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Трагические страницы Истории Украины 30-е годы 20-го века

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Aeiiaoeeia iocueaeueiia o/eeeua

?aoa?ao

ia oaio: «O?aae/aneea no?aieoeu Enoi?ee Oe?aeiu 30-a aiaeu OO aaea»

Nooaeaioee 2-ai eo?na

AI AeIO

A?oaiaieiaie Aiiu

Aeiiaoee 2008a.

Ieai

1. Eiaeono?eaeecaoeey e eieeaeoeaecaoeey a Oe?aeia: oiae e iineaaenoaey.

2. Iieeoe/aneea ?ai?annee a Oe?aeia, ooaa?aeaeaiea noaeeineiai
oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia.

3. Iieeoe/aneia e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea oe?aeineeo
caiaeue a ninoaaa Iieueoe, ?oiuiee, *aoineiaaeee.

Caeeth/aiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Eiaeono?eaeecaoeey e eieeaeoeaecaoeey a Oe?aeia: oiae e iineaaenoaey.

Ioeac io iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee icia/ae na?ueaciue iiai?io a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ai aioo?aiiae iieeoeea aieueoaaeeia. Iie ecae?atho
eo?n ia „onei?aiiia nioeeaeenoe/aneia no?ieoaeuenoai”, e eiaiii iieeoeea
„nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee” aeieaeia auea i?eianoe oniao
noaeeineiio eo?no „aaeeeie ia?ano?ieee”. „Iu ionoaee io ia?aaeiauo no?ai
ia 50–100 eao. Iu aeieaeiu i?iaaaeaoue yoi ?annoiyiea ca aeanyoue eao.
Eee iu naeaeaai yoi, eee ian niiioo”, – ioia/ae Noaeei a naiae ?a/e a
1931 a.

Eo?n ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth ii?aaeaeee XV nuacae AEI(a) (aeaeaa?ue a
1927 a.), ooaa?aeea aee?aeoeau ia?aiai iyoeeaoiaai ieaia ?acaeoey
oicyenoaa ia 1928/29 – 1932/33 aiaeu. XI nuacae aieueoaaeeia Oe?aeiu,
/oi i?ioiaeee iiae ciaeii iieiie iiaeaea?aeee noaeeineiai eo?na ia
oi?ne?iaaiioth eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth, iaeia?ee iioeiaeueiue aa?eaio
iyoeeaoiaai ieaia aeey Oe?aeiu.

Oe?aeia ii?aaeaeyeanue eae iniiaiie ieaoeaea?i inouanoaeaiey
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee a NNN?, aaaeue aa oniao caaenae a iniiaiii io
eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa oe?aeineiai oaey e iaoaeea. Iioiio Oe?aeia
iieo/eea 20 % anao eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee NNN?, 400 ec 1500 i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee ieaie?iaaeinue iino?ieoue o ian a ia?aie iyoeeaoea.

*oiau aeiaeoueny yoiai, i?aayuay ia?oey e i?aaeoaeuenoai i?ecuaaee
ia?iae iai?y/ue ana neeu ?aaee aieueoie oeaee. Oe?aeineee ia?iae ia
oieueei ioicaaeny ia yoio i?ecua, ia oieueei ie?eeny n o?oaeiinoyie e
iao?yaeeoeaie, ii e i?iyaeye ia?iiiue yiooceaci, naiiioaa?aeaiiinoue e
naiiiiaea?oaiaaiea a ia?ano?ieea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Iniiaie yoiai
yiooceacia auei oi, /oi ethaee onoaee io oyaeaeie aeecie e, aeaey
?acoeueoaou naiaai o?oaea (?inee iiaua caaiaeu e oaa?eee,
yeaeo?inoaioeee, i?ieeaaeuaaeenue aei?iae, oaaee/eaaeny auione
?aciiia?aciuo oiaa?ia) aa?eee a naaoeia aoaeouaa, oioy au aeey naieo
aeaoae.

Ioiineeinue ca oeaeue iaania/eoue i?aiaeaaeathuaa e ia?aii/a?aaeiie
?acaeoea io?aneae a?oiiu A (oiieeaiie, yia?aaoe/aneie, oeie/aneie,
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie e ae?.). Yoi aeaei au aiciiaeiinoue i?aa?aoeoue NNN?
a iiao/aa eiaeono?eaeueiia ainoaea?noai n aieueoei aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiui
iioaioeeaeii.

?yaeii n yoei „i?ieaoa?neia” ainoaea?noai yenieoaoe?iaaei eeann ?aai/aai
ia oieueei iaoiaeaie i?eioaeaeaiey e caioaeaaiey. Yenieoaoe?iaaeenue e
ene?aiiee yiooceaci o?oaeyueony, eo aeiaa?ea e aeanoe, aa?a a „naaoeia
aoaeouaa”. Iaoa?eaeueiua noeioeu, eioi?ua iaaeyaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee
naie i?aeiouanoaa a ia?eiae IYI, /anoi caiaiyeenue ii?aeueiuie,
iieeoeei-eaeaieiae/aneeie.

A ii/ue n 30 ia 31 aaaonoa a 1935 a. caaieuee oaoou
„Oeaio?aeueia-??i?ia” I. Noaoaiia n iiiiuueth aeaoo
iiiiuieeia-e?aieeueueeia aeiaue 102 oiiiu oaey i?e ii?ia 7 oiii,
?ann/eoaiiie oieueei ia caaieueea, a 14,5 ?aca ia?ae?ua ii?io au?aaioee.
I?eia?o Noaoaiiaa noaee neaaeiaaoue ae?oaea i?iecaiaenoaaiieee, ii
aeoeaii eniieueciaaeny aeey ?acaa?ouaaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
ni?aaiiaaiey ai anao io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea. A aeinoeaeaiee aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea eniieueciaaeenue e ae?oaea iaoiaeu, a caaeneiinoe io niaoeeoeee
io?anee: niaa?oainoaiaaiea aeaeaiey o?oaea (oaeaaeiauaathuay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iaoeiino?iaiea), oeo/oaiey i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/eo iano
(eaaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, iaoeiino?iaiea), eioaineoeeaoeey ?aaiou iaoei e
aa?aaaoia (iaoeiino?iaiea, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue o?ainii?o, oaenoeeueiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue), eioaineoeeaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia (/a?iay
iaoaeeo?aey) e o.ae.

A aiaeu eiaeono?eaeecaoeee auee aiaae?aiu ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iaoei,
aa?aaaoia, iaoaieciia, /oi aucuaaei iaiaoiaeeiinoue nouanoaaiiiai
iiauoaiey ia?aciaaiey e i?aaeaea anaai oaoie/aneie a?aiioiinoe eaae?ia,
ianniaiai iaeaaeaiey iiaie oaoieeie, ?aciiia?aciuie i?ioanneyie,
oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie. Ana yoi oaeaea eiaei i?ia?anneaiia
cia/aiea. Aianoa n oai ainoaea?noai eniieueciaaei yoi aeey oiai, /oiau
ia?aniio?aoue ii?iu au?aaioee a noi?iio eo oaaee/aiey ia 35–45%.
O/anoieeaie noaeeineie i?ia?aiiu nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee
noaee e ieeeeiiu ?ai?anne?iaaiiuo „a?aaia ia?iaeo”. Aaniiuaaeii
yenieoaoe?iaaeinue e naei.

*oi eanaaony oaoie/aneie iieeoeee, oi iia caeeth/aeanue a nicaeaiee
i?aaei?eyoee-iiiiiieenoia, i?iaeoeoeey eioi?uo i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey
iio?aaiinoae aieueoeo ?aaeiiia, a /anoiinoe Oeaio?aeueiie ?innee. Auee
iino?iaiu „Caii??aenoaeue”, „Acianoaeue”, Aeiai?iaan, E?aiaoi?neee
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiue, Oa?ueeianeee o?aeoi?iue caaiaeu e oiio iiaeiaiia. A
eiioea ia?aie iyoeeaoee a Oe?aeia i?aaei?eyoey nithciiai iiae/eiaiey
i?iecaiaeeee 69,8 % i?iaeoeoeee, ?anioaeeeaineiai – 20,3 %, ianoiiai –
9,9 %. N na?aaeeiu 30-o aiaeia ana aieaa /aoei ieacuaaeny eo?n ia
ieeeoa?ecaoeeth ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, nicaeaiey iiao/aai
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena. Eciaieeinue niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth e naeueneei oicyenoaii a iauae no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee.
?acei nie?aoeeenue ana aeaeu /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Eeeaeaee?iaaeenue eiino?aiiua eiioeannee. Ooaa?aeaeaeanue ieaiiaay
aaeieieno?aoeaii eiiaiaeiay nenoaia, eioi?ay /a?ac ianeieueei aeanyoeia
eao en/a?iaao naay e eniuoaao e?ao.

?yaeii n yoei, eiaeono?eaeecaoeey eiaea e iiceoeaiua iineaaenoaey:

– a 1940 a. o?iaaiue i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a n?aaiaiiuo ec 1913 a.
oaaee/eeny a 7 ?ac;

– ii iauaio i?iecaiaenoaa oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeia iia?aaeeea
?yae ?acaeouo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai: aoi?ia ianoi a Aa?iia ii auioneo iaoei
(iinea Aaeeeia?eoaiee) e auieaaea /oaoia (iinea Aa?iaiee);

– Oe?aeia ec aa?a?iie no?aiu i?aa?aoeeanue a eiaeono?eaeueii –
aa?a?ioth. Auea eeeaeaee?iaaia aac?aaioeoea, iiyaeeenue ouny/e iiauo
?aai/eo iano.

Oae i?ioiaeeea oi?ne?iaaiiay nioeeaeenoe/aneay eiaeono?eaeecaoeey –
ninoaaiay /anoue noaeeineie iieeoeee „ianooieaiey nioeeaeecia ii anaio
o?iioo”. *ai yoi ianooieaiea caeii/eeinue, naaiaeiy ciaao aanue ie?.
Ioiineoaeueii Oe?aeiu, oi aa o?oaeyueany, eioi?ua aeia?iaieueii eee
i?eioaeeoaeueii ianee ia naaa a?oc eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, neaai
ii/oanoaiaaee aa ?acoeueoaou. Aea e ia oaeeaeoaeueii: ii/oe o?e /aoaa?oe
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, au?aaioaiiie oe?aeineeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, oee a
iauanithciue oiiae.

Ae?oaie ninoaaeythuae noaeeineiai eo?na auea oae iacuaaaiay
nioeeaeenoe/aneay eieeaeoeaecaoeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Yoi iai?aaeaiea
auei ii?aaeaeaii a 1927 a. ia XV nuacaea AEI(a). A ia/aea 1928 a. Noaeei
e aai ie?oaeaiey aianee a ?aoaiea nuacaea ei??aeoeau, nooue eioi?uo
caeeth/aeanue a aua aieueoai ia?aie/aiee yeaiaioia ?uiea, eioi?ua
inoaeenue io IYI, a ianeeuenoaaiiie eeeaeaeaoeee anao oi?i
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee, a oaeaea „eoea/anoaa eae eeanna”.
Aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ia naea aeieaeiu auee
noaoue eieoicu e niaoicu. Ana yoi aeieaeii auei inouanoaeoueny ca
o?e-/aou?a aiaea. Oao, eoi aunooiee i?ioea „eeiee ia?oee”, iauyaeee
„a?aaaie ia?iaea” e ?ai?anne?iaaee (A. Aooa?eia, A. ?ueiaa, I. Oiineiai
e ae?.). Ii yoei aea i?e/eiai i?iecioea e ?ani?aaa iaae auaeathueieny
o/aiuie-aa?a?eyie: I. *ayiiaui, E. Eiiae?aoueaaui e ae?.

A 1929 a. ia ieaioia OeE AEI(a) auei ioia/aii, /oi Oe?aeia aeieaeia a
e?ao/aeoee n?ie aiaae?eoue eieeaeoeaecaoeeth, iieacuaay i?eia? ae?oaei
?anioaeeeai NNN?. E iia ia/aea iieacuaaoue oaeie i?eia?. Anee a ieoya?a
a 1929 a. a Oe?aeia auei 10 anieioioth eieeaeoeaece?iaaiiuo ?aeiiia, oi
oaea a a?oaeiuo oiai aea aiaea eo auei 46. Onoaiiaeaiea
eieoicii-niaoiciie nenoaiu nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ianeeuenoaaiiie
yeni?ii?eaoeeae caiee, neioa, ?aiaiaioa. Aeaeaeinue ana aeey oiai, /oiau
oaeoue ecaa/iia no?aieaiea e?anoueyieia eiaoue nianoaaiioth caieth e
o/eoueny i?iecaiaeeoaeueii ?aaioaoue ia iae. Caae?ay ii/oe ana,
e?anoueyi neeie caaiiyee e eieoicai, a ianiaeaniuo ?ai?anne?iaaee.
Oaeoe/anee ?a/ue oea i ?icnaeyithaaiiy oe?aeineeo oeaai?iaia. *anoue ec
ieo, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iieiaeaaeue, oea e ai?iaeai, a i?iiuoeaiiinoue.
Aeinoaoi/ii iiiai auoiaeoeaa ec naea, eioi?ua noaiiaeeenue nooaeaioaie
eee i?ecuaaeenue e E?aniie a?iee, ia aica?auaeinue aeiiie.

Oyaeaeuie auee aeey Oe?aeiu e iineaaenoaey ianniauo aeaii?oaoeee. A
eiioea 20-o aiaeia 850 oun. oe?aeineeo e?anoueyi auee i?eioaeeoaeueii
ia?anaeaiu a iaiaaeeoua ?aeiiu Eieueneiai iieoino?iaa e Neae?e. Ia
i?aia?aciaaiea naea, a /anoiinoe ia oeaai?iaia auea iai?aaeaia e
iieeoeea „eeeaeaeaoeee eoea/anoaa eae eeanna”, aaaeue oiaaea iino?aaeaee
e aeinoaoi/ii iiiai na?aaeiyoeeeo oicyenoa.

*oiau iaania/eoue aunieea oaiiu eieeaeoeaecaoeee, aieueoaaeee iai?aaeee
e oe?aeineiio naeo 62 oun. ?aai/eo. Nthaea i?eauee oaeaea oae iacuaaaiua
25-oeny/ieee, – eae i?aaeei, ?inneeneea ?aai/ea, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee
inouanoaeyoue aa?a?ioth iieeoeeo ia?oee. Ia 1 ethiy a 1930 a. a
?anioaeeea auei ianeeuenoaaiii eieeaeoeaece?iaaii 90 oun. oicyenoa, a
anaai ca aiaeu eieeaeoeaecaoeee – 200 oun. Aianoa ni anaie /eaiaie naiae
„eoeaeia” yoi ninoaaeyei 1,2–1,4 iei. eeoe. Aieueoa iieiaeiu ec ieo auea
aeaii?oe?iaaia ia Naaa? e a Neae?ue. A 1932 a., aiaae?ea ianii?oioth
nenoaio a ai?iaeao, aeanoue oaeoe/anee i?ee?aieea e?anoueyi e eieoiciie
caiea, naeaeaea eo ainoaea?noaaiiuie e?aiinoiuie.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a ?acoeueoaoa „nioeeaeenoe/aneie eieeaeoeaecaoeee”
niaaoneay aeanoue aeinoeaea iiiaeo oeaeae. Caaeeoi/iia e niiniaiia e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio o?oaeo e?anoueyinoai (eoeaee, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
na?aaeiyeia) auei eno?aaeaii. Ae?oaay /anoue e?anoueyi, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue naiuo aaaeiuo, auea caaiaia e eieoicai, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
i?iecioei ?icnaeyithaaiiy oe?aeineeo oeaai?iaia. *a?ac ianniaua
?ai?annee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aue iiaei?aai aaiioiiae oe?aeineiai
ia?iaea a oeaeii e oe?aeineiai e?anoueyinoaa a /anoiinoe. Ana yoi
iaaaoeaii iiaeeyei ia nicaeaiea aunieii?iaeoeoeaiiai naeueneiai
oicyenoaa e iiaeuai aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy ianaeaiey.

A 1932–1933 aa. oe?aeineee ia?iae, iniaaiii e?anoueyinoai, ii/oanoaiaaee
ia naaa, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaeei ec naiuo o?aae/iuo ?acoeueoaoia
eieeaeoeaecaoeee – aieiaeiii?. Aai enoiee, eae oaea ioia/aeinue,
neaaeoao eneaoue a aa?a?iie iieeoeea niaaoneie aeanoe. Ieaiu
oeaaicaaioiaie, a /anoiinoe, ieeiaaea ia auee yeiiiie/anee
iainiiaaiiuie, iie a nouiinoe icia/aee i?iaeiaieuenoaaiioth aeeeoaoo?o.
O oe?aeineeo oeaai?iaia ecuiaee ii/oe aeaa o?aoe aaeiaiai nai?a ca?ia,
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aeeaioiiaiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee. E?iia oiai,
eieoicu nianoaaiiuie neeaie oaea?aeeaaee iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iua noaioeee e
i?iaeoeoeee aeey aeinoaoi/iie iieaou o?oaea oeaai?iaia o ieo oaea ia
inoaaaeinue.

A 1931 a. ii/oe o?aoue o?iaeay auea iioa?yia ai a?aiy aeaoa. Ieaiu
oeaaicaaioiaie, iaeiaei, inoaeenue aac eciaiaiee. A 1932 a. ieiuaaeue
iinaaia a Oe?aeia oiaiueoeeanue ia iaeio iyoo. Ieai aea oeaaicaaioiaie
aue iiaeiyo ia 44 %. A 1932 a. auei i?eiyoi iinoaiiaeaiea „I?i io?aio
nioeeaeenoe/aneie nianoaaiiinoe”, niaeanii n eioi?ie ca „i?enai?iiy”
aeaaea ai?noe ca?ia ec eieoiciiai iiey e?anoueyia ea?aeenue ?anno?aeii
eee eiioeeaaa?ai. A cae?iia ainoaea?noaa oiaaea caae?aee aeaaea naiaiiie
oiiae, ia auaeaaay eieoicieeai ie ca?ia.

A ?anioaeeea ia/aeny aieiae. A ia?oa a 1933 a. ei auei ioaa/aii 103 ec
400 ?aeiiia. Iaeiaei aeaaea i?e yoeo oneiaeyo cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai
ca?ia oei ia yenii?o. Oeaio?aeueiay aeanoue niiaea auaeaeeoue Oe?aeia
eeoue 3 iei. ioaeia oeaaa. Eaeay aai /anoue iiiaea aieiaeathuei, e
naaiaeiy inoaaony iaecaanoiui. Ecaanoii ae?oaia: iioa?e Oe?aeiu
ninoaaeyee 3,5–5 iei. /aeiaae. Yoio aieiaeiii? aue ianiiiaiii
eneonnoaaiiui e eeanneoeoee?oaony eae niaaonei-aieueoaaenoneee aaiioeeae
i?ioea oe?aeineiai ia?iaea.

Iaeiaei, iaace?ay ia oaeeo aieueoeo aea?oa, eioi?uo caieaoee iao ia?iae
ca nioeeaeenoe/aneoth eiaeono?aeecaoeeth e eieeaeoeaecaoeeth,
yooaeoeaiinoue aaaeaiey oicyenoaa inoaaaeanue ieceie, aaeanue a iniiaiii
yenoaineaiuie iaoiaeaie, aeaaininoiyiea ia?iaea ?inei i/aiue iaaeeaiii.

2. Iieeoe/aneea ?ai?annee a Oe?aeia, ooaa?aeaeaiea noaeeineiai
oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia.

Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu aeanoe aue ?ai?anneaiue
aiia?ao, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue aea?aeaoue iauanoaaiiua i?ioeannu iiae
aeanoeei eiio?ieai, oie/oiaeay ethaoth iiiiceoeeth noaeeineiio ?aaeeio,
ethaua i?iyaeaiey eiaeiiuneey. I?aaiu AeIO – IEAN ?acaa?ioee ianniaua
?ai?annee i?ioea anao i?ineiae ianaeaiey.

Ia/aei ianniaiai aeooeiaoaaiiy „eeaniaeo a?aaia” – „a?aaia ia?iaea”
iieiaeee noaa?eeiaaiiue AeIO “oaooeineee i?ioeann” a 1928 a., ia eioi?ii
a?oiia eiaeaia?ia Aeiiaanna auea ?ai?anne?iaaia ca auiuoeaiiuie
iaaeiaieyie ai a?aaeeoaeuenoaa. Ec 49 inoaeaeaiiuo ii yoiio aeaeo – 7
auei ?anno?aeyii. Ia/eiay n 1929 a. ianniaua ?ai?annee o?aiy aieiaie
i?ieaoeeenue ii Oe?aeia.

Ia?aay – 1929–1931 ??.: i?eioaeeoaeueiay eieeaeoeaecaoeey e
?aneoea/eaaiea, i?ioeann „Ni?eee Inaiaiaeaeaiea Oe?aeiu (NAO)”,
eeeaeaeaoeey OAIOe.

Aoi?ay – 1932–1934 ??.: eneonnoaaiiue aieiae, iinoeoaaneee oa??i?
(i?ioea eioaeeeaaioeee e ia?oi?aoeeaieeea).

O?aouey – 1936–1938 ??.: oae iacuaaaiue „aaeeeee oa??i?”, a oeaio?a
eioi?iai auee ?ai?annee i?ioea aiaiiuo.

A naioya?a a 1929 a. ninoiyeenue a?anou auaeathueony aeayoaeae
oe?aeineie iaoee, eoeueoo?u, ?aeeaee – eae /eaiia auiuoeaiiie IAeIO
„Ni?eee inaiaiaeaeaiea Oe?aeiu”. A 1930 a. ninoiyeny i?ioeann iaae 45
„?oeiaiaeeoaeyie” NAO. N?aaee ieo – aeaaeaiee N. Ao?aiia, i?ioanni?a E.
Aa?iaeca, A. Neaa/aiei, ienaoaee A. Ea/aiei, E. Noa?eoeeay-*a?iyoianueea
e ae?. A 1931 a. ninoiyeny aua iaeei i?ioeann – oae iacuaaaiiai
„Oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oeaio?a”, ca eioi?ui auee ?ai?anne?iaaiu 50
i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?aeineie eioaeeeaaioeee, a oii /enea aeaaeaiee A.
A?ooaaneee, ecaanoai enoi?ee-ia?eneno I. ssai?nueeee e ae?. A noaeeineeo
canoaieao iiaeaee oe?aeineea aeaaeaieee – aaieia I. Naeoaeueneee,
aaiaoee E. Aaieue, oeeinio N. Naieianeee. Iaeiaei aeaaea i?e yoeo
oneiaeyo oe?aeineea iao/iua ?aaioieee oniaee naeaeaoue aeinoaoi/ii iiiai
iieaciiai. I?eciaiea i?eia?aee o?oaeu I.Iaeeaaeeia, A. No?aaeanea, I.
Aeeiieea, I. Eoaiaoeaaa, TH. Eiiae?aothea e ae?.

Ii oaeueoeaui iaaeiaieyi auee inoaeaeaiu e ?anno?aeyiu A. Einuiea, E.
Ao?aaae, Ae. Oaeueeianeee, I. Aeecei, ?. E?ooaeueieoeueeee e iiiai
ae?oaeo oe?aeineeo iiyoia e ienaoaeae. ?ai?annee ia iaioee e oaao?. A
1933 a. aue a?anoiaai auaeathueeny ?aaeenna? E. Eo?aana, a i?aaieciaai
ei oaao? „Aa?ac?eue” – cae?uoi. A a?oaeiuo a 1934 a. ii aeaeo oae
iacuaaaiiai „Oe?aeineiai oeaio?o aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa-oa??i?enoia” auei
inoaeaeaii e ?anno?aeo 28 i?aaenoaaeoaeae oe?aeineie eioaeeeaaioeee. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee 1933 a. io iao/iie ?aaiou ca iieeoe/aneeie iaaeiaieyie auei
ono?aiaii 1649 iao/iuo ?aaioieeia, oi anoue 16% eo iauaai ninoaaa.
Aeaaeo?iuie aea?oaaie ?ai?annee noaee E. Eoeao, A. Ca?ia, ?. Ieoaeiee e
iiiai ae?oaeo. A oeaeii ca yoe aiaeu Oe?aeia iioa?yea ieiei 500
oaeaioeeauo ienaoaeae. Aeanoue auea iiiaoie oai?/anoaa oaeeo
auaeathueony eeii?aaeenna?ia, eae I. Aeiaaeaiei, ?. Eaaaea??aeca, ?.
Naa/aiei, ?. Ie?’?a, E. Eoeia oa ?i. O 30-o ?ieao I. Aeiaaeaiei ia c
aeanii? aie? aeiooaiee aoa caeeoeoe Oe?a?io ? ia?a?oaoe aei Iineae.

Iaiii?aaeiua iioa?e iiianee aiaiiua eaae?u (a aeiaiaiiua aiaeu auei
?ai?anne?iaaii nauoa 40 oun. iiuoiaeoeo eiiaiaee?ia E?aniie a?iee, a
o./. 1800 aaia?aeia). Noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi ?ai?anneyi iiaeaeaaaeenue ia
oieueei eioaeeeaaioeey, ?oeiaiaeeoaee, ia?o?aaioieee e aiaiiua, ii e
?yaeiaua ?aai/ea e eieoicieee.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a 30-ua aiaeu oa??i? aue oioaeueiui, ioaaouaae ana neie
ianaeaiey. A iauanoaa ?ani?ino?aieeenue aeiiinu, acaeiiia iiaeic?aiea,
iienee „a?aaia ia?iaea”. Aeaaiui neaaenoaeai ianniauo ?ai?annee auei
oece/aneia eno?aaeaiea iaeaieaa aeoeaiie e eioaeeaeooaeueiie /anoe
iaoeee e oioaeueiia ?anoeaiea oao, eiai oa??i? ia caoeaiee. Iooai
?ai?annee ninoiyeinue ieii/aoaeueiia ooaa?aeaeaiea noaeeineiai
oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia a NNN? e a Oe?aeia a /anoiinoe.

3. Iieeoe/aneia e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea oe?aeineeo
caiaeue a ninoaaa Iieueoe, ?oiuiee, *aoineiaaeee.

Iniaaiii oyaeaeui auei iieeoe/aneei e nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneia
iieiaeaiea oe?aeineeo caiaeue, eioi?ua ieacaeenue a 20-o–30-o aiaeao a
ninoaaa Iieueoe, ?oiuiee, *aoineiaaeee (i?eaeecii7 iei. oe?aeioeaa).

Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai oe?aeioeaa (5 iei. eeoe) i?iaeeaaee ia oa??eoi?ee
caa?aaanoaiiie Iieueoae: Ainoi/iay Aaee/eia, Caiaaeiay Aieuiue,
Iieanuea, Oieiueia e Ieaeeyooy. Iieueneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaauaei no?aiai
Aioaiou, eioi?ay iaania/eo i?aaa iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa,
i?aaeinoaaeo Aaee/eia aaoiiiieth, iaeiaei n?aco aea caaue i naieo
iaauaieyo. Aieaa oiai, oaea a 1924 a. i?eiye caeii, eioi?ui cai?auae
iieueciaaoueny oe?aeineei ycueii a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e
i?aaiao naiioi?aaeaiey. Aieueoeinoai oe?aeineeo oeie auee ia?aaaaeaiu ia
aeaoycu/ioth o/aao (oaeoe/anee iieueneineiaiia). Ai Eueaianeii
oieaa?neoaoa auee cae?uou oe?aeineea eaoaae?u, eiee/anoai oe?aeioeaa a
iai ninoaaeyee ia aieueoa 5–10 %.

I?ienoiaeeea eieiiecaoeey oe?aeineeo caiaeue iieueeyeaie (ia?anaeaioeu
ec Iieueoe, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?aaeiea aiaiiua, eioi?ui i?aaeoaeuenoai
?acaeaaaei eo/oea caiee). Ca caeiiii io 17 aeaeaa?y a 1920 a. iie iiaee
aanieaoii iieo/eoue ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai oiiaea aei 45 aa caiee. Eeoue
ia i?ioyaeaiee 1921-1922 a. caoaao/eeai auei ?icaeaii iiae
eieiiecaoeeth, a /anoiinoe: ia Aieuie – 112 oun. aa, ia Iieanuea – 113
oun. aa, a Ainoi/iie Aaee/eia – ii/oe 200 oun. aa. Aei 1938 a. eo
i?eauei a naea 200 oun., e?iia oiai a ai?iaea – 100 ouny/. Iie caieiaee
aeieaeiinoe iaeeeo /eiiaieeia, iieeoeaaa, ii/oiauo e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo
?aaioieeia e oiio iiaeiaiia.

Iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue e oi, /oi a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee
caiaaeiioe?aeineea caiee auee aa?a?iuie eieiieyie Iieueoe, eioi?ua
iinoaaeyee nu?uea e aeaoaaay ?aai/oth neeo.

Iieueneea aeanoiua no?oeoo?u oneeeee aiiaiea ia i?aaineaaioth oea?eiaue,
eioi?ay ia Aieuie, Iieanuea e Oieiueie auea iniiaiie iii?ie oe?aeineie
iaoeeiiaeueiie naiiauoiinoe. 190 i?aaineaaiuo o?aiia auei ?ac?ooaii,
nauoa 150 – ia?aaeaii eaoieeeai e oieaoai. Ec 380 i?aaineaaiuo oea?eaae,
eioi?ua auee ia Aieuie aei 1914 a., inoaeinue eeoue 51.

A iieneao eo/oae noaeueau ouny/e oe?aeioeaa yiea?e?iaaee ca a?aieoeo.
Ae?oaea – noaiiaeeenue ia iooue ai?ueau i?ioea iieueneeo ii?yaeeia ca
naia nioeeaeueiia e iaoeeiiaeueiia inaiaiaeaeaiea. Oi/eie ion/aoa oaeie
ai?ueau iiaeii n/eoaoue 20-ouny/iue ieoeia a ia/aea 20-o aiaeia ai
Eueaiaa aicea niai?a Na. TH?a, ia eioi?ii ana nia?aaoeany i?iaicaeaneee
eeyoao, ca/eoaiioth auaeathueiny aeayoaeai aaeeoeeiai
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey TH. ?iiai/oeii: „Iu,
oe?aeineee ia?iae, eeyiainy, /oi ieeiaaea ia niaeaneiny ia ainiiaenoai
Iieueoe iaae iaie e eaaeaeue neo/ae eniieuecoai, /oiau iaiaaenoiia iai
eai iaaiee ec naay na?ineoue e i?eaea/ueny n oeaeui aieueoei oe?aeineei
ia?iaeii a iaeiie, iacaaeneiiio, niai?iiio ainoaea?noao”.

Ii?aaeaeaii nii?ioeaeaiea eieiiecaoi?neie iieeoeea aeanoae aeaeaee
eiiia?aoeaiua i?aaiecaoeee, eoeueoo?ii i?inaaoeoaeueneea iauanoaa
„I?ina?oa”, „??aeia oeiea”, iieiaeaaeiua iauaaeeiaiey „Nie?e”, „Ieano”
ii ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee e iieeoe/aneea ia?oee.

Naiui /eneaiiui e naiui aeeyoaeueiui n?aaee ieo auei
Iaoeeiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneia iauaaeeiaiea (OIAeI) iiae i?iaiaeii Ae.
Eaaeoeeiai, A. Ioae?iai, N. Aa?aia e ae?. Aaaeoueie eaeayie OIAeI auee:
i?aai ia iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiii?aaeaeaiea, nioeeaeueiay ni?aaaaeeeainoue
e aeaiie?aoey, i?iaaaeaiea aa?a?iuo ?aoi?i.

Eaaia e?uei a ai?ueaa o?oaeyueony e?ath i?aaenoaaeyea Eiiioienoe/aneay
ia?oey Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiu (EICO), eioi?ay aeaenoaiaaea a iiaeiieuea,
iie?aynue ia eaaaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth – ?aai/a-e?anoueyineia
nioeeaeenoe/aneia iauaaeeiaiea (naeue?ia). A 1934 a. a aa ?yaeao
ian/eouaaeenue nauoa 4 oun. eeoe.

?aaee enoi?e/aneie ni?aaaaeeeainoe iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
iiiiceoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea oe?aeineiai iauanoaa a Iieueoa iaaeanii
iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue ec NNN?, i?aaeaea anaai iooai oeiainiaiai
„iiaeea?ieeaaiea” ianoiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Eae ioia/aao /eai-ei??aniiiaeaio
IAI Oe?aeiu Aeaaeeie? Eeoaei („Aiein Oe?aeiu, 2002, 9 eenoiiaaea: „O?yae
niaaoneie Oe?aeiu aaeaaiaeii o?aoee ia yoi ec naieoeee Iineau nioie
ouny/ cieiouo ?oaeae. Iaeaieueoeie iio?aaeoaeyie oaeiie niaou auee
Eueaia e Aa?oaaa. Oeiaine?iaaeenue ?aciiia?aciua eoeueoo?ii
i?inaaoeoaeueneea e yeiiiie/aneea i?aaiecaoeee – Naeue ?ia, OIAeI,
/anoiua oe?aeineea oeieu, eiiia?aoeaiua nithcu e ecaeaoaeuenoaa,
aeo?iaeu „Eoeueoo?a”, „I?aoey”, „Iiaua iooe”, aacaou „?aaea”, „N?ea”,
„Na?oei”, iaoeeiiaeueiue yoiia?aoe/aneee iocae ai Eueaiaa, Iao/iia
iauanoai ei.. O. Oaa/aiei.

A 30-o aiaeao ?anoao aeeyiea iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie, a
/anoiinoe oaeiai eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, eae I?aaiecaoeey
Oe?aeineeo Iaoeeiiaeenoia (IOI), eioi?ay auea ia?aciaaia a 1929 a. a
Aaia (aicaeaaee A.Eiiiaaeaoeue). Iia i?eaea?aeeaaeanue aiaiiuo
i?eioeeiia ?oeiaiaenoaa – eiinie?aoeaiuo iaoiaeia e no?iaie
aeenoeeieeiu, inouanoaeyea aeou naaioaaea (iiaeiaee eiaiee iiiaueeia e
onaaeaa inaaeieeea, ?ac?ooaiey oaeaa?aoiie e oaeaoiiiio naoe, aeeaa?nee
ia aeaeaciuo aei?iaao e o. i.), yeni?ii?eaoeee aaieia, eiouanoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, a oaeaea i?iaiaeeea eaiiaiee
iieeoe/aneiai oa??i?a i?ioea i?aaenoaaeoaeae iieueneiai ainoaea?noaa e
oao oe?aeioeaa, eioi?ua ia niaeaoaeenue n iieeoeeie IOI.

A ia/aea 30-o aa., e?iia nioai aeoia naaioaaea ia aeanyoeia neo/aaa
„yeni?ii?eaoeee”, /eaiu IOI. I?aaieciaaee nauoa 60 iieooaiee e oaeenoa.
Aaaeiaeoeie aea?oaaie noaee: A. *aoianueeee (1932) – eiienna? iieueneie
iieeoeee; I. Iieia (1933) – eiinoe NNN? ai Eueaiaa; A. Ia?aoeueeee
(1934) – iieueneee ieieno? aioo?aiieo aeae; ?. Aaaee (1934) – aee?aeoi?
oe?aeineie Aeaaeaie/aneie aeiiacee ai Eueaiaa, i?aaeiee noa?oeia OAA
(aai oaeee eeoue caoi, /oi ii cai?auae aeiiacenoai anooiaoue e IOI.).
I?aaiecaoi?ii aieueoeinoaa yoeo oaeenoa aue N. Aaiaea?a, eioi?ue noiye
ia iiceoeee naiuo ?aaeeeaeueiuo iaoiaeia aeayoaeueiinoe IOI.

Aaiaea?a Noaiai (1909–1959 aa.) – iaeei ec eeaea?ia oe?aeineiai
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. ?iaeeeny a n.Noa?ue Oa?eiea
Eaeoaeneiai oacaea (oaia?ue Eaaii-o?aieeaueia) a naiuea
a?aei-eaoiee/aneiai nayuaiieea, o/eeny a No?ueneie aeiiacee. Ec 1927 a.
– /eai Oe?aeineie aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee (OAI), aaea ?aaioae a ioaeaeao
?acaaaeee e i?iiaaaiaeu. Ec 1929 a., n nicaeaieai IOI., noae aa /eaiii,
a aiineaaenoaee iaeiei ec ?oeiaiaeeoaeae (ec 1933 a. – e?aaaie
i?iaiaeiee IOI. Ia caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo). A 1934 a. aue a?anoiaai
ca i?aaiecaoeeth oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoeee e inoaeaeai iieueneei noaeii e
nia?oiiio iaeacaieth, eioi?ia aiineaaenoaee auei caiaiaii ia
iiaeeciaiiia caeeth/aiea. A naioya?a a 1939 a., n ia/aeii aieiu e
?acaaeii ?a/e Iiniieeoie, N. Aaiaea?a aue inaiaiaeaeai ec oth?ueiu e
nicaeaao a IOI. Iiiiceoeeth e aeayoaeueiinoe I?iaiaea oe?aeineeo
iaoeeiiaeenoia, eioi?ue aicaeaaeye iinea nia?oe Eiiiaaeueoea (a 1938 a.)
A. Iaeueiee. A oaa?aea a 1940 a. Aaiaea?a aianoa ni naieie
aaeeiiiuoeaiieeaie nicaeaao ?aaiethoeeiiiue I?iaiae (IOI.(a), a a 1941
a. noaiiaeony aai i?aaenaaeaoaeai. Ia?aae ia/aeii iaiaaeo Aa?iaiee ia
NNN? i?aaiecoao i?iecaiaeiua a?oiiu IOI.(a) e aiaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey
„Iaoo?aaeue” e „?ieaiae” a ninoaaa aeoea?ianeeo aiene e i?iaicaeaoaiey
ai Eueaiaa Aeoa aiciaiiaeaiey oe?aeineie ainoaea?noao (30 ethey a 1941
a.). Ca ioeac oi?acaeieoue aai aue a?anoiaai aanoaii e iaoiaeeeny a
oth?ueia e eiioeeaaa?yo aei naioya?y a 1947 a. A 1947 a. eca?aiiue
i?aaenaaeaoaeai I?iaiaea IOI., ?oeiaiaeee ai?ueaie oe?aeineiai
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneiai iiaeiieuey i?ioea niaaoneie aeanoe. 15 ieoya?y a
1959 a. N. Aaiaea?a aue oaeo a Ithioaia aaaioii EAA A. Noa?oeinueeei e
iioi?iiaiiue ia ai?iaeneii eeaaeaeua.

A ioaao ia aeoeaecaoeeth ai?ueau oe?aeineiai ia?iaea i?aaeoaeuenoai
Iieueoe i?iaiaeeei eaiiaiee iaoeeoeeaoeee („oie?ioai?aiey”) n iiiiuueth
iieeoeee e aiene. Iie a?iieee y/aeee oe?aeineeo ia?oee e iauanoa,
/eoaeueie, eiioeneiauaaee eo eiouanoai, oece/anee ea?aee oao, eoi
i?ioanoiaae. A 1934 a. aue iniiaai eiioeeaaa?ue a Aa?aca Ea?oocueeee,
aaea a aeanoieeo oneiaeyo oaea?aeeaaee ieiei 2 oun. iieeocaeeth/aiiuo, a
iniiaiii oe?aeioeaa. Ca ?aoaoeie i/ooeeinue ii/oe ana ?oeiaiaeyuaa yae?i
e?aaaie aecaeooeae IOI., a o.i. nauoa 1000 ?yaeiauo /eaiia yoie
i?aaiecaoeee. Oa??i?enoe/aneea aeoeee IOI. Iaaaoeaii aini?eieiaeenue
cia/eoaeueiie /anoueth aeoeaenoia iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey. Eaaaeueiua iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee iaaeiyee
eioaa?aeueiuo iaoeeiiaeenoia a oii, /oi iie aeaaaee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
iiaiae aeey ia?aie/aiey eaaaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeioeaa. Aeooiaiue
eeaea? aaeeoeeeo oe?aeioeaa ieo?iiieeo Oaioeoeeee a ioaeaeueiii
ianou?neii iineaiee inoaeee oa??i?enoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay
„iaeeeea? ia iauanoai eeoiea ?ai?annee”.

Eiaaea a 1935 a. ia iinoo ?oeiaiaeeoaey e?aaaie aecaeooeae IOI. Ia
caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo N. Aaiaea?o caiaiee E. ?aaao, aiaaua aeoeee
i?ae?aoeeenue e auei neiioeaio?e?iaaii aieiaiea ia ainnoaiiaeaiee
?aca?iieaiiie naoe e iaeiieaiey nee aeey iiaie
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau ca niai?ioth Oe?aeio.

Aua aieaa ianoa?ieiui aue ?aaeei, onoaiiaeaiiue ?oiuieae ia caoaa/aiiuo
a 1918–1919 aa. oe?aeineeo caieyo (Naaa?iay Aoeiaeia, Oioeineee,
Aeea?iaineee e Eciaeeueneee oacaeu, Aanna?aaey – 790 oun. oe?aeioeaa).
Yoe oe?aeineea caiee auee iaeaieaa ionoaeuie a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee,
a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey iai?aaeyeenue i?aaeaea anaai ia
?oioiecaoeeth iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie, ?aeeaeiciie aeecie. Auee cae?uou
ana oe?aeineea oeieu, a a *a?iiaeoeeii oieaa?neoaoa – oe?aeineea
eaoaae?u. Oe?aeioeaa Aoeiaeiu aeaaea ioeacaeenue i?eciaaaoue ioaeaeueiie
iaoeeae, eo iacuaaee „a?iiaaeyiaie ?oiuineiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eioi?ua
caauee ?iaeiie ycue”.

A eiioea 30-o aiaeia oneeeaathony aioeoe?aeineea ?ai?annee,
?anioneathony oe?aeineea iauanoaa e i?aaiecaoeee, cai?auaia oe?aeineay
i?anna. Nianai auee noa?ou neaaeu i?aaeiae aaoiiiiee Aoeiaeiu, eioi?oth
noaee ?anniao?eaaoue eeoue eae ?oiuineoth i?iaeioeeth. O1939 a., n
i?eoiaeii e aeanoe aiaiiie ooiou a ?oiuiee, ia/aeny ia Aoeiaeia ia?eiae
aeanoieiai, oioaeeoa?iiai i?aaeaiey.

A ioee/ea io ?oiuiee e Iieueoe iieiaeaiea oe?aeineiai ianaeaiey (nauoa
450 oun.), eioi?ia iaoiaeeeinue iiae aeanoueth *aoineiaaeee, auei
cia/eoaeueii eo/oei. Caea?iaooeu (?oneiu) cia/eoaeueii ionoaaaee a
iieeoe/aneii, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii e eoeueoo?iii ioiioaiee. Iinea
i?eniaaeeiaiey a *aoineiaaeeth (a 1918 a.) eo iieiaeaiea ianeieueei
oeo/oeeinue:

– e?anoueyia iieo/eee aeiiieieoaeueiua caiaeueiua iaaeaeu (auee
?acaeaeaiu i?aaeiea aaiaa?neea eiaiey);

– ?acei au?inee eiee/anoai oeie e eoeueoo?iuo iauanoa, a eioi?uo cao/ae
oe?aeineee ycue (oeie oaaee/eeinue n 525 aei 851, aeiiacee – n 3 aei
11);

– aiciaiiaeee naith aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa „I?ina?oa”, ei. Aeooiiae/a,
oe?aeineea oi?u.

I?ia?anneaiua i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaee e?ay aunooiatho ca ?anoe?aiea
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo i?aa, aeinoeaeaiey ianoiyuae aaoiiiiee, ca aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea oe?aeineie eoeueoo?u, aiaae?aiey ai anao i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaieyo oe?aeineiai ycuea. Iaeiaei a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee
Caea?iaouea auei ionoaeui, aa?a?ii-nu?ueaaui i?eaeaoeii /aoneeo caiaeue.

A 1938 a. iinea Ithioaineiai niaeaoaiey *aoineiaaeey auea ?an/eaiaia
Aeoea?ii e ia oa??eoi?ee Caea?iaouey aicieeei oae iacuaaaiia Ea?iaoneia
ainoaea?noai ni naiei aaoiiiiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii, i?aaenaaeaoaeai
eioi?iai noae eeaea? Aaoiiiiiiai caieaaeaeue/aneiai nithca A. A?iaeee, a
n 26 ieoya?y a 1938 a. – ecaanoai iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue A. Aieioei.
Ea?iaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeoeaece?iaaei caiaeueioth ?aoi?io, i?iaaei
oe?aeiecaoeeth aaeieieno?aoeee e ia?aciaaoaeueiie nenoaiu, naeaeaei
iiiuoeo ia?ano?ieoue oe?aeineoth ainoaea?noaaiiinoue, nicaeaei
iieiaeaaeioth aiaiece?iaaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth – Ea?iaoneay Na/ue.

Ii a ia?oa a 1939 a. Aaia?ey i?e niaeanee Aeoea?a ia/aea caoaaouaaiea
Caea?iaouey. 15 ia?oa a 1939 a. a Oonoe naei i?iaicaeanee Ea?iaoneoth
Oe?aeio iacaaeneiui ainoaea?noaii, i?aceaeaioii eca?aii A.Aieioeia.
Iaeiaei aaia?u /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae caaeooeee Ea?iaoneoth Oe?aeio,
iaace?ay ia io/ayiiia nii?ioeaeaiea oe?aeioeaa. Ei?ioeia nouanoaiaaiea
Ea?iaoneie Oe?aeiu e aa aa?ie/aneay ai?ueaa eiaee aieueoia cia/aiea
i?aaeaea anaai aeey iniciaiey caea?iaooeaie naay /anoueth aaeeinoaaiiie
oe?aeineie iaoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia oieueei aeey ia?iaea Niaaoneie Oe?aeiu, ii e aeey
oe?aeioeaa Ainoi/iie Aaee/eiu e Aieuie, Caea?iaouey e Aoeiaeiu,
Oioeiueie e Eciaeeueueie iaaeaiaiiue ia?eiae ieacaeny /?acau/aeii
oyaeaeui: ianeeuenoaaiiay anneieeyoeey, eneonnoaaiiia naea?aeeaaiea
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey, ?ai?anneaiua aeoeee, iaoeeiiaeueiue e
nioeeaeueiue aiao. Iaeiaei ?acaeaeaiiua iaaeaeo ninaaeieie
ainoaea?noaaie, ioi?aaiiua io iniiaiiai ianneaa yoie/aneie oa??eoi?ee,
iie inoaeenue aa?iuie enoi?e/aneei no?aieaieyi e iacaaeneiinoe e
niai?iinoe oe?aeineeo caiaeue.

Caeeth/aiea

O?aae/aneea no?aieoeu niaaoneie enoi?ee iaa?ioeenue aeey Oe?aeiu i/aiue
oyae?euie e /??iuie… Iiiaeanoaaiii ?acaeae?iiue, iiaeaa?aeaiiue
aeaa?aaeaoeee ia?iae ec eioi?iai auaeaee niee ii/oe aei iineaaeiae
eaiee… E ana i?ae?anii aeaeyo /ai yoi iaa?ioeinue aeey Oe?aeiu
naaiaeiy… Iu oieueei ioo/eaaainy io noa?aioeia «iie/aoue, eia/a ooaei
aoaeao», ia?anoa?i aiyoueny, aic?iaeaeaai o naay a aeooao aunieea
ea/anoaa, naiaiaeo. Ii ana aea iineaaenoaey neacuaathony…

E ieiaeu aeaenoaee Noaeeia aeieai au? aoaeoo yoii aeiiineoueny aeey
anaai oe?aeineiai ia?iaea…

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Aacioiniee I. A. Ii?? noae?i?cio a Oe?a?i?. 20–30 ??. // O?AE. –
1993. – ? 2–3.–N. 97–105.

2. A?ean ?. ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueia nenoaia a Oe?a?i?. 1917–1953. Ei. 1–2.
– E., 1994.

3. Aanthoa ?. E. Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?
(1918–1939) // O?AE. – 2001. – ? 5. – N. 22–42.

4. Aaaao I. Ea?iaonueea Oe?a?ia (1938–1939). – Oaeai?iae, 1993.

5. Aieiae 1921–1923 ?ie?a a Oe?a?i?. Ca??i. aeieoi. ? iaoa??ae?a. – E.,
1993.

6. Aieiae 1932–1933 ??. ia Oe?a?i?: i/eia ?noi?ee?a, iiaith aeieoiaio?a.
– E., 1990.

7. A?ei/ooeueeee A. I?iieneia? o?anoe Oe?a?ie a 20-o? ?iee. – E., 1997.

8. Aeaieeaiei A. I., Eanueyiia A. A., Eoeue/eoeueeee N. A. Noae?i?ci ia
Oe?a?i?: 20–30-? ?iee. – E.: Eea?aeue,1991. – N. 76–148, 202–218,
250–269, 306–321.

9. ?eue?iei ?. O aei?iao ?ai?an?e. Iiia?ae? i?i oe?a?inueeeo
ienueiaiiee?a (ca a?o?aaie AeIO-IEAN). – E., 1995.

10. Eiaeono?eaeecaoeey Niaaoneiai Nithca: Iiaua aeieoiaiou . Iiaua
oaeou. Iiaua iiaeoiaeu. *.1. – I., 1997.

11. Eae?i?/aiei A. Naeyinueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie a ia??iae IAIo:
?noi?eei-aeiiii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy. – Oa?e?a, 1997.

12. Eanueyiia A., Aeaieeaiei A. Noae?i?ci ? oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y
(20–30-o? ??.). – E., 1991.

13. Eieaeoea?caoe?y ia Oe?a?i?, 1929–1933: Ca. aeie. ? iaoa??ae?a. – E.,
1992.

Eieaeoea?caoe?y ? aieiae ia Oe?a?i? (1929–1933). Ca??i. aeieoi. ?
iaoa??ae?a. – E., 1993.

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