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Тенишева М.К. – великий меценат

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I.E. Oaieoaaa-

aaeeeeeiaoeaiao.

Eaeiau noaeueau ?onneeo iaoeaiaoia eiioea O1O-ia/aea OO aaea?
Aeanoyue e o?aae/iu. Ana ioaeaii ?innee, e caaaaiea a eiioea aeecie.
Aeaeaei ia aacoiiua aiaaonoaa, ?an/aoeeainoue, iiiai i?inyueo iiiiue e
iieo/athueo aa. AEa?oaiaaiey e aea?oau, e ana ai eiy ?innee. Oaeiaa e
noaeueaa e?oiiaeoae iaoeaiaoee eiyaeie Ia?ee Eeaaaeeaaiu Oaieoaaie,
eioi?oth i?e aeecie ciaea any ?inney e Aa?iia, aeioiaeeee neooe i aa
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo nie?iaeuao e aei Aia?eee. A caoai ii/oe noieaoea
caaaaiey. “I?eaeeoa e aeaaeaeoa, ioae?ua. Aeaaath aea? iie a ?ooeu
aaoa. Aethaeeoa ne?uith neth e aea i?aaoaeoo aiaaee nie?iaeua ay ai
a?aaea Niieainea ia neoaeaiea ia?iaea ?onneiai”- iaienaea Oaieoaaa ia
yiaeaaii aethaea 1911aiaea, ia eioi?ia iieiaeeea eeth/e io naiaai
niieaineiai iocay “?onneay noa?eia”. Yoi auei aa aeooiaiia caaauaiea, e
niaeaeaieth, ia auiieiaiiia a iaoa a?aiy. Caeaiea iocay nio?aieeinue, ii
oaieoaaneeo eieeaeoeeea iai iao.

I. E. Oaieoaaa aaea ia?iiioth niae?aoaeueneoth e
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, ii i?aaeaea /ai aiai?eoue
ia yoii iii?iaoai caaeyiooue a aa aeaonoai.

Aeaonoai Oaieoaaie.

Aiaoia aa aeeciue auea aeaaiiieo/iie, ii ineoieiae/anee i/aiue
iai?yaeaiiie. “?aiiaai aeaonoaa ooiaiiia aeaeaiea”- oaeeie neiaaie
ia/eiaao ainiiieiaiey Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia Oaieoaaa.

E.N. AEo?aaeaaa “ Eiyaeiy Ia?ey Oaieoaaa”

Niieaine “Iieea?aiia” 1994 a.

Aea, aeaoneia aini?eyoea ie?a iaei nio?aiyao eiie?aoiuo niauoee.
“Eae neaicue nii ?anooo iayniua ia?acu, iaeueeatho io?uai/iua ea?oeiu.
Ana niooii, iaii?aaeaeaiii”. E ana aea, aa oaeaeaee ea?u a oaienoii
naaeo. “ss ea?ath o aaeeiia, ii iaiy iaieo a yoo oaiioth aouo: oai oae
oaeinoaaiii… N eaaeaeui aeiai y aeaeathnue niaeae. Ana /aua e
aeaeueoa ooiaeo ooaea, aaeoaue… ?iaeeie oaaaie, ia oeuii/eao, n
caoaaiiui aeuoaiey, y i?iae?athnue, i?eneooeaathnue e eaaeaeiio oi?ioo,
acae?aaeaay io anaai: o?onoiao ee iiae iiaie no/ie, anii?oiao ee
enioaaiiay ioe/ea- ana ioaaao, na?aeoea caie?aao- aeooei… Eoae?yaua
aieinu oeaieythony ca aaoee, a y aaao, aaao, caaeuoaynue…”

Caiiiieeenue e iiacaeee a eiaiea Iiaia Iiaai?iaeneie aoaa?iee,
ea?u n aeaai/eie Aeoiyoae -ieaiyiieoeae ianoiiai aeuey/ea. Iaeiia?aiaiii
iieiioa aeecie iaoaao no?ao ia?aae iaoa?ueth, aeaai/ea o?aiaoaea ia?aae
iae. “Aa /a?iua no?iaea aeaca eaaeaieee iaiy… Iia auei aeooei…”

Iaeiaaeaeu Iaoa caaieaea, aa a?inaei oi a oieiae, oi a aea?. “?ac a
oaeoth ii?o, eiaaea eaiiaaeea oeoi, oeoi oaieeeanue, y eaaeaea n
iieocae?uouie aeacaie… Aae?oa iaae iiae aieiaie iineuoaeny oi?io…
Iiaeiyea aeaca e iaia?ea: noieo iaaei iiith iaoue, ioiaeaeioa ?oeie
caiaaaneo… *a?iua aeaca oieiaeii aeyaeyo. Ae?oaie ?oeie iia i?iaaea ii
iiaio ai?y/aio eao, iaaeeaiii iaaioeanue… aeieai aeyaeaea ia iaiy e
oeoi iioeaeiaaea… *oi-oi ae?iaioei ai iia, na?aeoea neaaeei cauaieei.
A ii?uaa iaauaaeiai n/anouey, iaaea ?oeaie oath iaoa?e, y no?anoii
i?eaeaeanue e aa uaea ainiaeaiiuie aoaaie… Yoi aeeeeinue iaiiaaiea…
Iaoue oeoi inaiaiaeeeanue, i?iaaea ii eeoeo aeooenoie ?oeie ni
iiiaeanoaii eieaoe e iiaaeeoaeueiui aieinii aeaea iyia i?eeacaiea. Iia
ooea… n iath n/anoeeaia aeaeaiea. Yoi aue, eaaeaony, aaeeinoaaiiue ?ac
a iiae aeecie, /oi y iaiyea naith iaoue. Iia ieeiaaea iaiy ia eaneaea”.

Ia aoaeai no?iai aeieoue yoo aeaiueio. Iaaei ciaoue th?eaee/aneea
caeiiu oiai a?aiaie, /oiau iauaeoeaii noaeeoue i iiaaaeaiee oiai eee
eiiai /aeiaaea. ?aaaiie, ?iaeeaoeeny aia a?aea, eeoaeny anaai: eiaie
iooea, ianeaaenoaa, o iaai ia auei aoaeouaai, iauanoai eeoaei aai anyeeo
i?aa, e eaeiio au nineiaeth ii ia ioiineeny. E oieueei iaoue, aeaiueia
a?aea ia naay anth oyaeanoue e nei?aue ca aoaeouaa naiaai ?aaaiea.
Iiyoiio iiaeii iiiyoue e iao?aaiiaaoaiiue oa?aeoa? ainiiaee oii Aeacai
(ii aoi?iio ioaeo), ia?aiinoue e no?iainoue e aeaoyi. Iiieii Iaoe o iaa
iyoiaaeoeaoeeaoiee nui. E n iei iia no?iaa. Aua iaeue/eeii ii iieeioe
iaoa?eineee aeii, e Oaieoaaa aieueoa aai ieeiaaea ia aeaeaea.

Ieaaea Oaieoaaa ia iacuaaao eiy iaoa?e, e yoi iia ne?uea ca aunieie
noaiie. Aanniuneaiii ?ac?ooaoue yoo “noaio”, ca iae iiaeao ieacaoueny
aaiaeueiay neooaoeey iaiaiooie aeaiueiu eee ?aci/a?iaaaoaeny a naiai
eca?aiieea, e aeinoieiie ia noieue inoaeaeaiey, neieue aeaeinoe. E eae
au Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia iioii ia e?eoeeiaaea aa ioiioaiea e naaa,
ie?oaeaiea iaoa?e, ana aea iaaeaeaiea Oaieoaaie iacaaoue aa eiy
noaiiaeony eae au ueoii, caneiiythuei yoo aeaiueio io aeaeaiey iioiieia
ociaoue aa enoeiioth aeia?aoeth.

I/aiue neaai iia iiiieea e naiaai ?iaeiiai iooea. Iaeiaaeaeu ii
oaac aa e naaa, ii iaoue aa?ioea. A oaeio ?iaeaeaiey ae iiaaaeaea
aeaai/ea Oaoa, eioi?ay auea inaaaeiieaia ia yoii i/aiue iiae?iaii. “-A
aaaeue oio, eiai ou ciaaoue iaiie, oaaa aiana ia iaia

-A eoi aea ii ?

-Oaia?aoiee iaia-ioae oaiae iaiu, ii ou ia aai aei/ue.

-A eoi aea iie iaia?

-Oaie ianoiyuee iaia ia aue ioaeai oaiae iaiu, iia aai i?inoi
oae ethaeea.

Na?aeoea canouei ai iia, a aeneao canoo/aei… ss noa?aeanue iiiyoue
oaeiue niune aa neia, ii y auea neeoeii iaea, /oi-oi oneieuecaei… ss
ii/oe e?e/aea, aeii?aoeaay aa: “Neaaee eoi ii?”

-Oaie ioaoe aue eiycue A… Oaiy iaoue ?acethaeea aai e a?ineea.

-Io/aai a?ineea?.. A… ii, ethaee aa?

-Aea, ii oaay ii ethaee iniaaiii. Aeaaea oaeeii oaac ?ac e ioaeae
naiae oaoea, a?aoeia ?… Ou oai aeieai aeeea, iiea oaiy iaia ia iaoea e
ia ioiyea.

Iia ecoieaiea ia?aoiaeeei a oaean. Iia aea iaoiieeii i?iaeieaeaea:

-Ii oiieye aa inoaaeoue oaay aio, e i/aiue ieaeae, ii iia ia
niaeaneeanue e ana-oaee oaacea. *oiau eo/oa oaay ni?yoaoue, a?aoeiy ?…
ioaeaea oaay Aaeeeie Eiaaeia…, eioi?ay oaay i/aiue ethaeea e aaeiaaea.

-A ii… iie iaia, aaea ii?

-Ii oia?. Ou ne?ioa.

ss canouea, e?oaii iaiy ana iiia?eei… Ae?iaeue i?iaaaeaea ii
oaeo. Aeaca ai?aee aac neac… O iaiy, eioi?oth ieeoi ia ethaee, ieeoi
aeaaea ia eaneae, -o iaiy aue naie ?iaeiie iaia, eioi?ue ethaee iaiy e
aeaaea ieaeae ii iia, e yoiai iaiu aieueoa iao, ii a iiaeea… ss
ne?ioa…”

Ethaie enoi?ee iieiao, /oi eneaoue a yoie eiiaeiaoeee iiaeeeiiuo
eeoe i/aiue ?eneiaaiii. Eiycue A. iia auoue eiycai Aaaeaieueneei, eai
aeaeueoa iia oiiieiaao iaeoth aaaooeo Aaaeaieueneoth, e eioi?ie aa
ioi?aaeyee iiainoeoue, e aeeea iia a oeaio?a Iineau o Ieeeoneeo ai?io.
Eoi oaeay a?aoeiy ?., eiaaoay nayce ni aeai?ii? Oieueei iiaeii
i?aaeiieaaaoue. Ii eiaiii yoio ?iiaiece?iaaiiue yieciae a aeecie Ia?ee
Eeaaaeeaaiu iicaieee iaeie Ieueaa aea Eeaiuea iaienaoue a 1968 aiaeo,
/oi iia auea aiaa?a/iie aei/a?ueth Aeaenaiae?a 2, e a aiae aai oaeenoaa
(1881) ae auei ainaiue eao. Ii ienaoaeueieoea eaeao aeaeueoa,
ooaa?aeaeay, /oi eiia?aoi? inoaaee Ia?ee Eeaaaeeaaia aieueoia ninoiyiea,
ii iaoue i?iea?aea ana a ea?ou…

A ia?eaeneeo ainiiieiaieyo Oaieoaaie anoue niinea, aaea aiai?eony ,
/oi iia ?iaeeeanue “20 iay 1867 aiaea a Iaoa?ao?aa”. Yoa aeaoa aia?aua
auea iioaeeeiaaia A.I. Eaeeoeineei a 1928 aiaeo a iae?ieiaa Ia?ee
Eeaaaeeaaiu a nai?ieea noaoae ii a?oaieiaee e aecaioeiiaaaeaieth,
ecaeaiiii a I?aaa. Ii aea ienae, /oi iia i?ienoiaeeo ec aeai?yi Oaa?neie
aoaa?iee.

Aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey-20 iay -ia aucuaaao niiiaiey. Aeeceay iiae?oaa
Oaieoaaie A.E. Nayoiiiee-*aoaa?oeineay ienaea 16/28 ai?aey 1898 aiaea
A.I. Aaioa: “…Oaia?ue o iaiy e aai i?inueaa: 20 ?onneiai iay aeaiue
?iaeaeaiea eiyaeia e y ethaeth a yoio aeaiue ae iiaeiineoue
/oi-ieaoaeue, /oi aa caieiaao”. Ii aiae ?iaeaeaiey -1867-iaoi/ai.

Iaoi/ai ii e ia ae?oaii aeieoiaioa. A 1983 aiaeo a niieaineee
iocae-caiiaaaeiee iinooieea io A.E. ?eooa? oioia?aoey Oaieoaaie n
iaaeienueth ia iai?ioa: “Niyoi a Ia?eaea a 1873 a.(?). Ia?ey Ii?eniaia
o-Aeacai, ?. 20/O. 1856, auea caioaeai iaaeieai ca ?.I. Ieeieaaaui.
Aiineaaenoaee eiyaeiy Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia Oaieoaaa”. Aucuaatho niiiaiey
niioaaonoaea oioia?aoee iaeeeo Oaieoaaie, e oiio aea a eiaaioa?iie eieaa
iocay ionoonoaoao 1 caienue i ia?aie aeaaeaeeoea oioia?aoee, aaoi?a
iaaeiene.

A 1973 aiaeo aiaeeeneee aeo?iaeeno Aeae. Aioeo iioaeeeiaae a
aeaeaa?ueneii iiia?a aeo?iaea “Aiieei” i/a?e i Iaiiioiaa e Oaieoaaie,
oeacaa a oaenoa aeaoo ?iaeaeaiey Ia?ee Eeaaaeeaaiu-1867 aiae. A iiaeiene
iaeiie ec oioia?aoee oeacaia aeaoa 1857 aiae, /oi yaii iia/aoea. Ii
eiaiii yoie iia/aoeie ainiieueciaaeny I. Iiiiia?aaa, oeacaa aa a
i?aaeeneiaee eieae “Aia/aoeaiey iiae aeecie”, /oi yaeyaony iaiauaeoeaiie
iiaea/ae iaoa?eaea Aeae. Aioeoa.

Ianeieueei eao iacaae iai oaeaeinue ?acuneaoue noaeaaiue aeieoiaio
1909 aiaea, aaea oeacai aic?ano Oaieoaaie 45 eao, /oi ioiaeaeaaao aa
?iaeaeaiea ia 1864 aiae. Yoa aeaoa aeeaea e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
I?ineaaeeaay aeia?aoeth Ia?ee Eeaaaeeaaiu, yoo aeaoo iiaeii
“iiaeaeiooue” iacaae aiaea ia aeaa, anee o/anoue, /oi iia auoea caioae
oanoiaaeoeaoe eao, anei?a o iaa ?iaeeeanue aei/ue, a a ia/aea 1882 aiaea
oaea caieiaeanue a ia?eaeneie nooaeee Ia?eace, eioi?oth iinaoee A.A.
?oaeiooaei. Aeaa aa ecaanoiuo nia?aiaiieea ienaee i aic?anoa Oaieoaaie:
A.I. Aaioa- a 1895 aiaeo “ieiei 40 eao”, E.A. Niiia- a 1898 aiaeo “io 35
aei 40 eao”. Oaeei ia?acii, Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia iiaea ?iaeeony iaaeaeo
1862-1864 aiaeaie. E niaeaeaieth, aeaou iao e ia iaaea?iaee iiaeeu
Oaieoaaie. A eieae ainiiieiaiee iia eeoue iaeei ?ac oiiieiaao eiy iooea-
Aai?aee. I iaoa?e ecaanoii, /oi iia auea a ia?aii caioaeanoaa ca
Eeaaaeeai Iyoeianeei, a caoai ca Ii?eoeai Iao?iae/ai oii Aeacai (a
ainiiieiaieyo I. aea Eeaiuea-Ae?acai-E.AE.). a aeiia iineaaeiaai
aeaai/ea ?inea e ainieouaaeanue.

Ia?aua o?iee aeaai/ea iieo/eea aeiia, yoi auei oeie/ii aeey
aeai?yineeo naiae, e a i?ioaiee 1910 aiaea i ca/eneaiee a Iineianeee
a?oaieiae/aneee einoeooo Oaieoaaa iaienaea: “aeiiaoiaai
ia?aciaaiey”.O?iee iocuee ae aeaaaea

aoaa?iaioea Niouey Iaaeiaia, “aacaeaeinoii aeiiaoe oaeaay ai iia ioioo
naiei aacaeooiui i?aiiaeaaaieai. ss iaiaaeaeaea yoe o?iee e a?ineea
iocueo i?e ia?aie aea aiciiaeiinoe. E?iia oiai, ei iia noaea i?eoiaeeoue
o/eoaeueieoea iaiey, n eioi?ie y ia/aea nieueoaaeaeei. Iia i?aaeneacaea
iia oi?ioee aiein. Iaiea iia i?aaeeinue”. Cae?uaoenue a naiae eiiiaoa,
aeaai/ea aeaaea ?eneiaaea iaoue ?iiainu “Ia ca?a ooiaiiie thiinoe”, “Eae
neaaeei n oiaie iia auoue”, “Ia neaaeo ieeiio”.

Auno?i iiaeioei e a?aiy o/aau. Aeaai/eo ioaeatho nia/aea
i?eoiaeyuae, caoai iieiie iaineiia?eie a ioe?uaoothny a 1869 aiaeo
aeiiaceth I.I. Niaoiaaie e I.Ae. Aeo?iiai. Iauanoai auei icaai/aii
iiaeiyoeai ia?aciaaiey aeaiuei, e iiaia o/aaiia caaaaeaiea auei
i?eaeeaeaii e eo?no ioaeneeo aeiiacee, a yoi ioe?uaaei iooue e aunoaio
ia?aciaaieth, “ei anyeie na?ueaciie aeayoaeueiinoe”. Ioiaoei iaeio
i?eia/aoaeueioth aeaoaeue: a aeiiaceth iinooiaee aeaai/ee
eneeth/eoaeueii ec naiae eioaeeeaaioeee. E aeiiacee auee i?eaea/aiu
auaeathueany iaaeaaiae oiai a?aiaie: Aaneeee Eaaiiae/ Aiaeiaicia,
Aeaenaiae? sseiaeaae/ Aa?ae, Iaaae Aeaenaiae?iae/ Ea/eiia, Eaai
Oaaei?iae/ ?aoaaneee, Oaaei? Oaaei?iae/ ?acaia?, Aeaenaiae? Ieeieaaae/
No?aiiiethaneee, a oaeaea E.N. Oaaaioeaa, A.A. Eaouoaaa, A. sseiaeaaa,
aiineaaenoaee I.I. Iieaaie. Naia Ia?ey Iao?iaia Niaoiaaa iaeaaeaea
?aaeeie iaaethaeaoaeueiinoueth e iocua/eainoueth, a oaeaea “…aea?ii
iacaiaoii, ii neeueii aeeyoue ia i?iaoaeaeaiea oi?ioeo ia/ae a thiuo
aeooao o/aieoe”.

Iia i?aneaaeiaaea oeaeue ia oieueei aeaoue aeaai/eai niaoeeaeueiua
ciaiey, ii e ainieoaoue a ieo iao?eioe/aneea /oanoaa, i?aanoaaiioth
iniiao aeey naiuee e iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia?eae Eeaaaeeaaiie ana oeaiiia, /oi iia iieo/eea a aeiiacee,
iniciaaony iicaea, iiea aeey iaa- yoi niaia ianoaiiaee. Iia aae?oa
i?iyaeea ?acainoue e aeaaea iaiineooaiea. “Aia/aea y o/eeanue ia?iaii,
ieioi: aieiaiea ionoonoaiaaei. Iaiy ca yoi aeo?eee, oaauaaaee, ii oae
eae o ia aaeeia ia noaaeee, iieaaaynue ia niaanoue o/aueony, aeo?aiea
inoaaeyei iaiy ?aaiiaeooiie, -neuoeaaea aeiia e iiooaea, a niaanoue
ioiineoaeueii aeaaa?u e aaaeiiai No?aiiiethaneiai, eioi?iai y i?eaiaeeea
a io/ayiea, ie ieioou ia io/eea iaiy. ?onneay enoi?ey e anoanoaaiiua
iaoee auee iieie ethaeiuie i?aaeiaoaie”.

Anei?a o iieiaeie aeaiueiu i?iyaeythony aieaeueiua niiniaiinoe, e
ii niaaoo ecaanoiiai iaaeaaiaa e nieenoa Ia?eeineiai oaao?a E.I.
I?yieoieeiaa (1847-1921) iia aaeao a Ia?eae a?aoue o?iee iaiey a
ecaanoioth nooaeeth Iaoeeueaeu Ia?eeca. A nooaeee Oaieoaaa i?iaaea o?e
aiaea. A yoio ia?eiae iia ciaeiieony n eiiiiceoi?ii e ieaienoii A.A.
?oaeiooaeiii (1829-1894), n aeo?enie Aeaenaiae?eeneiai oaao?a I.A.
Naaeiie (1854-1915), n aaeeeei ?onneei ienaoaeai E.N. Oo?aaiaaui,
eioi?ue oiaaea aeee a Ia?eaea.

A 1880-i aiaeai ioiinyony ia?aua o?iee ?eniaaiey, eioi?ua iia
iieo/eea a Eoa?a o o?aioeocneiai ooaeiaeieea Aaa?eyey Aeeoi?a
AEeeueaa?a. Iicaea iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy caieiaaony a nooaeee
Ooeaeeoea a Iaoa?ao?aa, a ia?eaeneie aeaaeaiee AEtheueaia, o AEaia Iiey
Ei?aina, e Aaiaeaiaia Eiinoaia. A Iaoa?ao?aa Oaieoaaa a?aea /anoiua
o?iee aeaa?aee o I.A. Aiaieeineiai, iieueciaaeanue niaaoaie ss.O.
Oeeiiaeeineiai e E.A. ?aieia.

I.E. Oaieoaaa “Aia/aoeaiey iiae aeecie”

Iineaa 1987 a.

Niae?aoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue I.E. Oaieoaaie.

I.E. Oaieoaaa auea e?oiiaeoei eieeaeoeeiia?ii; iia inoaaeea iai o?e
eieeaeoeee: ?onneie a?aoeee (Ainoaea?noaaiiue ?onneee iocae),
aeaei?aoeaii- i?eeeaaeiiai e ia?iaeiiai eneonnoaa, yiaeae e eie?onoaoeee
(iaa a Niieaineii iocaa-caiiaaaeieea).

A 1890-a aiaeu Oaieoaaa nia?aea oieeaeueioth eieeaeoeeth ?onneie e
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie a?aoeee, eioi?ay iieacaea eneeth/eoaeueioth
c?aeinoue iiauo nee, anooieaoeo a eneonnoai a eiioea O!O aaea.
Oeaiiinoue yoie eieeaeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony e oai, /oi ?enoiie e aeaaea
aeaa?aeue aua ia auee i?aaeiaoii oe?ieiai niae?aoaeuenoaa e oieueei
iinea oaieoaaneiai iiuoa a ?inne noaee eieeaeoeeiie?iaaoue a?aoeeo.

Aiaeec eneonnoaa ?oaaaea aaeia iaaiciiaeai e aac Oaeaoeeia. N yoei
oeaio?ii naycaii ia/aei niieaineiai iocay, caeanue auea nia?aia iaeia ec
eo/oeo a ?innee eieeaeoeee ?onneiai ia?iaeiiai eneonnoaa.

I.E. Oaieoaaa, i?aaiecaoi? oaeaoeeineiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oeaio?a,
nua?aea aieueooth ?ieue a ?onneii eneonnoaa eiioea O!O -ia/aea OO aaea.
Ii ?aciaoo aa aeayoaeueiinoue aeecea N.E. Iaiiioiao, N.I. Aeyaeeaao. N
ieie iia auea ia oieueei ciaeiia, ii e niio?oaeie/eea. A Oaeaoeeia
ioe?ueanue caia/aoaeueiay no?aieoea aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe I.E.
Oaieoaaie, naycaiiay n i?aaei?eiyoui ath a e?oiiuo ianooaaao
niae?aoaeuenoaii ?onneeo ae?aaiinoae e yoiia?aoe/aneeo eieeaeoeee.
Caeanue caiieiyeanue ciaiaieoay “Ne?uiy”-aia/aea oae iacuaaee
oaeaoeeioeu nicaeaiiue Ia?eae Eeaaaeeaaiie enoi?eei-yoiia?aoe/aneee
iocae “?onneay noa?eia”.

E.N. AEo?aaeaaa “Oaeaoeeii”

Iineaa “Ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai” 1989 a.

Oaieoaaa ciaea e aeaeaea, /oi aie?oa ii ai?iaeai e naeai, ii
iiianou?yi e o?aiai, ii aea?aaaineei ecaai e iiainoai oaeeenue, a /aua
anaai i?inoi aeaee ianiaoiua nie?iaeua, nicaeaiiua ?onneei ia?iaeii.
Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia ia?aoeeanue ca aeia?ui niaaoii e e iiiiue oao, eoi
eiae ioiioaiea e eco/aieth enoi?ee ?innee e iaiyoieeia aa iaoa?eaeueiie
eoeueoo?u. Ia?aui ioeeeeioeny i?ioanni?- a?oaieia Aeaaeeie? Eeuee/
Necia, iniiaaoaeue Enoi?e/aneiai iocay a Iineaa, o/anoiee
a?oaieiae/aneeo ?aneiiie ciaiaieouo Aiacaeianeeo eo?aaiia iiae
Niieaineii. Necia ia?aoee aieiaiea Oaieoaaie ia /?acau/aeii eioa?aniua
yoiia?aoe/aneea oeaiiinoe, nio?aieaoeany a Niieaineie aoaa?iee, iniaaiii
a aa ioaeaeaiiuo, aeooeo aea?aaiyo. Niaaou o/aiiai ?aoeee iiiaia.
Oaieoaaa ieii/aoaeueii iinayoeea naay iieneai, eco/aieth e niae?aieth
?onneeo ae?aaiinoae e ia?iaeiiai eneonnoaa. Iiacaeee a ?inoia e
ss?ineaaeue iiiiaee Oaieoaaie na?ueacii ii?aaeaeeoue naay a ia/aoii
niae?aoaeuenoaa, aeoaaea iiiyoue enoiee eneonnoaa ?onneie noa?eiu e
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iiuneia.

Ii ii?o/aieyi Oaieoaaie iaooiieiue Aa?uaaneee- aeiaa?aiiia eeoei
Oaieoaaie ii iieneai e i?eia?aoaieth oieeaeueiuo i?aaeiaoia e oeaeuo
eieeaeoeee ?onneeo ae?aaiinoae e ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa e eae
ninoaaeoaeue e o?aieoaeue iiia/aeo aua ne?iiiie oaeaoeeineie “Ne?uie”,
niiaa e niiaa eieanee ii ?innee, iaaaaeuaaynue a caiiaaaeiua ianoa e
aeiauaay ?aae/aeoea, iienoeia aanoeaiiua yeniiiaou aeey oaeaoeeineie
“Ne?uie”. O?oaeu e no?aaeaiey Aa?uaaneiai ia i?iiaee aea?ii. I?eia?ii e
1898 aiaeo oaeaoeeineea noiaeoee, /oeaiu, /a?aeaee e i?i/ea caeooee, ii
naeaeaoaeuenoao naiie Oaieoaaie, ieacaeenue caiieiaiiuie ianiaoiuie
aiaaonoaaie. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai oaaeaa?u aeeaiiene- oieeaeueiua eeiiu
“noa?iai iioeaa”, ia?aiia/aoiua eieae, io iauaienouo oieeaioia, aei
ieieaoth?iuo ecaeaiee.

Caeanue auee nia?aiu oaeeaeoaeueiua ia?acoeu ia?iaeiie ?acueau e
?iniene ii aea?aao: oe?aoaiey e?anoueyineeo eca- eo ia?oaeiue aeaei?
(?aciua iaee/ieee ieii e aeaa?ae, aeaoaee o?iioiiia, ea?iecia e o?ecia,
iaaeai?ioiua e iaaeeieeoi/iua ueou n ecia?aaeaieai ia iiiaeo ec ieo
oaioanoe/aneeo caa?ae, ioeoe, ?ua, /oaeiaeu, a eiiiiiiaaiiuo a aiaaoue
?anoeoaeueiue i?iaiaio); aioo?aiiaa oa?ainoai ecau ( noieu, eaaee e
neaiuee, aeny/ea oeao/eee, noiy/ea oeaou aeey iinoaeu, noiaeoee, ea?oeu,
oeaooeee, eiaeee,…) eoae.

Ea?aieea a aa aaeeeieaiiii iiiaiia?acee, io i?inouo aii/a?iuo
iiaeaeie, aei aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiie iaeieeea, a aeaea oeo?ioiii
?ac?eniaaiiuo, eiiaaea n iaceaeaoaeueiuie iaaeienyie ia/iuo e
aeaei?aoeaiuo ec?acoeia 16,17,18 aaea.

Yoi e e?anoueyineay iaeaaeaea, iniaaiii aeaineay, ianoieueei
oaaaeeoaeueiay a oeaaoiauo e eiino?oeoeaiuo ?aoaiee, /oi a iae ie
oaaaeoue, ie i?eaaaeoue ie/aai iaeuecy, ia ?ac?ooea iaiiaoi?eii
o?iaaoaeueiie aa e?aniou. Caeanue i?aaenoaaeaiu ?aciua oeiu
?ani?ino?aiaiiie ia Niieaiueia o?aaeeoeeiiiie aeaineie iaeaaeaeu:
aeiiioeaiua oa?noyiua eeao/aoua neiea eee e?aniua iiiaau (niiaaiee);
na?aoaiu ?aciiai iie?iy e ec ?aciuo iaoa?eaeia- ec neiae e?aoaieiu,
iaaeoiai ianeyiuie e?aneaie, n iicoiaioii e eaiaoeaie; oa?noyiua
aiaea?aee (thaee); aaeua eooaeee (aeaineea aac?oeaaee); iieioiyiua
oooiaiu (aeaineay iaa?oaeiay iaeaaeaea); oaeia?aeee; iieioiyiua ianiaee
(aeaineay ?aai/ay eaoiyy iaeaaeaea); eoae.

Ec ?acee/iuo oeiia aa?oiae iaeaaeaeu iiaeii iacaaoue oaeea,
iai?eia?, eioa?aniua yeniiiaou, eae ooaae (ei?ioeiiieay eiooa n
?oeaaaie) ec oaiii-eeeiaie ia?/e n cieiouie oeaaoaie, ia aaee/ueai iaoo,
ioi?i/aiiue oi?ueeiaie iiooeie (ss?ineaaneay aoaa?iey), eee aaeue
noeiiiue ceioi n oeaaoiie auoeaeie ii /a?iiio aa?oaoo.

Auee caeanue e aaeeeieaiiua iiyna, oa?noyiua e oaeeiaua, oii /enea
noa?eiiua aiy?neea, n ?aciioeaaoiuie eiioeaie, caoeaiiuie oeaaoaie.
Caia/aoaeueiua niieaineea iieioiyiua e oienoeiiua iieioaioea n a?aiuie
e?aniuie eiioeaie, auoeoua no?i/eie e ianoaaeie, n o?aa/aouie oci?aie,
eiiaaea n ecia?aaeaieai eiiae e ethaeae.

Iaio?aceiia aia/aoeaiea i?iecaiaeeee nia?aiiua a aieueoii
eiee/anoaa ?aciioa?aeoa?iua aieiaiua oai?u e?anoueyineeo aeaaooae e
caioaeieo aeaiuei (ec Niieaineie, ss?ineaaneie, Eino?iineie,
Aieiaiaeneie, Ieiiaoeeie, Iiaai?iaeneie e ae?oaeo aoaa?iee): oe?eiee eee
iaiaoee (aeaae/uee iieioai/aoua aieiaiua iiaycee).

N?aaee iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee i?eaeaeee aieiaiea /aeaiiua
na?aa?yiua, iiciei/aiiua e iaaeiua a?aoeiu 17 aaea n aiaaoui caa?eiui e
?anoeoaeueiui i?iaiaioii, /aeaiiua iaaeiua eoiaaiu 17 aaea, iaaeiua
noa?eiiua iiaenaa/ieee, aeaeaciua ?anieniua e?iiooaeiu, ieiayiiua
ninoaeu aeey naeoiy 18 aae, ieiaea aea?aayiiuo noiaeo/eia i?i?aciui
aeaeacii, e?anou, aieueoea aeaeaciua caiee n i?iaiaioii “a i?i?acue” 18
aae.

E yoiio iaaei i?eniaaeeieoue noa?eiiua na?ueae cieioua n
aeai/oaeeiaie, na?aa?yiua n yiaeaaie ?inienueth, ecia?aaeathuae ioeoe 17
aae, iaeioi?ua n yoiioiauie aonaie eee ciei/aiua ni no?acii
(iiaeaeaeueiui aeiacii) e aeai/oaii, n iiaeaaneaie a aeaea eenoeeia e
oeaaoeia, n ae?thcie e aieoauie eaiiyie 18 aae.

A ?acaa?iooie yeniiceoeee e /anoe/ii a oiiaeao “?onneay noa?eia”
ian/eouaaeinue ieiei ainueie ouny/ iiia?ia, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
eioi?iai ioiineony e yoiia?aoee e ia?iaeiui i?iiuneai e?anoueyi
Niieaineie aoaa?iee.

Oaieoaaneay eieeaeoeey auea i/aiue aaeeea e aua iiiai iiaeii
aiai?eoue i iae. Ii e niaeaeaieth /anoue eieeaeoeee en/acea ?aciuie
iooyie: oe?aaeaia, oie/oiaeaia, ooa?yia, eoae. A Niieainea oaieoaaneee
iocae ioe?ueny a ?acaa? aoeiuo niauoee 1905 aiaea. A ai?iaea
i?ienoiaeeee ?aaiethoeeiiiua aunooieaiey ?aai/eo, o/auaeny iieiaeaaee,
oe?eeinue e?anoueyineia aeaeaeaiea. I.E. Oaieoaaa cae?uea naith oeieo ai
Oeaiiaa e Oaeaoeeineea ianoa?neea e ia?aaoaea a Niieaine. Caeanue o iaa
aicieeee na?ueaciua iianaiey ca oeaeinoue yeniiiaoia iocay, eioi?iio
oa?iaeae ?aca?ii ni noi?iiu i?oaeiaaaoeo a ai?iaea /a?iinioaiiuo aaiae,
nicaeaiiuo iieeoeeae e iiia?oenoaie aeey ai?ueau n ?aaiethoeeae. Oaeay
iiiuoea iaiaaeaiey ia iocae auea oaea i?aaei?eiyoa. Iaeaieaa oeaiiua
yeniiiaou iocay auee ia?aaacaiu Oaieoaaie a Ia?eae.

A aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu eieeaeoeee yaaeoe?iaaee oae
iai?eia?: A oaa?aea 1942 aiaea auei ioi?aaeaii a Aa?eei ainaiue aaaiiia
?aaeeeo eiea. A ai?aea ieeoiaiou auaacee ec Niieainea a Aeeueithn 11
aaaiiia iocaeiuo oeaiiinoae. A ia?oa 1943 aiaea ec oiiaea niieaineeo
iocaaa auee auaacaiu a?oaieiae/aneea eieeaeoeee, oa?oi?, o?onoaeue,
iaeieeea, ia?acoeu ?acueau ii aea?aao, ea?oeiu, ?aaeeea oeaie,
i?iecaaaeaiea neoeueioo?u (35 yueeia); ae?aaiea eieae e a?aath?u (11
yueeia); ae?aaiea eeiiu (4 yueea). *anoue yoeo eieeaeoeee auee iicaeiaa
iaia?oaeaia e aica?auaia a Niieaine, ii iiiaea yeniiiaou i?iiaee. Ana
/oi inoaaaeinue a ai?iaea ?anoeuaee. Oeaio?aeueiue ainoaea?noaaiiue
a?oea a 1947 aiaeo naeai ia iaeoeaoo?o. Aaue ec Oaeaoeeia, ea?oeiu,
iaaaeue ?aca?aaeaiu aua a 20-a aiaeu.

Oaeiaa noaeueaa aanoeaiiuo nie?iaeu, eioi?ua niae?aea aeey ian I.E.
Oaieoaaa e aa iiiiuieee.

A oaia?ue ?anniio?ei eoeueoo?ii- i?inaaoeoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue I.E. Oaieoaaie.

Iinea caioaeanoaa I.E. Oaieoaaa /aou?a aiaea i?iaeeea a Aaaeeoea,
aaea iaoiaeeeenue caaiaeu ioaea. Aa ii?aceei oyaeaeia iieiaeaiea
?aai/eo, eo aani?inaaoiay ioaeaea, iieiia aani?aaea, oaiiioa e
aaca?aiioiinoue- ia 28 ouny/ aeeoaeae ?aai/aai iinaeea iaeia oeiea n 400
o/aieeaie. O/eoaeue, caaaaeiaaaoee oeieie, iaaeeaaeny ia i?iaeaaea
o/aaieeia e oao?aaeae. A iinaeea oei ii/oe iiaieiaiia iueyinoai e
ea?oaaeiay ea?a. E iaae anai yoei ai?noea eiaeaia?ia e ianoa?ia n
iaiiia?ii aieueoeie ieeaaeaie e ieca?iuie eioa?anaie. Oaieoaaa a 1893
aiaeo ioe?uea i?e caaiaea ?aianeaiii- aeooiaiia o/eeeua ia 60 /aeiaae.
Iia i?aaiecoao i?e caaiaea ianeieueei iiauo oeie. I?aaieciaaea aeey
?aai/eo noieiaoth ni noeaiie, aaea noaaeea ethaeoaeueneea niaeoaeee, aue
iino?iai e iaaacei.

A 1891 aiaeo Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia iiciaeiieeanue n E.A. ?aieiui, e yoi
eiaei aeey iaa eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea, iia aeeth/aaony a aeoeaioth
i?inaaoeoaeueneoth ?aaioo. Ia?aui ia/eiaieai a yoii ieaia yaeeanue
i?aaiecaoeey a nianoaaiiii aeiia aanieaoiie ?eniaaeueiie nooaeee,
eioi?ay ioe?ueanue 16 iiya?y 1894 aiaea.

E.N. AEo?aaeaaa “Oaeaoeeii”

Iineaa “Ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai” 1989 a.

?oeiaiaeee ath E.A. ?aiei. Aio iiiiaaee A.A. Eo?aiiie, I.A.
Iyniaaeia, Ae.A. Ue?aeiianeee. A nooaeeth iinooiaee oa iieiaeua
ooaeiaeieee, eioi?ua ec-ca neaaie iiaeaioiaee ia naeaee yecaiaiia a
Aeaaeaieth ooaeiaeanoa. Oaeei ia?acii, iooue e aeaaeaie/aneiio eeanno
E.A. ?aieia aeey iiiaeo i?ioae /a?ac nooaeeth. Aoiinoa?a nooaeee auea
iaiieiaia oai?/aneei ai?aieai, nii?aie ia eneonnoaa. A 1897 aiaeo
Oaieoaaa, iiyoue aea i?e niaeaenoaee E.A. ?aieia, ioe?uea ?eniaaeueioth
oeieo a Niieainea.

A 1894 aiaeo Oaieoaau iieoiatho o ?aci?eaoaeny iiiaueoeu
E?aniieaineie, oooi? Oeaiiai ii ninaaenoao n Oaeaoeeii, aeey ono?ienoaa
oai naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oeieu.

Oeiea auea iniaie caaioie Ia?ee Eeaaaeeaaiu, iiia/aeo yoi auea
aeaooeeanniay oeiea n naeueneioicyenoaaiiui oeeiiii. A iaa i?eieiaeenue
e?anoueyineea aeaoe-ne?iou ec aeeceaaeaueo aea?aaaiue, ia/eiay n
aeaayoeeaoiaai aic?anoa. I?e/ai a i?aaiecaoeee oeieu eneeth/aeenue
anyeea ethaeoaeueneea iioeau. Auee i?eaeaoaiu o/eoaey, caeii/eaoea
niaoeeaeueiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey. Ia?aua o/eoaey, Iaieiau, i?aiiaeaaaee
oaeaea aeaoyi ea?o ia aaeaeaeeao, a i?e nicaeaiee i?eano?a aue i?eaeaoai
i?ioanneiiaeueiue iocueaio, auioneiee Iaoa?ao?aneie eiina?aaoi?ee,
o/anoiee aiae?aaaneiai i?eano?a ia?iaeiuo eino?oiaioia A.A. Eeaeei.
Aeaai/eai, iiieii iaueo i?aaeiaoia, i?aiiaeaaaeinue aua e ?oeiaeaeea.
O/aueiny iieaaaeinue aanieaoiia ieoaiea, iaeaaeaea e o/aaiua iiniaey.

Auei auno?iaii iiaia oeieueiia caeaiea (nio?aieaoeany aei iaoeo
aeiae) n oaeiaiuie eeannaie, aeaeeioaeie e o/aaii- aniiiiaaoaeueiuie
iiiauaieyie. *a?ac aiae aeaooeeannioth oeieo Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia
?ai?aaieciaaea a iecooth naeueneioicyenoaaiioth oeieo ia?aiai ?ac?yaea.
Ieienoa?neee oeieueiue onoaa ia ioaa/ae iaia/aiiui Oaieoaaie caaea/ai, e
iia ?ac?aaioaea aeey naiae oeieu oaeea o/aaiua ieaiu, a eioi?uo
cia/eoaeueiia ianoi ioaiaeeeinue ?acee/iui ?aianeai e ?eniaaieth. Aeey
caiyoee n o/aieeaie a oeieueiuo ianoa?neeo auee i?eaeaoaiu iiuoiua
ianoa?a: noiey?u, ?ac/eee ii aea?aao, aii/a?u, a aeey iao/aiey aeaai/ae
?oeiaeaeeth- eneoniua oaae, auoeaaoaeueieoeu, e?oaeaaieoeu. A Oaeaoeeia
any/anee iiiu?yeenue e ?acaeeenue ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iaeeiiiinoe o/aueony.

Aiieia caeiiiia?ii, /oi ec Oaeaoeeineie oeieu e ianoa?neeo auoee ia
oieueei ioee/iua ianoa?a eonoa?iiai aeaea, ii e ooaeiaeieee. Oae,
iai?eia?, ia?aiia/aeueiua iaauea aeeaiiene e ?eniaaiee iieo/ee caeanue
A.I. Naionia e aanueia iaea?aiiue A.I. Ieoiiia, iaa o/aieee N.A.
Iaethoeia.

Eae /oi-oi naii niaie ?acoiaaony aiciee a Oaeaoeeia
naiiaeayoaeueiue oaao?. A aai iinoaiiaeao oai?eeinue ana oiaea aieueoia
e ?aaeinoiia, /ai aeeea e aeuoaea yoa oaeeaeoaeueiay eieiiey yiooceanoia
iaiiaeaiey noa?eiu. Oaieoaaa ioee/ii iiieiaea aieueoia ainieoaoaeueiia
cia/aiea oaao?a, iniaaiii aea?aaaineiai. O/anoieeaie naiiaeayoaeueiuo
niaeoaeeae a Oaeaoeeineii oaao?a aunooiaee ia oieueei o/aueany oeieu e
ianoa?neeo, ii e ianoa?a, ooaeiaeieee, o/eoaey e naia Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia,
ie?anoiay iieiaeaaeue. Noaaeeenue a oaao?a iaaieueoea iueanu,
ono?aeaaeenue eiioea?ou, ana yoi auei aanieaoii oae, eae iieacuaaeinue
e?anoueyiai. Iaaeaeaei io oaao?a a i?inouo aea?aayiiuo no?iaieyo
?aniieaaaeenue ianoa?neea.

Iinoaiaiii ana yoi i?aia?aceeinue a naiaia?aciue oeieueiue
ai?iaeie: oeieueiua iino?ieee, ianoa?neea, o?oeoiaue naae, ica?i n
cai?oaeie e eoiaeueiae, oaao? e iiiaia ae?oaia.

N?aaee ecaeaeee noiey?iuo ianoa?neeo aieueoia ianoi caieiaee
aaeaeaeee n ?inienueth ia aeaeao, auiieiaiiie e?oiiuie ooaeiaeieeaie. Ec
ieo iiaeii auei ninoaaeoue ia iaeei i?eano?. Aieueoa /ai eoi-eeai
naeaeae oaeeo ?inienae nai Iaethoei. A aai ae?ooiciuo ?enoieao eae au
iaeeaeythony n aeaonoaa ciaeiiua ia?acu aueei e neacie.

A 1900 aiaeo ia Anaie?iie aunoaaee a Ia?eaea yeniiie?iaaeinue 14
oaeaoeeineeo aaeaeaae, ?anienaiiuo E.A. Ei?iaeiui, A.ss. Aieiaeiui, I.E.
Oaieoaaie, N.A. Iaethoeiui e I.A. A?oaaeai, ?iniene eioi?iai i?eaaee
iaeaieueoaa aieiaiea. A?oaaeue n oaeeaeoaeueiui a?oenoeciii ?anienae
aeey Oaieoaaie ianeieueei aaeaeaae ia neaci/iue nthaeao, uaae?i oe?anea
eo ?anoeoaeueiui oci?ii, a /ai-oi noiaeai n aai i?iaiaioaeueiuie
?inienyie a aieiauo i?eaeaeao Aeaaeeie?neiai niai?a a Eeaaa. Ia aunoaaea
Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia iieo/eea oeaeue ?yae caiai/eauo i?aaeeiaeaiee i
i?iaeaaea naieo iocueaeueiuo yeniiiaoia. Ii iia oaeoth naeaeeo ioeeiieea
e ia?aaeaea ana aaeaeaeee a oaeaoeeineoth “Ne?uith”.

E?aneaua e iaaei?iaea ecaeaeey naieo ianoa?neeo Oaieoaaa iuoaeanue
i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue oie iauaineie aacaeoneoea, eioi?ay caoeanouaaea
oiaaeaoiee auo ia oieueei iaeieioueo neiaa ianaeaiey. Iia i?aaieciaaea a
Niieainea aunoaaeo ecaeaeee oaeaoeeineeo ianoa?neeo, aaea iiaeii auei
eoieoue eee caeacaoue ethaoth ec aunoaaeaiiuo aauae. N yoie aea oeaeueth
a 1901 aiaeo a Iineaa aue ioe?uo iaaacei oaeaoeeineeo eonoa?iuo ecaeaeee
“?iaeiee”, ia aeo?eiao, i?eeaaeao e neeaaea eioi?iai iinoiyiii eiaeny
naiue ?aciiia?aciue auai? anaai oiai, /oi i?iecaiaeeeinue a ianoa?neeo.

I Oaieoaaie e i aa eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ienaee iiiaea; oae iai?eia? E.Ae. Aeaieeaae/ a 1908 aiaeo ienae “Eiyaeiy
Oaieoaaa ?oeiaiaeeea anae yoie ?aaioie, naia ?eniaaea, i?aaieciaaea
o?oae, ie?oaeaiiay oaeeie ethaeueie, eae Aa?uaaneee, Aaea?oia, Iaethoei,
Ieoeiia, Ceiiaueaa (…) Oaeaoeeii auei Aoeiaie ?onneeo e?anoueyi, a
eiyaeiy Oaieoaaa aai Ia?eeeii”.

N oeiainaie ae iiiia aa ioae Oaieoaa, o eioi?iai auei ?yae caaiaeia
a Aaaeeoea.

Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia Oaieoaaa i?iaaea ia?iiioth
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, e iu ae ca yoi
aeaaiaea?iu.

Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Yecaiaiaoeeiiiue ?aoa?ao ii oaia:

Niae?aoaeueneay e eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue I.E.
Oaieoaaie.

O/aieea 9 “a” eeanna

n?aaeiae oeieu ? 14

a. Niieainea

Eoeueyiiaa Aeaenay Ieeieaaae/a

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue:

I?oaeieeiaa Aeaia Ieeieaaaia

NIIEAINE-2000.

Aiaeec eeoa?aoo?u.

A iniiaiii aeey iaienaiey ?aoa?aoa y eniieueciaae eieao
“Oaeaoeeii”. A iae ?anneacuaaaony i aeaonoaa Oaieoaaie, i aa o/aaa, i
e?oaa aa iauaiey. Caeanue aea iiae?iaii iienuaaaony aa eieeaeoeey: eae
auaeyaeeo, aaea iaoee, aaea eniieueciaaeanue e aiiaua /oi yoi auei.
Oaeaea aiai?eony i aa eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe: aaea,
a eaeii aiaeo, i?e iiiiue eiai I.E. Oaieoaaa a?aaieciaaaiea oi eee eiia
iaoeaiaoneia iauanoai e /ai a yoii iauanoaa caieiaeenue.

Auai? oaiu.

A ea/anoaa yecaiaiaoeeiiiie ?aaiou ii enoi?ee Niieaiueiu y aua?ae
aeey naiaai ?aoa?aoa oaio “Niae?aoaeueneay e
eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue I.E. Oaieoaaie”. Iaiy
aeaaii eioa?anoao yoio aii?in. ss oioae iiae?iaiae ?anniio?aoue aa
eieeaeoeee, eae e i?e iiiiue eiai ae oaeaeinue nia?aoue oaeea “ianiaoiua
nie?iaeua ?onneie noa?eiu”.

?acia?aoueny /oi iinaaoeei ia/aeii aa eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, aieaa iiae?iaiae oaeaeaoue /oi e eae iia aeaeaea aeey
yoiai e e /aio yoi i?eaaei.

Oaeaea ?anniio?aoue aa iaeaaeia aeaonoai, /oi aa oaeaeaei, a /oi iao e
eae iia noaea oaeei ecaanoiui /aeiaaeii.

Ieai:

Auai? oaiu.

I.E. Oaieoaaa- aaeeeee iaoeaiao.

Aeaonoai Oaieoaaie.

Niae?aoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue I.E. Oaieoaaie.

Eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue I.E. Oaieoaaie.

Auaiae.

*oi iia aeaea ?aaioa iaae ?aoa?aoii.

Aiaeec eeoa?aoo?u.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

E.N. AEo?aaeaaa “Oaeaoeeii”. Iineaa. Ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai. 1989a.

E.N. AEo?aaeaaa “Eiyaeiy Ia?ey Oaieoaaa”. Niieaine. Iieea?aiia. 1994a.

Niieaine. E?aoeay yioeeeeiiaaeey 1994. O?ano- eiaeia. Niieaine 1994a.

I.E. Oaieoaaa “Aia/aoeaiea iiae aeecie” Iineaa. 1987.

*oi iia aeaea ?aaioa iaae ?aoa?aoii.

?aaioa iaae ?aoa?aoii cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eea iie ciaiey a aii?ina
eoeueoo?u Niieaiueiu e aiiaua ?innee. Iniaaiii auei eioa?anii ?aaioaoue
ii yoie oaia a neeo aa aeooaeueiinoe. Aeooaeueiinoue aeaiiie i?iaeaiu
yaeyaony i/aaeaeiie, iioiio, /oi iia naycaia n iaeiie ec naiuo
caia/aoaeueiuo no?aieoe a enoi?ee eoeueoo?u iaoaai e?ay. Iu ia iiaeai
i?ieoe ieii yoiai iniaaiii nae/an, anooiea a OO1 aae, aaaeii nio?aieoue
eoeueoo?iia ianeaaeea inoaaeaiiia iaoeie i?aeeaie.

Iniaaiii oi/aony ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia naio ee/iinoue I.E. Oaieoaaie, aa
aeeciue, aeayoaeueiinoue, ioiioaiea e eneonnoao, ioiaoeoue aa
iaoeaiaoneoth aeayoaeueiinoue ?ieue a enoi?ee eoeueoo?u ai?iaea
Niieainea.

Yoio aaaeue ia?ac, iaicia/athuee iniiaiua i?iaeaiu e aii?inu
i?aaeiieaaaao oi, /oi iie ?aoa?ao aoaeao eioa?anai e iicaieeo iia
nicaeaoue iniiao aeey aoaeouaai enneaaeiaaiey.

Auaiae:

Ia?ey Eeaaaeeaaia Oaieoaaa auea iaoeaiaoeie, i?ineaaeaoay naith iaeoth
?iaeeio e Ioa/anoai a oeaeii.

Eiy I.E. Oaieoaaie ia?aaeaaony e aoaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny ec ono a onoa, io
iieieaiey a iieieaiey, iioiio /oi iia aaea aeoeaioth i?inaaoeoaeueneoth
?aaioo, noa?aynue i?inaaoeoue naie ia?iae aeaoue aaaeiui ia?aciaaiea. A
oaeeo ethaeae, eioi?ua neoaeao naiaio ia?iaeo, ia?iae ia caauaaao
ieeiaaea.

Iia inoaaeea iai a ianeaaeea aaeeeieaiiua eieeaeoeee.

E i?e anai yoii a aiaeu niaaoneie aeanoe eiy Ia?ee Eeaaaeeaaiu Oaieoaaie
ii/oe ia oiiieiaeinue, yoi auei cai?auaii.

E eeoue nae/an iia aeaenoaeoaeueii i?eia?aea i?eciaiea iioiieia. Ia yoii
aiai?eo e oio oaeo, /oi a 1990 aiaeo aa eiaiai auea niiaa iacaaia
oeeoea.

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