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Валикий шелковый путь на территории Казахстана

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AAEEEEE OAEEIAUE IOOUe IA OA??EOI?EE EACAONOAIA

*oi oaeia «Oaeeiaue Iooue», eiaaea ii aiciee e noae ooieoeeiie?iaaoue,
aaea i?ioiaeee – aio ia?aua aicieeathuea o eaaeaeiai aii?inu. Ia?aoeiny
aeey ioaaoa e enoi?e/aneei oaeoai.

A 629 a. aoaeaeeeneee iaeiiiee Nthaiue-Oecyi ioi?aaeeny ec Eeoay a
Eiaeeth, «/oiau acaeyiooue ia nayuaiiua inoaiee Aoaeaeu e na?ueacii
eco/eoue aiaineiaea». Aoae ii ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio iooe, eioi?ue
naycuaae Eeoae n Caiaaeii e neoaeee i?iaiaeieeii oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa,
?aeeaeiciuo eaeae e eoeueoo?iuo aeinoeaeaiee.

Ia aa?aethaeao-aaeo?eaiao aianoa n ea?aaaiii eoioeia ec *aiueaie ii
e?ath aaeeeie ionouie Aiae /a?ac Aeoiooai, i?ieaey nieyioth ionouith,
ecaanoioth iiae iacaaieai «Aa?oaiu Aaeeeiai Ae?aeiia», iacenu Oaie e
Oo?-oai, aaeieue naaa?iuo neeiiia Oyiue-Oaiy e aueaey ec eaaeiauo ai?,
eioi?ua, aeaeeii, niioaaonoaotho o?aaoo Ioco?-Iea, Nthaiue-Oecyi e aai
niooieee i?eauee e «I?ic?a/iiio Aieoaiio ica?o». Aai oaeaea iacuaaee
«Ai?y/ei ica?ii», e a iai ia o?oaeii ociaoue Ennue-Eoeue. Iaiaioa ica?i,
iaeiiiee i?eaue a ai?iae Noya, aaea ano?aoeeny n oth?eneei eaaaiii,
iiaaeeoaeai ia?iiiie eiia?ee, a?aieoeu eioi?ie ia Caiaaea aeioiaeeee aei
*a?iiai ii?y. Aio eae iienuaaao eaaaia oth?ie e aai i?eaeeaeaiiuo
Nthaiue-Oecyi: «Eioaaee yoeo eiicaioeaa auee i?ae?aniu. Eaaai aue iaeao
a oaeao ec caeaiiai oaeea; aai aieiaa auea iaiaaeaia e iaiioaia eeoue
oaeeiaie iiayceie aeeeiie aieaa iaeiiai /aeaia (3,2 i) n ioaenathueie
iacaae eiioeaie. Aai nii?iaiaeaeaee aieaa aeaoonio oa?oaiia, iaeaouo a
oaeaou ec ia?/e, n caieaoaiiuie a einu aieinaie. Inoaeueiua aieiu,
iaea/aiiua a iaeaaeaeu, iiaeaeoua iaoii, e a iyaeea aieiaiua oai?u,
ianee aa?aeuoe, ciaiaia e eoee. Aaeoueo ia aa?aethaeao e eioaaeyo auei
noieueei, /oi iaaiciiaeii ioaaoeoue acaeyaeii».

Iienuaay i?eai, eioi?ui oaeinoiee aai eaaai, Nthaiue-Oecyi iaiaeiie?aoii
iiae/a?eeaaao ?ineioue oaeeiauo iaeaaeae oth?eneie ciaoe e niiauaao
oaeaea i iiaea?eao, eioi?ua ii iieo/ee: «oeaeue iaai? iaeaaeae ec
iaeeiiaiai naoeia e iyoueaeanyo eoneia oaeea». A yoii yieciaea, aieueii
eee iaaieueii, ianeieueei ?ac oiiieiaaony oaee – iniiaiie i?iaeoeo
oi?aiaee Ainoiea e Caiaaea, aeaaoee iacaaiea aaeeeiio
o?aineiioeiaioaeueiiio iooe ae?aaiinoe e n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Ia aii?in i
oii, eiaaea «ca?aaioae» yoio iooue, aei neo ii? eiathony ?aciua ioaaou.
Anee aiai?eoue i i?ioioeia ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeia «Oaeeiaiai iooe», oi
ia/aei eiioaeoia e iaiaiiuo naycae ainoiaeeo ii a?aiaie e III—II oun.
aei i. y. Yoe nayce auee iaeaaeaiu a nayce n ?ac?aaioeie ianoi?iaeaeaiee
eaco?eoa a ai?ao Aaaeaooaia e iao?eoa a aa?oiai oa/aiee ?.
ss?eaiaea?uee, a ?aeiiao Oioaia. Eaco?eo, aeiauaaaiue a Aaaeaooaia,
auaiceee a E?ai, Ianiiioaieth, Aiaoieeth, Aaeiao e Ne?eth. A na?aaeeia I
oun. aaaeaooaineee eaco?eo iiyaeyaony a Eeoaa.

Ia?yaeo n «Eaco?eoiaui iooai», niaaeeieaoei N?aaeithth Aceth e N?aaeiee
Ainoie ni N?aaeecaiiiii?ueai e Eoeaeeae, nouanoaiaae «Iao?eoiaue iooue»,
eioi?ue naycuaae Ainoi/iue Oo?eanoai n Eeoaai.

A na?aaeeia I oun. aei i. y. noae ooieoeeiie?iaaoue «Noaiiie iooue», e
anee neaaeiaaoue iienaieyi iooea enoi?ee Aa?iaeioa, oi noaiao i/aaeaeiui
aai neaaeothuaa iai?aaeaiea: ec I?e/a?iiii?uey e aa?aaai Aeiia, caoai a
caiee naa?iiaoia a THaeiia I?eo?aeuea, e E?ouoo e aeaeaa ia Aeoae, a
no?aio aa?eiieaa, ianaeyaoeo ?aeii Aa?oiaai E?ouoa e i. Caenai. Ii yoiio
iooe ?ani?ino?aiyeenue iaoa e oeo?u, e?aineea eia?u, ecaeaeey ec
ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia4.

Aua iaaeaaii n/eoaeinue, /oi ecia?aoaiea oaeea e oi?aiaey ei ioiinyony
ei a?aiaie I oun. aei i. y. Iaeiaei eeoaeneea a?oaieiae, eioi?ua aaee
?aneiiee a i?iaeioeee *aeaoecyi, aaeece ica?a Oaeoo, iaoee oaeeiaua
oeaie, iiyna e i?yaeo, ioiinyueany e yiioa iaieeoa. Aic?ano oeaie –
2750+100 aa. aei i. y. Aiaeec aa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi oaea e
yoiio a?aiaie, oi anoue ii/oe iyoue ouny/ eao oiio iacaae, oaeeiaiaenoai
oaea auoei ec i?eieoeaiie noaaeee. A VI-V aa. aei i. y. eeoaeneee oaee
noae auaiceoueny a ae?oaea no?aiu, a oii /enea e ia Caiaae. Oaeeiaay
iiiiia n auoeoui ia iae oaieenii auea iaeaeaia i?e ?aneiieao iaeiiai ec
«oea?neeo» eo?aaiia Iacu?uea ia Aeoaa, aeaoe?iaaiiiai V a. aei i. y.
Oaeeiaua oeaie e aao?iia, iiaeoeoay e ecaeaeeyi ec oa?noe, iaia?oaeaiu a
caoi?iiaieyo VI-V aa. aei i. y. a ?aeiiao THaeiie e Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.

A ?ani?ino?aiaiee ae?aaioeaiiuo oaeeia o/anoaiaaee ei/aaua ieaiaia naeia
e neeoia, /a?ac iin?aaenoai eioi?uo aeeeiaeiiue aeey oiai a?aiaie oiaa?
iiiae a Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth e N?aaeecaiiiii?uea.

Iaeiaei, a?yae ee, iiaeii aiai?eoue aeey VI-IV aa. i Oaeeiaii iooe,
aa?iaa aoaeao i?aaeiieiaeeoue eeoue aeinoaaeo i?anoeaeiuo oiaa?ia ii
noaiiie ciia, eioi?ay i?ioiaeeea ieiei 40-e ia?aeeaee e, ia/eiaynue a
aieueoie eceo/eia ?aee Ooaioy, ia?anaeaea ainoi/iua e naaa?iua io?iae
Aeoay, noaie Eacaonoaia e I?e/a?iiii?uey, aeinoeaaea caiaeue a?aeia e
yo?oneia5.

A yoi aea a?aiy oaee iiiae a Eiaeeth, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao neiai
«neiaiaooi» – «eeoaeneee oaee».

E eeoue a na?aaeeia I a. aei i. y. «Oaeeiaue iooue» ia/eiaao
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae ?aaoey?iay aeeieiiaoe/aneay e oi?aiaay a?oa?ey. A
ana ia/aeinue a 138 a., eiaaea ec Oaiueneie noieeoeu auoae iinieueneee
ea?aaai, eioi?ue nii?iaiaeaeae eiycy *aeai-Oecyiy, iineaiiiai
eiia?aoi?ii O-aee a iaaaaeiiua no?aiu Caiaaea. *a?ac 13 eao *aeai-Oecyi
aa?ioeny iacaae. Ii niia aeia?aoueny aei ?aeiiia naaiaeiyoiaai
Aoaaienoaia e ia?aui i?ioae i?yiui iooai ec aioo?aiieo ?aeiiia Eeoay a
Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth. Aneaae ca iei ii yoiio iooe iioee ia Caiaae
ea?aaaiu n oaeeii, a a Eeoae – oiaa?u ec N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, Aeeaeiaai e
N?aaeiaai Ainoiea, N?aaeiae Acee.

Anei?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey ia?aoea a ?oee oi?aiaoeaa ec Niaaea
-no?aiu, ?aniieiaeaiiie a N?aaeiae Acee a aeieeiao Ca?aaoaia e
Eaoeaaea?uee. Niaaeeeoeu eiaee oi?aiaua eieiiee a «Oioa?neeo» ai?iaeao
Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia e a ai?iaeao Eeoay, oaeeo, eae Eai/aeio, Aeoiooai,
*aiueai. Iai?eia?, a Aeoiooaia i?iaeeaaei ieiei ouny/e niaaeeeoeaa.
Niaaeeeoeu i?iieeaee a ssiiieth, aaea oaeeiaue iooue eii/aeny,
aeinoeaioa ae?aaiae yiiineie noieeoeu Ia?a. Caeanue a iaeiii ec o?aiia
o?aieony ?oeiienue, iaienaiiay ia niaaeeeneii ycuea.

Ea?aaaiiua iooe naycuaaee Caiaae Eacaonoaia n Aeaeueiei Ainoieii, n
I?eaio?ueai. Ecaanoia oae iacuaaaiay «niaieuey aei?iaa», ii eioi?ie
inouanoaeyeenue nayce Aecaioee, E?aia, oth?eneeo eaaaiaoia e niaaeeeneeo
eiyaeanoa n ainoaea?noaaie Aioae e ssiiieae. A VI a. ii?neay /anoue
«niaieueae aei?iae» iieo/eea iacaaiea «aei?iae a ssiiieth». Ai II—V aa.
Oaeeiaue iooue, anee neaaeiaaoue n Ainoiea, ia/eiaeny a *aiueaie e oae e
ia?ai?aaa /a?ac Ooaioy a ?aeiia Eai/aeio, aeaeaa aaeieue naaa?iuo
io?iaia Iaiue-Oaiy e caiaaeiie ie?aeia Aaeeeie Eeoaeneie noaiu e
«Canoaaa ssoiiauo ai?io». Caeanue aaeeiay aei?iaa ?acaaoaeyeanue,
ieaeieyy n naaa?a e thaa ionouith Oaeea-Iaeai. Naaa?iay oea /a?ac iacenu
Oaie, Oo?oai, Aaoaaeue, Oeoi a aeieeio ?. Eee; n?aaeiyy io *ai/aia e
Eaoaa?o, Aeno e /a?ac ia?aaae Aaaeaeue e thaeiiio aa?aao Ennue-Eoey;
thaeiay – /a?ac Aeoiooai, Oioai, ss?eaaae a Aaeo?eth, Eaaeeth e
N?aaeecaiiiii?uea – yoi oae iacuaaaiue «thaeiue iooue»; «naaa?iue iooue»
oae ec Eaoaa?a a Oa?aaio e aeaeaa /a?ac Naia?eaiae, Aooa?o, Ia?a a
Oaiaaeai a Ne?eth.

A VI—VII aa. iaeaieaa iaeeaeaiiui noaiiaeony iooue, eioi?ue i?ioiaeee ec
Eeoay ia caiaae /a?ac Naie?a/uea e THaeiue Eacaonoai, oioy i?aaeiee
iooue /a?ac Oa?aaio aue ei?i/a e oaeiaiaa. Ia?aiauaiea iooe iiaeii
iauynieoue neaaeothueie i?e/eiaie. Ai-ia?auo, a Naie?a/uea iaoiaeeeenue
noaaee oth?eneeo eaaaiia, eioi?ua eiio?iee?iaaee oi?aiaua iooe /a?ac
N?aaeithth Aceth, Ai-aoi?uo, aei?iaa /a?ac Oa?aaio a VII a. noaea
iianiie ec-ca iaaeaeioniaeoe. A-o?aoueeo, aiaaoua oth?eneea eaaaiu e eo
ie?oaeaiea noaoe e?oiiuie iio?aaeoaeyie caii?neeo oiaa?ia.

Oae yoio iooue noae aeaaiui, e iniiaiia /enei iinieueneeo e oi?aiauo
ea?aaaiia a VII-XIV aa. oei caeanue. Yoi iai?aaeaiea Oaeeiaiai iooe ia
auei /ai-oi canouaoei, a oa/aiee noieaoee iiia?aiaiii iaeaieueooth
cia/eiinoue i?eia?aoaee oa eeai eiua o/anoee e ioaaoaeaiey, ae?oaea,
iai?ioea, ioie?aee, a ai?iaea e oi?aiaua noaioeee ia ieo i?eoiaeeee a
oiaaeie. Oae, a VI-VIII aa. iniiaiie auea o?anna Ne?ey – E?ai – N?aaeiyy
Acey -THaeiue Eacaonoai – Oaeanneay aeieeia – *oeneay aeieeia –
Ennue-Eoeueneay eioeiaeia – Ainoi/iue Oo?eanoai. Ioaaoaeaiea yoiai iooe,
oi/iaa, aua iaeei ia?o?oo, auoiaeee ia auoaiacaaiioth o?anno ec Aecaioee
/a?ac Aea?aaio a I?eeanieeneea noaie – Iaiaunoao – I?ea?aeuea – THaeiue
Eacaonoai. Ii oae a iaoiae Nanaieaeneiai E?aia, eiaaea a i?ioeaiaan aio
aue caeeth/ai oi?aiai-aeeieiiaoe/aneee nithc Caiaaeiioth?eneiai eaaaiaoa
e Aecaioee. A 568 a. a Eiinoaioeiiiieue ei aeai?o eiia?aoi?a THnoeieaia
II (565-576) i?eauei iinieuenoai io oth?eneiai eaaaia Aeecaaoea, eioi?ia
aicaeaaeye niaaeeaoe Iaieao, iaeei ec oao, eioi?ua, ii neiaai eeoaeneeo
o?iienoia, «…iao/atho e iai?aaeytho oth?eia». A aeaiiii neo/aa,
iaeiaei, e oth?ee, e niaaeeeoeu i?aneaaeiaaee iauea oeaee, naycaiiua n
a?aiaeeiciie oi?aiaeae oaeeii. Iia i?eiineea e oai e ae?oaei ia?iiiua
aeioiaeu. *anoue oaeea iinooiaea ec Eeoay, ae?oaay ecaioaaeeaaeanue a
ai?iaeao Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia e a naiii Niaaea, i?e/ai i?iecaiaenoai
aai ianoieueei aic?inei, /oi nauo aai i?aa?aoeeny a ino?oth i?iaeaio.
Iia onoaeoaeyeanue oai, /oi i?iaeaaea oaeea e?oiiaeoaio iio?aaeoaeth –
Aecaioee – i?aiyonoaiaaee ia?nu. Oiio auee aiieia eiie?aoiua i?e/eiu,
eai oaee aue ioaeai Aecaioee ia oieueei yoy ioaeae aeai?a e
a?enoie?aoee, ii e eae aaethoa i?e iaeia aa?aa?neeo aiene, eioi?ua, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, auee au eniieueciaaiu a aieia n E?aiii. Anee au
ia?neaeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?ac?aoeei naiaiaeioth o?aiceoioth oi?aiaeth
oaeeii e iineaaeiee aeioae aei Aecaioee, «oi /a?ac ianeieueei eao ia
Aao?aoa noiyea au noieue iiiai/eneaiiay iaaiiay a?iey, /oi anae neeu
E?aia ia oaaoeei au aeey aa io?aaeaiey».

Aeiaiai?eoueny iiyoiio oth?eai e niaaeeeoeai n ia?naie ia oaeaeinue, e
oth?ee ioi?aaeytho iinieuenoai Iaieaoa a Aecaioeth. Iii oei a iaoiae
E?aia e eiio?iee?oaiuo ei oa??eoi?ee – ec Naie?a/uey ii Nu?aea?uea a
I?ea?aeuea, /a?ac Iaiaunoao a I?eeaniee, ia Naaa?iue Eaaeac, /a?ac
Eaaeacneee o?aaao a Eiinoaioeiiiieue. Aeaaineeiiii i?eiyaoee iinieuenoai
THnoeieai II ioi?aaee naia iinieuenoai a noaaeo eaaaia ia aa?aao Oaeana.
E iiaue iooue «ec oth?ie a a?aee» noae ooieoeeiie?iaaoue. Aai ia?o?oo
i?ae?anii eeethno?e?oaony a?oaieiae/aneeie iaoiaeeai!, iniaaiii aiaaouie
ec i?aaeai?uea Eaaeacneiai o?aaoa, aaea iaia?oaeai iiaeeueiee Iiuaaay
aaeea. A iai iaeaeaiu oaeeiaua ecaeaeey, ia?uaee ea?oeiu ia oaeea,
i?eoiaeii-?anoiaeiua caiene eeoaeneiai eoioea e iiiaea ae?oaea eiii?oiua
aaue VII – O aa.

Ia yoii iooe noiyee aieueoea e aiaaoua nu?aea?ueeineea ai?iaea, i
eioi?uo ianeieueei iicaeiaa ienae enoi?ee XVI a. ?ocaeoai: «?aea
Oiaeaeaio (Nu?aea?uey) i?ioaeaao n?aaee e?aiinoae Oo?eanoaia. Aunieea
e?aiinoe, iaiiaeiaea auni/aeoeo caieia, oae aicauoathueony ia aa?aaao
eaiaeia, auaaaeaiiuo ec ?aee Naeooia, aoaeoi au ?anneacuaatho ia io?aaea
?ay, ii eioi?iio oaeoo ?aee».

Iicaeiaa, a IX-XII aa. yoio ia?o?oo eniieueciaaeny n iaiueoae
eioaineaiinoueth, /ai «Oyiuiaineee». Ii a XIII-XIV aa. ii aiiaue
iaeeaaao. Iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey ia eiioeiaioa ii?aaeaeyea auai?u
ia?o?ooia aeeieiiaoaie, eoioeaie e ae?oaeie iooaoanoaothueie eeoeaie.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeye niaie tha Eacaonoaia a eaioi aai aoiaeaeaiey a
i?aeoo Oaeeiaiai iooe. Caeanue, eae ?aiaa ioia/aeinue, ecae?aaea
?acaeaaeanue naiiauoiay eoeueoo?a, a oi?ie?iaaiee eioi?ie o/anoaiaaee
ei/aaua ieaiaia e inaaeeua ia?iaeu. I?e/ai a yoie/aneii ieaia e
ei/aaieee, e inaaeeua aeeoaee auee iaeii?iaeiu, eee aea auee iauaaeeiaiu
a ?aiea iaeiioeiiuo yoiiiieeoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiee. Acaeiiaeaenoaea e
acaeiiiaiaauaiea eoeueoo? – inaaeeie e ei/aaie – yaeeinue iaaeno?aeueiie
eeieae ie?iaiai i?ia?anna. A iaae?ao oaeiai neioaca eaaeao iiiaea
aeinoeaeaiey oeeaeeecaoeee, nicaeaiiuo ia?iaeaie Eacaonoaia e N?aaeiae
Acee, a oaeaea enoiee yoiiaaiaca ianaeythueo aa ia?iaeia. Oae, a VI—III
aa. aei i. y. caeanue iaeoaee ei/aaua e iieoei/aaua ieaiaia naeia,
aunieay eoeueoo?a eioi?uo ecaanoia ii ?aneiieai iiiai/eneaiiuo eo?aaiiuo
iaiyoieeia, n?aaee eioi?uo Aanoaou?, Ennue, Oaaeneai, Oeaa?ae. Oaea
oiaaea nouanoaiaaee nayce naeia n Eeoaai, Eiaeeae, Aeeaeiei e N?aaeiei
Ainoieii. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iaeaeaiiua a iia?aaaieyo naeneie
ciaoe eeoaeneea ca?eaea, eiii?oiua aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiua ecaeaeey ec
N?aaeiae Acee, E?aia. Iiioiaioaeueiua iia?aaaeueiua nii?oaeaiey
Oaaeneaia ec nu?oeiaiai ee?ie/a iaoaeeeaatho ia iuneue i i?eaea/aiee e
eo aicaaaeaieth eiicaiiuo ianoa?ia. Ai a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaa
Onoiue e Eaiathe ai II a. aei i. y. – ia?. iie. I oun. i. y., eiaaea
Oaeeiaue iooue ia/eiaao aeoeaii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue, nthaea i?iieeatho
?eineia noaeei e iiiaou, eeoaeneee oaee, ca?eaea e eaeiaay iinoaea,
aa?iiaeneea oeaoeu-canoaaeee e ?aciua eaiie-ia/aoee ec Nanaieaeneiai
E?aia.

A yoio ia?eiae a aeieeiao *o, Oaeana e Nu?aea?uee oi?ie?othony
ai?iaeneea oeaio?u, i?aaeoa/ae eioi?uo yaeyeenue caieaaeaeue/aneea
iinaeaiey, ie?oaeaiiua noaiaie n aaoiyie. Iiiaea ec ieo ioe?uou nae/an a
i?aaeai?iie ciia Oyiue-Oaiy, a aeieeiao A?une, a n?aaeiai e ieaeiai
oa/aiee Nu?aea?uee. Iniaaiii oi?ioi nio?aieeenue yoe ai?iaea a nooie
ionouiiie ciia I?ea?aeuey, a Aeaeaouana?neii o?i/eua. Aei neo ii?
aunyony i?inooaiiua nieioeai eo aeaeoua noaiu, aeyaeyo ia ieineoth
?aaieio aeacieoeu no?aeiaeaeiuo aieieoe, a iiae oaeu?aie ne?uou ia?iiiua
ae?aaiea iae?iiiee.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia VI a. Eacaonoai aioae a ninoaa Oth?eneiai eaaaiaoa,
ia?iiiie ei/aaie eiia?ee, ioaaoeaoae i?ino?ainoai io Ei?ae aei *a?iiai
ii?y. A eiioea VI a. Eaaaiao ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa /anoe —
Ainoi/ii-oth?eneee e Caiaaeiioth?eneee. Oeaio?ii iineaaeiaai yaeyaony
Naie?a/uea, a noieeoeae – ai?iae Noya.

Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo iaeeaeaiea o/anoea Oaeeiaiai Iooe,
eioi?ue nua?ae aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee ai?iaeneie oaiaeaeueiie
eoeueoo?u Naie?a/uey e THaeiiai Eacaonoaia. A Naie?a/uea ii noeioee?iaae
aicieeiiaaiea oeaeiai ?yaea ai?iaeneeo oeaio?ia, a ia thaa Eacaonoaia
niinianoaiaae auno?iio ?inoo oao ai?iaeia, eioi?ua ieacaeenue eeai ia
o?anna, eeai auee naycaiu n iae oi?aiauie ioaaoaeaieyie.

Aio eae auaeyaeae eacaonoaineee o/anoie Oaeeiaiai iooe, anee ii iaio
aeaeaaoueny n caiaaea ia ainoie. Ec Oaoa (Oaoeaio) aei?iaa oea /a?ac
ia?aaae ia Oo?aao a Enieaeaeaa, iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia ia Oaeeiaii
iooe. Caeanue inoaiaaeeaaeenue oi?aiaoeu ec ?aciuo no?ai, a ai?iaea auee
oi?aiaua iino?ieee e ea?aaai-na?ae, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea eoioeai ec Aooa?u,
Naia?eaiaea, oiaaea eae eoioeu ec Enieaeaeaaa eiaee naie oaeoi?ee a
Aaaaeaaea a ?aaa-aea Oa?aa eai Aaaeaeeaoa ao Aaeoe aianoa n eoioeaie ec
Ia?aa, Aaeoa, Aooa?u e Oi?acia. Ec Enieaeaeaaa auaiceee ?aaia, aaeua
oeaie, i?oaeea, ia/e, iaaeue e aeaeaci. Ec Enieaeaeaaa ea?aaaiu oee ia
ainoie, a Oa?ac, /a?ac ai?iaea Oa?aa, Aoaeooeao, ea?aaai-na?ae Oaioaaeae
e Aaa?aeaaeae.

Ia?aui e?oiiui ai?iaeii, noiyaoei ia Oaeeiaii iooe a Oaeanneie aeieeia,
aue Aeaeoa aeao, i?iaoaa eioi?ue, iiiaaeaee a Oa?ac. Yoi iaeei ec
ae?aaiaeoeo ai?iaeia Eacaonoaia, ecaanoiue oaea a VI a. Eiaiii caeanue
oth?eneee eaaai Aeecaaoe a 568 a. i?eieiae aeeieiiaoe/aneia iinieuenoai
THnoeieaia II ec Aecaioee ai aeaaa ni no?aoaaii Caia?oii, i?eauaoaa aeey
caeeth/aiey aiaiiiai nithca i?ioea E?aia e ?aoaiey aii?inia i oi?aiaea
oaeeii. Enoi/ieee iacuaatho Oa?ac «ai?iaeii eoioeia». E?iia oiai, ii aue
noiee/iui oeaio?ii oth?aaoae, a caoai ea?eoeia e ea?aoaieaeia.

?yaeii n Oa?acii iaoiaeeeny ai?iae Aeaeaioeao, iniiaaiiue auoiaeoeaie ec
Aooa?u. Ii oiiieiaaony oaea a VI a. e aue iniiaai niaaeeeoeaie Aooa?u,
eioi?uie i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaiaae iaeee Aeaeaioe, eiaiai eioi?iai e aue
iacaai ai?iae. A?oaieiae niiaee iaeoe Aeaeaioeao. Aai inoaoee
iaoiaeeeenue a Oaeanneie aeieeia, iaaeaeaei io AEaiauea, ia i?aaii
aa?aao ?aee Oaean, iai?ioea n. Na?u-Eaia?. ?acaaeeiu iacuaathony nae/an
Einoiaa – «aeaieiie aoai?». E?iia yoeo ai?iaeia, a Oaeanneie aeieeia
iaoiaeeeenue oaeea ecaanoiua ai?iaea, eae Oaeueaeaee, Non, Eoeue e
Oaeaaeao – a ai?iie /anoe aeieeiu, aaea ?aniieaaaeenue e?oiiua
na?aa?yiua ?oaeieee. A ?aaieiiie /anoe aeieeiu noiye ai?iae Aoeao, o
noai eioi?iai, eae ioia/aeinue, i?iecioea a 751 a. aeoaa a?aaia n
eeoaeneeie aieneaie ca noa?u aeeyiey. Iaiiaeaeaeo io Oa?aca ia oi?aiaii
iooe, eaeouai aiec ii Oaeano ia naaa?, iaoiaeeeenue ai?iaea Aaeaoeao e
Aeao-Ioaeaeeean, a a iiiaieueneia a?aiy enoi/ieee iacuaatho ai?iaea
ssiae, ssiae-Aaeue e Eaoeaeaeae.

A Oaeanneoth aeieeio a Oa?ac ea?aaaiu iiiaaeaee oaeaea ii aei?iaa ec
Oa?aaineie aeieeiu ec Eanaia /a?ac ia?aaae *aia/ a *aoeaeueneii o?aaoa e
Ea?aao?a a Oaeanneii Aeaoao. Yoio io?acie aei?iae niaaeeiye «Oa?aaineia»
e «Naie?a/aineia» iai?aaeaiey Oaeeiaiai iooe.

Ec Oa?aca ia ainoie iooue oae ii ionouiiie ianoiinoe e ai?iaeo Eoeaio.
Oa??eoi?ey iaaeaeo Oa?acii e Eoeaiii i?eiaaeeaaeaea ea?eoeai. Ia ioi e
Eoeaio iaaei auei i?iaoaoue /a?ac Ean?eaan, Eoeue-Ooa, Aeaeoeue-Ooa
Inoaoee Ean?eaana noiyo ia ae?aaiae o?anna, i?ioiaeeaoae aaeieue
Ee?aecneiai o?aaoa, e ecaanoiu eae ?acaaeeiu Aou?-Oan, i?aaenoaaeythuea
niaie nii?oaeaiea ec eaiiy, aeaeeii, noaey ii ieaie?iaea, auaoaa
iaeiaaea cai eii. Eoeue-Ooao niioaaonoaoao ai?iaeeua I?iae, ?aneiiee
eioi?iai au yaeee aai oa?aeoa?: yoi oeie/iay oe?aieaiiay noaaea n
ia/aoueth, eaca?iaie aeey ae?oaeeiu e ?aianeaiiui i?aaeianoueai aie?oa.

Ai?iae Eoeai, eioi?ue eeoaeoeu iacuaaee Oectheeaiue, aue ecaanoai eae
«i?eyoiue ai?iaeie ia a?aieoeao no?aiu oth?ie ni noi?iiu Iaaa?aiiao?a».
Ii, noaey ii ia?o?ooieeai, iaoiaeeeny ia ?annoiyiee 17 oa?naoia io
Oa?aca ia ainoie e niioaaonoaoao ai?iaeeuo Eoaiaia, ?aniieiaeaiiiio ia
ainoi/iie ie?aeia naea Eoeai. Io Eoeaia aeaeaa ia ainoie ia ?annoiyiee 4
oa?naoia ae?oa io ae?oaa noiyee ai?iaea Ie?ee e Ania?a.

Ec Aeaeoey aei?iaa oea a Na?ua, caoai a «naeaiea oth?eneiai eaaaia» e a
Ee?ie?ao. Ec Ee?ie?ao aei?iaa i?eaiaeeea a iaeei ec e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeia
Naie?a/uey Iaaaeao, eeoaeneee Nei/yi. Iaa yoe iacaaiey ia?aaiaeyony eae
Iiaai?iae. Iaaaeao ecaanoai eae ?aceaeaioeey oth?eneeo eaaaiia e eae
ai?iae niaaeeeoeaa. Iaaaeaoo, eae oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue, niioaaonoaoao
ai?iaeeua E?aniay ?a/ea, ?aniieiaeaiiia iaaeaeo nia?aiaiiuie naeaie
E?aniay ?a/ea e Iiaieaaiiaea.

Ec Iaaaeaoa /a?ac Iaiaeaeeeaio (Aoiaeaeeeaio) aei?iaa i?eaiaeeea a
e?oiiaeoee ai?iae Naie?a/uey Noya. Ii aue noieeoeae caiaaeiuo oth?ie,
caoai oth?aaoae, ea?eoeia. I iai ieooo eeoaeneea e a?aaneea
iooaoanoaaiieee aieioue aei X a., eiaaea ai?iae aae?oa en/acaao ni
no?aieoe eaoiienae. ?ieue noieeoeu ia?aoiaeeo e ai?iaeo Aaeanaaoio,
?aiiaa iacaaiea eioi?iai, aeaeeii, auei Aaeeea eee Naiaeia. Aaeanaaoi
ecaanoai eae noieeoea Ea?aoaieaeia, caoai ea?aeeoaaa, eioi?ua aai e
?ac?ooeee aia/aea XIII a. Caoai ai?iae aiiaue iono?ieee, ii oaea a XIV
a. ii eaaeae a ?acaaeeiao e eeoue iieo?ac?ooaiiua aeai?oeu, ia/aoe e
ieia?aou e iaoe?iua eeaaeaeua n yieoaoeyie naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee i
iaaeaaii ao?eeaoae caeanue aeecie.

A?oaieiaai oaeaeinue ii?aaeaeeoue ianoiiieiaeaiea yoeo ai?iaeia: iie
iaoiaeyony iaiiaeaeaeo io nia?aiaiiiai a. Oieiaea e niioaaonoaotho aeaoi
ecaanoiui n?aaeiaaaeiaui iaiyoieeai – ai?iaeeuo Aeaaoei e ai?iaeeuo
Ao?aia, iaoiaeyueiny ae?oa io ae?oaa ia ?annoiyiee 5 ei.

Ec Noyaa Oaeeiaue iooue oae eeai ii naaa?iiio, eeai ii thaeiiio aa?aaai
Ennue-Eoey. Ia thaeiii io?acea ea?aaaiu i?ioiaeeee e?oiiue ai?iae
Aa?oiee Aa?noai, a naaa?iue ioia/ai inoaoeaie iaaieueoeo ea?aaai-na?aaa,
eiaia eioi?uo aei ian ia aeioee. Caoai yoe iooe niaaeeiyeenue o ia?aaaea
Aaaeaeue, e /a?ac iaai, eeai Oao?aaao, Oaeeiaue iooue i?eaiaeee e
Eaoaa?o e Aeno.

Ec Ennue-Eoeueneie eioeiaeiu /a?ac ia?aaae Naioao e aeieeio Ea?ea-?u oae
iooue a Eeeeneoth aeieeio e caoai ii i?aaiio aa?aao Eee /a?ac aeieeiu
Onaea e Oi?aina i?eaiaeee a Aeiaeue, a caoai ii naaa?iie ieiia/iinoe
ionouie Oaeea-Iaeai, /a?ac iacenu Oaie e Oo?oai oae e Aeoiooaio e a
Eeoae.

A O-OI aa. iaeii ec ioaaoaeaiee Oaeeiaiai iooe ia?anaeaei anth Eeeeneoth
aeieeio n thai-caiaaea ia naaa?i-ainoie. Ioaaoaeaiea ia/eiaeinue a
Iaaaeaoa, caoai oei ia Aoiaeaeeeao e /a?ac ia?aaae Eanoae i?eaiaeeei ia
naaa?iua neeiiu Caeeeeneiai Aeaoao. Ia ia?aaae oea aua iaeia aei?iaa ec
Aaeanaaoia. Caeanue i?eiaoiui i?eaioe?ii auee nayuaiiua ai?u
O?oi-A?aeae, eioi?ua ia?acotho aiaei?acaeae iaaeaeo aannaeiaie ?ae *o e
Eee. Ia yoeo ai?ao niiauatho aua a VII-VIII aa. eeoaeneea aei?iaeieee,
iacuaay eo «ai?aie Oecaaeaiue». «Caeanue, – niaeanii enoi/ieeai, – eaaai
aeanyoe ?iaeia anaaaea i?iecaiaeeo ooaa?aeaeaiea aeaaeaoaeae e
noa?aeoei». Oiiiiei O?oia A?aeae nio?aieeny aei neo ii? a iacaaiee
nia?aiaiiiai naea Ocoiaaa/. O?anna Oaeeiaiai iooe i?ioiaeeea /a?ac
iaaieueoea ai?iaeee, iaoiaeeaoeany ia ianoa Eanoaea, Eaneaeaia e
Ae-iaou, e aeinoeaaea ai?iaea Oaeueoeca, eioi?ue ?aniieiaeai ia naaa?iie
ie?aeia ai?iaea Oaeaa?. Caeanue o iiaeiiaeey ai? ia i?aaii aa?aao ?.
Oae-aa? iaoiaeyony ?acaaeeiu e?oiiiai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ai?iaeeua.
Oaeueoec (Oaeoe?) aue e?oiiui oeaio?ii o?aiceoiie oi?aiaee.

A Eeeeneoth aeieeio iiiaaeaee e ae?oaei iooai – ii oae io Eoeaia,
An-ia?u eeai Ioceaoa e ai?iaeai n?aaeiaai e ieaeiaai oa/aiey *o. *a?ac
a?iae Oaoooeoeue aei?iaa oea ia naaa?iua neeiiu *o-Eeeeneeo ai? e
nioneaeanue a naaa?iia I?eaaeoaouea. Aaeieue *o aiec aei?iaa auaiaeeea e
ai?iaeai ia naaa?iuo neeiiao Ea?aoao.

A Oaeueoeca Oaeeiaue iooue ?acaaoaeyeny. THaeiue oae /a?ac Ennue,
Oo?aaiue, *eeee e ia?ai?aaa /a?ac Eee a ?aeiia Ai?iooaece?a, a caoai ii
i?aaiio aa?aao Eee ii oae /a?ac Oi?ain ia Aeiaeue, niaaeeiyynue n
ia?o?ooii, oaaeoei nthaea ec aeieeiu Ennue-Eoey. Ia yoii io?acea
a?oaieiae iaoee ?acaaeeiu iaaieueoeo ai?iaeeia Ennue, Oo?aaiue, Eaaa? e
e?oiiiai ai?iaea *eeee. Ii i?aaiio aa?aao Eee aei?iaa oea /a?ac
nia?aiaiiua iinaeaiey Eieoae e ai?iae AEa?eaio. A ?aeiia Eieoaoa
?aniieaaaeny ai?iae Eeeaaeue. Naaa?iay aei?iaa ec Oaeueoeca oea aaeieue
?. Oaeaa? aei ia?ai?aau ?. Eee, eioi?ay iaoiaeeeanue a ?aeiia
Eai/aaaeneiai ouaeuey. Iinea iaa iooue aae ia *eiaeeueaeu, caoai /a?ac
ia?aaae Aeoui-Yiaeue aei?iaa nioneaeanue a aeieeio Eieno e aeinoeaaea
ai?iaea Eeeiaoc, iaoiaeeaoaainy ia ianoa nia?aiaiiiai n. Aeoiaaiiaea.
Eiaiii caeanue iaia?oaeaii iaeii ec e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeeu Eeeeneie
aeieeiu. A yoii ai?iaea, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iinaoeaoee aai a 1253 a.
Aeeueaaeuei ?oa?oe, aeeee «na?aoeeiu», oi anoue eiaeanue oi?aiaay
eieiiey e?aineeo eoioeia. ?oa?oe iacuaaao ai?iae Yeaeonii.

Ec Eeeiaoca iooue oae e Eayeueo (Eieeaeo) – noieeoea ea?eoeneeo
aeaeaaao. Ai?iae neaaeeny naieie aaca?aie, e a iai, e?iia ionoeueiai,
aeeee o?enoeaia, eiaaoea naith oea?eiaue. Ia yoii niiauaao iinaoeaoee
ai?iae iinie Ethaeiaeea IX e iiiaieueneiio oaio Ioiey, ana oio aea
no?ainoaothuee iiiao Aeeueaaeuei ?oa?oe. Eayeue yaeyeny noaaeie
ea?eoeia, eioi?ui a IX — ia/aea XIII aa. i?eiaaeeaaeaea naaa?i-ainoi/iay
/anoue Eeeeneie aeieeiu. Ii iaoiaeeeny a aeieeia ?. Ea?aoae, ia ie?aeia
n. Aioiiianeia. Iaiiaeaeaeo io Eayeuea, noaey ii caiene ?oa?oea,
iaoiaeeeinue «o?enoeaineia naeaiea», /a?ac eioi?ia oaeaea i?ioiaeee
Oaeeiaue iooue. Aeaeaa ii neaaeiaae a aeieeio Oaioaea e, iaiaioa
Aeaeieue, /a?ac Aeaeoiaa?neea ai?ioa i?eaiaeee a aeieeio Oeoi e ioooaea
/a?ac Aaoaaeue oae a Aeoiooai e aioo?aiiee Eeoae. Ia thai-caiaaeiie
ieiia/iinoe Aeaeiey noiye ai?iae, eioi?ue iooaoanoaaiieee XIII a.
iacuaaee «noieeoeae iaeanoe». Ii niioaaonoaoao ai?iaeeuo a n. Eieooia.
Nae/an yoio iaiyoiee ?aciuo aiaeaie ica?a.

Aa?iainy, iaeiaei, e iaeiie ec ioi?aaiuo oi/ae ia eacaonoaineii o/anoea
Oaeeiaiai iooe – ai?iaeeuo Enioeaeaeaa, /oiau i?ineaaeiaaoue a Aa?iio
iooai Caia?oa. Ec Enioeaeaeaaa oea ea?aaaiiay aei?iaa a A?noaaieeao ia
A?une, a Io?a?-Oa?aa e aeaeaa aiec ii Nu?aea?uea a I?ea?aeuea. Ia
ea?aaaiiie aei?iaa, eioi?ay oea aaeieue Nu?aea?uee, iaeaieaa e?oiiuie
ai?iaeaie auee Io?a?-Oa?aa e Oaaaa?. ?yaeIoI n Io?a?ii iaoiaeeeny ai?iae
Eaaea?, auaoee a X a. aeaaiui a Io?a?neii iacena. I iai auei ecaanoii
eae i «ianoa noa/aiey eoioeia ec ?aciuo no?ai».

Io?a? aue oceii iiiaeo ea?aaaiiuo iooae. Ionthaea iaeia aei?iaa oea a
Oaaaa?, a ae?oaay – ia ia?ai?aao /a?ac Nu?aea?ueth e e ai?iaeo
Aanoeaeaeo. Iineaaeiee ecaanoai eae ?iaeeia auaeathuaainy o/aiiai
Ainoiea Aao Ian?a ae-Oa?aae. A XIII-XIV aa. yoio ai?iae iacuaaeny
Ca?ioe. Ec iaai oae iooue aaa?o ii Nu?aea?uea, /a?ac iaocneee ai?iae
Nthoeaio a Oaoa, a aiec – a Aeaeaaae. Ionthaea aea /a?ac Ecue-Eoiu auea
i?ieiaeaia o?anna a Oi?aci, a O?aai/, a ioooaea a Iiaieaeuea, ia Eaaeac.
Yoio io?acie Oaeeiaiai iooe aue iniaaiii iaeeaeaiiui a XIII a., eiaaea a
ieciaueyo Aieae noi?ie?iaaeny cieioii?aeuineee ai?iae Na?ae. Yoio iooue
a XIII—XIV aa. i?ioiaeee /a?ac Na?ae/ee, Na?ae-Aaoo e Eaooo.

Ec Oaaaa?a iooue oae e ai?iaeo ssiaeeaioo, eioi?ue yaeyeny noieeoeae
ainoaea?noaa iaocia. Ionthaea oaeaea oea aei?iaa /a?ac Ecue-Eoiu a
Oi?aci. Iooue ii iae i?iaeieaeaeny 10 aeiae.

Ec Oaaaa?a e iicaeiaa ssnnu /a?ac ia?aaae Oo?eai aei?iaa auoiaeeea ia
naaa?iua neeiiu Ea?aoao e i?ioiaeeea ia?aeeaeueii oie, /oi oea aaeieue
Nu?aea?uee. Iia iniaaiii iaeeaeeanue a XIII—XIV aa. Eiaiii ii iae ec
naaa?iiai I?ea?aeuey a Iiiaieeth oee a?iyineee oea?ue Aaooi e iiiao
?oa?oe. Ia yoii iooe noiyee ai?iaea Nocae, O?iniaai, Eoieaio, Noaoeeaio.
Auaiaeeea aea iia eeai a ieciauey Oaeana, ioeoaea iiaeieiaeanue aaa?o e
Oaeano, eeai oea aaeieue caiaaeiiai aa?aaa ica?a Aeeeeeoeue /a?ac ai?iae
Aa?oeao-Ia?eao, Ooooo/ei, oaeaea e Oa?aco.

Io iniiaiie o?annu Oaeeiaiai iooe, i?ioiaeeaoae /a?ac THaeiue Eacaonoai
e Naie?a/uea, iooiaeeee aei?iae ia naaa? e ainoie, eioi?ua aaee a ?aeiiu
Oeaio?aeueiiai e Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia, a noaiue Aeaoo-e Eui/ae,
iicaeiaa ecaanoioth eae noaiue Na?u-A?ea, e aa?aaai E?ouoa, ia Aeoae e a
Iiiaieeth. Caeanue i?ioiaeee noaiiie iooue, ii eioi?iio ia?aaeaeaaeenue
ieaiaia eiiiuo ei/aaieeia. Ii auei au iai?aaeeueii aeoiaoue, /oi noaiiua
?aeiiu Eacaonoaia auee ianaeaiu oieueei iiiaaeaie. Caeanue, a oaeiaiuo
aeey caieaaeaeey ianoao – a aeieeiao ?ae Na?uno, Eaiae?, Aeaeacaeu, a
i?aaeai?ueyo Ooooao, ia aa?aaao E?ouoa a ia?eiae n?aaeiaaaeiauey
aicieeee e ?acaeeenue iacenu caieaaeaeue/aneie e ai?iaeneie aeecie.
E?iia oiai, aiaaoua ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaaee, ieiaa, naeioea, na?aa?a
?ac?aaaouaaeenue aua n yiioe a?iicu, a a aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy caeanue
aea au?inee iinaeee ?oaeieiiia, ieaaeeueueeia iaoaeea, iaaeieeia e
na?aa?yiuo aeae ianoa?ia. Aiaaoua nu?ueaauie ?ano?naie – neioii,
oa?noueth, eiaeaie, iaoaeeii ?aeiiu Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia auee
aiaea/aiu a nenoaio oi?aiauo naycae, a oii /enea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo, e
auee aeeth/aiu a nenoaio Oaeeiaiai iooe iiiaeie ea?aaaiiuie aei?iaaie.

Ec Io?a?a /a?ac A?noaaieeao, aeieeiaie A?unoaiaeu, *ayia, ia?aaaeea
iaaunieea ai?u Ea?aoao; ec Oaaaa?a e ssnnu /a?ac ia?aaae Oo?eai; ec
Na-o?aia e Nuaiaea; ec ssiaeeaioa aei?iae auoiaeeee a noaie
Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia e aeinoeaaee aa?aaia Na?uno e Eaiae?a, Oo?aay
e Eoeia. Caeanue ioe?uou iinaeaiey a aeaea /aou?aooaieueiuo ai?iaeeu n
iieuaoeie noaiaie: Aieaai-Aia, AEaiai-Eo?aai, Iiaa?aae-aea?anu
Aeiiaaaoe, Ieeueoaeoe, I?iaiaao. Aie?oa ieo ioe?uou iaoe?iua iae?iiiee,
ia eioi?uo nio?aieeenue oaeea a?oeoaeoo?iua iaiyoieee, eae iaacieae
Aeaeo/e-oaia e Aea-oa.’Aeaeeii, eiaiii caeanue neaaeoao eieaeeciaaoue
oiiiyiooua a n?aaeiaaaeiauo enoi/ieeao ai?iaea AEoaei, Eiiaeeeao,
eaoiaee I?oaa e Eaeoaa, ?oaeiua ?ac?aaioee Aa?aeaia ii ae-Eae?ene e
Aaee?euoaaa ii Iaoioaeo Eao-aa?neiio.

Aei?iaa ec ssiaeeaioa oea ia naaa?i-ainoie, auoiaeeea ia aa?aaa ?a/ee
Aaeaoou e i?eaiaeeea a ?aeii Eioi?aaea e Ea?naeiay. A Oeaio?aeueiue
Eacaonoai aae oae iacuaaaiue Na?unoeneee iooue – ec Io?a?a /a?ac Oaaaa?
e Oo?eaineee ia?aaae ia Aenoiaa a ieciaueyo Na?uno e aaa?o ii ?aea aei
Oeuoao (ai?u Eaiaee?eee), a ioooaea ii Eoeio e E?ouoo. Aieaa ei?ioeee
iooue oae /a?ac Nocae e ieciaueyi *o, a ioooaea /a?ac Aaoiaeaeaeo a
?aeii AEaceacaaia. Aua iaeei iooue – «Oaiaeie» – eniieueciaaeny aei
iiaiai a?aiaie e oae ec Oa?aca aiec ii Oaeano /a?ac Iothi-Eoiu e
Aaoiaeaeaeo e aa?aaai Aoano.

Ec Oa?aca /a?ac ai?iaea Aaeaoean e Aeao-Ioaeaeeean, niaeanii naaaeaieyi
Eai-Aao?a e ae-Eae?ene, oae oi?aiaue iooue ia E?ouo – e ?aceaeaioeee
oaeaia eeiaeia e aeaeaa, a no?aio eu?aucia ia Aienae. Eaaeaeua o?e aiaea
e eu?aucai ioi?aaeyeny ea?aaai n oaeeii.

Eeeeneay aeieeia niaaeeiyeanue n Oeaio?aeueiui Eacaonoaiii aei?iaie,
eioi?ay oea aaeieue naaa?iuo neeiiia *o-Eeeeneeo ai?, caoai ii *o a aa
ieciaueyo e caoai e aa?aaai Na?uno. Aua iaeei aaaeiue iooue iooiaeee io
naaa?i-eeeeneie o?annu a ?aeiia *eiaeeaaeu e /a?ac ea?aaai-na?ae Eieoae
e Aiyoeu – a I?eaaeoaouea, a caoai aaeieue i?ioiee ?. Eee I?oano, aaea
iaoiaeyony inoaoee ai?iaeia Aeoai e Aaaoaye, e aa?aao Aaeoaoa, a caoai
ii iieoino?iao Ocoi-A?ae, eioi?ue ii/oe niaaeeiyao thaeiue e naaa?iue
aa?aaa ica?a, inoaaeyy i?ieea oe?eiie /ooue aieueoa 8 ei. Caeanue aea ia
iuno iaia?oaeaiu inoaoee ai?iaeeua, aieueoay /anoue eioi?iai caoiieaia
aiaeie. Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ea?aaaiu ia?aoiaeeee i?ieea aa?iae,
a ceiie ii eueaeo, e auoiaeeee a onouea ?aee Oie?ao e caoai ii aa
aa?aaai oee e i?aaeai?ueyi Oeuoao e aeaeaa ia naaa?.

Io naaa?i-eeeeneiai iooe, eioi?ue oae a Aeaeoiaa?neei ai?ioai, iooiaeeei
iai?aaeaiea, eioi?ia iaeaaei Aeaeieue n caiaaeiie noi?iiu, e /a?ac
Oa?aaaaoae i?eaiaeeei ia E?ouo, a caiee ainoaea?noaa eeiaeia. A
Oa?aaaaoaa e ia aa?aaao E?ouoa ?aniieaaaeenue eeiaeneea ai?iaea –
Aaiaeaea?, Oa-iaoo, Anoo?, Nenai e «noieeoea oaeaia» – ia?iiiue ai?iae,
ie?oaeaiiue oe?aieaiiie noaiie n aeaeaciuie ai?ioaie. Ai?iaea eeiaeia
auee naycaiu oi?aiauie aei?iaaie n ai?iaeaie eu?aucia ia Aienaa, oeao?ia
a Iiiaieee e iacenaie Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia. *a?ac THaeiia I?ea?aeuea, a
aannaei Eaiu aaea aei?iaa, eioi?ay niaaeeiyea Oaeeiaue iooue n naaa?ii.
Ionthaea aeiauaaaoayny caeanue ae?aaioeaiiay iooieia iiiaaeaea a
N?aaeithth Aceth, Ainoi/iue Oo?eanoai, Eeoae, Eiaeeth e E?ai.

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