?eaea, a 1782 a. — a Ioaouea. A XVIII a. a nayce n ?inoii
eaieoaeenoe/aneie iaiooaeoo?u ianniaia aeaeaeaiea /anoi i?eia?aoaei
oi?io noa/a/iie ai?ueau. A Iaaa?a ?aai/ea noa/ee e ainnoaiey (ii
au?aaeaieth ianoiuo aeanoae, iyoaaee) i?ienoiaeeee a 50 — 60-o aiaeao
ii/oe ?aaoey?ii /a?ac eaaeaeua aeaa-o?e aiaea. Cia/eoaeueiue eiioeeeo
iaaeaeo o?oaeii e eaieoaeii aniuoioe a 1744 a. a Eeiia. Yoi auea oi?ioi
i?aaieciaaiiay noa/ea eeiineeo oaeeioea/ae. Ianoiue eioaiaeaio ienae
oiaaea i oea/ao-noa/a/ieeao: «Iie ia a?aaeee e ia oaeaaee. Ii iie
ianeeueii canoaaeee eoia/aneiai noa?oeio iiaeienaoue i?eeac …
i?iaeeeoiaaiiue eie naieie». ?a/ue oea ia ioiaia oieueei /oi aaaaeaiiiai
?aaeaiaioa, nicaeaaaaoaai aieaa oyaeaeua oneiaey o?oaea oaeeioea/ae.
AEanoieea ?ai?annee, eioi?ui iiaeaa?aeenue i?aaiecaoi?u noa/ee, ia
i?ae?aoeee noa/a/iie ai?ueau. Noa/ee a Eeiia aicieeaee a 1752, 1759,
1771, 1774, 1778 e 1786 aa.; iineaaeiyy ec yoeo noa/ae iacuaaaony a
ao?aeoaciie enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a «iyoaaeii 1786 a.». Aieiaiey
ia/aeenue ni noa/ee eaiaiueeia, iio?aaiaaaoeo io iiae?yae/eeia
oii?yaei/aiey auaea/e ca?aaioiie ieaou. Caoai a nayce n ?inoii
aei?iaiaeciu ia/aeanue niaianoiay noa/ea oaeeioea/ae e oeyiieeia,
iio?aaiaaaoeo oaaee/aiey naeaeueiuo ?anoeaiie. Noa/a/ieee-aeaiiino?aiou
aeaeaaeenue ii ai?iaeo no?ieiuie eieiiiaie. Iinea e?iaii?ieeoiie noaaoee
n aieineeie /anoyie iie ie?oaeeee ?aoooo e canoaaeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ianoiie aeanoe iiaeienaoue i?eeac i iiauoaiee naeaeueiuo ?anoeaiie. Ii
anei?a yoi aeaeaeaiea auei iiaeaaeaii. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
noa/a/ieeia-iianoaioeaa Iuea? Niaaae aue eaciai. Oiaaeie o?aioeocneiai
aaniethoecia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a.
aeaeueiaeoee ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ai O?aioeee aue aiciiaeai eeoue
i?e oneiaee aeoaieeo ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. Ii o?aioeocneee
aaniethoeci oaea i?aaenoaaeye niaie a yoi a?aiy ?aaeoeeiiioth neeo.
Iiyoiio aeaaea oa ia?ii?eyoey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua, ii aeaeeiinoe,
auee iai?aaeaiu ia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia aeinoeaaee oeaee.
Iiaeaea?aeea aaniethoecia aaiee?aie, ioeoiueeaie e iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie
yeaiaioaie aa?oooee ao?aeoacee, ?aaii eae e iie?iaeoaeuenoai
aaniethoecia yoei yeaiaioai, ia eciaiyee nouanoaa aaniethoiie iiia?oee
eae ainoaea?noaa, io?aiyaoaai eeanniaua eioa?anu i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Iaeiei ec i?eciaeia oiaaeea aaniethoecia yaeyeanue
aai ianiiniaiinoue caaa?oeoue oi?ie?iaaiea iieeoe/aneiai e
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aaeeinoaa no?aiu. Nin?aaeioi/aiea aeanoe a ?oeao
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo eioaiaeaioia ia ono?aieei ai O?aioeee /oaeiaeuiie
aaeieieno?aoeaiie «/a?aniieineoeu». Aaeieieno?aoeaiay oa?ieiieiaey
niioaaonoaiaaea caiooaiiinoe aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ii?yaeeia. Ia?yaeo n
iiiyoeai «eioaiaeaionoai» oiio?aaeyeenue oa?ieiu «aaia?aeuenoai» e
«i?iaeioeey», i?e/ai iiiyoea «i?iaeioeey» i?eiaiyeinue oiaaea e e
aaia?aeuenoaai, e e eioaiaeaionoaai, e e aiaiiui ie?oaai. *aoeiai
?acaeaeaiey ia aaeieieno?aoeaiua ie?oaa, oaeei ia?acii, ai O?aioeee ia
nouanoaiaaei aeaaea a eiioea XVIII a. Aieueoay /anoue O?aioeee
oi?aaeyeanue iin?aaenoaii a?iiicaeeiai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa, e
oieueei iaeioi?ua iaeanoe iieueciaaeenue eia-eaeeie, i?eoii
iaiaeeiaeiauie, i?aaaie naiioi?aaeaiey. Iaiaeeiaeiai oi?aaeyeenue e
ai?iaea. Auai?iinoue iy?ia auea ii aieueoae /anoe oie/oiaeaia; ei?iee
i?iaeaaaee aeieaeiinoe iy?ia. ?oeiaiaenoai a noaeaaiuo o?eaoiaeao
naiaoaeuenoa e aaeueyaeae (noaeaaiuo ie?oaia, ecae?aaea iineaoeo
iacaaiea naiaoaeuenoa ia THaa e aaeueyaeae ia Naaa?a) ia?aoea e
eioaiaeaioai. Noae niaa?oaeny ia oieueei ia iniiaa ei?ieaaneiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ii e ia iniiaa iniauo aeey eaaeaeie iaeanoe caeiiia
e iau/aaa, eiaaoeo ?acee/iia enoi?e/aneia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. A oneiaeyo
aani?aaey oe?ieeo iann ia?iaea e noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oaina
aeiioneaeenue iaaa?iyoiua ceioiio?aaeaiey. Iniaaiii y?eei i?iyaeaieai
/oaeiaeuiiai i?iecaiea auee «eao? aea eaoa» (lettres de cachet — i?eeacu
a caia/aoaiiuo eiiaa?oao), o.a. iaaeaniua ei?ieaaneea i?eeacu. Iie
i?eiaiyeenue e aeey a?anoia, i?eoii iniaaiii /anoi ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
XVIII a. Iin?aaenoaii «eao? aei eaoa» ieieno?u, eioaiaeaiou, i?eaeai?iua
oaai?eou e oaai?eoee iiaee ii naiaio i?iecaieo ecaaaeyoueny io
iieeoe/aneeo e ee/iuo a?aaia. Aeey yoiai aeinoaoi/ii auei aienaoue a
oaeie i?eeac, niaaaeaiiue ei?ieaaneie iiaeienueth e ia/aoueth,
aeaeaoaeueiia eiy, e yoiai /aeiaaea aac noaea caeeth/aee a oth?ueio ia
iaii?aaeaeaiii aeieaia a?aiy. Ioeoeeaeueii ai O?aioeee i?eciaia auea
eeoue eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue. ?yae i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e oea?eiaiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, iineaaeiaaaoeo ca ioiaiie Iaioneiai yaeeeoa (1685 a.),
oe?aieye iieiiaeanoiia ainiiaenoai eaoieeoeecia. I?ioanoaiou
iiaeaa?aaeenue i?aneaaeiaaieyi, eo aeee ieaoueie, a?inaee a oth?ueiu,
nnueaee ia eaoi?ao. E?auaiea e a?aee i?eciaaaeenue oieueei a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea iie niaa?oaeenue eaoiee/aneei aeooiaainoaii. *eaiu
naiuee i?ioanoaioa, ia iiae/eiyaoeany yoiio o?aaiaaieth, eeoaeenue ii
caeiio anao a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa. Oea?eiaiay a?enoie?aoey iono?aieea
iecoaa aeooiaainoai io o/anoey a oea?eiaiuo annaiaeayo e a i?aaiao
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey — i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ooaoao. A?iey
?anniao?eaaeanue ia?yaeo n oea?eiaueth e noaeii eae aaaeiaeoay iii?a
o?iia. Iia oi?ie?iaaeanue iooai aa?aiaee, n?ie neoaeau onoaiaaeeaaeny
aeiaiai?ii. I?e Ethaeiaeea XVI a a?iee auee i?iaaaeaiu ?aoi?iu, eiaaoea
iaiaeiaaaeiia aiaiiia cia/aiea. A 70—80-o aiaeao aeaaiue einiaeoi?
a?oeeea?ee A?eaiaaeue ii/oe oaeaiee /eneaiiinoue a?oeeea?enoia, ?aai/eo
a?naiaea ia?aaae ia iieiaeaiea aiaiiuo, ?aeiino?oe?iaae iaoa?eaeueioth
/anoue a?oeeea?ee, aaae iiaue, oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue oei i?oaeee, neiaii,
nicaeae ii oai a?aiaiai i?aainoiaeioth a?oeeea?eth. Ii a oi aea a?aiy
eiiaiaeiue ninoaa a?iee i?eia?ae aieaa io/aoeeai au?aaeaiiue nineiaiue,
eanoiaue oa?aeoa?. Ii aiaiiiio ?aaeaiaioo 1781 a. eeoea, aeaeaaoea
iieo/eoue ioeoea?neee /ei a iaoioa eee eaaaea?ee, iaycaiu auee
aeieoiaioaeueii aeieacaoue naith i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e aeai?yinoao a
/aou?ao i?aaeoanoaothueo iieieaieyo. Eneeth/aeenue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia
oieueei auoiaeoeu ec o?aoueaai nineiaey, ii e eeoea, aeai?yineay
?iaeineiaiay eioi?uo ian/eouaaea iaiaa 100 eao. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea
Ethaeiaeea XV Ia oiaaeea o?aioeocneiai aaniethoecia naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee
e iaoaea/e aiaoiae iieeoeee, i?eoiaeyueany aeaaiui ia?acii ia a?aiy
naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?aaeaiey Ethaeiaeea XV (1723—1774). Nai ei?ieue,
ianneienoe/anee ioeaieaay aeeaeaeoea ia?niaeoeau aaniethoenoneie
O?aioeee aaeaeo aaciaaeaaeiiai ninoiyiey oeiainia e ia?anoathuaai
i?ioanoa ia?iaeiuo iann, aiai?ee: «iinea ian oioue iioii», e ana naia
a?aiy ioaeaaae ?acaea/aieyi. I?e iai aieueoia aeeyiea ia
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea i?eia?aee aai oaai?eoee — nia/aea ia?eeca
Iiiiaaeo?, caoai a?aoeiy Aethaa??e. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea O?aioeee a yoi
a?aiy ii?aaeaeyeanue aeaeueiaeoei iaino?aieai eieiieaeueiuo e oi?aiauo
i?ioeai?a/ee n Aiaeeae, ii auea aaaioth?enoe/aneie e i?eianea i?aayuei
e?oaai aieueoea ?aci/a?iaaiey. Nia/aea O?aioeey aoyioeanue a aieio ca
Aano?eeneia ianeaaenoai (1740—1748), a eioi?ie iia aunooiaea aianoa n
I?onneae i?ioea aiaei-aano?eeneiai nithca. Aieia i?eianea O?eae?eoo II
aiaaooth i?iaeioeeth Neeaceth, O?aioeee aea ia aeaea ie/aai a Aa?iia e
ineaaeea aa iiceoeee a eieiieyo. Ianiio?y ia Aoaineee ie? 1748 a.,
iieiaeeaoee eiiaoe yoie aieia, aiaei-o?aioeocneay ai?ueaa a Eiaeee e
Naaa?iie Aia?eea oaeoe/anee ia i?ae?aoeeanue. Aiaee/aia naieie
eaia?neeie aeaenoaeyie iaiineee ia?iiiua iioa?e o?aioeocneiio oi?aiaiio
oeioo. Aii?oaeaiiua noieeiiaaiey iaaeaeo o?aioeocaie e aiaee/aiaie,
aiciaiiaeaoeany a 1653—1654 aa. a Eaiaaea, a aeieeia Iaaei e a Eiaeee,
oaeaea oee oniaoii aeey aiaee/ai. Iiyoiio i?aaeoaeuenoai Ethaeiaeea XV
iuoaeinue ?aoeoue enoiae ai?ueau n Aiaeeae ia a eieiieyo, a ia
oa??eoi?ee Aa?iiu, /oi oaea naii ii naaa auei a?oaui i?in/aoii. Anooiea
a nithc n Aano?eae i?ioea I?onnee, iie?aaoaeny ia iiiiuue Aiaeee,
Ethaeiaee XV aoyioe naith no?aio a Naieeaoithth aieio (1756—1763),
eioi?ay ieii/aoaeueii ?anno?ieea oeiainu O?aioeee e caeii/eeanue aeey
iaa e?oiiuie iioa?yie a eieiieyo. ?aoi?iu Oth?ai e eo iaoaea/a A 1774 a.
ia o?ii O?aioeee anooiee Ethaeiaee XVI. Aio auee /oaeaeu iiiaea ii?iee
Ethaeiaeea XV. Ii Ethaeiaee XVI aue ooiie, eaieaue e aacaieueiue
/aeiaae. Ii au?aaeaieth Ie?aai, «aaeeinoaaiiui ioae/eiie» a naiuea
iiaiai ei?iey auea aai aeaia, aano?eeneay i?eioeanna Ia?ey Aiooaiaooa;
iia e auea aaeioiiaeoaeueieoeae ?aaeoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Ia?aua aiaeu
oea?noaiaaiey Ethaeiaeea XVI iciaiaiiaaeenue, iaeiaei, oaeeie ?aoi?iaie,
eioi?ua iiaee au niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia ai O?aioeee, anee
au eo anei?a ia ioiaieee. Ia iino aaia?aeueiiai eiio?iea?a oeiainia aue
i?ecaai Oth?ai, e?oiiue ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue e auaeathueeny
yeiiiieno-oai?aoee, oeceie?ao. Aio e i?eiaaeeaaeaea eieoeeaoeaa ?aoi?i,
i?iaaaeaiiuo a 1774—1776 aa. Oth?ai ioiaiee noaniaiey oeaaiie oi?aiaee,
oiaiueoee iioeeiu n aaiceiuo a ai?iaea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia,
?ani?ino?aiea iaeiia?aiaiii yoio iaeia ia i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo.
I?eaeeaae?iaaiiua nineiaey auee, e?iia oiai, iaeiaeaiu aei?iaeiie
iioeeiie, a ainoaea?noaaiiay e?anoueyineay iiaeiiinoue — aei?iaeiay
aa?ueia — auea oi?acaeiaia. A 1776 a. Oth?ai eeoee naiuei?ia-aeiiaeaeia
aaaeiaeoaai aeey ieo aaiaeeoaoiiai i?aaa. Ana yoi aucaaei i?ioea iaai
neeueiaeoaa iaaeiaieuenoai a?enoie?aoee e anaai aeai?yinoaa. Oth?ai
ainnoaiiaee i?ioea naay e /anoue ao?aeoacee. Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth Oth?ai a
yiaa?a 1776 a. ei?ieue iiaeienae oeac, oie/oiaeeaoee oeaoiaua
ei?ii?aoeee e aeeueaeee. Ca eneeth/aieai /aou?ao-iyoe i?ioannee, ana
aeaeu oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe auee inaiaiaeaeaiu io anyeeo
ia?aie/aiee e ?aaeaiaioia. Ii, eae oaea auei neacaii, /anoue
o?aioeocneie ao?aeoacee ecaeaeaea auaiaeu ec iiiiiieee. Iniaaiii neeueii
auee aiciouaiu oae iacuaaaiua oanoue aeeueaeee ai?iaea Ia?eaea
(iaoiaueee, oi?aiaoeu eieiieaeueiuie oiaa?aie, aaeaioa?aeueee e ae?.).
Ii au?aaeaieth enoi?eea Ieoea, «iaaeiaiiay iioiinoaaiiay eaaea auea
acaaoaia ia iaiaa, /ai Aa?naeue». Ia?a/eneaiiua ?aoi?iu Oth?ai auee
eeoue ia?aui oaaii e iaia/aaoeiny ei aeaeueiaeoei, ia iaiaa na?ueaciui
i?aia?aciaaieyi. Noaeaaiay a?enoie?aoey ciaea, /oi Oth?ai ia
ni/oanoaiaae ainnoaiiaeaieth ia?eaiaioia, eeeaeaee?iaaiiuo a
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaa oea?noaiaaiea eaioeea?ii Iiio. Aunoaio aeooiaainoao
auei ecaanoii io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea Oth?ai e ioiaia Iaioneiai
yaeeeoa. Anei?a iinea ei?iiaoeee Ethaeiaeea XVI Oth?ai a?o/ee ei?ieth
naie «Iaioa? i aa?ioa?ieiinoe». I?eaeeaae?iaaiiay ai?iaeneay
iaaeno?aoo?a n o?aaiaie iaeeaeaea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aia?aciaaiee
Oth?ai, eioi?ue ?ac?aaioae ieai aaeeiiai iaueiiiai e ai?iaeneiai
naiioi?aaeaiey. I?aaiai naiioi?aaeaiey i?aaeiieaaaeinue ia?aaeaoue
?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeiaia e ?oeiaiaenoai ianoiuie iauanoaaiiuie ?aaioaie, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aei?iaeiui no?ieoaeuenoaii. Yoe i?aaiu aeieaeiu auee
ninoiyoue ec eeoe, auae?aaiuo ia ii nineiaiiio i?eioeeio, aac
?acaeaeaiey a?aaeaeai ia eo?ee. Ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai i?aaeiieaaaeinue
i?aaeinoaaeoue caieaaeaaeaeueoeai n ii?aaeaeaiiui ?acia?ii aeioiaea.
Oie/oiaeaiea oeaoia, neooe i ioieoeeiaeueiie ?aoi?ia e ii/oe
iaeiia?aiaiiia iiyaeaiea niaeie a?ioth?u «I iaoaeianoaa oaiaeaeueiuo
i?aa», iaienaiiie Aiina?oii, ae?oaii e aaeeiiiuoeaiieeii Oth?ai,
oiiiaeeee /enei a?aaia ?aoi?iaoi?a, iauaaeeieee i?ioea iaai eiycae
oea?eae, naiuei?ia, aeai?yinoai iaioee e oeiainenoia. A?ioth?a Aiina?oa
auea niaeaeaia iaea/ii ii i?eaiai?o ia?eaiaioa. A?aae Oth?ai
ainiieueciaaeenue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuie cao?oaeiaieyie 1775 a. e
ia?iaeiuie aieiaieyie (oae iacuaaaiie io/iie aieiie), /oiau naaeeoue
iaiaaenoiiai ieieno?a. A iaa 1776 a. Oth?ai iieo/ee ionoaaeo, ana
?aoi?iu auee ioiaiaiu caiyaoeie aai ianoi aacaea?iuie noaaeaiieeaie
i?eaeai?iie eaia?eeuee. Oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneea ii?yaeee noaniyee
?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, i?aiyonoaiaaee ?acaeoeth i?iiuoeaiiinoe
e naiaiaeiiio oi?ie?iaaieth ?uiea ?aai/ae neeu, caaea?aeeaaee ?ino
aioo?aiiaai ?uiea e aiaoiae oi?aiaee, cao?oaeiyee ?acaeoea e?aaeeoa. Ana
yoe nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey e iniaaiii oaiaeaeueiay ?aaeoeey
70—80-o aiaeia aeieaeiu auee i?eaanoe e ?aceiio iaino?aieth anao
eeanniauo i?ioeai?a/ee, e iiuiui ia?iaeiui aeaeaeaieyi. Iaecaaaeiui auei
a yoeo oneiaeyo e oneeaiea eaeaieiae/aneie ai?ueau. A 1787—1789 aa. ai
O?aioeee neiaeeeanue ?aaiethoeeiiiay neooaoeey.

1) *ai ioee/aeenue «aeai?yinoai oiaae» e «aeai?yinoai iaioee»?

2) A /ai i?e/eia noa/ee eeiineeo oea/ae?

3) *oi oaeia naiaoaeuenoai?

2. Ia?eiaeecaoeey Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee

O?aioeey auea iaeiei ec naiuo neeueiuo e ?acaeouo ainoaea?noa a Aa?iia.
Ii e eiioeo 1770 aiaea o?aioeocneia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei ianiiniaii
oi?aaeyoue no?aiie. Iieo/aaiua io ia?iaea aeaiueae auno?i
?ano?a/eaaeenue ia i?eoioe ciaoe.

A iaa 1789 aiaea Ethaeiaee XVI (1754-1793), eioi?ue i?eoae e aeanoe ai
O?aioeee a 1770 aiaeo, i?ecaae ia niaao naieo ieieno?ia e niiauee ei i
iiauo iiauoaieyo iaeiaa. E?anoueyia e caieaaeaeueoeu ieaoeee aieueoea
iaeiae ia caieth e ca iaiyouo ?aaioieeia. Ciaoue e aeooiaainoai eee
ieaoeee i/aiue iaei, eee aiiaua ia ieaoeee. N?aaee o?aioeocia i?ioee
ianniaua iaaeiaieuenoaa, noaee aniuoeaaoue ainnoaiey.

A 1789 aiaeo caianu ieue a no?aia eii/eeenue e i?aaeoaeuenoai iauyaeei
naay aaie?ioii. Oiaaea ei?ieue Ethaeiaee XVI nia?ae niaao ieieno?ia e
aaia?aeia, ni?aoeaay o ieo eae iiaeii o?aaoee?iaaoue eiioeeeo a no?aia.
Iiiaea ethaee iioa?yee oa?iaiea. O?aioeocu o?aoueaai nineiauey auioaeeee
Ethaeiaeea ioeacaoueny io iiauoaiey iaeiaia e ?ac?aoeoue nicaeaiea
Iaoeeiiaeueiie Annaiaeae.

14 ethey 1789 aiaea ia?eaeaia-naieetheiou ai?aaeenue a i?oaeaeioth
ei?ieaaneeo nieaeao e iioeoeee oai 30000 iooeaoia. Caoai, ?ani?aaeaeea
i?oaeea, ia?eaeaia iioee ia Aanoeeeth. ?acai?aeinue aeanoieia n?aaeaiea,
iinea eioi?iai aa?iecii oth?ueiu eaieooee?iaae. Ainnoaiea ioaaoeei anth
O?aioeeth.

Naieetheioaie a Ia?eaea iacuaaee aaaeiuo ethaeae (io neiaa aac eetheio,
eetheiou – ioaeneea aiaiiua a?thee, iacuaaaiua a?eaeaeaie).

Iaoeeiiaeueiay Annaiaeay i?eiyea “Aeaeea?aoeeth i i?aaao /aeiaaea e
a?aaeaeaieia”, a eioi?ie aiai?eeinue, /oi ana aeeoaee O?aioeee ?aaiu
ia?aae caeiiii.

A ieoya?a 1789 aiaea ainnoaiea aiciaiiaeeinue. Ouny/e aieiaeiuo aeaiuei
ie?oaeeee oea?neee aeai?aoe e noaee o?aaiaaoue oeaaa. Iie auee iano?iaiu
i?ioea ei?ieaaneie naiuee.

A ethia 1790 aiaea aeai?yia iioa?yee i?aai ianeaaeiaaoue oeooeu naieo
i?aaeeia.

A ethia 1791 aiaea Ethaeiaee XVI, aai aeaia Ia?ey Aiooaiaooa (1755-1793)
e eo nui i?iaiaaee oaoaoue ec O?aioeee. Iie oaea auaaeaee ca ai?iae, ii
eo aa?ioee ia?aoii a Ia?eae. Ouny/e nayuaiieeia, ioeoea?ia e aiaa/ae
noaee oacaeaoue ec no?aiu.

Ethaeiaeeo oioaee i?eaeoe ia iiiiuue iiia?oe Aano?ee e I?onnee, eioi?ua
nia?aee aienei e aoi?aeenue ai O?aioeeth n oeaeueth nianoe ei?iey e
inoaiiaeoue ?aaiethoeeth. A ai?aea Annaiaeay iauyaeea aieio Aano?ee e
I?onnee. Iinea yoeo niauoee iiiaea i?eaeeaeaiiua ei?iey auaaeaee ca
a?aieoeo. ?aaiethoeeiiiay aieia i?ioea Aiaeee, Eniaiee, I?onnee e
Aano?ee i?iaeieaeaeanue aei 1802 aiaea. Ia?aai?io a Aia?eea neeueii
iiaeeye ia iano?iaiea a iannao. Iiiaea o?aioeocu oacaeaee a Aia?eeo.
Ae?oaea aea oioaee aeiaeoueny naa?aeaiey aeanoe ei?iey, /oiau aeeoue a
naiaiaeiii ainoaea?noaa. A aaaonoa 1792 aiaea aiiaue aniuoioei
ainnoaiea. Eiinoeoooeeiiiia nia?aiea ia?aaeaei aeanoue ?aaiethoeeiiiiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao.

A naioya?a 1792 aiaea ai O?aioeee i?ioee auai?u. A ia?aua a enoi?ee
no?aiu, eaaeaeue aeeoaeue eiae i?aai aieina. Iiia?oey auea naa?aiooa.
O?aioeey i?iaicaeaneea naay iacaaeneiie ?anioaeeeie. Ei?iey Ethaeiaeea
XVI noaee iacuaaoue a?aaeaeaieiii.

Iinea ainnoaiey a aaaonoa 1792 aiaea, eioi?ia i?iaeieaeaeinue oeaeue
ianyoe, a?aae Ethaeiaeea iauaaeeieeenue e noaee i?aaei?eieiaoue
na?ueaciua ia?u, /oiau naa?aiooue ei?iey e ioiaieoue iiia?oeth. 21
naioya?y Annaiaeay iiaeienaea oeac i naa?aeaiee ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. 11
yiaa?y 1793 ei?ieue aue iaaeiai a ainoaea?noaaiiie eciaia e 21 yiaa?y
1793 aiaea, /a?ac 10 aeiae, aai eacieee.

2 ethiy 1793 aiaea yeiaeioeaa aicaeaaee Iaeneieeeai ?iaaniuea?. A 1793
aiaeo yeiaeioeu iiae aai i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii caoaaoeee aeanoue a
Ia?eaea. Iie a?anoiauaaee e eacieee anao, eoi iaoae ?aaiethoeee.
I?eia?ii 35000 /aeiaae iiaeaee. I?aaeaiaeeoaeue O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee
Aeaei?aeae-sseon Aeaioii (1759-1794), eioi?ue i?aaieciaae ainnoaiea a
1792 aiaeo i?ioea iiia?oee aue oaeaea eaciai 5 ai?aey 1794 aiaea.
Aniuoea oa??i?a caeii/eeanue iinea eacie ?iaaniuea?a a ethea 1794 aiaea.

16 ieoya?y 1793 aiaea auea eaciaia noi?oaa ei?iey Ia?ey Aiooaiaooa.

A ethea 1794 aiaea caeii/eeanue aniuoea oa??i?a.

Aue caeeth/ai ie? iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e I?onneae, a /a?ac ianeieueei
ianyoeaa iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e Eniaieae. A no?aia auei onoaiiaeaii iiaia
i?aaeoaeuenoai.

Aeanoue ia?aoea a ?oee e aiaiiiio aaia?aeo Iaiieaiio Aiiaia?oo. Ii
?anionoee i?aaeiaa i?aaeoaeuenoai e iauyaee naay Ia?aui Eiinoeii.

18 iay 1804 aiaea Iaiieaii i?iaicaeanee naay eiia?aoi?ii O?aioeee. Aai
aeaia AEicaoeia noaea eiia?ao?eoeae.

1) Ii/aio Ethaeiaee XVI, i?eaey e aeanoe iiaunee iaeiae?

2) Eoi oaeea naieetheiou?

3) Ca /oi auea eaciaia Ia?ey Aiooaiaooa?

3. Nicua Aaia?aeueiuo Ooaoia e ia/aei ?aaiethoeee

Ai O?aioeee onoie noa?iai ?aaeeia ?anoaouaaee ia oieueei eiioeeeou
iaaeaeo a?enoie?aoeae e ei?ieaaneeie ieieno?aie, ii oaeaea yeiiiie/aneea
e eaeaieiae/aneea oaeoi?u. N 1730-o aiaeia a no?aia i?ienoiaeee
iinoiyiiue ?ino oeai, aucaaiiue iaanoeaieaaieai ia?anoaaoae iannu
iaoaeee/aneeo aeaiaa e ?anoe?aieai eueaio ii e?aaeeoai – i?e ionoonoaee
?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa. Eioeyoeey aieueiaa anaai oaea?yea ii aaaeiui neiyi
ianaeaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy /anoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao o?ao nineiaee iaoiaeeeanue
iiae aeeyieai i?inaaoeoaeueneeo eaeae. Ecaanoiua ienaoaee Aieueoa?,
Iiioaneuea, Aeeae?i, ?onni i?aaeeaaaee aaanoe ai O?aioeee aiaeeeneoth
eiinoeoooeeth e nenoaio noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, a eioi?uo iie oniao?eaaee
aa?aioee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo naiaiae e yooaeoeaiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Oniao
Aieiu ia iacaaeneiinoue NOA aaeioioe a ?aoeoaeueii iano?iaiiuo
o?aioeocia iiaua iaaeaaeaeu.

Nicua Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia. Ia?aae nicaaiiuie 5 iay 1789 Aaia?aeueiuie
ooaoaie noiyea caaea/a ?ac?aoaiey yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo e
iieeoe/aneeo i?iaeai, noiyaoeo ia?aae O?aioeeae a eiioea 18 a. Ei?ieue
iaaeayeny aeinoe/ue niaeaney ii iiaie nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e
ecaaaeaoue oeiainiaiai e?aoa. A?enoie?aoey no?aieeanue eniieueciaaoue
Aaia?aeueiua ooaou aeey aeiee?iaaiey ethauo ?aoi?i. O?aouea nineiaea
i?eaaonoaiaaei nicua Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia, oniao?eaay aiciiaeiinoue
eceiaeeoue ia eo canaaeaieyo naie o?aaiaaiey ?aoi?i.

Iiaeaioiaea e ?aaiethoeee, a oiaea eioi?ie oe?eeenue aeeneonnee ia iaueo
i?eioeeiao i?aaeaiey e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiinoeoooeee, i?iaeieaeaeanue 10
ianyoeaa. Iianaianoii ninoaaeyeenue nienee, oae iacuaaaiua iaeacu.
Aeaaiaea?y a?aiaiiiio ineaaeaieth oeaico?u no?aia auea iaaiaeiaia
iaioeaoaie. Auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i?aaeinoaaeoue o?aoueaio nineiaeth
?aaiia n aeaoiy ae?oaeie nineiaeyie eiee/anoai iano a Aaia?aeueiuo
ooaoao. Iaeiaei aii?in i oii, aeieaeiu ee nineiaey aieiniaaoue
ioaeaeueii eee aianoa n ae?oaeie nineiaeyie, ia aue ?aoai, ?aaii eae
inoaaaeny ioe?uoui aii?in i oa?aeoa?a eo aeanoiuo iieiiii/ee. Aaniie
1789 ninoiyeenue auai?u ii anai o?ai nineiaeyi ia iniiaa anaiauaai
ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa aeey ioae/ei. A eoiaa aue eca?ai 1201 aeaiooao, ec
eioi?uo 610 i?aaenoaaeyee o?aouea nineiaea. 5 iay 1789 a Aa?naea ei?ieue
ioeoeeaeueii ioe?ue ia?aia canaaeaiea Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia.

Ia?aua i?eciaee ?aaiethoeee. Aaia?aeueiua ooaou, ia iieo/eaoea
eaeeo-eeai /aoeeo oeacaiee ni noi?iiu ei?iey e aai ieieno?ia, oaycee a
nii?ao i i?ioeaaeo?a. Iaeaeaiiua iieeoe/aneeie aeaaaoaie,
i?ienoiaeeaoeie a no?aia, ?acee/iua a?oiiu caieiaee iai?eie?eiua
iiceoeee ii i?eioeeieaeueiui aii?inai. E eiioeo iay aoi?ia e o?aouea
nineiaey (aeai?yinoai e ao?aeoacey) iieiinoueth ?acioeenue ai iiaieyo, a
ia?aia (aeooiaainoai) ?aneieieinue e no?aieeinue auea?aoue a?aiy. A
ia?eiae iaaeaeo 10 e 17 ethiy o?aouea nineiaea acyei eieoeeaoeao a naie
?oee e iauyaeei naay Iaoeeiiaeueiui nia?aieai. Oai naiui iii ooaa?aeeei
naia i?aai i?aaenoaaeyoue anth iaoeeth e iio?aaiaaei iieiiii/ee aeey
ia?aniio?a eiinoeoooeee. Iinooiay, oaeei ia?acii, iii i?aiaa?aaaei
aaoi?eoaoii ei?iey e o?aaiaaieyie aeaoo ae?oaeo nineiaee. Iaoeeiiaeueiia
nia?aiea iinoaiiaeei, /oi a neo/aa aai ?inionea aoaeao ioiaiaia a?aiaiii
iaeia?aiiay nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. 19 ethiy aeooiaainoai
iacia/eoaeueiui aieueoeinoaii i?iaieiniaaei ca oi, /oiau
i?eniaaeeieoueny e o?aoueaio nineiaeth. E iei i?eieioee oaeaea e a?oiiu
eeaa?aeueii iuneyueo aeai?yi.

Ano?aaiaeaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoeei ia?aoaaoeoue eieoeeaoeao e 20 ethiy
iiiuoaeinue ecaiaoue /eaiia Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey ec caea canaaeaiee.
Oiaaea nia?aaoeany a ?aniieiaeaiiii iaiiaeaeaeo caea aeey ea?u a iy/
aeaeaaaou aeaee eeyoao ia ?anoiaeeoueny aei oao ii?, iiea ia aoaeao
aaaaeaia a aeaenoaea iiaay eiinoeoooeey. 9 ethey Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea
i?iaicaeaneei naay O/?aaeeoaeueiui nia?aieai. Noyaeaaiea ei?ieaaneeo
aiene e Ia?eaeo aucaaei a?iaeaiea n?aaee ianaeaiey. A ia?aie iieiaeia
ethey a noieeoea ia/aeenue aieiaiey e aanii?yaeee. Aeey caueou aeecie e
nianoaaiiinoe a?aaeaeai ioieoeeiaeueiuie aeanoyie auea nicaeaia
Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaa?aeey.

Yoe aanii?yaeee aueeeenue a ooo?i iaiaaenoiie ei?ieaaneie e?aiinoe
Aanoeeee, a eioi?ii i?eiyee o/anoea iaoeeiiaeueiua aaa?aeaeoeu e ia?iae.
Iaaeaiea Aanoeeee 14 ethey noaei y?eei naeaeaoaeuenoaii aanneeey
ei?ieaaneie aeanoe e neiaieii e?ooaiey aeaniioecia. Aianoa n oai ooo?i
aucaae aieio ianeeey, i?ieaoeaoothny ii anae no?aia. AEeoaee nae e
iaaieueoeo ai?iaeia naeeaaee aeiia ciaoe, oie/oiaeaee naie aeieaiaua
iaycaoaeuenoaa. A oi aea a?aiy n?aaee i?inoiai ia?iaea oe?eeenue
iano?iaiey “aaeeeiai no?aoa” – iaieee, naycaiiie n ?ani?ino?aiaieai
neooia i iiaeoiaea “aaiaeeoia”, yeiau iiaeeoieaiiuo a?enoie?aoaie.
Eiaaea iaeioi?ua ecaanoiua a?enoie?aou noaee iieeaeaoue no?aio e
ia/aeenue ia?eiaee/aneea a?iaeneea yeniaaeeoeee ec aieiaeathueo ai?iaeia
a naeueneea ianoiinoe aeey ?aeaeceoeee i?iaeiaieuenoaey, aieia ianniaie
enoa?ee i?iianeanue ii i?iaeioeeyi, ii?iaeaeay neaiia ianeeea e
?ac?ooaiey.

11 ethey ni naiaai iinoa aue niauai ieieno?-?aoi?iaoi? aaiee? AEae
Iaeea?. Iinea iaaeaiey Aanoeeee ei?ieue iioae ia onooiee, aa?ioa Iaeea?a
e ioaaaey io Ia?eaea aienea. Eeaa?aeueiue a?enoie?ao ia?eec aea Eaoaeao,
aa?ie Aieiu ca iacaaeneiinoue NOA, aue eca?ai eiiaiaee?ii
oi?ie?iaaaoaeny iiaie Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee, ninoiyaoae ec
i?aaenoaaeoaeae n?aaeieo neiaa. Aue i?eiyo iiaue ainoaea?noaaiiue
o?aooeaaoiue oeaa, ni/aoaaoee o?aaeeoeeiiiua e?aniue e aieoaie oeaaoa
Ia?eaea n aaeui oeaaoii aeeianoee Ao?aiiia. Ioieoeeiaeeoao Ia?eaea,
iiaeiaii ioieoeeiaeeoaoai iiiaeo ae?oaeo ai?iaeia O?aioeee, aue
i?aia?aciaai a Eiiioio – oaeoe/anee iacaaeneiia ?aaiethoeeiiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai, i?eciaaaaoaa eeoue aeanoue Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey.
Iineaaeiaa acyei ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?eiyoea iiaie eiinoeoooeee.

4 aaaonoa a?enoie?aoey e aeooiaainoai ioeacaeenue io naieo i?aa e
i?eaeeaaee. E 26 aaaonoa Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea ooaa?aeeei
Aeaeea?aoeeth i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia, a eioi?ie i?iaicaeaoaeenue
naiaiaea ee/iinoe, niaanoe, neiaa, i?aai ia nianoaaiiinoue e
nii?ioeaeaiea oaiaoaieth. Iiae/a?eeaaeinue, /oi noaa?aieoao
i?eiaaeeaaeeo anae iaoeee, a caeii aeieaeai auoue i?iyaeaieai iauae
aiee. Ana a?aaeaeaia aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiu ia?aae caeiiii, iaeaaeaoue
iaeeiaeiauie i?aaaie i?e caiyoee iauanoaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae, a oaeaea
?aaiuie iaycaoaeuenoaaie ii oieaoa iaeiaia. Aeaeea?aoeey “iiaeienuaaea”
nia?oiue i?eaiai? noa?iio ?aaeeio.

Ethaeiaee XVI oyioe n iaeia?aieai aaaonoianeeo aeae?aoia, ioiaiyaoeo
oea?eiaioth aeanyoeio e aieueoeinoai oaiaeaeueiuo nai?ia. 15 naioya?y
O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea iio?aaiaaei io ei?iey ooaa?aeeoue aeae?aou. A
ioaao ii ia/ae noyaeaaoue aienea e Aa?naeth, aaea canaaeaei nia?aiea.
Yoi ieacaei aicaoaeaeathuaa aeaenoaea ia ai?iaeai, oniio?aaoeo a
aeaenoaeyo ei?iey oa?ico eiio??aaiethoeee. Oneiaey aeecie a noieeoea
oooaeoaeenue, oiaiueoaeenue caianu i?iaeiaieuenoaey, iiiaea inoaeenue
aac ?aaiou. Ia?eaeneay eiiioia, iano?iaiey eioi?ie au?aaeaea iiioey?iay
i?anna, iano?aeaaea noieeoeo ia ai?ueao i?ioea ei?iey. 5 ieoya?y nioie
aeaiuei i?ioee iaoeii iiae aeiaeaeai io Ia?eaea aei Aa?naey, o?aaoy
oeaaa, ioaiaea aiene e ia?aacaea ei?iey a Ia?eae. Ethaeiaeea XVI
canoaaeee naieoeeiie?iaaoue aaaonoianeea aeae?aou e Aeaeea?aoeeth i?aa
/aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia. Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue ei?ieaaneia naiaenoai,
noaaoaa oaeoe/anee caeiaeieeii cei?aaenoaothuae oieiu, iiae ynei?oii
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee ia?aaoaei a Ia?eae. 10 aeiae nionoy ca iei
iineaaeiaaei e O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea.

Iieiaeaiea a ieoya?a 1789. E eiioeo ieoya?y 1789 oeao?u ia oaoiaoiii
iiea ?aaiethoeee ia?aaeaeioeenue ia iiaua iiceoeee, /oi auei aucaaii eae
i?aaeoanoaothueie eciaiaieyie, oae e neo/aeiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. N
aeanoueth i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee auei iieii/aii. Cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eeanue yiea?aoeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae aunoae a?enoie?aoee. Oea?eiaue –
ca eneeth/aieai /anoe aunoaai aeooiaainoaa – naycaea naith noaeueao n
eeaa?aeueiuie i?aia?aciaaieyie. A O/?aaeeoaeueiii nia?aiee i?aiaeaaeaee
eeaa?aeueiua e eiinoeoooeeiiiua ?aoi?iaoi?u, anooieaoea a eiio?iioaoeeth
n ei?ieai (oaia?ue iie iiaee n/eoaoue naay aieinii iaoeee).

A yoio ia?eiae iiiaia caaenaei io eeoe, iaoiaeeaoeony o aeanoe.
Ethaeiaee XVI, aeaaiiaia?aiiue, ii ia?aoeoaeueiue e neaaiaieueiue
ei?ieue, iioa?ye eieoeeaoeao e oaea ia aeaaeae neooaoeeae. Ei?ieaaa
Ia?ey Aiooaiaooa – “aano?ey/ea” – auea iaiiioey?ia ec-ca naiae
?anoi/eoaeueiinoe e naycae n ae?oaeie ei?ieaaneeie aeai?aie Aa?iiu.
A?aoa aea Ie?aai – aaeeinoaaiiiai ec oia?aiiuo, iaeaaeaaoaai
niiniaiinoyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey, – Nia?aiea iiaeic?aaaei a
iiaeaea?aeea aeai?a. Eaoaeaoo aa?eee eoaea aieueoa, /ai Ie?aai, iaeiaei
ii ia eiae yniiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i oa?aeoa?a nee, eioi?ua auee aiaea/aiu
a ai?ueao. I?anna, inaiaiaeeaoayny io oeaico?u e iieo/eaoay
cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea, a iniiaiii ia?aoea a ?oee e?aeieo ?aaeeeaeia.
Iaeioi?ua ec ieo, iai?eia? Ia?ao, ecaeaaaaoee aacaoo “Ae?oa ia?iaea”
(“Ami du Peuple”), ieacuaaee yia?ae/iia aicaeaenoaea ia iauanoaaiiia
iiaiea. Oee/iua i?aoi?u e aaeoaoi?u ia Iaea-?iyeue naieie ?a/aie
aicaoaeaeaee oieio. Acyoua a niaieoiiinoe, yoe yeaiaiou ninoaaeyee
a?aio/oth nianue.

1) Eaeiaa oeaeue nicuaa Aaia?aeueiuo Ooaoia?

2) Ii/aio Ia?eth Aiooaiaooo iacuaaee «aano?ey/eie»?

3) Ii/aio Iaeea? aue ioi?aaeai a ionoaaeo?

4. Eiinoeoooeeiiii-iieeoe/aneia ?acaeoea O?aioeee a 1789-1792 aa.

4.1 I?eiyoea «Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia», aa
niaea?aeaiea e enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea

AeAEEA?AOeEss I?AA *AEIAAEA E A?AAEAeAIEIA 1789 a. – iaeei ec
auaeathueony aeieoiaioia O?aioeocneie ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee XVIII a.
Aioea a ea/anoaa aaaaeaiey a eiinoeoooeeth 1791 a. Aeaeea?aoeey auea
i?eiyoa O/?aaeeoaeueiui nia?aieai 26 aaaonoa 1789 a. ssaeeanue
i?ia?aiiie ?aaiethoeee, aa eaeaieiae/aneei iainiiaaieai. A iae
i?iaicaeaoaeenue aeaiie?aoe/aneea e aoiaienoe/aneea i?eioeeiu
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaiai no?iy. A oneiaeyo ainiiaenoaa a aieueoeinoaa
no?ai ie?a oaiaeaeueiiai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai aiaoa e aeaaea ?aanoaa
Aeaeea?aoeey cao/aea eae ?aaiethoeeiiiue aucia noa?iio ie?o, aai
eaoaai?e/aneia io?eoeaiea. I?iecaaea ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea ia
nia?aiaiieeia, nua?aa eneeth/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ai?ueaa i?ioea
oaiaeaeecia e aai eaeaieiaee. Aaoi?u Aeaeea?aoeee (Eaoaeao, Neean,
Ie?aai, Ioiuea e ae?.) a ea/anoaa i?eia?a aeey nicaeaaaaiiai aeieoiaioa
eiaee ia?aae niaie aia?eeaineoth Aeaeea?aoeeth iacaaeneiinoe 1776a., a
oaeaea aeaeea?aoeee o?aioeocneeo Aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia, iniaaiii 1484 a. A
eaeaeii-oai?aoe/aneii ieaia iie noiyee ia iiceoeeyo iuneeoaeae
I?inaauaiey, iniaaiii Iiioaneuea e ?onni, aianoeo cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a
?acaeoea oai?ee anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa. Aneaae ca i?inaaoeoaeyie oai?oeu
Aeaeea?aoeee ?anniao?eaaee iiaia iieeoe/aneia ie?iaicc?aiea eae
niioaaonoaothuaa o?aaiaaiea iaeiaai anaiauaai e aiaa?aiaiiiai ?acoia.,-
Aeaiie?aoe/aneay e aoiaienoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue Aeaeea?aoeee ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyeanue aoiinoa?ie iiaeuaia e eeeiaaiey, aucaaiiie
iaaeaieai aaniethoecia. Aeaeea?aoeey ioe?uaaeanue cayaeaieai, eiaaoei
enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea:”Ethaee ?iaeaeathony e inoathony naiaiaeiuie e
?aaiuie a i?aaao”. A aeooa eaeae I?inaauaiey a ea/anoaa “anoanoaaiiuo e
iaiouaieaiuo i?aa /aeiaaea” iacuaaeenue: naiaiaea, nianoaaiiinoue,
aaciianiinoue e nii?ioeaeaiea oaiaoaieth. Naiaiaea ii?aaeaeyeanue
Aeaeea?aoeeae eae aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaoue ana, /oi ia i?e/eiyao a?aaea
ae?oaiio. Inouanoaeaiea naiaiaeu, eae e ae?oaeo “anoanoaaiiuo” i?aa
/aeiaaea, ano?a/aao “eeoue oa a?aieoeu, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho i?i/ei
/eaiai iauanoaa iieueciaaiea oaie aea naiuie i?aaaie. A?aieoeu yoe iiaoo
auoue ii?aaeaeaiu oieueei caeiiii”. Aeaeea?aoeey auaeaeyea naiaiaeo
ee/iinoe, naiaiaeo neiaa e ia/aoe, naiaiaeo aa?ieniiaaaeaiey. Ionoonoaea
a Aeaeea?aoeee naiaiaeu nia?aiee e nithcia ii?aaeaeyeinue
a?aaeaeaaiinoueth caeiiiaeaoaeae e ianniaui aunooieaieyi e iauaia?iaeiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi e iauyniyeinue aeiieie?iaaaoei a oai?ee anoanoaaiiiai
i?aaa io?eoeaoaeueiui ioiioaieai ei anyeiai ?iaea nithcai. Ii iiaieth
?onni, nithcu ia?aie/eaatho ee/ioth naiaiaeo, eneaaeatho ioi?ieaiea
iauae aiee ia?iaea. Iianaeenue oaeaea aiciiaeiinoe aic?iaeaeaiey oeaoia,
neiaaaoeo a i?ioeii ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee. I?eioeeieaeueiia
cia/aiea eiaei iauyaeaiea a Aeaeea?aoeee nianoaaiiinoe i?aaii
“iai?eeiniiaaiiui e nayuaiiui”.Ai eiy iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe ee/iinoe
aeaeea?e?iaaeny ?yae i?ia?anneaiuo i?eioeeiia, ioiinyueony e oaieiaiiio
i?aao e i?ioeanno: ieeoi ia iiaeao iiaeaa?aiooueny iaaeiaieth,
caaea?aeaieth eee caeeth/aieth eia/a eae a neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiii, e i?e niaethaeaiee oi?i, onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiii, o.a. iao
i?anooieaiey aac oeacaiey i oii a caeiia; ieeoi ia iiaeao auoue iaeacai
eia/a eae a neeo caeiia, iaaeeaaeaua i?eiaiaiiiai, ecaeaiiiai e
iaia?iaeiaaiiiai aei niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey, o.a. caeii ia eiaao
ia?aoiie neeu; eaaeaeue i?aaeiieaaaaony iaaeiiaiui, iiea ia onoaiiaeaii
ia?aoiia. Iaania/aiea i?iaicaeaoaiiuo “i?aa /aeiaaea” Aeaeea?aoeey
aiceaaaea ia ainoaea?noai (“ainoaea?noaaiiue nithc”). A yoii iia
neaaeiaaea iaeiie ec iniiaiuo eaeae oai?ee anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa, eioi?ay
aeaeaea a ainoaea?noaa, aicieeoai a neeo “iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a”,
eino?oiaio caueou “iaiouaieaiuo i?aa /aeiaaea”. Aa?oiaiay aeanoue a
ainoaea?noaa iauyaeyeanue i?eiaaeeaaeauae iaoeee. Ieeaeay ei?ii?aoeey,
ie iaeei eiaeeaeae ia iiaoo ?aniieaaaoue aeanoueth, eioi?ay ia enoiaeeo
yaii ec yoiai enoi/ieea. Niioaaonoaaiii aeaeea?e?iaaeenue iieeoe/aneea
i?aaa a?aaeaeai: eo o/anoea ee/ii eee /a?ac naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a
i?eiyoee caeiia, ?anniao?eaaaoaainy eae “au?aaeaiea iauae aiee”,
ii?aaeaeaiee ?acia?ia e ii?yaeea aceiaiey iaeiaia, a eiio?iea ca eo
?anoiaeiaaieai,ca aeayoaeueiinoueth aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, a oaeaea ?aaiue
aeinooi e ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaeiinoyi. Auaiaeu Iiioaneuea,
iieaaaaoaai, /oi nio?aiaiea naiaiae e i?aa a?aaeaeai ai iiiaii
aeinoeaaaony aaaaeaieai i?aaiecaoeeiiii iacaaeneiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa e
acaeiii o?aaiiaaoeaathueo aeanoae (caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie,
noaeaaiie), iaoee naia io?aaeaiea a Aeaeea?aoeee: “Iauanoai, a eioi?ii
ia iaania/aii iieueciaaiea i?aaaie e ia i?iaaaeaii ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae,
ia eiaao eiinoeoooeee”. Ai a?aiaia ?aaiethoeee Aeaeea?aoeey cao/aea eae
ooaa?aeaeaiea ni?aaaaeeeainoe, aea?oaiie anai, ii aano?aeoiinoue aa
oi?ioee?iaie iicaieyea iaiieieoue eo ?acee/iui iieeoe/aneei
niaea?aeaieai. I?eoaaeoay e aeanoe ao?aeoacey aeaea ae naia, ii
nouanoao, iauaiaycaoaeueiia oieeiaaiea. Aii?aee Aeaeea?aoeee
O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea, nionoy 3ianyoea iinea aa iioaeeeiaaiey,
i?eiyei aeae?ao i aaaaeaiee eiouanoaaiiuo e eiuo oeaicia aeey
ecae?aoaeae. Ia?aay a enoi?ee O?aioeee Eiinoeoooeey 1791 a. aua aieaa
oaeoaeea ?ac?ua iaaeaeo i?iaicaeaoaiiuie Aeaeea?aoeeae aeaiie?aoe/aneeie
i?aaaie e aaaaeaiiui ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiaui no?iai.

1) Eoi aue ninoaaeoaeai Aeaeea?aoeee?

2) *oi iineoaeeei i?eia?ii Aeaeea?aoeee?

3) Ii/aio Aeaeea?aoeey ia aaaea naiaiaeo nithcia e nia?aiee?

4.2 ?ac?aaioea e i?eiyoea Eiinoeoooeee 1791a.

Eiinoeoooeey 1791 a. I?e naiii nicaeaiee aaia?aeueiuo ooaoia a 1789 a. e
ni noi?iiu i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo eeannia, e ni noi?iiu ao?aeoacee iaeeiaeiai
?acaeaaaeenue aieina ca ia?aie/aiea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. 9 ethey
iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea, i?eiyaoaa iacaaiea o/?aaeeoaeueiiai, i?enooieei
e ?anniio?aieth aii?inia ioiineoaeueii aoaeouae E. e neooaei iaioa?u
Ioiuea ia aa iniiaao. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aieueoeinoai /eaiia auei ia
noi?iia eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee, au?aaioaiiay nia?aieai E. eeoue ii
oi?ia auea iiia?oe/aneie, ii nouanoao aea — ?anioaeeeaineie: oiaaeaoiea
iieeoe/aneea oai?ee (?onni e Iaaee), iaaeiaa?ea e ei?ieaaneie aeanoe,
iaoaa?aiiinoue a ieii/aoaeueiii iaaeaiee aaniethoecia canoaaeyee
o/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea any/anee o?acaoue ei?ieaaneea i?aaa. Aieueoia
aeeyiea a yoii niunea eiaei oaeaea aaanoai ei?iey, iiaoaeea nia?aiea
aianoe a E. noaouee, a neeo eioi?uo ei?ieue a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeieaeai
aue n/eoaoueny ioeacaaoeiny io i?anoiea. 3 naio. 1791 a.
eiinoeoooeeiiiue aeo aue i?aaeeiaeai ei?ieth, eioi?ue, iinea aeieaeo
eieaaaiee e niaauaiee, 14 naio., aeae i?enyao a aa?iinoe iaoeee e
caeiio. Ai aeaaa yoie E. noiyea “aeaeea?aoeey i?aa /aeiaaea e
a?aaeaeaieia” (ni.). Aa?oiaiay aeanoue, “aaeeiay, ia?acaeaeueiay,
iaio/oaeaeaaiay e iaiouaieaiay”, i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaoeee: ana aeanoe
aeaeaae?othony iaoeeae; i?aaenoaaeoaee aa — caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea
(le corps legislatif) e ei?ieue. A?aaeaeaia — aii?aee “aeaeea?aoeee”,
i?eciaaoae iauaa ?aaainoai a i?aaao — aeaeeeenue ia aeoeaiuo e
ianneaiuo: aeoeaiuie iiaee auoue oieueei oa i?e?iaeiua e
iaoo?aeeciaaiiua o?aioeocu, eioi?ua aeinoeaee 25-eaoiaai aic?anoa, eiaee
inaaeeinoue a ai?iaea eee eaioiia a oa/aiea ecaanoiiai a?aiaie, ieaoeee
i?yiie iaeia a noiia ia iaiaa o?aoaeiaaiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, ie o eiai
ia ninoiyee a oneoaeaiee e i?eianee a?aaeaeaineoth i?enyao. Aaaeiaeoay
/anoue iaoeee eeoaeanue, oaeei ia?acii, iieeoe/aneeo i?aa. Aeoeaiua
a?aaeaeaia, ia naieo “ia?ae/iuo” nia?aieyo, ecae?aee, e?iia
ioieoeeiaeueiuo aeanoae, “auai?ueeia”, oaea n aieueoei eiouanoaaiiui
oeaicii; a eaaeaeii aeaia?oaiaioa auai?ueee ia?aciaaee ecae?aoaeueiia
nia?aiea, eioi?ia, e?iia aeaia?oaiaioneie aaeieieno?aoeee, ecae?aei
i?aaenoaaeoaeae a caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea ec n?aaeu anao aeoeaiuo
a?aaeaeai. *eaiu nia?aiey ecae?aeenue ia aeaa aiaea e n/eoaeenue
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ia ioaeaeueiiai aeaia?oaiaioa, a oeaeie iaoeee.
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion iaiiaeyeny ia iniiaaiee caeiia, aac nicuaa
ei?ieai; ii i?aaeeaaae e aeae?aoe?iaae caeiiu, caaaaeiaae oeiainaie,
iaoeeiiaeueiuie eiouanoaaie, nooiiooiuie e ii?neeie neeaie; aio aea
i?eiaaeeaaeaei, niaianoii n ei?ieai, i?aai aieiu e ie?a. A ?oeao ei?iey
iaoiaeeeanue eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue, eioi?ie, iaeiaei, ii iia
iieueciaaoueny oieueei /a?ac ioaaonoaaiiuo ieieno?ia; iineaaeieie ia
iiaee auoue /eaiu nia?aiey, /oi oie/oiaeaei aaeeinoaaiiia naycothuaa
caaii iaaeaeo ei?ieaaneie aeanoueth e ia?iaeiui i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii.
Ei?ieue ia iia ?anioneaoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea, ia eiae
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie eieoeeaoeau e eiae i?aai eeoue i?einoaiaaeeaathuaai
“veto” (ni.). Ee/iinoue aai iauyaeyeanue nayuaiiie e iai?eeiniiaaiiie.
Ii aeieaeai aue n/eoaoueny ioeacaaoeiny io i?anoiea a o?ao neo/ayo: anee
ia i?enyaiao E. eee aicueiao iacaae aeaiioth i?enyao; anee noaiao ai
aeaaa a?iee i?ioea iaoeee eee oi?iaeueiui aeoii ia aini?ioeaeony
ainnoaieth, caaeoiaiiiio ai eiy ei?iey; anee, oaeaeeaoenue ec
ei?ieaanoaa, ia aa?iaony a iacia/aiiue n?ie, ii i?eaeaoaieth
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona. Ie ei?ieue, ie ieieno?u ia o/anoaiaaee a
caiauaiee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeieaeiinoae e ia iiaee niauaoue /eiiaieeia:
any aaeieieno?aoeey auea iino?iaia ia ia/aea ia?iaeiiai eca?aiey a
ia?ae/iuo e aeaia?oaiaioneeo nia?aieyo, i?e/ai a aaaeaiee ianoiuo
auai?iuo aeanoae iaoiaeeeenue e iauaainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea. Oioy
o/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea e oeacaei niinia ia?aniio?a E., ii?aaeaeea, /oi
iia aeieaeia inoaaaoueny iaeciaiiie a oa/aiea, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aeanyoe
eao, iaeiaei E. 1791 a. i?inouanoaiaaea eeoue iaiaa aiaea. I?e/eiu yoiai
eaaeaee a iae naiie. Ai-ia?auo, ?acaeaeyy a?aaeaeai ia aeoeaiuo e
ianneaiuo, iia i?ioeai?a/eea aeaeea?aoeee i?aa, iauyaeyaoae ?aaainoai
anao a?aaeaeai, a a aii?ina i ia?aniio?a naycuaaea iaoeeiiaeueioth
aieth. Aoi?ui aioo?aiiei i?ioeai?a/eai auei ianiioaaonoaea aa
iiia?oe/aneie oi?iu n ?anioaeeeaineei niaea?aeaieai. Iaeiiaoe, naeaeaa
ianoiua auai?iua aeanoe ii/oe iacaaeneiuie, iia oai naiui ?ac?ooaea
ii/oe anyeoth aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeaiey O?aioeeae caeiiiie oeaio?aeueiie
aeanoueth (ni. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea). Aeaaiua i?eioeeiu E. 1791 a.
— eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay naiaiaea, a niunea ee/iie iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe e
iacaaeneiiai i?iyaeaiey ee/iinoe a iaeanoe aa?u, iunee, neiaa, e
naiaiaea iieeoe/aneay, a niunea ia?iaeiiai o/anoey /a?ac i?aaenoaaeoaeae
a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e oi?aaeaiee — eaaee, iaeiaei, a iniiao
iineaaeothueo o?aioeocneeo E., aei iuia aeaenoaothuae aeeth/eoaeueii.

1) Eaeea iieiiii/ey ioaiaeeea Eiinoeoooeey 1791a.?

2) Eaeea eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey iaeaaeaee ecae?aoaeueiuie i?aaaie?

3) Eaeea i?ioeai?a/ey eiaea Eiinoeoooeey?

4.3 Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea 1791a. e aai ninoaa: oaeueyiu,
aee?iiaeenou, iiioaiuey?u

26 aaaonoa 1789 a. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea i?eiyei «Aeaeea?aoeeth i?aa
/aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia» — iaeei ec ia?auo aeieoiaioia
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai eiinoeoooeeiiaeecia, iiyaeaoeeny a naiii
oeaio?a oaiaeaeueiie Aa?iiu, a «eeanne/aneie» no?aia aaniethoecia.
«Noa?iio ?aaeeio», iniiaaiiiio ia nineiaiuo i?eaeeaaeyo e i?iecaiea
aeanoue eioueo, auee i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiu ?aaainoai anao ia?aae caeiiii,
iaio/oaeaeaaiinoue «anoanoaaiiuo» i?aa /aeiaaea, ia?iaeiue noaa?aieoao,
naiaiaea acaeyaeia, i?eioeei «aeicaieaii ana, /oi ia cai?auaii caeiiii»
e ae?oaea aeaiie?aoe/aneea onoaiiaee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa,
noaaoea ioiuia o?aaiaaieyie i?aaa e aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
Aeaeea?aoeey oaeaea ooaa?aeaeaea a ea/anoaa anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa – i?aai
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe.

5-6 ieoya?y ninoiyeny Iioiae ia Aa?naeue e ?aceaeaioeee ei?iey, /oiau
neeie canoaaeoue Ethaeiaeea XVI naieoeeiie?iaaoue aeae?aou e
Aeaeea?aoeeth, io iaeia?aiey eioi?uo iiia?o aei yoiai ioeacuaaeny.

Oai a?aiaiai, caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue O/?aaeeoaeueiiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey i?iaeieaeaeanue e auea iai?aaeaia ia ?aoaiea
neiaeiuo i?iaeai no?aiu (oeiainiauo, iieeoe/aneeo, aaeieieno?aoeaiuo).
Iaeiie ec ia?auo auea i?iaaaeaia aaeieieno?aoeaiay ?aoi?ia: auee
eeeaeaee?iaaiu naiaoaeuenoaa, aeaia?aeeoaou; i?iaeioeee auee iauaaeeiaiu
a 83 aeaia?oaiaioa c aaeeiui noaeii?iecaiaenoaii. Noaea ooaa?aeaeaoueny
iieeoeea yeiiiie/aneiai eeaa?aeecia: auei iauyaeaii i niyoee anao
ia?aie/aiee ia oi?aiaeth; auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu n?aaeiaaaeiaua oeaoiaua
aeeueaeee e ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeaiaioaoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
iaeiaei iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei auee cai?auaiu (ii caeiio Ea Oaiaeuea)
?aai/ea i?aaiecaoeee — eiiiaiueiiaaee. Yoio caeii ai O?aioeee, ia?aaeea
ia iaeio ?aaiethoeeth a no?aia, aeaenoaiaae aei 1864 aiaea. Neaaeoy
i?eioeeio a?aaeaeaineiai ?aaainoaa, Nia?aiea eeeaeaee?iaaei nineiaiua
i?eaeeaaee, ioiaieei einoeooo ianeaaenoaaiiiai aeai?yinoaa, aeai?yineea
oeooeu e aa?au. A ethea 1790 a. Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea caaa?oeei
oea?eiaioth ?aoi?io: ai ana 83 aeaia?oaiaioa no?aiu auee iacia/aiu
aieneiiu; ana neoaeeoaee oea?eae noaee iieo/aoue aeaeiaaiea io
ainoaea?noaa. Eiuie neiaaie, eaoieeoeeci iauyaeyeny ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aeeaeae. Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea iio?aaiaaei io nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae
i?enyaiooue ia aa?iinoue ia Iaia ?eineiio, a o?aioeocneiio ainoaea?noao.
Oieueei iieiaeia nayuaiieeia ?aoeeanue ia yoio oaa e anaai eeoue 7
aieneiiia. Iaia a ioaao inoaeee o?aioeocneoth ?aaiethoeeth, ana ?aoi?iu
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey e iniai — «Aeaeea?aoeeth i?aa /aeiaaea e
a?aaeaeaieia».

A 1791 a. Iaoeeiiaeueiia nia?aiea i?iaicaeaneei ia?aoth a enoi?ee Aa?iiu
ienaioth eiinoeoooeeth, ooaa?aeaeaiioth iauaia?iaeiui ia?eaiaioii. Ii
iae i?aaeeaaaeinue nicaaoue Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea — iaeiiiaeaoiue
ia?eaiaioneee i?aai ia iniiaa aunieiai eiouanoaaiiiai oeaica ia auai?ao.
«Aeoeaiuo» a?aaeaeai, iieo/eaoeo i?aai aieina ii eiinoeoooeee,
ieacaeinue anaai 4,3 iei., a auai?ueeia, ecae?aaoeo aeaiooaoia, — anaai
50 oun. A iiaue ia?eaiaio oaeaea ia iiaee auoue eca?aiu aeaiooaou
Iaoeeiiaeueiiai nia?aiey.

Ei?ieue oai a?aiaiai aacaeaenoaiaae. 20 ethiy 1791 a. ii, i?aaaea,
iuoaeny naaaeaoue ec no?aiu, ii aue ociai ia a?aieoea (a. Aa?aii)
ii/oiaui neoaeauei, aica?au?i a Ia?eae, aaea oaeoe/anee ieacaeny iiae
no?aaeae a nianoaaiiii aeai?oea (oae iacuaaaiue «Aa?aiineee e?ecen»).

1 ieoya?y 1791 a., niaeanii eiinoeoooeee, ioe?ueinue Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia
nia?aiea. Yoio oaeo naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae ia onoaiiaeaiee a no?aia
ia?aie/aiiie iiia?oee. Aia?aua ia aai canaaeaieyo aue iinoaaeai aii?in i
?acaycuaaiee aieiu a Aa?iia, i?aaeaea anaai, eae n?aaenoaa aeey ?aoaiey
aioo?aiieo i?iaeai. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea iiaeoaa?aeeei
nouanoaiaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oea?eae a no?aia. Ii a oeaeii aai
aeayoaeueiinoue, ieacaeanue iaeiyooaeoeaiie, /oi, a naith i/a?aaeue,
i?iaioee?iaaei o?aioeocneeo ?aaeeeaeia ia i?iaeieaeaiea ?aaiethoeee.A
oneiaeyo, eiaaea o?aaiaaiey aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey ia auee
oaeiaeaoai?aiu, iauanoai ia?aaeeaaei ?aneie, a iaae O?aioeeae iaaenea
oa?ica eiino?aiiie eioa?aaioeee, ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneay nenoaia,
iniiaaiiay ia iiia?oe/aneie eiinoeoooeee, ieacaeanue ia?a/?iiie ia
i?iaae.

Naioya?ue 1791 aiaea — ia?aay Eiinoeoooeey. I?aaiaoeie noaea
«Aeaeea?aoeey». O?aioeey i?iaicaeaoaeanue eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oeae.
Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue — ei?ieue, ca eioi?ui inoathony iiiaea i?aaa, a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue — iaeiiiaeaoiia Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea.
Ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai eiaee 60 % ioaeneiai ianaeaiey noa?oa 25 eao.
Aaiaeeeinue iiaia aaeieieno?aoeaiia aeaeaiea ia 83 aeaia?oaiaioa, iecoae
aaeeieoeae noaiiaeeanue Eiiioia. Eiinoeoooeey ia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia
eieiiee, ?aanoai a ieo ia ioiaiyeinue. Oaeei ia?acii, O/?aaeeoaeueiia
nia?aiea ooaa?aeeei e th?eaee/anee ioi?ieei nioeeaeueiia e iieeoe/aneia
ainiiaenoai eioueo. A eaaa?a ?aaiethoeee ia/aeny ?aneie. Eaeao
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiea iieeoe/aneeo oa/aiee, eioi?ua ii ?aciiio aeaeaee
ia?niaeoeau, oeaee e caaea/e ?aaiethoeee. Noi?iiieeaie eiio??aaiethoeee
auee ?iyeenou (ai aeaaa — a?ao ?’A?ooa — a?ao ei?iey). Auee noi?iiieee
eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee (a?ao Ie?aai). Eo iacuaaee oia?aiiuie
?iyeenoaie. A?eoiineee (sseiaeineee) eeoa aue noi?ie?iaai ec /eaiia
Aaia?aeueiuo Ooaoia, eioi?ua i?yoaeenue a iiianou?a Na. sseiaa
(?iaaniuea?). A ethea 1791 aiaea oia?aiiua auoee ec ninoaaa eeoaa e
ia?aciaaee eeoa ae?ocae eiinoeoooeee — eeoa oaeueyiia (Eaoaeao, Aa?iaa).
Eeoa ei?aeaeuea?ia aue aieaa aeaiie?aoe/iui e ?aaeeeaeueiui (Ia?ao,
Aeaioii). Iiaiaeii aeey iiaiai iieeoe/aneiai e?ecena noaea iaoaea/iay
iiiuoea aaanoaa Ethaeiaeea XVI a ethea 1792 aiaea. A no?aia oneeeeinue
iaaeiaa?ea e iiia?oee e oaaee/eeinue aeeyiea ?anioaeeeaioeaa. Ei?ieue
ana-oaee iaeia?ee Eiinoeoooeeth e i?iaicaeanee auai?u a
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea, ninoaa eioi?iai ioee/aeny io
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai. I?aaua — oaeueyiu — ia?oey e?oiiuo oeiainenoia e
nianoaaiieeia, caeioa?aniaaiiay a nio?aiaiee eiinoeoooeee 1791 aiaea.
Eaaay /anoue nia?aiey ninoiyea ec aeaiooaoia, naycaiiuo n yeiaeineei
eeoaii. AEe?iiaeenou — i?iiuoeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu, caeioa?aniaaiiua a
ia?aono?ienoaa iauanoaa. Nia/aea iie iiaeaea?aeeaatho eiinoeoooeeth, ii
iioii noaee ?anioaeeeaioeaie. Iiioaiuey?u — e?aeia eaaua — ca naa?aeaiea
ei?iey. Ianiio?y ia auai?u, iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a no?aia ia
oeo/oeeanue, n eiioea 1791 aiaea oneeeaaaony eiio??aaiethoeeiiiia
aeaeaeaiea (caaiai?u a?enoie?aoia). Ec-ca aiaoaoaeuenoaa ec caa?aieoeu
aicieeaao e iiuiia ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea i?ioea ?aaiethoeee. Oae
Aaiaeaeneia ainnoaiea ioee/aeinue iniaie aeanoieinoueth e auei
caeiinie?e?iaaii eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth. Ethaeiaee XVI caoioae
aoyiooue O?aioeeth a aieio (oaeiay ia?aienea n eiino?aiiuie aeai?aie).
20 ai?aey 1792 aiaea Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea iauyaeei aieio Aano?ee.
E etheth a?iey aa?oeiaa A?aoioaaeaneiai ii/oe ie?oaeeea Ia?eae. 47
naeoeee ec 48 (ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea) iio?aaiaaee ieceiaeaiey
Ethaeiaeea e nicuaa Iaoeeiiaeueiiai Eiiaaioa. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea
ia niaeaneeinue ? 10aaaonoa 1792 aiaea ia/aeinue ainnoaiea. Oae aicieeea
Iianoai/aneay Eiiioia Ia?eaea, eioi?ay acyea aeanoue a naie ?oee. Iia
iauyaeea, /oi nia?aiea i?aaeeaaaao nia?aoue Iaoeeiiaeueiue Eiiaaio. Aac
aieiniaaiey aa?ioee anao ieieno?ia-aee?iiaeenoia. Ainnoaaoea iaeaaeaee
ei?ieaaneei aeai?oeii. Iiia?oey auea ieceiaeaia.

1) Eaeea ia?ii?eyoey i?aaeoniao?eaae Ea Oaiaeuea ?

2) Eoi i?aaeeiaeee iacaaiea «Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea»?

3) Eaeei ia?acii i?ioiaeeee auai?u a Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea?

4.4 Ainnoaiea 10 aaa.1792 a. e naa?aeaiea iiia?oee ai O?aioeee

?aaiethoeey ai O?aioeee ano?aaiaeeea aa?iiaeneeo iiia?oia. Ianiio?y ia
aeoaieea i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?uie ioee/aeenue, iai?eia?, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
I?onneae e Aano?eae, iie auee auioaeaeaiu iieoe ia naeeaeaiea ia?aae
oa?icie niauoee ai O?aioeee. E yoiio nithco oanii i?eiueaea Aiaeey.
Aeaeueiaeoei oaaii ia iooe e nicaeaieth aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeee noaea
ano?a/a a aaaonoa 1791 a. aano?eeneiai eiia?aoi?a Eaiiieueaea II e
i?onneiai ei?iey O?eae?eoa-Aeeueaaeueia II a caiea Ieeueieoe (Naeniiey),
aaea iie iiaeienaee aeaeea?aoeeth i aioiaiinoe I?onnee e Aano?ee e
niaianoiui aeaenoaeyi aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey aeanoe Ethaeiaeea XVI. Iaae
?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeeae iaaenea oa?ica aieiu.

?inneeneay eiia?ao?eoea Aeaoa?eia II e aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai
ianoie/eai iiaeno?aeaee Aano?eth e I?onneth e nei?aeoaio aoi?aeaieth ai
O?aioeeth. A ai?iaea Eiaeaioea aaeece a?aieoeu, eiio??aaiethoeeiiiua
yiea?aiou i?e iiaeaea?aeea Aano?ee nicaeaee aii?oaeaiiue eaaa?ue
?iyeenoia e i?ecuaaee aa?iiaeneea aeai?u e eioa?aaioeee. 7 oaa?aey 1792
a. Aano?ey iiaeienaea n I?onneae nithciue aeiaiai? n oneiaeai aunoaaeoue
ii aeaaaeoeaoeouny/iie a?iee i?ioea ?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee. Yoei
aeiaiai?ii auei iieiaeaii ia/aei nicaeaieth aioeo?aioeocneie eiaeeoeee,
e eioi?ie i?eniaaeeieeny e ?yae iaeuo aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa.

Ei?ieue e aai noi?iiieee ?ann/eouaaee ia iiiiuue eioa?aaioia aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey naiae aeanoe. O?aioeocneia i?aaeoaeuenoai, a eioi?ii n
ia?oa 1792 a. i?aiaeaaeaee aee?iiaeenou, iio?aaiaaei io Aano?ee
i?ae?auaiey iiaeaea?aeee ?iyeenoia a Eiaeaioea e ioaiaea aiene io
o?aioeocneie a?aieoeu. Iiaue eiia?aoi? Aano?ee O?aioe naycuaae
auiieiaiea yoeo o?aaiaaiee n ioeacii O?aioeee io eiinoeoooeee e
ia?aaea/ae anae iieiiou aeanoe ei?ieaaneiio aeai?o.

Iineieueeo Aano?ey ioe?uoi aiaoeaaeanue ai aioo?aiiea aeaea O?aioeee,
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea n auioaeaeaiiiai niaeaney ei?iey iauyaeei
Aano?ee aieio. Yoa aieia aeey O?aioeee iineea inaiaiaeeoaeueiue,
iaoeeiiaeueii-iao?eioe/aneee oa?aeoa?, ii a?enoie?aoe/aneia ioeoea?noai
e aaia?aeu anoaee ia iooue eciaiu. Ia?ey Aiooaiaooa oaeii ia?aaeaea
aano?eeoeai aiaiiua ieaiu.

Anei?a ai O?aioeeth aoi?aeenue i?onneea aienea. Ia aeaenoaey eioa?aaioia
o?aioeocneee ia?iae ioaaoee ac?uaii iao?eioe/aneiai aiiaeooaaeaiey. A
Ia?eae ec anao aeaia?oaiaioia noaeaeenue io?yaeu iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aaa?aeaeoeaa. Ianiio?y ia nii?ioeaeaiea ei?iey, Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia
nia?aiea 11 ethey 1792 a. i?iaicaeaneei eicoia «Ioa/anoai a iianiinoe!»
A Ia?eaea nia?aeenue ouny/e ethaeae, eioi?ua aoiaeeee a ninoaa
Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee.

Oai a?aiaiai Ia?eaeo a?iceei aoi?aeaiea i?onneeo aiene e ?ac?ooaiea
noieeoeu. Oioy ei?ieue cayaee i aa?iinoe eiinoeoooeee, /eaiu
sseiaeineiai eeoaa i?ecuaaee e naa?aeaieth iiia?oee.

Aioo?aiiyy ianoaiiaea a no?aia ?acei oooaeoeeanue. E?aeia aieaciaiii
aini?eieiaeenue ii?aaeaiey o?aioeocia ia o?iioa, ?inee oeaiu,
?ani?ino?aiyeanue niaeoeyoeey oiaa?aie ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Aeaenoaey i?aaeoaeuenoaa auee iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiuie.
Ei?ieaaneee aeai? oaeoe/anee i?aaeaaae eioa?anu no?aiu.

Nia?aaoeany a Ia?eaea noi?iiieee ?anioaeeee o?aaiaaee ieceiaeaiey
ei?iey, ii Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea aiyeinue ia?iaea e ia oioaei
?ac?uaa n Ao?aiiaie. Ei?ieaaneee aeai?aoe iaoiaeeeny iiae io?aiie
oaaeoea?neie iaaiiie aaa?aeee e ?iyeenoia. Eciaieoue iieiaeaiea iiaei
oieueei ainnoaiea.

A ii/ue ia 10 aaaonoa 1792 a. iaaao aicaanoee ia/aei iiaiai ainnoaiey a
noieeoea. Oi?ie?iaaeenue aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu. Eiienna?u
(i?aaenoaaeoaee) naeoeee: noieeoeu ia?aciaaee ?aaiethoeeiiioth Eiiioio
Ia?eaea. Aaoaeueiiu Iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee ec ?aai/eo i?aaeianoee, a
oaeaea io?yaeu noi?iiieeia ?anioaeeee, i?eauaoea ec aeaia?oaiaioia,
aeaeioeenue e Otheeue?eeneiio aeai?oeo – ?aceaeaioeee ei?iey.

Yoio aeai?aoe i?aaenoaaeye niaie oe?aieaiiue caiie, ia iiaenooiao e
eioi?iio auea nin?aaeioi/aia a?oeeea?ey. Ii io?yae ia?naeueneeo
aeia?iaieueoeaa anooiee a a?aoaiea n a?oeeea?enoaie.

Ei?ieue e ei?ieaaa oe?ueenue a caeaiee Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai nia?aiey.
Iaeiaei, a iiiaio, eiaaea io?yaeu ainnoaaoeo ai?aaeenue ai aioo?aiiee
aeai? Otheeue?eeneiai aeai?oea, canaaoea oai iaaiieee-oaaeoea?oeu e
ioeoea?u-iiia?oenou ioe?uee iaiiue. Ia/aeny ooo?i aeai?oea, a oiaea
eioi?iai ainnoaaoea iioa?yee ieiei 500 /aeiaae oaeouie e ?aiaiuie. Oae
auea naa?aiooa iiia?oey, nouanoaiaaaoay ai O?aioeee ieiei ouny/e eao.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea iauyaeei Ethaeiaeea XVI oieueei a?aiaiii
iono?aiaiiui io aeanoe, ii, ii ianoiyieth Eiiioiu, ei?ieue e aai naiuey
iiaeaa?aeenue a?anoo. Aue ecaeai aeae?ao i nicuaa Iaoeeiiaeueiiai
O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Eiiaaioa, a auai?ao eioi?iai iiaee o/anoaiaaoue ana
ioae/eiu, aeinoeaoea 21 aiaea, aac anyeiai aeaeaiey a?aaeaeai ia
«aeoeaiuo» e «ianneaiuo».

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea iacia/eei iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai – A?aiaiiue
eniieieoaeueiue niaao, ninoiyaoee ec aee?iiaeenoia; aaeeinoaaiiui /eaiii
Niaaoa, aunooiaaoei ca ?aaeeeaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey, aue Aeaioii.

14 aaaonoa Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea i?eiyei aeae?ao i ?acaeaea
iaueiiuo caiaeue. Eiioeneiaaiiua caiee yiea?aioia auei ?ac?aoaii
naeaaaoue iaeeeie o/anoeaie (io 0,5 aei 1 aa) a aann?i/iia aeaaeaiea ca
aioiaoth ?aioo eee ia?aaeaaaoue a iieioth nianoaaiiinoue n oieaoie
iaee/iuie. . • «

I?iecioae ia?aeii e ia o?iioa. 20 naioya?y 1792 a. o naeaiey Aaeueie
o?aioeocneea aienea, ninoiyaoea i?aeiouanoaaiii ec aeia?iaieueoeaa,
iaianee iuooeiia ii?aaeaiea eioa?aaioai. N iaieai «Ia?naeueacu», n
aicaeanaie «Aea cae?aanoaoao iaoeey!» o?aioeocneea nieaeaou ioaeee
ianeieueei aoae iai?eyoaey e canoaaeee aai ionooieoue.

1) Aeey /aai ?inney e Aiaeey iiaeno?aeaee I?onneth anooieoue ai
O?aioeeth?

2) Eaeea ia?u i?iaaei Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea iinea a?anoa Ethaeiaeea
XVI?

3) Eaeiau i?e/eiu ia?aeiia ia o?iioa, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai eiino?aiiua
aienea ionooieee?

5. O?aioeey a ia?eiae yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u

5.1 I?e/eiu i?eoiaea yeiaeioeaa e aeanoe

1793 a. aii?oaeaiiua a?aaeaeaia e iaoeeiiaeueiua aaa?aeaeoeu,
?oeiaiaeeiua yeiaeioeaie ai aeaaa n iianoai/aneei eiieoaoii Ia?eaeneie
eiiioiu, naa?aee i?aaeoaeuenoai aee?iiaeenoia. 3 ethiy Eiiaaio, aaea
oaia?ue aeiieie?iaaee yeiaeioeu, i?eiye aeae?ao i eueaioiie i?iaeaaea
e?anoueyiai eiioeneiaaiiuo o eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia caiaeue. Aue ?ac?aoai
?acaeae iaueiiuo caiaeue iaaeaeo aeeoaeyie iaueiu (aeae?ao io 10-11
ethiy 1793 a.). Iniaia cia/aiea eiae aeae?ao io 17 ethiy 1793 a.,
eeeaeaee?iaaaoee ana inoaaoeany e iaeaieaa caueuaaiua ?aaeoeeae
oaiaeaeueiua i?aaa. I?eiyoua ?aoaiey ia/aee iaiaaeeaiii i?aoai?youeny a
aeeciue. A ?acoeueoaoa cia/eoaeueiay /anoue e?anoueyi i?aa?aoeeanue a
naiaiaeiuo iaeeeo caiaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia. Yoi ia icia/aei, /oi en/acei
e?oiiia caieaaeaaeaiea (auee eiioeneiaaiu caiee yiea?aioia, oea?eae,
eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia, a ia anao iiiaueeia; iiiai caiaeue neoieea
ai?iaeneay e naeueneay ao?aeoacey). Nio?aieeinue e aaccaiaeueiia
e?anoueyinoai. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei e noieue aea auno?i (a oa/aiea
ia?auo o?ao iaaeaeue) i?iaiaeeeenue aaaeiua i?aia?aciaaiey a
ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia. Auea i?eiyoa iiaay eiinoeoooeey. Eiinoeoooeey
1793 a. Iiaay Eiinoeoooeey auea i?eiyoa Eiiaaioii 24 ethiy 1793 a. Ii
onoaiiaeaoaeny o?aaeeoeee, iia ninoiyea ec Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea e
a?aaeaeaieia e nianoaaiii eiinoeoooeeiiiiai aeoa.

Nicaeaiiay a niioaaonoaee n Eiinoeoooeeae 1791 a. iiaay nenoaia
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia O?aioeee io?aaeaea a?aiaiiia ?aaiiaanea
i?ioeainoiyueo iieeoe/aneeo nee. A eiia/iii n/aoa iia ia oaeiaeaoai?yea
iaa noi?iiu’ ao?aeoaceth, aeanoue eioi?ie i?e nio?aiaiee iiia?oe/aneiai
no?iy ia auea aa?aioe?iaaiiie e i?i/iie, e Ethaeiaeea XVI e aeai?yinoai,
eioi?ua ia iiaee nie?eoueny n i?ienoaaeoeie ia?aiaiaie e ia inoaaeyee
ieaiia ?anoaa?aoeee noa?uo ii?yaeeia.

Ninoaa Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai nia?aiey, n ia?aiai acaeyaea, ieacaeny
aeaaii?eyoiui aeey ei?iey: a iai i?aiaeaaeaee oae iacuaaaiua oaeyiu —
i?aaenoaaeoaee e?oiiie oi?aiaie e i?iiuoeaiiie ao?aeoacee, eeaa?aeueiua
aeai?yia e ae?oaea eiina?aaoeaiua neeu, no?aieaoeany ia aeiionoeoue
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ?aaiethoeee. Oaeyiai i?ioeainoiyee aee?iiaeenou
(eeaea?u — A?enni, Aa?iuei, Eiiaei?na), au?aaeaaoea eioa?anu aieaa
?aaeeeaeueiuo oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo e?oaia, a oaeaea yeiaeioeu (eeaea?u —
Aeaioii, ?iaaniuea? e ae?.), i?aaenoaaeyaoea niaie eaai?aaeeeaeueioth e
iaeaieaa ?aaiethoeeiiii iano?iaiioth iieeoe/aneoth a?oiie?iaeo.
AEe?iiaeenou e yeiaeioeu, eioi?ua auee a iaiueoeinoaa a Caeiia-‘
aeaoaeueiii nia?aiee, iieueciaaeenue ia?iiiui aaoi?eoaoii a i?aaiao
naiioi?aaeaiey Ia?eaea — a naeoeeyo e a aaia?aeueiii niaaoa Ia?eaeneie
eiiioiu, a oaeaea a sseiaeineii eeoaa, noaaoai iieeoe/aneei oeaio?ii
?aaiethoeeiiiiai Ia?eaea. A yoie neooaoeee aicieeei e noaei auno?i
ia?anoaoue ioe?uoia i?ioeainoiyiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e ei?ieaaneie
aeanoe. Na?oiie?iaaaoeany aie?oa ei?iey neeu oaiaeaeueiie ?aaeoeee,
ca?o/eaoenue iiaeaea?aeeie iiia?oe/aneie Aa?iiu, aioiaeee caaiai? i?ioea
Eiinoeoooeee.

Iaeiaei ieii/aoaeueiue i?eaiai? ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, a niioaaonoaaiii e
Eiinoeoooeee 1791 a. aue auianai ia?iaeiuie iannaie O?aioeee. Neooe i
caaiai?a ei?iey auee oiaei, eniieueciaaiu aiaeaeyie yeiaeioeaa,
aunooiaaoeie ca aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ?aaiethoeee e ieacaaoeie aieueoia
aicaeaenoaea ia iecu Ia?eaea. Ii i?ecuao Eiiioiu e sseiaeineiai eeoaa
aicaoaeaeaiiia ?acaiai?aie i caaiai?a ianaeaiea Ia?eaea 10 aaaonoa 1792
a. iiaeiyeinue ia ainnoaiea, eioi?ia i?eaaei e naa?aeaieth ei?ieaaneie
aeanoe. ?aaiethoeey anooieea a naie aoi?ie yoai (10 aaaonoa 1792 a. — 2
ethiy 1793 a.), ioa?aeoa?eciaaaoeeny aeaeueiaeoei iiauoaieai
iieeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe iann e ia?aoiaeii aeanoe a ?oee aee?iiaeenoia.

Iiae aeaaeaieai ?aaiethoeeiiii iano?iaiiiai ia?iaea Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia
nia?aiea, aaea aee?iiaeenou i?eia?aoaee ana aieueoee iieeoe/aneee aan e
aeaaea noi?ie?iaaee a?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, ioiaieei aeaeaiea
a?aaeaeai ia aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo. Auee iacia/aiu auai?u a
Iaoeeiiaeueiue O/?aaeeoaeueiue eiiaaio, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue au?aaioaoue
iiaoth eiinoeoooeeth O?aioeee.

A ii/ue n 21 ia 22 naioya?y 1792 a. Eiiaaio naiei aeae?aoii ioiaiee
aeaenoaea Eiinoeoooeee 1791 a., oi?acaeiee ei?ieaaneoth aeanoue,
iieiaeee oai naiui ia/aei ?anioaeeeaineiio no?ith ai O?aioeee. Yoei aea
aeae?aoii iiaeoaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi Eiiaaio aa?ao ia naay iiaeaioiaeo
iiaie eiinoeoooeee, /oi “ee/iinoue e nianoaaiiinoue iaoiaeyony iiae
io?aiie o?aioeocneiai ia?iaea”.

Ninoaa Eiiaaioa io?aaeae iiaoth neiaeioth ?annoaiiaeo iieeoe/aneeo nee,
ii?aaeaeeaooth ?acaeoea o?aioeocneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ia aoi?ii yoaia
?aaiethoeee. ?oeiaiaeyuea iiceoeee a iai caiyee aee?iiaeenou (A?enni e
ae?.). Iie ia eiaee aieueoeinoaa iano a Eiiaaioa, ii eo iiaeaea?aeeaaei
“aieioi” — cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aeaiooaoia, eioi?ua ninoaaeyee
naiaia?aciue iieeoe/aneee oeaio?. Iie caieiaee i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaeaeo aee?iiaeenoaie e yeiaeioeaie, aueia aaeeinoai eioi?uo n
i?iaicaeaoaieai ?anioaeeee ana aieaa niaiyeinue iieeoe/aneie
eiio?iioaoeeae.

Aeaaiaea?y iiaeaea?aeea “aieioa” aiaeaee aee?iiaeenoia niiaee acyoue a
naie ?oee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth aeanoue, eioi?ay inouanoaeyeanue eie /a?ac
Eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao Eiiaaioa. Io?aaeay, i?aaeaea anaai eioa?anu
oia?aiii-?aaeeeaeueiuo neiaa ao?aeoacee, a oaeaea anao oao e?oaia
o?aioeocneiai iauanoaa, eioi?ua onoaee io ?aaiethoeee e ia aeaeaee aa
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey, aee?iiaeenou no?aieeenue naea?aeaoue
ia?anoathuaa aoioa?noai ia?iaeiuo iann. Ia neo/aeii e ceia 1792 a.,
eiaaea a Ia?eaea aiiaue oneeeeenue i?ioeai?a/ey a ?aaiethoeeiiiii
eaaa?a, aee?iiaeenou auee eneeth/aiu ec sseiaeineiai eeoaa. Caeanue
oe?aieeinue aeeyiea iiioaiuey?ia, “enoeiiuo” yeiaeioeaa (Aeaioii,
?iaaniuea?, Ia?ao), iieueciaaaoeony oe?ieie iiaeaea?aeeie iecia Ia?eaea.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey ?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoee, eioi?ua ai iiiaii i?ienoiaeeee
iiieii aeaeaiey e aiee aee?iiaeenoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aio a Eiiaaioa
ana aieaa yia?ae/ii i?ioeainoiyea yeiaeineay iiiiceoeey.

Iiae iaii?ii yeiaeioeaa, ca eioi?uie oee ?aaiethoeeiiii iano?iaiiua iecu
Ia?eaea, aee?iiaeenou i?iaaee ?yae ?aaeeeaeueiuo ia?. A eiioea naioya?y
aue i?eiyo aeae?ao Eiiaaioa i aaaaeaiee ai O?aioeee iiaiai
?aaiethoeeiiiiai eaoin/eneaiey, aa?ouaai naia ia/aei n onoaiiaeaiey
O?aioeocneie ?anioaeeee. A nayce n iianiinoueth eiino?aiiie eioa?aaioeee
e iiia?oe/aneeo iyoaaeae, oa?iaeaaoeo naiiio nouanoaiaaieth ?anioaeeee,
aee?iiaeenoneee Eiiaaio aeae?aoe?iaae o/?aaeaeaiea eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiie
aaciianiinoe (2 ieoya?y 1792 a.), /?acau/aeiiai oaieiaiiai o?eaoiaea a
Ia?eaea (10 ia?oa 1793 a.), eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey (6 ai?aey
1793 a.).

Aua aei nicuaa Eiiaaioa 25 aaaonoa 1792 a. aee?iiaeenoneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaaei /a?ac Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea iiaue aa?a?iue
caeii “Ia oie/oiaeaiee inoaoeia oaiaeaeueiiai ?aaeeia”, ioiaieaoee aueoi
e?anoueyiaie oaiaeaeueiuo iiaeiiinoae. Oaeoe/anee yoi ocaeiieei
iieiaeaiea, oaea neiaeeaoaany a oiaea aa?a?iie ?aaiethoeee. Aue i?eiyo
oaeaea aeae?ao i ?acaeaea eiioeneiaaiiuo caiaeue yiea?aioia e ia?aaea/a
eo iooai aann?i/iie a?aiaeu eee i?iaeaaee e?anoueyiai. Iaeiaei aieueoay
/anoue yoeo caiaeue ieacaeanue ia o e?anoueyi, a o i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ninoiyoaeueiuo e?oaia.

A aeaeaa?a 1792 a. Eiiaaio iiae aeeyieai iieeoe/aneeo yiioeee,
iaeiieaoaeny iaiaaenoe e iiia?oe/aneiio ?aaeeio auian nia?oiue i?eaiai?
ei?ieth Ethaeiaeeo XVI. A iaa 1793 a. ii o?aaiaaieth yeiaeioeaa ii
aeae?aoe?iaae onoaiiaeaiea iaeneioia (oaa?aeua oeaiu) ia ca?ii. Ii
iniiaiay oeaeue aee?iiaeenoia naiaeeeanue e noaaeeecaoeee iieeoe/aneiai
iieiaeaiey e oe?aieaieth neiaeeaoeony a oiaea ?aaiethoeee ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe e iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo ii?yaeeia. 18 ia?oa 1793 a. Eiiaaio
iiae aeaaeaieai aee?iiaeenoia, iaioaaiiuo aieiaieyie n?aaee aaaeiiou,
i?eiye caeii, onoaiiaeaoee nia?oioth eaciue aeey eeoe, i?aaeeaaathueo
aa?a?iue caeii, o. a. o?aaothueo o?aaieoaeueiiai ia?aaeaea caiee, a
oaeaea aeey eeoe, i?iiaaaiaee?othueo eaeie-eeai ae?oaie caeii,
“ieni?iaa?aathuee caiaeueioth, oi?aiaoth eee i?iiuoeaiioth
nianoaaiiinoue”.

Inoaiiaeoue ?ino ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iano?iaiee a Ia?eaea, acyoue eo iiae
eiio?ieue aee?iiaeenoneiio i?aaeoaeuenoao ia oaeaeinue. Aai aaoi?eoao e
aeeyiea ia ia?iaeiua iannu e aania 1793 a. auno?i iaaeaee. ?aca?au
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee auee aee?iiaeenoaie en/a?iaiu. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, eiaiii ia ieo, ?aniieaaathueo aeanoueth a Eiiaaioa, iaaeaea
iieeoe/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oneeeaoeany a oiaea ?aaiethoeee oyaiou
e eeoaiey ianaeaiey Ia?eaea, ca aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea i?iiaoe e ii?aaeaiey.

Iieiaeaiea aee?iiaeenoia cia/eoaeueii oooaeoeeinue a nayce n
ia?anoathueie yeiiiie/aneeie o?oaeiinoyie. Iieeoe/aneea iiceoeee
aee?iiaeenoia cia/eoaeueii iioaoioeenue iinea iaoaeaaoaainy noaea iaae
Ia?aoii e iineaaeothuei aai oaeenoaii, a oaeaea a nayce n oneeeaoeiny
eiioeeeoii iaaeaeo eo eeaea?aie e Ia?eaeneie eiiioiie, noaaoae iieioii
yeiaeioeaa.

Iaaeaieth aaoi?eoaoa aee?iiaeenoia niinianoaiaaei e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai,
/oi iie, ioiaiea Eiinoeoooeeth 1791 a., ia niiaee aeaoue O?aioeee iiaue
?anioaeeeaineee eiinoeoooeeiiiue aeieoiaio.

Aua II ieoya?y 1792 a. auea nicaeaia eiinoeoooeeiiiay eiienney Eiiaaioa,
eioi?ay a naiae ?aaioa i?iyaeea ia?aoeoaeueiinoue e iaaeeeoaeueiinoue.
Ninoaaeaiiue iaeiei ec aiaeaeae aee?iiaeenoia, ecaanoiui iaoaiaoeeii
Eiiaei?na, eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?iaeo aue neeoeii a?iiicaeeei (ian/eouaae
400 noaoae), aeieo?eia?neei e aeiaiaoe/iui, aeaeaeei io ?aaeueiie
aeecie.

A naieo eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?iaeoao, no?aiynue ia?aie/eoue iieeoe/aneia
aeeyiea Ia?eaea, aee?iiaeenou aunooiaee ca ?anoe?aiea i?aa
aeaia?oaiaioia, ca ineaaeaiea oeaio?aeueiie aeanoe. A i?iaeoa Eiiaei?na
?aoeoaeueii ioaa?aaeny i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, eioi?iio auea
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaia “iaeia aeanoue, aeanoue iaoeee”.

?anioaeeea ii aee?iiaeenoneiio i?iaeoo aeieaeia auea iniiauaaoueny ia
i?eioeeia aaeeinoaa aeanoe, ia cae?aieaiee oeaio?aeueiiai ianoa ca
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui i?aaiii, aunooiathuei a aeaea iaeiiiaeaoiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai nia?aiey. I?aaenoaaeoaeueioth oi?io i?aaeaiey
aee?iiaeenou iuoaeenue aeiiieieoue e iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeaiie?aoeae.

Eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?iaeo aee?iiaeenoia aeaaaoe?iaaeny a Eiiaaioa aieioue
aei 2 ethiy 1793 a., o. a. aei iaaeaiey eo aeanoe, ii ii oae e ia aue
ooaa?aeaeai. Ia?anoathuay iai?yaeaiiinoue a iauanoaa, ?ino iieeoe/aneie
aeoeaiinoe iann, oneeaiea i?ioeainoiyiey aee?iiaeenoia e yeiaeioeaa a
Eiiaaioa e ca aai noaiaie, a oaeaea ia?aoeoaeueiinoue eeaea?ia
aee?iiaeenoia i?aiyonoaiaaee nicaeaieth eie ?anioaeeeaineiai
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai no?iy.

A ?acoeueoaoa iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiie e oeaio?enoneie iieeoeee
aee?iiaeenoneiai Eiiaaioa, oiaaeaoiea aiaeaee eioi?iai e aania 1793 a.
ana aieaa oa?yee ?aaiethoeeiiioth eieoeeaoeao, ?anioaeeea ieacaeanue ia
a?aie aeaaee. Aioo?e no?aiu oneeeaaeenue ?iyeenoneea iyoaaee, ecaia
a?iceei iiaia ianooieaiea a?iee oaiaeaeueii-iiia?oe/aneie eiaeeoeee.

sseiaeineay aeeeoaoo?a. Ia?iaeiia ainnoaiea 31 iay — 2 ethiy 1793 a., ai
aeaaa eioi?iai noiye iianoai/aneee eiieoao Ia?eaeneie eiiioiu, i?eaaei e
ecaiaieth aee?iiaeenoia ec Eiiaaioa e iieiaeeei ia/aei ia?eiaeo
i?aaeaiey yeiaeioeaa. O?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey anooieea a naie
caaa?oathuee o?aoee yoai (2 ethiy 1793 a. — 27 ethey 1794 a.).
Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue, oaea nin?aaeioi/aiiay e yoiio a?aiaie a
Eiiaaioa, ia?aoea a ?oee aiaeaeae yeiaeioeaa — iaaieueoie iieeoe/aneie
a?oiie?iaee, iano?iaiiie ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?aoeoaeueiia e aaneiii?iienniia
?acaeoea ?aaiethoeee.

5.2 Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iieeoeee yeiaeioeaa.
Eiinoeoooeey 1793 a.

E?aoeia?aiaiiue ia?eiae yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u aue naiui aaeeeei a?aiaiai
?aaiethoeee. sseiaeioeu noiaee i?iaoaeeoue ae?aiaaoea neeu ia?iaea,
aaeioiooue a iaai iaoe?ioeioth yia?aeth ioaeanoai, niaeinoue,
aioiaiinoue e naiiiiaea?oaiaaieth, aanno?aoea, aea?caiea. Ii i?e anai
naiai iai?aoiaeyuai aaee/ee, i?e anae naiae enoi?e/aneie i?ia?anneaiinoe
yeiaeineay aeeeoaoo?a ana aea ia i?aiaeieaea ia?aie/aiiinoe,
naienoaaiiie anyeie ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee.

A naiie iniiaa yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u, eae e a iieeoeea, i?iaiaeeiie
yeiaeioeaie, eaaeaee aeoaieea aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey. sseiaeioeu
ai?ieenue ai eiy iieiiai oi?aeanoaa naiaiaeu, aeaiie?aoee, ?aaainoaa a
oie oi?ia, a eaeie yoe eaeae i?aaenoaaeyeenue aaeeeei ao?aeoaciui
?aaiethoeeiia?ai-aeaiie?aoai XVIII noieaoey. Ii nie?ooay e auei?/aauaay
oaiaeaeeci, auiaoay, ii au?aaeaieth Ia?ena, «eniieeineie iaoeie» aanue
noa?ue, n?aaeiaaaeiaue, oaiaeaeueiue ioni? e anao oao, eoi iuoaeny aai
nio?aieoue, yeiaeioeu oai naiui ?an/euaee ii/ao aeey ?acaeoey
ao?aeoaciuo, eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. Iie, a eiia/iii n/aoa,
nicaeaaaee oneiaey aeey caiaiu iaeiie oi?iu yenieoaoaoeee ae?oaie:
oaiaeaeueiie yenieoaoaoeee – eaieoaeenoe/aneie.

sseiaeineay ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay aeeeoaoo?a iiaeaa?aaea
no?iaie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee i?iaeaaeo e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
i?iaeoeoia e ae?oaeo oiaa?ia, ioi?aaeyea ia aeeueioeio niaeoeyioia e
ia?ooeoaeae caeiiia i iaeneioia.

Iaeiaei iineieueeo ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai inouanoaeyeinue
oieueei a noa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey, ia cao?aaeaay niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa, any
?ai?anneaiay iieeoeea yeiaeineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ana aai oneeey a
iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee ia iiaee ineaaeoue
yeiiiie/aneoth iiuue ao?aeoacee.

Aieaa oiai, ca aiaeu ?aaiethoeee yeiiiie/aneay iiuue ao?aeoacee eae
eeanna cia/eoaeueii aic?inea a ?acoeueoaoa eeeaeaeaoeee oaiaeaeueiiai
caieaaeaaeaiey e i?iaeaaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiouanoa. Aieia, ia?ooeaoay
iau/iua yeiiiie/aneea nayce, i?aaeuyaeyaoay ia?iiiua o?aaiaaiey ei anai
iaeanoyi oicyenoaaiiie aeecie, oaeaea nicaeaaaea, aii?aee
ia?aie/eoaeueiui ia?ii?eyoeyi yeiaeioeaa, aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
iaiaauaiey eiaeeo aeaeueoeia. Ec anao uaeae, ec anao ii? iauanoaa,
inaiaiaeaeaiiiai io oaiaeaeueiuo ieia, ?inea i?aaei?eei/eaay, aea?ceay,
aeaaeiay e iaaeeaa iiaay ao?aeoacey, ?yaeu eioi?ie aani?anoaiii
iiiieiyeenue auoiaeoeaie ec iaeeiao?aeoaciuo neiaa ai?iaea e
caaeeoi/iiai e?anoueyinoaa. Niaeoeyoeey ia aeaoeoeeoiuo oiaa?ao, ea?a ia
iaiythuainy eo?na aeaiaa, i?iaeaaea e ia?ai?iaeaaea caiaeueiuo o/anoeia,
ia?iiiua iinoaaee aeey a?iee e aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeany
anyeiai ?iaea iioaiie/anoaaie e iaoeiaoeeyie,- ana yoi neoaeeei
enoi/ieeii auno?iai, ii/oe neaci/iiai iaiaauaiey iiaie ao?aeoacee.
Iieeoeea ?ai?annee yeiaeineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia iiaea ie inoaiiaeoue,
ie aeaaea ineaaeoue yoio i?ioeann. ?eneoy neiaeeoue aieiao ia ieaoa, ana
yoe au?inoea ca aiaeu ?aaiethoeee, iiueyiaiiua aiciiaeiinoueth a
e?ao/aeoee n?ie nicaeaoue ia?iiiia ninoiyiea aiaa/e iaoaea?aeeii
?aaeenue e aa?uoo e oiaee iaoiaeeoue caeiiu i iaeneioia, i cai?aoa
niaeoeyoeee e ae?oaea ia?aie/eoaeueiua ia?u ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aei oao ii?, iiea enoiae ai?ueau n aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae oaiaeaeueiie
eiio??aaiethoeeae ia aue ?aoai, nianoaaiie/aneea yeaiaiou auioaeaeaiu
auee ie?eoueny n ?aaiethoeeiiiui ?aaeeiii. Ii ii ia?a oiai, eae
aeaaiaea?y iiaaaeai ?anioaeeeaineeo a?iee iianiinoue oaiaeaeueiie
?anoaa?aoeee ineaaaaaea, ao?aeoacey ana ?aoeoaeueiaa no?aieeanue
ecaaaeoueny io ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u.

Iiaeiaii ai?iaeneie ao?aeoacee, yaiethoeeiie?iaaei caaeeoi/iia e aeaaea
n?aaeiaa e?anoueyinoai, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoaa yeiaeioeaa eeoue aei ia?auo
?aoathueo iiaaae. Eae e ao?aeoacey, eiouea neie aea?aaie a?aaeaeaaii
ioiineeenue e iieeoeea iaeneioia, aeiaeaaeenue ioiaiu oaa?aeuo oeai,
no?aieeenue iaiaaeeaiii e iieiinoueth aac anyeeo ia?aie/aiee, cai?aoia,
?aeaeceoeee ainiieueciaaoueny i?eia?aoaiiui ca aiaeu ?aaiethoeee.

Iaaeaeo oai yeiaeioeu i?iaeieaeaee iaoeeiiii i?iaiaeeoue naith iieeoeeo
oa??i?a e iaeneioia. A ia/aea 1794 a. iie naeaeaee iiiuoeo inouanoaeoue
iiaua nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea ia?ii?eyoey a oua?a e?oiiui
nianoaaiieeai. 8 e 13 aaioica (eiiaoe oaa?aey – ia/aei ia?oa) Eiiaaio ii
aeieeaaeo Nai-AEthnoa i?eiye aaaeiua, eiaaoea aieueoia i?eioeeieaeueiia
cia/aiea aeae?aou. Niaeanii yoei oae iacuaaaiui aaioicneei aeae?aoai,
nianoaaiiinoue eeoe, i?eciaiiuo a?aaaie ?aaiethoeee, iiaeeaaeaea
eiioeneaoeee e aanieaoiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth n?aaee iaeioueo. A?aaaie
?aaiethoeee a oi a?aiy n/eoaeenue ia oieueei auaoea a?enoie?aou, ii e
iiiai/eneaiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee eae noa?ie, oaeueyineie e aee?iiaeenoneie,
oae e iiaie ao?aeoacee, a /anoiinoe niaeoeyiou, ia?ooaaoea caeii i
iaeneioia. A aaioicneeo aeae?aoao io?aceeenue o?aaieoaeueiua ono?aieaiey
yeiaeioeaa-o/aieeia e iineaaeiaaoaeae ?onni. Anee au aaioicneea aeae?aou
oaeaeinue i?iaanoe a aeeciue, yoi icia/aei au cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea
/enea iaeeeo nianoaaiieeia, i?aaeaea anaai ec ?yaeia aaaeiiou. Iaeiaei
nianoaaiie/aneea yeaiaiou aini?ioeaeeenue inouanoaeaieth aaioicneeo
aeae?aoia.

A oi aea a?aiy aioo?aiiyy i?ioeai?a/eainoue iieeoeee yeiaeioeaa aaea e
oiio, /oi ?inei iaaeiaieuenoai e ia ae?oaii iiethna – a ?yaeao
ieaaaeneeo caueoieeia ?aaiethoeee.

sseiaeioeu ia iaania/eee oneiaee aeey aeaenoaeoaeueiiai oeo/oaiey
iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey ieaaaenoaa. Onoaiiaea iiae aeaaeaieai
ia?iaeiuo iann iaeneioi ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, yeiaeioeu ?ani?ino?aieee
aai e ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aai/eo, i?e/eiea ei oai iaiaeue a?aae. Iie
inoaaeee a neea aioe?aai/ee caeii Ea Oaiaeuea. Iaaiiua ?aai/ea,
i?aaeaiiua ai?oeu ?aaiethoeee, naiiioaa?aeaiii o?oaeeaoeany ia iai?iio
?anioaeeee, i?eieiaaoea aeoeaiia o/anoea a iieeoe/aneie aeecie, a
ieciauo i?aaiao ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u –
?aaiethoeeiiiuo eiieoaoao, ?aaiethoeeiiiuo eeoaao e ia?iaeiuo iauanoaao,
oaeaea noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa iaaeiaieueiuie iieeoeeie yeiaeioeaa.

sseiaeineay aeeeoaoo?a ia inouanoaeea e /ayiee aea?aaaineie aaaeiiou.
?ani?iaeaaeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiouanoa eniieueciaaea a iniiaiii
caaeeoi/iay aa?oooea e?anoueyinoaa, neoieaoay aieueooth /anoue caiee. A
yoe aiaeu aacinoaiiai/ii oneeeaaeanue aeeooa?aioeeaoeey e?anoueyinoaa.
Aaaeiioa aeiaeaaeanue ia?aie/aiey ?acia?ia «oa?i», aeaaeaiee caaeeoi/iuo
e?anoueyi, ecuyoey o ieo eceeoeia caiee e ?acaeaea aa iaaeaeo iaeioueie,
ii yeiaeioeu ia ?aoaeenue iiaeaea?aeaoue yoe o?aaiaaiey. Ianoiua i?aaiu
aeanoe iau/ii noaiiaeeenue ia noi?iio aiaaouo e?anoueyi a eo eiioeeeoao
n naeueneioicyenoaaiiuie ?aai/eie. Ana yoi aucuaaei e n?aaee iaeieioueo
neiaa aea?aaie iaaeiaieuenoai yeiaeineie iieeoeeie.

E. 1793 a. Iaoeeiiaeueiue eiiaaio, nia?aaoeeny eiaiii n oeaeueth
iauyaeaiey ?anioaeeee e ninoaaeaiey iiaie ?anioaeeeaineie E., ia naiii
aeaea i?aaee ainoaea?noaii aac anyeie E., oioy ?aaioae iaae aa
ninoaaeaieai. A 1793 a. aue au?aaioai niaoeeaeueii aeey yoiai
iacia/aiiie eiienneae aee?iiaeenoneee i?iaeo E. , eioi?ue aue ioaa?aioo
eiiaaioii, a 24 ethiy auea i?eiyoa E. yeiaeineay. N?aaieoaeueii n E.
1791 a., E. yeiaeineay oieueei n aieueoae neeie ianoaeaaao ia
aa?oiaainoaa iaoeee e ia i?aaa nii?ioeaeaiey, aeaaea aiciouaiey, a
neo/aa ia?ooaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?aa ia?iaea, e, iiaeiaii
aee?iiaeenoneiio i?iaeoo, niaea?aeeo a naaa iinoaiiaeaiey ia
iauanoaaiiie iiiiue e iauanoaaiiii ia?aciaaiee. Nioeeaeueiiai no?iy,
onoaiiaeaiiiai E 1791 a., yeiaeineay E. ie a /ai ia eciaiyao; oieueei a
iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee iia ioee/aaony aieueoei aeaiie?aoeciii: auai?u
naeaeaiu i?yiuie, oeaic ioiaiai, aic?ano ecae?aoaeae n 25 eao iiieaeai
aei 21 aiaea. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nia?aiea i?aaeiieaaaeinue ecae?aoue ia
aiae, n i?aaii ecaeaaaoue aeae?aou e i?aaeeaaaoue caeiiu: anee a oa/aiea
40 aeiae ii iaia?iaeiaaiee eo iaeia aeanyoay /anoue ia?ae/iuo nia?aiee a
iieiaeia iauaai /enea aeaia?oaiaioia iethn iaeei ia ii?ioanooao
i?eiyoiai caeiiiaeaoaeueiui nia?aieai i?iaeoa caeiia, oi iineaaeiee
aeaeaaony caeiiii; a i?ioeaiii neo/aa niae?athony ia?ae/iua nia?aiey, ia
eioi?uo ia?iae iiaeao oieueei aioe?iaaoue “aea” eee “iao”.
Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue a?o/aaony eiieoaoo ec 24 eeoe, iacia/aaiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ei?ionii ec /enea eaiaeeaeaoia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo
aeaia?oaiaioneeie nia?aieyie. Aeey ia?aniio?a E. o?aaiaaeinue oieueei
aeaeaiea iaeiie aeanyoie /anoe ia?ae/iuo nia?aiee a iieiaeia iauaai
/enea aeaia?oaiaioia iethn iaeei.

E. III aiaea. E. 1793 a., aoaeo/e i?eiyoa ia?iaeii, ia i?eaiaeeeanue,
iaeiaei, a eniieiaiea.

1) Eaeea eciaiaiey i?iecioee a Eiinoeoooeee 1793a. ii n?aaiaieth n
E.1791 a.?

2) Ii/aio E. 1793a. oae e ia auea i?eaaaeaia a eniieiaiea?

3) A /ai i?e/eiu iaaeaiey aaoi?eoaoa yeiaeioeaa?

5.3 ?aneie yeiaeineiai eaaa?y e iaaeaiea yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u

Iaino?aiea aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee a no?aia e e?ecen ?aaiethoeeiiiie
aeeeoaoo?u i?eaaee e ai?ueaa a ?yaeao yeiaeioeaa. N inaie 1793 a. n?aaee
yeiaeioeaa ia/aee ioi?ieyoueny aeaa iiiiceoeeiiiua a?oiie?iaee. Ia?aay
ec ieo neeaaeuaaeanue aie?oa Aeaioiia. Iaeei ec aeeyoaeueiaeoeo aiaeaeae
?aaiethoeee ia aa i?aaeuaeoueo yoaiao, iieueciaaaoeeny iaeii a?aiy
ia?yaeo n ?iaaniuea?ii e Ia?aoii ia?iiiie iiioey?iinoueth a ia?iaea,
Aeaioii oaea a ?aoathuea aeie ai?ueau n aee?iiaeenoaie i?iyaee
eieaaaiey. A?oiie?iaea aeaioiienoia anei?a ii?aaeaeeeanue eae ioe?iaaiii
i?aaia iai?aaeaiea, i?aaenoaaeyaoaa ?acaiaaoaaooth ca aiaeu ?aaiethoeee
iiaoth ao?aeoaceth. Ia no?aieoeao ?aaeaeoe?iaaaoaeny Aeaioeaiii aacaou
«Noa?ue ei?aeaeuea?», a naieo ?a/ao e noaoueyo aeaioiienou aunooiaee eae
noi?iiieee iieeoeee oia?aiiinoe, nionea ?aaiethoeee ia oi?iicao.
Aeaioiienou aieaa eee iaiaa ioe?iaaiii o?aaiaaee ioeaca io iieeoeee
oa??i?a e iinoaiaiiie eeeaeaeaoeee ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
aeeeoaoo?u. A aii?inao aiaoiae iieeoeee iie no?aieeenue e niaeaoaieth n
Aiaeeae e ae?oaeie o/anoieeaie eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie eiaeeoeee, /oiau
ethaie oeaiie iinei?aa aeiaeoueny caeeth/aiey ie?a.

Ii iieeoeea ?iaaniuea?enoneiai Eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey ano?a/aea
iiiiceoeeth e neaaa. Ia?eaeneay eiiioia e naeoeee io?aaeaee yoi
iaaeiaieuenoai. Iie eneaee iooae e niya/aieth ioaeaeu aaaeiiou,
ianoaeaaee ia i?iaaaeaiee iieeoeee no?iauo ?ai?annee i?ioea niaeoeyioia,
ia?ooeoaeae caeiia i iaeneioia e o. ae. Ai?i/ai, yniie e ii?aaeaeaiiie
i?ia?aiiu aeaenoaee o ieo ia auei.

Iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiie eaaie a?oiie?iaeie a Ia?eaea iinea ?aca?iia
«aaoaiuo» noaee noi?iiieee Oiiaooa e Yaa?a – eaaua yeiaeioeu (eee
yaa?oenou, eae eo noaee iacuaaoue iicaeiaa enoi?eee), aini?eiyaoea ?yae
o?aaiaaiee «aaoaiuo». Noaiaiue niei/aiiinoe e iaeii?iaeiinoe yaa?oenoia
auea iaaaeeea. Yaa? (1757-1794), auaoee aei ?aaiethoeee aeeaoa?ii a
oaao?a, auaeaeioeny eae iaeei ec aeoeaiuo aeayoaeae eeoaa ei?aeaeuea?ia.
Inaiueth 1793 a., eiaaea i?ieo?i?ii Eiiioiu noae Oiiaoo, naiue
auaeathueeny i?aaenoaaeoaeue eaauo yeiaeioeaa, Yaa?a iacia/eee aai
caianoeoaeai. Niiniaiue aeo?iaeeno, Yaa? i?eia?ae ecaanoiinoue naiae
aacaoie «Ioaoe Aethoai», iieueciaaaoaeny iiioey?iinoueth a ia?iaeiuo
eaa?oaeao Ia?eaea.

Inaiueth 1793 a. iaaeaeo yaa?oenoaie, aeeyiea eioi?uo auei oiaaea
neeueii a Ia?eaeneie eiiioia, e ?iaaniuea?enoaie iaia?oaeeeenue
na?ueaciua ?anoiaeaeaiey ii aii?inai ?aeeaeiciie iieeoeee. A Ia?eaea e
eia-aaea a i?iaeioeee yaa?oenou ia/aee inouanoaeyoue iieeoeeo
«aeao?enoeaiecaoeee», nii?iaiaeaeaaoothny cae?uoeai oea?eaae,
i?eioaeaeaieai aeooiaainoaa io?aeaoueny io naia e o. ae. Yoe
ia?ii?eyoey, inouanoaeyaoeany aeaaiui ia?acii aaeieieno?aoeaiuie ia?aie,
iaoieeioeenue ia nii?ioeaeaiea ia?iaeiuo iann, iniaaiii e?anoueyinoaa.
?iaaniuea? ?aoeoaeueii inoaeee ianeeuenoaaiioth «aeao?enoeaiecaoeeth», e
iia auea i?ae?auaia. Ii ai?ueaa iaaeaeo yaa?oenoaie e ?iaaniuea?enoaie
i?iaeieaeaeanue.

Aaniie 1794 a. yaa?oenou a nayce n oooaeoaieai i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai
iieiaeaiey a noieeoea oneeeee e?eoeeo aeayoaeueiinoe Eiieoaoa
iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey. ?oeiaiaeeiue eie eeoa ei?aeaeuea?ia aioiaeeny
aucaaoue iiaia ia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea, ia yoio ?ac iai?aaeaiiia i?ioea
Eiieoaoa. Iaeiaei Yaa? e aai noi?iiieee auee a?anoiaaiu, inoaeaeaiu
?aaiethoeeiiiui o?eaoiaeii e 24 ia?oa eaciaiu.

Nionoy iaaeaeth i?aaeoaeuenoai iaianei oaea? ii aeaioiienoai. 2 ai?aey
Aeaioii, Aeaioeai e ae?oaea auee i?aaeaiu ?aaiethoeeiiiiio o?eaoiaeo e 5
ai?aey aeeueioeie?iaaiu.

?aca?iiea aeaioiienoia, ?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ono?aieei neeo,
noaaooth a?aaeiie e iianiie aeey ?aaiethoeee. Ii, iaiiny iaeiie ?oeie
oaea? ii a?aaai ?aaiethoeee, yeiaeineea aiaeaee ae?oaie ?oeie iaiineee
oaea? ii aa caueoieeai. Aue oaeaeai ec aiaiiiai ieienoa?noaa e anei?a
a?anoiaai Aooioo. Oioy i?ecua Yaa?a e ainnoaieth ia aue iiaeaea?aeai
Oiiaooii e Ia?eaeneie eiiioiie, iaeiaei Oiiaoo aue oaeaea eaciai. Ec
Ia?eaeneie eiiioiu, ?aaiethoeeiiiie iieeoeee, naeoeee ecaiaee anao
caiiaeic?aiiuo a neiiaoeyo e yaa?oenoai. *oiau o?acaoue
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue Ia?eaeneie eiiioiu, ai aeaaa aa iinoaaeee
«iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaaioa», iacia/aiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ana yoe
ia?ii?eyoey aucaaee iaaeiaieuenoai a ?aaiethoeeiiiie noieeoea.
?iaaniuea?enou ionaeee /anoue nee, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoeo yeiaeineoth
aeeeoaoo?o.

Iieiaeaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa aiaoia eae aoaeoi
oi?i/eeinue. Anyeia ioe?uoia au?aaeaiea iaaeiaieuenoaa, anyeay oi?ia
aeaniie iiiiceoeee ?aaiethoeeiiiiio i?aaeoaeuenoao i?ae?aoeeenue. Ii yoi
aiaoiaa aia/aoeaiea neeu e i?i/iinoe yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u auei
iaiai/eaui.

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yeiaeineay aeeeoaoo?a ia?aaeeaaea ino?ue e?ecen,
iaoneiaeaiiue iiaie iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaeie, neiaeeaoaeny a
no?aia iinea iiaaaeu iaae oaiaeaeueii-iiia?oe/aneie eiio??aaiethoeeae.
Iaaeaeo oai yeiaeioeu, ano?a/ay ana aic?anoathuoth a?aaeaeaaiinoue ni
noi?iiu ai?iaeneie e naeueneie ao?aeoacee e a oi aea a?aiy oo?a/eaay
iii?o a ia?iaeiuo iannao, ia ciaee e ia iiaee iaeoe iooae aeey
i?aiaeieaiey yoiai e?ecena.

?oeiaiaeeoaee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa – ?iaaniuea? e aai
noi?iiieee iuoaeenue oe?aieoue yeiaeineoth aeeeoaoo?o iooai onoaiiaeaiey
iiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee – eoeueoa «aa?oiaiiai nouanoaa», eaeay
eioi?iai auea caeinoaiaaia o ?onni. 8 ethiy 1794 a. a Ia?eaea
ninoiyeinue iinayuaiiia «aa?oiaiiio nouanoao» oi?aeanoaaiiia
i?acaeianoai, ai a?aiy eioi?iai ?iaaniuea? aunooiee a ?iee naiaai ?iaea
ia?ainayuaiieea. Ii yoi ia?ii?eyoea eeoue iia?aaeeei ?aaiethoeeiiiiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao e ?iaaniuea?o.

10 ethiy 1794 a. Eiiaaio ii ianoiyieth ?iaaniuea?a i?eiye iiaue caeii,
cia/eoaeueii oneeeaaaoee oa??i?. A oa/aiea oanoe iaaeaeue iinea ecaeaiey
yoiai caeiia ?aaiethoeeiiiue o?eaoiae aaeaaeiaaii auiinee aei 50
nia?oiuo i?eaiai?ia.

Iiaaaea i?e Oea?thna oe?aieea iaia?aiea oe?ieeo neiaa ao?aeoacee e
e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia, e?aeia iaaeiaieueiuo oneeaieai oa??i?a,
ecaaaeoueny io oyaioeaoaai eo ?aaeeia ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
aeeeoaoo?u.

Ecaaaeaaoea ea?u aeaioiienou e aeeceea e iei aeaiooaou Eiiaaioa, a
oaeaea ethaee, aeeceea e yaa?oenoai, anooieee a oaeiua nayce n oeaeueth
ono?aiaiey ?iaaniuea?a e ae?oaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae Eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiiai
nianaiey. E etheth 1794 a. a aeoaieii iiaeiieuea aiciee iiaue caaiai?
i?ioea ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Aeaaiuie aai i?aaiecaoi?aie auee
eeoea, aiyaoeany no?iaiai iaeacaiey ca naie i?anooieaiey:
aani?eioeeiiue, caiyoiaaoee naay oeuaieyie e aaccaeiieai a auoiinoue
eiienna?ii a Ai?aei Oaeueai; oaeie aea auiiaaoaeue e acyoi/iee O?a?ii;
auaoee a?enoie?ao, ?aca?aoiue oeeiee e noyaeaoaeue Aa??an: eaeeaue,
eiaeee, ecai?ioeeaue Oooa, ioicaaiiue ec Eeiia ca nio/anoea a i?anooiiuo
aeanoieinoyo e oaiiuo aeaeao. A caaiai? ieacaeenue aoyioouie ia oieueei
iiiaea /eaiu Eiiaaioa, a oii /enea aeaiooaou «aieioa», ii e iaeioi?ua
/eaiu Eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey (iai?eia?, aeeceea e yaa?oenoai
Eieei ae’Y?aoa e Aeeei-Aa?aii) e Eiieoaoa iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe.
Noauaeoeaiua iano?iaiey e iaia?aiey ioaeaeueiuo eeoe, o/anoaiaaaoeo a
caaiai?a, auee ?acee/iu, ii iauaeoeaii caaiai? yoio iinee
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?.

?iaaniuea? e ae?oaea ?oeiaiaeeoaee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
aeiaaaeuaaeenue i iiaeaioiaeyaoainy ia?aai?ioa, ii oaea ia eiaee nee
i?aaeioa?aoeoue aai.

27 ethey 1794 a. (9 oa?ieaei?a II aiaea ii ?aaiethoeeiiiiio eaeaiaea?th)
caaiai?ueee ioe?uoi aunooieee ia canaaeaiee Eiiaaioa i?ioea ?iaaniuea?a,
ia aeaee aio aiai?eoue e iio?aaiaaee aai a?anoa. Ooo aea auee a?anoiaaiu
?iaaniuea?, aai ieaaeoee a?ao Iathnoai e aai aeeaeaeoea aaeeiiiuoeaiieee
– Nai-AEthno, Eooii e Eaaa.

Ia caueoo ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iiaeiyeanue Ia?eaeneay
eiiioia. Ii aa ?anii?yaeaieth a?anoiaaiiua auee inaiaiaeaeaiu e
aeinoaaeaiu a ?aoooo. Eiiioia i?iaicaeaneea ainnoaiea i?ioea
eiio??aaiethoeeiiiiai aieueoeinoaa Eiiaaioa e ia?aoeeanue e ia?eaeneei
naeoeeyi n i?ecuaii i?eneaoue a aa ?anii?yaeaiea naie aii?oaeaiiua neeu.
Eiiaaio ni naiae noi?iiu iauyaee aia caeiia ?iaaniuea?a e ae?oaeo
a?anoiaaiiuo n iei eeoe, a oaeaea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae Eiiioiu e ia?aoeeny e
naeoeeyi n o?aaiaaieai ieacaoue iiiiuue Eiiaaioo a iiaeaaeaiee
«iyoaaea».

Iieiaeia ia?eaeneeo naeoeee e i?aaeaea anaai oeaio?aeueiua naeoeee,
ianaeaiiua ao?aeoaceae, noaee ia noi?iio Eiiaaioa. Iiiaea ae?oaea
naeoeee caiyee iaeo?aeueioth iiceoeeth eee ?aneieieenue. Ii ?yae
ieaaaeneeo naeoeee i?eniaaeeieeny e aeaeaeaieth i?ioea Eiiaaioa.

Iaaeaeo oai Eiiioia i?iyaeyea ia?aoeoaeueiinoue e ia i?aaei?eieiaea
aeoeaiuo aeaenoaee i?ioea Eiiaaioa. Aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu, eioi?ua ii
i?ecuao Eiiioiu nia?aeenue ia ieiuaaee ia?aae ?aoooae, ia/aee
?anoiaeeoueny. A aeaa /ana ii/e aii?oaeaiiua neeu Eiiaaioa ii/oe
aani?aiyonoaaiii aeinoeaee ?aoooe e ai?aaeenue a iaa. Aianoa n /eaiaie
Eiiioiu auee aiiaue a?anoiaaiu ?iaaniuea? e aai ni?aoieee.

28 ethey (10 oa?ieaei?a) ?oeiaiaeeoaee yeiaeineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa e
Eiiioiu, iauyaeaiiua aia caeiia, auee aac noaea aeeueioeie?iaaiu. Eacie
i?eaa?aeaioeaa ?aaiethoeeiiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?iaeieaeaeenue e a
neaaeothuea aeaa aeiy.

Ia?aai?io 9 oa?ieaei?a iecaa?a ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth
yeiaeineoth aeeeoaoo?o e oai naiui oaeoe/anee iieiaeee eiiaoe
?aaiethoeee.

1) A /ai caeeth/aeenue ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo yaa?enoaie e
?iaaniuea?enoaie?

2) *oi oaeia «Ia?eaeneay Eiiioia»?

3) Eaeoth ?aeeaeth iuoaeny onoaiiaeoue ?iaaniuea??

6. Oa?ieaei?eaineee Eiiaaio. Eiinoeoooeey 1795a.

Oa?ieaei?eaioeu ?aca?iieee aiia?ao ?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
aeeeoaoo?u. Iie eeoeee Eiieoao iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey aai i?aaeieo
iieiiii/ee e ooieoeee e eciaieee aai ninoaa. Aianoa n Ia?eaeneie
eiiioiie auea eeeaeaee?iaaia e ianniaay iii?a ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa – ia?iaeiua iauanoaa e ?aaiethoeeiiiua eiieoaou. I?inouo
ethaeae, ea?aaoeo aieueooth ?ieue a ?aaiethoeeiiiuo i?aaiao, iono?aieee
io o/anoey a iieeoe/aneie aeecie.

Caeeth/aiiua a oth?ueiao eiio??aaiethoeeiia?u oaea inaiueth 1794 a.
niiaa iieo/eee naiaiaeo e aeinooi e iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A
aeaeaa?a auoee ec oth?ai e aa?ioeenue a Eiiaaio ooeaeaaoea
aee?iiaeenoneea aeaiooaou.

Iaeiia?aiaiii oneeeaaeenue ?ai?annee i?ioea yeiaeioeaa. Aaiaeu
ao?aeoaciie «cieioie iieiaeaaee», oicyeie/aaoea ia oeeoeao Ia?eaea,
?aca?iieee iiiauaiea yeiaeineiai eeoaa. A iiya?a 1794 a. yeiaeineee eeoa
aue cae?uo ii iinoaiiaeaieth Eiiaaioa.

Oa?ieaei?eaioeu iiniaoeee eeeaeaee?iaaoue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai yeiaeineiai Eiiaaioa. Ana ia?aie/aiey, aaaaeaiiua
i?ioea niaeoeyoeee, auee ioiaiaiu. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ii?ie?iaaiea oeai a
oa/aiea iaeioi?iai a?aiaie aua iiieiaeueii nio?aiyeinue, ii ana aieaa
ia?ooaeinue ia i?aeoeea; a aeaeaa?a 1794 a. caeii i «iaeneioia» aue
ioeoeeaeueii ioiaiai. Aneaaenoaea ainnoaiiaeaiey iaia?aie/aiiie naiaiaeu
oi?aiaee ?aai/ea, iaeeea ?aianeaiieee, ai?iaeneay e naeueceay aaaeiioa
noaee aea?oaie i?iecaiea oi?aiaoeaa e niaeoeyioia, n?aco acaeioeaoeo
oeaiu ia ana i?iaeoeou. Aaaeiaeoea neie o?aioeocneiai ia?iaea auee
ia?a/aiu ia aieiae. Caoi ao?aeoacee ie/oi aieaa ia i?aiyonoaiaaei a aa
aacoaea?aeiie no?anoe e iaaeeaa. Niaeoeyoeey, ae?aeaaie aaeeioaae,
iaoeiaoeee, naycaiiua n iaaeaieai aeaiaaeiiai eo?na, iieo/eee iaauaaeue
?aciao. Eiee/anoai auiouaiiuo anneaiaoia au?inei n 8 ie?ae. eea?ia a
1794 a. aei 20 ie?ae. e ieoya?th 1795 a. Eo?n anneaiaoia no?aieoaeueii
iaaeae. A ethea 1794 a. ca anneaiao a 100 eea?ia ieaoeee 34 eea?a
caiieie iiiaoie; a iiya?a ii noiee 24 eea?a, a ia?oa 1795 a.- 14, a
ai?aea oiai aea aiaea oieueei 8 eea?ia. Niioaaonoaaiii aic?inee oeaiu ia
oiaa?u, a iniaaiiinoe ia i?aaeiaou oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey. Iieoiea e
ia?ai?iaeaaea «iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiouanoa» e aiaiiua iinoaaee i?iaeieaeaee
neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii auno?iai iaiaauaiey niaeoeyioia e aeaeueoeia.
Eaciie?aaenoai, acyoi/ie/anoai noaee auoiaui iianaaeiaaiui yaeaieai.
Aeaeiua oa?ieaei?eaioeu – Aa??an, Oaeueai, ?iaa?, O?a?ii e ae?.- ia?aua
yaeyee i?eia? oeuie/aneie iiaiie ca iaaeeaie. Eooaaee e i?aee, a?oaay
iieaciay ?ineioue, o?eaieueiay iocuea – oae a aeie ia?iaeiuo aaaenoaee
?acaeaeaeanue caoaaoeaoay aeanoue oa?ieaei?eaineay ao?aeoacey. Aaniie
1795 a. aeiaaaeaiiua aei io/ayiey aeanoieie ioaeaeie, aiciouaiiua
?aaeoeeieiie.iieeoeeie oa?ieaei?eaineeo i?aaeoaeae, o?oaeyueany Ia?eaea
aeaaaeaeu iiaeieiaee ainnoaiea. 12 aea?ieiaey (1 ai?aey) ianaeaiea
?aai/eo eaa?oaeia noieeoeu auoei ia oeeoeo n i?oaeeai a ?oeao.
Aeaiiino?aiou canoaaeee oa?ieaei?eaineee Eiiaaio auneooaoue eo aeaaiua
o?aaiaaiey: «Oeaa! Eiinoeoooeey 1793 aiaea! Inaiaiaeaeaiea iao?eioia!»
Ii eeoaiiua ?oeiaiaenoaa e /aoeiai ieaia aeaenoaee, ainnoaaoea ia noiaee
eniieueciaaoue ia?aiia/aeueiue oniao. Oa?ieaei?eaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai
nin?aaeioi/eei a Ia?eaea e?oiiua aii?oaeaiiua neeu e ia neaaeothuee
aeaiue iiaeaaeei ainnoaiea.

Ieiei aeaoo ianyoeaa nionoy, 1 i?a?eaey (20 iay), ia?iaeiua iannu
Ia?eaea niiaa ainnoaee. E yoiio a?aiaie iieiaeaiea o?oaeyueony noieeoeu
noaei aua ooaea. N ai?aey ii iae oeaiu ia oeaa aic?inee a 2-2,5 ?aca.
Yoi e?aeia aaaenoaaiiia iieiaeaiea ieaaaeneeo iann i?eaeaei ainnoaieth a
i?a?eaea oe?ieee ?aciao e aieueooth neeo. Ia noi?iio ainnoaaoaai ia?iaea
ia?aoei ianeieueei aaoaeueiiia iaoeeiiaeueiie aaa?aeee. Ainnoaaoei
oaeaeinue caoaaoeoue caeaiea Eiiaaioa. Ii e ia yoio ?ac ia?iaeiia
aunooieaiea iioa?iaei iaoaea/o. 4 i?a?eaey iinea iaeanoi/aiiie ai?ueau
ainnoaiea auei iiaeaaeaii aii?oaeaiiuie neeaie oa?ieaei?eaineiai
Eiiaaioa.

Oa?ieaei?eaioeu aeanoiei ?ani?aaeeenue n o?oaeyueieny Ia?eaea. .?aai/aa
ianaeaiea ia?eaeneeo i?aaeianoee auei iaaci?oaeaii, ianeieueei ouny/
/aeiaae a?anoiaaiu, a caoai inoaeaeaiu e nineaiu. «Iineaaeiea
iiioaiuey?u», aeaiooaou-yeiaeioeu ?iii, Aoaeii, Noa?aie e o?ia ae?oaeo,
iiaeaea?aeaaoea ainnoaiea e i?eaiai?aiiua e aeeueioeia, iieii/eee n
niaie iaeiei eeiaeaeii, eioi?ue oie?athuee ia?aaeaaae naiaio oiaa?euo.
?aoathuay iiaaaea i?e Oea?thna, iaea?aeaiiay ca ianyoe aei e?ooaiey
yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u, auea eeoue ia/aeii iineaaeothueo e?oiiuo oniaoia
o?aioeocneeo a?iee. E eiioeo 1794 a. e ia/aeo 1795 a. o?aioeocu caiyee
Aaeueaeth e Aieeaiaeeth, aanue eaaue aa?aa ?aeia, io ii?y aei Aeuei.

Aioeo?aioeocneay eiaeeoeey aa?iiaeneeo iiia?oee, ?acaee?aaiay
aioo?aiieie i?ioeai?a/eyie, ?aniaeanue iiae oaea?aie o?aioeocneeo aiene.
Ec e?oiiuo aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa ia?aie i?ae?aoeea ai?ueao I?onney. 5
ai?aey 1795 a. a Aacaea aue iiaeienai ie?iue aeiaiai? iaaeaeo O?aioeeae
e I?onneae, a neeo eioi?iai iineaaeiyy i?eciaaaea ia?aoiae eaaiai aa?aaa
?aeia e O?aioeee. A iaa oiai aea aiaea aue caeeth/ai ie? iaaeaeo
O?aioeeae e Aieeaiaeeae; ii yoiio aeiaiai?o Aieeaiaeey iaycaeanue
i?eiyoue o/anoea a aieia i?ioea Aiaeee. A ethea 1795 a. iiaeienaea ie? n
O?aioeeae oaeaea Eniaiey.

Iaeiaei ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa, aoiaeeaoea a aioeo?aioeocneoth eiaeeoeeth,
i?iaeieaeaee ai?ueao. Aiaeey noaiiaeeanue ana aieaa iai?eie?eiie,
iianaynue iiaaae. O?aioeee e oneeaiey aa aeeyiey a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia; ia
neeaaeuaaea i?oaeey e Aano?ey; ca Aiaeeae e Aano?eae neaaeiaaee iaeeea
aa?iaineea e eoaeueyineea ainoaea?noaa.

Oa?ieaei?eaioeu iaauaee ia?iaeiui iannai, aeaaaeaeu ainnoaaaaoei i?ioea
iiaiai ?aaeeia, aaaaeaiea eiinoeoooeee 1793 aiaea. Ii acaiai iaauaiiie
iannai eiinoeoooeee 1793 aiaea yaeeanue ia naao Ao?aeoaciay ii nouanoao
Eiinoeoooeey 1795 aiaea. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiue ei?ion ii yoie eiinoeoooeee
ninoiye ec aeaoo iaeao. Ieaeiyy iaeaoa – Niaao 500 – eiaea eieoeeaoeao
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ianoaeaeaea caeiiii?iaeou. Aa?oiyy iaeaoa – Niaao
noa?aeoei (aai /eaiu aeieaeiu auoue ia ieaaeoa 40 eao e auoue aeaiaouie
eee aaeiaoeaie – oneiaea «aeia?iii?yaei/iinoe») – i?eieiaea eee
ioaa?aaea caeiiii?iaeo (oieueei aieiniaaee: ianoaeaeaiey ia
iieaaaeinue).

Ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai naeaeaeinue niiaa oeaiciaui, auai?u –
aeaoonoaiaiiuie. Ecae?aoaeue, ienney eioi?iai ia?aie/eaaeanue eca?aieai
auai?ueeia, aeieaeai aue ieaoeoue iaeia. Auai?uee – eeoei, iieiiii/iia
ecae?aoue aeaiooaoia iaaeo iaeao (Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona), noaeae e
anao auai?iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe aiiaua, – aeieaeai aue iaeaaeaoue
eiouanoaii, i?eiinyuei aeioiae, ?aaiue ii iaiueoae ia?a 150-aeiaaiie
ca?aaioiie ieaoa, niaoeeaeueii en/eneyaiie.

Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue a?o/aeanue iniaiio eiieoaoo ec 5 /eaiia –
Aee?aeoi?ee – ae iiae/eiyeenue ieieno?u, aeaia?oaiaioneea aeanoe,
aiaiiia eiiaiaeiaaiea; ecae?aeanue iia Caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ei?ionii.

1) Eaeia ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona?

2) Eaeea eciaiaiey i?iaaaeaiu Eiiaaioii a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
iaeanoe?

3) Eaeea eciaiaiey i?iecioee a ecae?aoaeueiii i?aaa?

7. Aiaoiyy e aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea Aee?aeoi?ee

I?aaeaiea Aee?aeoi?ee caia/aoaeueii ?aceeie niaiaie i?eaioaoeee –
“iieeoeeie ea/aeae“. Ia/aei i?aaeaiey (1796 aiae) auei ii?a/aii
caaiai?ii Aaaaoa – o?aioeocneiai eiiioienoa-ooiienoa (oioae naa?aiooue
ainiiaenoai ao?aeoacee, onoaiiaeoue eiiioienoe/aneee iauanoaaiiue no?ie,
ii aue auaeai i?aaeaoaeai).

Aaeaa ii?aaeaoenue io no?aoa ia?aae eiiioieciii, Aee?aeoi?ey
noieeioeanue n iianiinoueth ?iyeenoneiai ia?aai?ioa (1797 aiae) –
aiciaiiaeeenue i?aneaaeiaaiey yiea?aioia e ia i?enyaioaoeo nayuaiieeia;
?iyeenou-aeaiooaou auee eneeth/aiu ec Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona.

?aaeoeeiiiinoue iiaiai ?aaeeia e aai ianiiniaiinoue ni?aaeoueny n
yeiiiie/aneeie aaaenoaeyie aucaaee iiaue iiaeuai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
aeaeaeaiey. A ioaao ec Caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ei?iona auee oaeaeaiu
aeaiooaou-aeaiie?aou (1798 aiae).

Iniaaiii oyaeaeuie aeey o?oaeyueony ieacaeenue ceia e aania 1795-1796
aa. I?iaeieaeathuayny eioeyoeey, iai?a?uaiia iaaeaiea eo?na anneaiaoia e
iaoaea?aeeiue ?ino oeai nicaeaee aacauoiaeiia iieiaeaiea aeey ?aai/eo,
?aianeaiieeia, neoaeaueo, eioaeeeaaioeee. «Eeoue caaeeoi/iue eeann
iiaeao iieueciaaoueny aeeciueth a ianoiyuee iiiaio, a o?oaeyueany
iaoiaeyony a e?aeiae ioaeaea»; ?aianeaiieee e ?aai/ea «aeaeyo ana
iaiueoa niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo ieiaeaie naiaai o?oaea e naieie
iianaaeiaaiuie iio?aaiinoyie»; «io/ayiea e ai?a aeinoeaee aunoaai
i?aaeaea»- oaeiai ?iaea cayaeaiey i?eaiaeeeenue a yoe aeie ii/oe a
eaaeaeii iieeoeaeneii aeiianaiee. ?aai/ea, neoaeauea auioaeaeaiu auee
i?iaeaaaoue e caeeaaeuaaoue iineaaeiaa. Ii oeeoeai a?iaeeee iai?aaiiua
ethaee, eneaaoea a ioni?a ?aciua ioa?inu, /oiau ooieeoue aieiae.
Ianniaue oa?aeoa? i?eiyee naiioaeenoaa.

Iniaaiii ai?ueeia ?aci/a?iaaiea iai?eaeyaeiie ao?aeoaciie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth eniuouaaee ?aai/ea. Yoi niinianoaiaaei
i?iaoaeaeaieth eo eeanniaiai niciaiey. ?aai/ea ia oieueei n ni/oanoaeai
aniiieiaee a?aiy yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u, ii e eneaee eaeeo-oi iiauo
iooae, /oiau iieii/eoue n nouanoaothuei iauanoaaiiui ceii.

Au?aceoaeai yoeo niooiuo nioeeaeueiuo /ayiee ?aai/aai eeanna, iinoaiaiii
auaeaeyaoaainy ec iauae ieaaaeneie iannu, yaeeny Iiyeue-O?ainoa Aaaao
(1760 – 1797), iacaaaoee naay eiaiai ae?aaia?eineiai o?eaoia-?aoi?iaoi?a
A?aeoa. N ia?auo aea aeiae ?aaiethoeee ii noae, eae ii nai aiai?ee,
«i?iiaaaiaeenoii naiaiaeu e caueoieeii oaiaoaiiuo» e i?eiye aeoeaiia
o/anoea a ao?iuo niauoeyo yoie yiioe. Iaiaeiie?aoii iiaeaa?aaynue
a?anoai e i?aneaaeiaaieyi, Aaaao oaea a ia?aua aiaeu ?aaiethoeee
aunooiee ?aoeoaeueiui i?ioeaieeii /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth,
aeiaeaaeny ia ?ani?iaeaaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiouanoa, a eo ?acaea/e a
aeieain?i/ioth a?aiaeo iaeieiouei e?anoueyiai. Aaniie 1793 a. Aaaao
ninoaaee i?iaeo «caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa naietheioia», eioi?ia aeieaeii auei
iaania/eoue «niaa?oaiiia ?aaainoai». Ioaeanoaaiiue ?aaiethoeeiia?,
niaeue iuneeoaeue, /aeiaae aeaenoaey, eneaaoee ?aoaiey aeao/eo
nioeeaeueiuo aii?inia, Aaaao auaeaeioeny a i?a/iua aiaeu
oa?ieaei?eaineie ?aaeoeee. A 1795 a., neaey a oth?ueia, ii naeeceeny n
caeeth/aiiuie oai ?aaiethoeeiia?aie-aeaiie?aoaie Aoiia??ioe, Aea?oy e
iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie e nieioee eo aie?oa eiiioienoe/aneeo eaeae e ieaia
iiaiai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ia?aai?ioa.

Aueaey ec oth?ueiu iinea aiienoee, iauyaeaiiie oa?ieaei?eaineei
Eiiaaioii, Aaaao e aai aaeeiiiuoeaiieee – aaaoaenou yia?ae/ii acyeenue
ca aeaei. A ia/aea 1796 a. iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Aaaaoa auea nicaeaia
«Oaeiay aee?aeoi?ey iauanoaaiiiai nianaiey», aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?ie
aioea a enoi?eth iiae iacaaieai «caaiai?a ai eiy ?aaainoaa». Aaaoaenou
n/eoaee, /oi iieiia ?aaainoai inouanoaeii eeoue i?e eiiioiecia –
iauanoaaiiii no?ia, ia ciathuai /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Eiiioienoe/aneia
iauanoai i?aaenoaaeyeinue ei iniiaaiiui ia no?iai ?aaiiia?iii
?ani?aaeaeaiee anao iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa iaaeaeo a?aaeaeaiaie, o. a. ia
o?aaieoaeueiinoe. Yoi aue i?eieoeaiue, o?aaieoaeueiue eiiioieci, aua
aeaeaeee io iao/iiai eiiioiecia. Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io Ii?aeee e ae?oaeo
o?aioeocneeo i?aae?aaiethoeeiiiuo iuneeoaeae-eiiioienoia, o/aieeii
eioi?uo aue Aaaao, aaaoaenou ia oieueei ?eniaaee aoaeouaa
eiiioienoe/aneia iauanoai, ii e noaaeee aii?in i i?aeoe/aneeo iooyo aai
nicaeaiey. Iiae aeeyieai iiuoa ?aaiethoeee iie i?eoee e oaaaeaeaieth a
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ianeeuenoaaiiiai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ia?aai?ioa, e iunee i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe onoaiiaeaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeeeoaoo?u o?oaeyueony, oioy
iie ia iiieiaee – e ia oie nooiaie iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey e ia iiaee
iiiyoue – enoi?e/aneie ?iee i?ieaoa?eaoa.

Iiaia, ?aaiethoeeiiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeieaeii auei, ii iiaieth
aaaoaenoia, n?aco aea i?eiyoue ia?u, /oiau iaeaa/eoue iieiaeaiea
ia?iaeiuo iann. A yoeo oeaeyo i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?aaieciaaoue aanieaoiia
niaaaeaiea ianaeaiey oeaaii, aacaiciacaeii aa?iooue ec eiiaa?aeia aaue,
caeiaeaiiua aaaeiioie, anaeeoue iaeioueo a aeiia aiaa/ae. Ii iniiaiay
caaea/a ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeeeoaoo?u ninoiyea a iinoaiaiiii onoaiiaeaiee
ai O?aioeee eiiioiecia. Iaia/aeinue i?aaieciaaoue aieueooth
«iaoeeiiaeueioth eiiioio», e eioi?ie aeieaeiu auee ia?aeoe
ia?ani?iaeaiiua aei oa?ieaei?a oea?eiaiua caiee e caiee yiea?aioia, a
oaeaea eiouanoai a?aaia ?aaiethoeee. Ia?yaeo n «iaoeeiiaeueiie eiiioiie»
a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai n?iea aeieaeiu auee nio?aiyoueny e /anoiua
oicyenoaa e?anoueyi e ?aianeaiieeia. A aeaeueiaeoai a ?acoeueoaoa oeaeie
nenoaiu ia?ii?eyoee (iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, ioiaiu i?aaa ianeaaeiaaiey e
ae?.) /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue iiaeeaaeaea ieii/aoaeueiie eeeaeaeaoeee.

Aie?oa Aaaaoa e aai aacaou «O?eaoi ia?iaea» nieioeeenue ooeaeaaoea
aeayoaee ia?eaeneeo naeoeee e ia?iaeiuo iauanoa, ninoaaeaoea einoye
aaaoaenoneiai aeaeaeaiey. A aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, iiaeaioiaeyaoae
ainnoaiea, aeoeaiia o/anoea i?eieiae auoaaeoee ec ieaaaeneie n?aaeu
aaia?ae ?inneiueieue. E aeaeaeaieth i?eieioee iaeioi?ua ?iaaniuea?enou,
auaoea aeaiooaou yeiaeineiai Eiiaaioa, eae, iai?eia?, Ae?oy
(a?anoiaaaoee a Aa?aiea Ethaeiaeea XVI).

Aaaoaenou ?acaa?ioee a Ia?eaea oe?ieoth i?iiaaaiaeo, iaoiaeeaooth
ni/oanoaaiiue ioeeee n?aaee o?oaeyueony o?aioeocneie noieeoeu. A ai?aea
1796 a. iaeia ia?eaeneay aacaoa niiauaea, /oi aeaaea ia oeeoeao aaaeoony
?acaiai?u i oao aeaaao, eioi?uo iiaeii auei au aeiaeoueny a neo/aa
onoaiiaeaiey iauiinoe eiouanoa.

Ouaoaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiue «Oaeiie aee?aeoi?eae» ieai aii?oaeaiiiai
ainnoaiey aue, iaeiaei, ni?aai: i?iaieaoi?, i?ia?aaoeeny a ?yaeu
o/anoieeia aeaeaeaiey, auaeae aai i?aaeoaeuenoao. A iaa 1796 a. Aaaaoa e
ae?oaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae «Oaeiie aee?aeoi?ee» a?anoiaaee. Iiiuoea
iaoiaeeaoeony iiae aeeyieai aaaoaenoia nieaeao A?aiaeueneiai eaaa?y
iiaeiyoue ainnoaiea iioa?iaea iaoaea/o. Aiae nionoy Aaaao e Aea?oy auee
eaciaiu. Iie ano?aoeee nia?oue oae aea, eae aeeee, – ioaeanoaaiii e
aeaai?iaeii. ?aca?ii caaiai?a Aaaaoa iaian oyaeaeue oaea? ii
aeaiie?aoe/aneei neeai e iiiu?ee ?iyeenoia. A 1797 a. ia auai?ao iaeiie
o?aoe aeaiooaoia a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu ?iyeenou iaea?aeaee iiaaaeo.
Eiay iiiai/eneaiiuo noi?iiieeia a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa, iie ii/oe
ioe?uoi aioiaeeenue e ia?aai?ioo. Aee?aeoi?ey iia?aaeeea eo. 3 naioya?y
1797 a. i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aienea caiyee caeaiey Niaaoa iyoenio e Niaaoa
noa?aeoei e a?anoiaaee /anoue aeaiooaoia. Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue, 4
naioya?y (18 o?oeoeaei?a), auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia aiioee?iaaiee
eca?aiey aeaiooaoia-iiia?oenoia, i aunueea eo a eieiiee, ia oneeaiee
?ai?annee i?ioea iiia?oe/aneie i?iiaaaiaeu a no?aia.

Aaaey ai?ueao n ?iyeenoaie, Aee?aeoi?ey auioaeaeaia auea eneaoue
iiaeaea?aeee a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii eaaa?a, n?aaee ooeaeaaoeo yeiaeioeaa. Ii
aeinoaoi/ii auei ianeieueei ineaaeoue ia?aie/aiey aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
naiaiae, eae aeeyiea aeaiie?aoe/aneeo nee a no?aia iiyoue auno?i
aic?inei. Ia auai?ao 1798 a. ?anioaeeeaioeu-aeaiie?aou iaea?aeaee
na?ueacioth iiaaaeo: n?aaee eca?aiiuo ieacaeinue ianeieueei aeayoaeae
ia?eiaea yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u. Iaioaaiiay ecae?aoaeueiuie oniaoaie
eaauo a?oiie?iaie, Aee?aeoi?ey oaia?ue ea/ioeanue ai?aai e i?iaaea 11
iay (22 oei?aaey) 1798 a. ?aoaiea ia aiioee?iaaiee auai?ia
aeaiooaoia-aeaiie?aoia. Naie oaoaiey oi ai?aai, oi aeaai Aee?aeoi?ey
iuoaeanue i?aaenoaaeoue iieeoeeie «cieioie na?aaeeiu». Nia?aiaiieee
aeaee ae ai?acaei aieaa i?aaeeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea, iacaaa «iieeoeeie
ea/aeae». Yoa iieeoeea au?aaeaea aioo?aiithth neaainoue e aieeinoue
?aaeeia Aee?aeoi?ee.

Aani?eioeeiiay iieeoeea eaae?iaaiey iaaeaeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie
iieeoe/aneeie eaaa?yie iiaea iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaonoie/eaue ?aaeei
Aee?aeoi?ee eeoue aei oao ii?, iiea e?oiiuie iiaaaeaie ia o?iioao
i?ee?uaaeenue aai aioo?aiiea ii?iee.

O?aioeocneea a?iee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai oaeeo oaeaioeeauo iieeiaiaeoeaa,
eae Aio, Aiiaia?o, Ii?i, AEo?aeaie ae?., eniieuecoy iiaua, nicaeaiiua
?aaiethoeeae iaoiaeu aaaeaiey aieiu, iiaoth oaeoeeo e no?aoaaeth,
i?iaeieaeaee iiaaaeaeaoue. Iie aeee aienea Aano?eeneie eiia?ee e aa
nithcieeia, a eioi?uo oea?eea ?ooeia, ianaaeaeaaoayny nianeauie,
aacaea?iuie aiaia/aeueieeaie. Iniiaiua oaea?u ii aano?eeneei aieneai
iaianea o?aioeocneay a?iey a Naaa?iie Eoaeee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
Aiiaia?oa. Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o (1769-1821), nui iaaaeiaaoaai ei?neeaineiai
aaeaieaoa, o/eaoeeny ia eacaiiue n/ao a i?iaeioeeaeueiii A?eaiineii
aiaiiii o/eeeua, aue iaeiei ec oao iieiaeuo aaia?aeia, eioi?ua
aeaaiaea?y naiaio aea?iaaieth auno?i auaeaeioeenue a ia?eiae
?aaiethoeee. Iinea iiaeaaeaiey ei aaiaeaiuea?neiai ainnoaiey ?iyeenoia
Aee?aeoi?ey iinoaaeea aai ai aeaaa o?aioeocneie a?iee, iai?aaeaiiie a
ai?aea 1796 a. a Naaa?ioth Eoaeeth.

Aiiaia?o i?eioaeee nia?aa Na?aeeineia ei?ieaanoai, a caoai e ae?oaea
eoaeueyineea ainoaea?noaa caeeth/eoue ie? n O?aioeeae. Eciee?iaaa oaeei
ia?acii aano?eeoeaa, ii iaian ei ?yae ?aoathueo ii?aaeaiee ia oa??eoi?ee
Naaa?iie Eoaeee. 10 iay ii ?acaee aano?eeneea aienea a n?aaeaiee i?e
Eiaee, aioae , a Ieeai e anei?a i?enooiee e inaaea aeaaiie aano?eeneie
aiaiiie , aacu – e?aiinoe Iaiooe. A n?aaeaieyo i?e Eanoeeueiia (5
aaaonoa), Aannaii (8 naioya?y), A?eiea (17 iiya?y 1796 a.) e ?eaiee (14
yiaa?y 1797 a.) o?aioeocneea aienea, iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?aca?iieee /aou?a
aano?eeneea a?iee, ia?aa?ioaiiua iaeia ca ae?oaie a Eoaeeth. Aeiaeaoenue
eaieooeyoeee Iaiooe (2 oaa?aey), o?aioeocneea aienea i?aaei?eiyee, iiaia
ianooieaiea, aoi?aeenue /a?ac Aaiaoeeaineoth ?anioaeeeo ia oa??eoi?eth
Aano?ee e noaee auno?i i?eaeeaeaoueny e Aaia.

A ai?aea 1797 a. Aano?ee i?eoeinue caeeth/eoue ia?aie?ea, a 17 ieoya?y
oiai aea aiaea iiaeienaoue n O?aioeeae ie?iue aeiaiai? a Eaiii-Oi?iei.
Aano?ey auioaeaeaia auea i?eciaoue i?eniaaeeiaiea e O?aioeee Aaeueaee e
eaaiai aa?aaa ?aeia e ioeacaoueny io Eiiaa?aeee, iieo/ea acaiai
aieueooth /anoue oa??eoi?ee auaoae Aaiaoeeaineie ?anioaeeee, A Naaa?iie
Eoaeee o?aioeocu iniiaaee aeaa «aei/a?iea» ?anioaeeee – Oeecaeueieineoth
e Eeao?eeneoth, iinoaaeaiiua a iieioth caaeneiinoue io O?aioeee.

Ii ia?a i?iaeieaeaiey aieiu oa?aeoa? aa ia/ae iaiyoueny. Ia oeaeyo aieiu
e niiniaao aa aaaeaiey noaee neacuaaoueny iineaaenoaey oa?ieaei?eaineiai
ia?aai?ioa e caoaaoa aeanoe e?oiiie ao?aeoaceae. Aee?aeoi?ey ia oieueei
ia niaaaeaea naie a?iee, ei?ieaoeany ca n/ao ianaeaiey ieeoie?iaaiiuo
oa??eoi?ee, ii e naia aeeea ca eo n/ao. I?e caeeth/aiee ie?iiai
aeiaiai?a n Aieeaiaeeae O?aioeey i?eioaeeea auieaoeoue ae 100 iei.
oei?eiia. E?oiiuie eiio?eaooeeyie auee iaeiaeaiu caiyoua o?aioeocneie
a?ieae aa?iaineea e oaaeoea?neea ai?iaea. Ii iniaaiii aaccanoai/eai
aeaenoaiaae Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o a Eoaeee. Caeeth/ay aeiaiai?u, ii o?aaiaae
iiiaiieeeeiiiuo eiio?eaooeee, caoaaouaae e auaicee ai O?aioeeth
oieeaeueiua iaiyoieee eneonnoaa e ia?iiiua iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe.
Iieo/ay io naieo aaia?aeia iaa?aaeaiiia eie cieioi, Aee?aeoi?ey
iiiaaeaea ana a aieueooth io ieo caaeneiinoue. O?aioeocneay ?anioaeeea
i?aa?auaeanue a neeueiaeooth aea?aeaao eiioeiaioaeueiie Aa?iiu. Ii
aeaaiue i?ioeaiee O?aioeee – Aiaeey, iaoycaeiay aeey o?aioeocneeo a?iee
aeaaiaea?y naiaio ino?iaiiio iieiaeaieth e neeueiiio ii?neiio oeioo,
i?iaeieaeaea ai?ueao. No?aiynue iaianoe /oanoaeoaeueiue oaea? Aiaeee e
iiaei?aaoue aa eieiieaeueiia iiaouanoai, i?aaeoaeuenoai Aee?aeoi?ee
?aoeei iiaeaioiaeoue aiaiioth yeniaaeeoeeth aeey caaiaaaiey aiaaoaeoeo
aiaeeeneeo aeaaeaiee a Eiaeee. Oae eae iooue a Eiaeeth eaaeae /a?ac
a?aaneea no?aiu, Aee?aeoi?ey iaeia?eea auaeaeiooia Aiiaia?oii iinea aai
aica?auaiey ec Eoaeee i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeaaeaoue Aaeioii, aoiaeeaoei a
ninoaa Iniaineie eiia?ee. Caoaao Aaeioa, ecaeaaia yaeyaoaainy iauaeoii
eieiieaeueiuo ono?aieaiee o?aioeocneie ao?aeoacee, i?aneaaeiaae e eioth
oeaeue. Ii aeieaeai aue ainnoaiiaeoue e oi?i/eoue yeiiiie/aneea e
iieeoe/aneea iiceoeee O?aioeee ia Ainoiea, oo?a/aiiua ath a ia?eiae
?aaiethoeee. A ethea 1798 a. o?aioeocneea aienea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
Aiiaia?oa aunaaeeeenue a Aeaenaiae?ee. Oaeoe/aneay aeanoue a Aaeioa
i?eiaaeeaaeaea oiaaea ia oo?eai, a ianoiui oaiaeaeueiui i?aaeoaeyi –
iaietheneei aayi. ?aca?iiea io?yaeu iaietheia a n?aaeaiee o ie?aieae,
o?aioeocu anooieee a Eae? e ieeoie?iaaee cia/eoaeueioth /anoue no?aiu.
Iaeiaei aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea niauoee ieacaeinue aeey ieo
iaaeaaii?eyoiui.

Aiaeeeneee oeio aaeie?aea Iaeueniia oie/oiaeee o Aaoee?a ei?aaee,
aeinoaaeaoea o?aioeocneee aeanaio, e oai naiui eeoee o?aioeocneoth
a?ieth aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aoue iiaee?aieaiey e niaaaeaiea ec O?aioeee. A
naiii Aaeioa o?aioeocu noieeioeenue n nii?ioeaeaieai ia?iaeiuo iann,
aunooiaaoeo i?ioea iiauo caoaao/eeia. E oiio aea oo?aoeeee noeoai Naeei
III a ioaao ia aoi?aeaiea o?aioeocia a Aaeiao a naioya?a 1798 a. iauyaee
O?aioeee aieio, a a ia/aea 1799 a., caeeth/ea nithc n ?inneae e Aiaeeae,
aeaeioe /a?ac Ne?eth aienea aeey ianooieaiey i?ioea o?aioeocia.

Aiiaia?o iiiuoaeny iia?aaeeoue oo?ie. ?aiiae aaniie 1799 a. iniiaiua
neeu o?aioeocneie yeniaaeeoeeiiiie a?iee aoi?aeenue a thaeioth Ne?eth e
inaaeeee e?aiinoue Aeeo, ii iinea aeaooiany/iie aanieiaeiie inaaeu ei
i?eoeinue ionooieoue e aa?iooueny a Aaeiao.

Anei?a Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o oaoae ai O?aioeeth, ia?aaeaa eiiaiaeiaaiea
aieneaie aaia?aeo Eeaaa?o. Ianiio?y ia /anoe/iua aiaiiua oniaoe Eeaaa?a,
iieiaeaiea o?aioeocia a Aaeioa ana aieueoa oooaeoaeinue. A Aaeioa ?inei
ia?iaeiia aiciouaiea i?ioea o?aioeocia.

A 1800 a. Eeaaa? aue oaeo a?aaneei iao?eioii. Aiae nionoy, a aaaonoa
1801 a., o?aioeocneea aienea, oanieiua aiaee/aiaie e oo?eaie,
auioaeaeaiu auee eaieooee?iaaoue e yaaeoe?iaaoueny ec Aaeioa. Aiaiiua
iaoaea/e e iianiinoue aoi?aeaiey iai?eyoaeueneeo a?iee ai O?aioeeth
canoaaeee Aee?aeoi?eth i?eiyoue ?yae /?acau/aeiuo ia?. Ianniaue i?ecua a
a?ieth (aoi?ie ?ac iinea 1793 a.) aeae ianeieueei nio ouny/ iiauo
nieaeao. Ia ?oeiaiaeyuea iinou auee auaeaeioou iaeioi?ua auaoea
yeiaeioeu. Aiiaue . aue eaaaeeciaai yeiaeineee eeoa, a eioi?ii i?eiyee
aeoeaiia o/anoea ooeaeaaoea aaaoaenou. I?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaaei
i?eioaeeoaeueiue caai ca n/ao aiaa/ae e caeii i caeiaeieeao,
iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea naiae yiea?aioia e eiio??aaiethoeeiia?ia. Oioy ia
aeaea Aee?aeoi?ey ia aeoiaea i?iaiaeeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueioth
aeaiie?aoe/aneoth iieeoeeo, ii yoe ia?ii?eyoey aniieioeee e?oiioth
ao?aeoaceth; ae eacaeinue, /oi iiyoue aica?auaaony 1793 aiae. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, oneeeeanue iiia?oe/aneay iianiinoue. ?iyeenou aiiaue iiaeiyee
ainnoaiea a Aaiaeaa e iaaiaeieee no?aio aii?oaeaiiuie aaiaeeoneeie
oaeeaie, oa??i?ece?iaaaoeie ianoiua aeanoe e ianaeaiea.

I/aaeaeiay aeey anao neaainoue Aee?aeoi?ee, aa iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e
iaee/ea a iae aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee iaoaeeeaaee ?oeiaiaeyuea e?oae
ao?aeoacee ia iuneue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe «neeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa»,
iie?athuaainy ia a?ieth e niiniaiiai iaania/eoue ao?aeoaciue «ii?yaeie»
e eioa?anu ao?aeoacee eae aioo?e, oae e aia no?aiu.

Eiaaea a ieoya?a 1799 a. aaia?ae Aiiaia?o, a?inea naith a?ieth a Aaeioa,
aa?ioeny a Ia?eae, ii canoae oai ii/ao, iiaeaioiaeaiioth aeey eciaiaiey
iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia. Aeeyoaeueiua i?aaenoaaeoaee ao?aeoacee oneeaiii
eneaee eaiaeeaeaoa ia ?ieue aeeeoaoi?a. Iacuaaee eiaia aaia?aeia Ii?i,
AEo?aeaia, iacuaaee e eiy Aiiaia?oa.

Iaiieaii Aiiaia?o aeaaii eaeaye /anoiethaeaua ia/ou i aeanoe. Ec anao
o?aioeocneeo aaia?aeia ii ia oieueei aue naiui oaeaioeeaui e
?aoeoaeueiui, ii eiae iaeaieaa oaniua nayce n ao?aeoaciie aa?oooeie, a
/anoiinoe n «iiauie aiaa/aie». Iaaeeoia ei a Eoaeee iooai acyoie e
oeuaiee ieeeeiiiia ninoiyiea ii i?eoiiiaeee niaeoeyoeeyie ia iieoiea e
ia?ai?iaeaaea caiaeueiuo aeaaeaiee ai O?aioeee.

Aiiaia?oo iiiiaee iiuoiua iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee ao?aeoacee – auaoee
eeaea? eiinoeoooeeiiaeenoia Neaean, oiiue e aa?ieiiiue ieieno?
eiino?aiiuo aeae Oaeae?ai, ianoa? iieeoe/aneiai nunea e i?iaieaoeee
ieieno? iieeoeee Oooa, a oaeaea aeeyoaeueiaeoea aaiee?u e aeanoeoaee
ae?aee. Ii/oanoaiaaa neeo Aiiaia?oa e iaaeaynue eniieueciaaoue aai a
naieo eioa?anao, iie i?aaeeiaeeee aio naith iiaeaea?aeeo, nayce,
aeaiueae. Iio?aaiaaeinue anaai o?e iaaeaee io aica?auaiey Aiiaia?oa a
Ia?eae aei inouanoaeaiey ouaoaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ia?aai?ioa, eeeaeaee?iaaaoaai ?aaeei Aee?aeoi?ee.

9 iiya?y (18 a?thia?a) 1799 a. iiae i?aaeeiaii caueou ?anioaeeee io
auiuoeaiiiai yeiaeineiai caaiai?a a Ia?eaea auei aaaaeaii aiaiiia
iieiaeaiea, a Aiiaia?o iacia/ai eiiaiaeothuei aieneaie Ia?eaeneiai
aiaiiiai ie?oaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeaee a ionoaaeo ana /eaiu Aee?aeoi?ee.
Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue, 10 iiya?y (19 a?thia?a), Aiiaia?o n iiiiuueth
aa?iuo aio a?aiaaea?ia ?aciaiae Niaao iyoenio e Niaao noa?aeoei e
i?iaeeeoiaae eo/ea nia?aiiuo ei aeaiooaoia aeae?ao i ia?aaea/a aeanoe
o?ai eiinoeai, ia?aui ec eioi?uo noae ii nai.

Oae auea onoaiiaeaia aiaiiay aeeeoaoo?a Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa.

1) *oi oaeia «Oaeiay Aee?aeoi?ey»?

2) Eaeei ia?acii Aiaeey iuoaeanue ai?ioueny n O?aioeeae?

3) Eoi iiiia Iaiieaiio i?eaeoe e aeanoe?

8. Eoiae e cia/aiea Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee

A. o. ?. eiaea ia?iiiia enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea. Aoaeo/e ii naiaio
oa?aeoa?o ia?iaeiie, ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie, A. o. ?. ?aoeoaeueiaa
e iniiaaoaeueiaa, /ai eaeay-eeai ae?. ec ?aiieo ao?aeoaciuo ?aaiethoeee,
iieii/eea n oaiaeaeueii-aaniethoenoneei no?iai e oai naiui
niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth i?ia?anneaiuo aeey oiai a?aiaie
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. A. o. ?. caeiaeeea iniiao i?i/iuo
?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo o?aaeeoeee o?aioeocneiai ia?iaea, iia
ieacaea na?ue?ciia e aeeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iineaaeothuoth enoi?eth ia
oieueei O?aioeee, ii e iiiaeo ae?. no?ai (eo eaeaieiaeth, eneonnoai e
eeoa?aoo?o). Aaeeeay o?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey 1789 a. niinianoaiaaea
caaa?oaieth oi?ie?iaaiey o?aioeocneie iaoeee. 14 ethey 1790 a. ia
i?acae-ieea Oaaea?aoeee ii neo/ath ia?aie aiaeiaueiu ?aaiethoeee
aeaeaaaou, i?eauaoea ni anao eiioeia no?aiu, cayaeee i naiae
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iaeiiio iaoeeiiaeueiiio niiauanoao. I?iaicaeaoaiiuie
eie eaeaaeaie auee naiaiaea eaaeaeiai i?e oaaaeaiee naiaiaeu anao, i?aai
ia?iaeia naiei ?anii?yaeaoueny naiae noaeueaie e einoeoooaie,
i?ecaaiiuie iaania/eaaoue nioeeaeueiia aeaaiiieo/ea, e o. ae. Yoe
/ayiey, noi?ioee?iaaiiua a i?eiyoie 26 aaaonoa 1789 a. Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa
/aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia, oianeaaeiaaiu ec oeeinioee I?inaauaiey XVIII a.
Aa niaea?aeaiea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeeei acaeyaeu oaeeo oeeinioia, eae
Iiioaneuea, eioi?ue a naiai ni/eiaiee “I aeooa caeiiia” (1748 a.)
auaeaeaaao i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey eniieieoaeueiie, caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e
noaeaaiie aeanoae, eee AEai-AEae ?onni, eioi?ue ?acaee iiiyoey
iieeoe/aneiai ?aaainoaa e noaa?aieoaoa ia?iaea a ?aaioa “Ia iauanoaaiiii
aeiaiai?a” (1762 a.). Yoe ni/eiaiey aaeioiiaeee oaeaea e aaoi?ia
i?eiyoie a 1787 a. Eiinoeoooeee NOA. Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaicaeaoaiiua
aaeeeeie o?aioeocneeie i?inaaoeoaeyie oeaiiinoe noaee anaie?iuie e ii
i?aao n/eoathony iniiaie nia?aiaiiie aeaiie?aoee. Iie aucaaee noieue
oe?ieee ioeeee, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aaeioiiaeee
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiua aeaeaeaiey a XIX a., a iicaea
aiieioeeenue ai Anaiauae aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea, i?eiyoie
I?aaiecaoeeae Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee 10 aeaeaa?y 1948 a.

Iaeiaei i?eioeeiu, i?iaicaeaoaiiua a Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa /aeiaaea e
a?aaeaeaieia, ia n?aco noaee ?aaeueiinoueth. E oioy iie aieueoae
/anoueth aioee a oaeno ia?aie eiinoeoooeee O?aioeee (1791 a.) e aua
iieiaa – aoi?ie eiinoeoooeee (1793 a.), iiiaaeiayony a?aiy,
iiiai/eneaiiua iieeoe/aneea niaeaoaiey e nioeeaeueiua aeoau, i?aaeaea
/ai iie noaioo aeaenoaeoaeueii iaiouaieaiuie i?aaaie. Ia?aay ?anioaeeea
auea i?iaicaeaoaia 22 naioya?y 1792 a., ii ?iaeaeaiiie ath a 1793 a.
aeaiie?aoe/aneie eiinoeoooeee ia noaeaeaii auei aiieioeoueny a aeeciue.
A?aaeaeaineay aieia a no?aia, iaiaoiaeeiinoue io?aaeaoue ia anao o?iioao
aiaoithth aa?anneth eiaeeoeee aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa i?ioea O?aioeee
i?eaiaeyo e onoaiiaeaieth ?aaeeia oa??i?a, aanueia aeaeaeiai io
aeaai?iaeiuo eaeaaeia 1789 a. Iinea eacie ?iaaniuea?a a ethea 1794 a.
oa?ieaei?eaineee Eiiaaio (1794-1795 aa.) e Aee?aeoi?ey (1795-1799 aa.)
caaa?oathony caoaaoii aeanoe Aiiaia?oii, eiinoeii n 1799 ii 1804 a., a
caoai eiia?aoi?ii o?aioeocia. Naa?aiooay a 1792 a. iiia?oey onooiaao
ianoi eiia?ee, ioee/athuaeny io iaa e ii oi?ia, e ii nouanoao, ii a
ia?eiae eiia?ee o?aioeocu aiiaue noaiiayony iiaeaeaiiuie, iinea oiai eae
iaaeieai auee a?aaeaeaiaie.

A oiaea aiei a?aiai Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee e eiia?ee O?aioeey
iuoaeanue iaaycaoue cia/eoaeueiie /anoe Aa?iiu naith iiaeaeue e naie
einoeooou, iaeiaei ia?aiia/aeueiua iaia?aiey i?eianoe naiaiaeo
“oaiaoaiiui ia?iaeai” auno?i ia?a?iaeeeenue a caoaaoie/aneea aieiu e
aiiaenee, a “i?aai ia?iaeia naiei ?anii?yaeaoueny naiae noaeueaie” noaei
ionoie o?acie… A 1815 a. eiia?ey iaea, ii O?aioeey ia aa?ioeanue ie e
naiaiaea, ie e aeaiie?aoee. Auea ainnoaiiaeaia iiia?oey n Ethaeiaeeii
XVIII. A 1824 a. aai niaiyao Ea?e X, iinea Etheueneie ?aaiethoeee 1830
a. onoaiaaeeaaaony 18-eaoiaa i?aaeaiea Eoe-Oeeeiia. ?aaiethoeey 1848 a.
i?iaicaeaneea Aoi?oth ?anioaeeeo, eioi?ay, eae e Ia?aay, caeii/eeanue
ainoaea?noaaiiui ia?aai?ioii, niaa?oaiiui Eoe-Iaiieaiiii Aiiaia?oii a
1851 a., onoaiiaeaoei caoai Aoi?oth eiia?eth (1852-1870 aa.). I?e anao
yoeo ?aaeeiao iiaiea aieueoeinoaa a?aaeaeai eaii?e?iaaeinue: aei 1848 a.
nouanoaiaae ecae?aoaeueiue oeaic, o. a. aieiniaaei iaiueoeinoai, a
au?aaeaiea iieeoe/aneie aiee aieueoeinoaa naaeinue e ioaeaeueiui auno?i
iiaeaaeaiiui iyoaaeai.

Oai ia iaiaa, ca oanaaeii iieeoe/aneie ianoaaeeueiinoe i?ienoiaeyo
aeoaieea eciaiaiey, aac eioi?uo ia auei au nia?aiaiiie O?aioeee. Iie
iinyo, i?aaeaea anaai, oa??eoi?eaeueiue e aaeieieno?aoeaiue oa?aeoa?. A
1789 a. aaeieieno?aoeaiia aaeeinoai O?aioeee ieii/aoaeueii aua ia
ioi?ieeinue. No?aia auea ?acaeaeaia ia ie?oaa, eioi?ua auee onoaiiaeaiu
a ?aciia a?aiy e eioi?ua ia niaiaaeaee ii naiei a?aieoeai: noaeaaiua,
aiaiiua, oeiainiaua, i?iaeioeeaeueiua, oa??eoi?eaeueiua. Oaeay
neiaeiinoue aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aeaeaiey i?eaiaeeea e aieieeoa e ?ani?yi
ii iiaiaeo eiiiaoaioeee ?acee/iuo aeanoae, iaoaea yooaeoeaiiio
oi?aaeaieth no?aiie. A yoii ieaia ?aaiethoeey e eiia?ey
oniaa?oainoaiaaee oi, /oi oaea auei naeaeaii aeey oeaio?aeecaoeee
no?aiu. A 1790 a. aa oa??eoi?ey aeaeeony ia aeaia?oaiaiou, iie, a naith
i/a?aaeue, – ia eaioiiu, a iineaaeiea – ia eiiioiu, o. a. onoie/eaua
oa??eoi?eaeueiua aaeeieoeu, a a?aieoeao eioi?uo o?aioeocu aeeaoo e a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Aiiaia?o aeiiieiyao aeaiioth noaio, aeaeaao aa aieaa
iaeii?iaeiie e yooaeoeaiie iooai i?eiyoey caeiia io 28 iethaeica aiaea
VIII (17 oaa?aey 1800 a.) ia einoeoooa i?aoaeoia e iy?ia, eioi?ua a oi
a?aiy iacia/aeenue, a nae/an ecae?athony. Oaeei ia?acii iaania/eaaaony
iaeii?iaeiinoue aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ie?oaia ia iniiaa ?aaainoaa; i?e
iacia/aiee /eiiaieeia ia eiieo?niie iniiaa i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea eo
aeaeiaua ea/anoaa, a ia nineiaiua i?eaeeaaee,eae auei a i?ioeii. Eiaiii
a oo yiioo ca?iaeaeathony iiaeeeiiua ainoaea?noaaiiua neoaeau,
oneeeaaaony ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a iaono?ienoaa oa??eoi?ee, nicaeaiee
eio?ano?oeoo?u, a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa. No?aieaiea e oieoeeaoeee iaoiaeeo
au?aaeaiea a nicaeaiee iaueo, iianaianoii aeaenoaothueo ii?i e i?aaee,
cae?aieaiiuo A?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenii, nenoaiaoe/aneei ninoaaeaieai
caiaeueiiai eaaeano?a, auai?ii iao?e/aneie nenoaiu ia?, i?eciaiiie
naaiaeiy ai anai ie?a.

Ca ia?eiae, i?ioaaeoee io Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee aei Aoi?ie
eiia?ee, aeoaiei eciaieeenue yeiiiieea e iauanoai. Oioy niauoey,
iio?ynoea O?aioeeth a 1789-1815 aa., iicaieeee Aiaeee yaii oeoe aia?aae
a yeiiiieea, O?aioeey oaeaea anooiaao a aae i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey –
oaieueiuo oaoo, ia?iaiai aeaeaaoaey, ia?aaeiauo aeey naiaai a?aiaie
iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo caaiaeia, e?oiiuo oaenoeeueiuo oaa?ee e aeaeaciuo
aei?ia. Yiioa Aoi?ie eiia?ee i?aaenoaaeyaony a yoii ioiioaiee ?aoathuae,
iniaaiii iinea 1860 a.: aeaiie?aoey oi?acaeiaia, i?ioeaaoaao
aeaey/anoai, caaiaaaiea Aeaee?a – eieiieaeueiay aaaioth?a, eioi?oth
O?aioeey ia/aea a 1830 a., – i?iaeieaeaaony. Oai ia iaiaa a no?aia
i?ienoiaeyo aeoaieea e no?aieoaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey, i?aa?auathuea aa a
nia?aiaiioth aea?aeaao: ?anoao i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, nicaeathony
aaiee e e?oiiua iaaaceiu, iieiaeeaoea ia/aei nia?aiaiiie nenoaia nauoa,
ia?ano?aeaathony ai?iaea, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?yaony naoue aeaeaciuo
aei?ia, ianaaeaeathony eana e aaaeaony ai?ueaa n y?iceae ii/a. E ana aea
anee yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai iainii?ei, oi nioeeaeueiue i?ia?ann ieaoaony
a oainoa. Ia?aay iieiaeia XIX a. ioia/aia oyaeaeuie oneiaeyie aeecie e
iaieuaieai i?ieaoa?eaoa, eioi?ue neaieeaaaony a ai?iaeneeo i?iiuoeaiiuo
oeaio?ao.

1) Eaeea eciaiaiey i?iecioee iinea i?eoiaea e aeanoe Iaiieaiia?

2) Eoi noae eiinoeii O?aioeee iiieii Iaiieaiia?

3) Eaeea iiaua /a?ou i?eia?aea O?aioeey iinea ?aaiethoeee?

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019