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Тайны кубанских курганов

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A nai?i ?aoa?aoa y oi/o ?anneacaoue Aai i ciaiaieouo eoaaineeo eo?aaiao,
?aneiiaiiuo a iniiaiii a aei?aaiethoeeiiiia a?aiy, i naeaeaiiuo a ieo
oieeaeueiuo iaoiaeeao ia?iiiiai iao/iiai e ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai cia/aiey,
aioaaeoeo a ie?iaoth nie?iaeuieoeo iaoee. Iu aeea?i nae/an a 21 aaea, ii
eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo eioa?anii ciaoue, /oi auei a aeae?eii i?ioeii, eoi
iaoiaeeeny ia caiea, eioi?oth ianaeyaoue oaia?ue ou. E oieueei
aeaaiaea?y ?aneiieai a?oaieiaia iu iiaeai yoi ciaoue.

A iaoa a?aiy a?oaieiae/aneea ?aaiou cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeenue e i?eiyee
ae?oaie oa?aeoa?. Nae/an ia Eoaaie ?aaioatho aeanyoee a?oaieiae/aneeo
yeniaaeeoeee. Anee a aei?aaiethoeeiiiia a?aiy o enneaaeiaaoaeae auea
oeaeue iouneaoue aiaaoua caoi?iiaiey aeey iiiieiaiey eiia?aoi?neiai
Y?ieoaaea cieiouie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie ecaeaeeyie ae?aaiinoe, oi a iaoa
a?aiy a?oaieiae iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeytho ?aneiieai ae?aaieo
iinaeaiee, ai?iaeia, ?yaeiauo iiaeeueieeia. Aei ?aaiethoeee iaiyoieee
yoe niaa?oaiii ia enneaaeiaaeenue, iaaeaeo oai aac eo eco/aiey
iaaiciiaeii ainnicaeaoue enoi?eth ae?aaieo ieai?i e ia?iaeia, o
oicyenoai, auo, iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o.

N 1936 aiaea aaaeoony nenoaiaoe/aneea ?aneiiee aioe/iuo ai?iaeia e
iinaeaiee Ainii?neiai oea?noaa ia Oaiaineii iieoino?iaa – Oaiaai?ee,
Aa?iiiannu, Eai e ae?oaea. A Aiaia enneaaeothony ?oeiu ae?aaiae
Ai?aeiee, nouanoaiaaaoae caeanue n 5 aaea aei iaoae y?u. Ieiei
Naiea?aoneeo eo?aaiia ?aniieiaeaiu inoaoee ae?aaiaai neiaeneiai ai?iaea,
eioi?ue a oa/aiea aeanyoe eao ?aneaiuaaeny yeniaaeeoeeae E?aniiaea?neiai
iocay. Neieueei ?aneiiie auei inouanoaeaii iaoeie yeniaaeeoeeyie! A
neieueei iu ec ieo ociaee?! Iu ciaai, aeaaiaea?y ?aneiieai, /oi caaeieai
aei iaoae y?u ia Eoaaie aeeee eeiia?eeoeu, neeou, iaiou, na?iaou e
iiiaea ae?oaea ieaiaia.

Niaeanii iaeiieaiiui a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iao/iui aeaiiui ciaai, /oi
«eieuaaeueth /aeiaa/anoaa» yaeyaony Naaa?i-Ainoi/iay Ao?eea. Eiaiii
caeanue i?ienoiaeee i?ioeann «i/aeiaa/eaaiey» iaacueyi eee, aiai?y
iao/ii, i?ioeann auaeaeaiey /aeiaaea ec aeeaioiiai ie?a. Ieiei 5
ieeeeiiia eao iacaae ia oa??eoi?ee iuiaoieo Oaicaiee, Eaiee, Yoeiiee
aeeee nouanoaa, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea «aano?aeiieoae» (thaeiay iaacueyia).
Eo ?anniao?eaatho, eae ia?aoth nooiaiue a noaiiaeaiee /aeiaaea.

I?eia?ii 2 ieeeeiia eao iacaae iiyaeyaony «/aeiaae oiaeue», eioi?ue
ia/eiaao eniieueciaaoue e ia?aua eaiaiiua i?oaeey o?oaea. Ec
Naaa?i-Ainoi/iie Ao?eee ia/eiaaony ?annaeaiea oi?ie?othuaainy /aeiaaea
ia Aa?iia e Acee.

Neiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue a?aiy iiyaeaiey /aeiaaea a i?aaeaeao iuiaoiaai
E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay. Nae/an ecaanoii ieiei 50 iaiyoieeia aoaeueneiai
ia?eiaea. Ii ?yaeo iniaaiiinoae a?oaieiae auaeaeytho ianeieueei a?oii:
eoaaineay, eaaeineay, aaei?a/aineay, ni/eineay e ae?oaea. Neiaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeaiey a?aiaie eo nouanoaiaaiey iauyniythony oai, /oi ii/oe ana
iaiyoieee – ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey. Oi anoue, eaiaiiua i?oaeey iaeaeaiu ia
iiaa?oiinoe, /anoi a ?oneao ?ae, aeaeaei io iano eo ecaioiaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey. Iiea ecaanoiu oieueei aeaa noiyiee n eoeueoo?iui neiai
(n?aaeiaoaaeaeioneay e Oaoaineay – iaaeaeaei io Iaeeiia).

Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiia a?aiy iiyaeaiey /aeiaaea ia Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii Eaaeaca
– iicaeiee aoaeue (140 – 130 ouny/ eao iacaae).
Eaaeacnei-naaa?ieaaeacneee iooue /eoaaony oaeaea iaeiei ec iai?aaeaiee
canaeaiey oa??eoi?ee Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. A neaaeothuoth yiioo – ionouea
(eee n?aaeiee iaeaieeo) – ia oa??eoi?ee iaoaai e?ay ecaanoii aieaa 80
iaiyoieeia. Ec ieo oieueei iaeioi?ua yaeythony noiyieaie n eoeueoo?iui
neiai (iaua?iua e ioe?uoiai oeia). E iaua?iui ioiinyony Aa?aeaaaneay,
Iiiaoaneay, Aoaneay; e ioe?uoui – aeaa Eeueneea noiyiee. A 1979 aiaeo a
Aa?aeaaaneie iaua?a aia?aua ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca auee iaeaeaiu inoaiee
iyoeeaoiaai iaaiaea?oaeueoea. Eeueneay noiyiea aoiaeeo a /enei anaie?ii
ecaanoiuo iaiyoieeia, caeanue iaeaeaiu neaaeu naiiai ae?aaiaai ia Eoaaie
eneonnoaaiiiai aeeeeua.

*oi aea aeaei eco/aiea anao yoeo iaiyoieeia ae?aaiaai /aeiaaea? Iaeii
ianoiyoaeuenoai oaea ioia/aii – i?ioeann ?annaeaiey /aeiaaea. I?e yoii
i?iaeieaeaeanue e aai yaiethoeey – io ieoaeaio?iia e iaaiaea?oaeueoeo
(iaeaiaio?iio). Iaeiieaii ia?iiiia eiee/anoai eaiaiiuo i?oaeee o?oaea –
io a?oauo eaiaiiuo ?oaee e i?inouo iouaiia aei ouaoaeueii ia?aaioaiiuo e
?aciiia?aciuo ii oi?ia e ooieoeeyi i?oaeee. Enoaoe, iaoa?eaeii aeey eo
ecaioiaeaiey aue oi?ioaai ea/anoaa e?aiaiue e ae?oaea ii?iaeu.
Yaiethoeey oaoieee ia?aaioee eaiiy io?aaeaao ?ino oiaiee e iaaueia
ae?aaiaai /aeiaaea, ?acaeoea aai niciaiey e iuoeaiey. I?eia?ii oiio –
iiyaeaiea aeenoaioeeiiiiai i?oaeey – eiiuey – a yiioo ionouea.
Iaeiia/ieee eiiee iaeaeaiu ia Eeueneie noiyiea. Aeinoaoi/ii aeaiiuo e
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oi?i caiyoee.

Iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie nouanoaiaaiey ae?aaiaai ianaeaiey
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca auee ioioa e niae?aoaeuenoai. Ninoaa aeiau/e
ioioieeia aoaei-ionouea?neiai a?aiaie ai iiiaii caaenae io
i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee. Eae i?aaeei, ioioeeenue ae?aaiea ethaee
ia e?oiiuo aeeaioiuo. Eioa?ania ii?aaeae?iiay niaoeeaeecaoeey:
ionouea?neea iaeoaoaee iaua? ?aeiia Ni/e – Aaeea? i?aaeii/eoaee
iaua?iiai iaaeaaaey, aeeoaee Eeueneie – aeciia. Ia neo/aai NA auai?
ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa – i?eeoaaineea ?aeiiu auee aiaaoaeoei enoi/ieeii
?anoeoaeueiie ieue. Aiciiaeiinoue auaeaeaiey eieaeueiuo a?oii
iaiyoieeia, eioi?ua a?oaieiae iacuaatho eoeueoo?aie, iieacuaaao iaee/ea
ii?aaeae?iiie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie i?aaiecaoeee o ae?aaieo
iaeoaoaeae e?ay. A yoeo iauiinoyo ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea ia?aaeaaaee
iaeiieaiiua ciaiey e oiaiey, ainieouaaee aeaoae. Iiieii eoeueoo?iie
i?iniao?eaaaony (aioo?e iauiinoe) ii?aaeae?iiay niaoeeaeecaoeey
(?acaeaeaiea) o?oaea – a?oaieiae auaeaeytho aeieaia?aiaiiia aeeeue?
(noiyiee, iaua?u), a?aiaiiua ioioie/uee eaaa?y, ianoa?neea ii
ecaioiaeaieth i?oaeee e ae?oaia. Noaey ii eco/aiiui aeaiiui, o?oaeeeenue
ae?aaiea ethaee niiaua, iaeaaeaee iauae nianoaaiiinoueth ia
ioioie/uea-niae?aoaeueneea oa??eoi?ee e n?aaenoaa o?oaea. N o/?oii anae
niaieoiiinoe ciaiee ii yoiio ia?eiaeo enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa iiaeii
aiai?eoue ia yiioa ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaa/aneiai noaaea (ii ae?oaei aeaiiui
– i?aiaueiu), eioi?ay ia neaaeothuai yoaia – iicaeiai iaeaieeoa –
ia?a?anoaao a iaueiii-?iaeiaie no?ie. Ia?aoiae e iicaeiaio iaeaieeoo
niaiaaeaao oaeaea caaa?oaieai oi?ie?iaaiey oece/aneiai iaeeea –
iiyaeyaony «/aeiaae ?acoiiue», oi anoue /aeiaae nia?aiaiiiai aeaea. A
aa?oiai iaeaieeoa nouanoaaiii eciaiyaony oaoieea ia?aaioee eaiiy –
?aciiia?aciua i?oaeey ecaioiaeytho ec aeeeiiuo iiaeaaeaeiuo ieanoei,
oe?iei eniieuecotho aeey aeiaiaeee ?aoooue (aoi?e/iue i?e?i – iaaeei eee
oaea? einoyiie eee aea?aayiiie iaei/eie).

Iaiyoieeia yoie yiioe a E?aniiaea?neii e?aa ecaanoii iaiueoa, /ai a
i?aaeoanoaothuea yiioe. Iaeii a?aiy nouanoaiaaei i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
/aeiaae iieeioe yoo oa??eoi?eth, ia?anaeeaoenue naaa?iaa. Ii iii
ieacaeinue ioeai/iui. Nae/an ecaanoii aei 30 iaiyoieeia. N?aaee ieo
neaaeoao iacaaoue iaua?u Eaiaiiiiioneoth e ?oneaiiao, iaaanu Aoaneee ? 1
e Naoaiae (?. Aaeay e Eaaa). I?e ?aneiieao iaeaeaiu ouny/e ecaeaeee ec
e?aiiy, einoe ?acee/iuo aeeaioiuo (iaua?iiai iaaeaaaey, eioaaee, aeciia
e ae?oaeo). A iaeiie ec ni/eineeo iaua? e a iaaana Naoaiay iaia?oaeaiu
?aeiaeiu iieethnea, /oi aiai?eo i niae?aoaeuenoaa. I/aiue aaaeii, /oi a
Naoaiae auei ?aneiiaii ?ac?ooaiiia iia?aaaiea e?iiaiueiioea (iiea
aaeeinoaaiiia ia Eaaeaca). Anoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi ?aniieiaeaiiua
?yaeii ii aeaa-o?e iaua?u ninoaaeyee aaeeioth a?oiio – «Iin?eie»
(?iaeiaay iaueia). Iaaeaeaei io Aoaneeo iaaania ia noaia iaeiiai ec
ea?iecia auee iaeaeaiu ioia/aoee eenoae ?oe, iie?uoua e?aniie e?aneie
(io?ie). Ia eneeth/aii, /oi ?aae/aeoee ia?acaoe iicaeiaiaeaieeoe/aneiai
eneonnoaa. Neaaeothuay, iacieeoe/aneay, yiioa (n?aaeiaeaiaiiue aae)
niaiaaeaao n aeiaaeueiuie eeeiaoe/aneeie eciaiaieyie – caeai/eaaaony
eaaeieeiaay yiioa. Ia cia/eoaeueiuo oa??eoi?eyo iaiythony eaiaeoaoo,
?anoeoaeueiue e aeeaioiue ie?. Oae, en/acatho iaiiiou, oa?noenoue
iini?ia e ae?oaea.

Ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca i?ienoiaeeo caiaoiia iioaieaiea, oioy aai iaeanoe
inoaaaeenue ioe?uouie naaa?iui aao?ai. Eiee/anoai ecaanoiuo iaiyoieeia
iacieeoa ?acei nie?auaaony – iaiiiaei aieaa aeanyoea. Yoi iauyniyaony
neaaie eco/aiiinoueth, o?oaeiinoyie iieneia. E iacieeoo ioiinyony
Aoeeineay iaua?a (Ni/e – Aaeea?), neie ec iaaana Naoaiae,
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey. Iacieeoi-iaieeoe/aneei a?aiaiai aeaoe?otho iinaeaiey
o Iiai/aioey e noaieoeu Aeieo?eaaneie. Iniiaiie iniaaiiinoueth eaiaiiiai
eiaaioa?y yoie yiioe yaeyaony oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea aaiiao?e/aneeo
iee?ieeoia – iaeeeo i?oaeee ec iiaeaaeaeiuo ieanoei ?aciuo
aaiiao?e/aneeo oi?i (naaiaiou, o?aiaoeee, o?aoaieueieee e i?.).
Iee?ieeou iaoiaeeee i?eiaiaiea, eae naiinoiyoaeueiua i?oaeey (ne?aaee,
i?ieieee, iaeiia/ieee no?ae) e eae ninoaaiua yeaiaiou – anoaaee a
einoyioth eee aea?aayiioth iniiao iiaeae, eiiee, aa?ioiia e o.i. A
neo/aa iieiiee aeinoaoi/ii auei caiaieoue neiiaiiua iee?ieeou iiauie,
i?oaeea i?e yoii ia aua?anuaaeinue. Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi iee?ieeou
ia Eoaaie iiyaeythony au? a eiioea iicaeiaai iaeaieeoa. Yoi iaeii ec
aeieacaoaeuenoa i?aainoaaiiinoe eoeueoo?. Eioa?aniaeoea iaoiaeee auee
naeaeaiu iaaeaeaei io Iaeeiia a a?aaeeiii ea?uea?a. Caeanue iaia?oaeaiu
aaeueee n a?aae?iaaiiuie ?aiiaiacieeoe/aneeie ?enoieaie aeeaioiuo
(iaiiio, neii, ieaiue, aeeeay eioaaeue, aue) e noeeeciaaiiuo oeao?ie
ethaeae. Anoue ia ieo ecia?aaeaiey noeai ioiou e caaaaei/iuo ciaeia,
iaiiieiathueo ienueiaiiinoue.

Aeey iacieeoe/aneie yiioe oa?aeoa?ia aieueoay iiaeaeaeiinoue ianaeaiey.
Ia yaeythony eneeth/aieai e iaiyoieee iaoaai e?ay. AEeee aea ethaee
iaaieueoeie nioeeaeueii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie eieeaeoeaaie. I?iei?ieoue
naay iie oaea auee a ninoiyiee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ioioie ia n?aaeieo e
iaeeeo aeeaioiuo, ioeoe. Yoiio iiiiaei ecia?aoaiea eoea e no?ae n
eaiaiiuie iaeiia/ieeaie. A aeey Eaaeaca oa?aeoa?iui i?oaeeai noaiiaeony
au? e i?aua.

O?iiieiae/aneea ?aiee iacieeoa iaoiaeyony a i?aaeaeao 12 – 7 ouny/aeaoee
aei iaoae y?u. Caaa?oaaony eaiaiiue aae iaieeoii (iiaieaiaiiue aae) Ia
oa??eoi?ee iaoaai e?ay ii eco/ai i/aiue neaai. Iau/ii iacuaatho aeaa
iaiyoiee. Yoi Ieaeiaoeeianeia iinaeaiea a ?aeiia Aaeea?a e ecaanoiay
oaea Eaiaiiiiinoneay iaua?a. Yoe iaiyoieee ?acaeaeaiu ai?aie, ii,
ianiiiaiii, noiaenoai e?aiiaaie eiaeono?ee ec eo eoeueoo?iuo nei?a.
Ei?ia oiai, ia Ieaeiaoeeianeie noiyiea ia nio?aieeenue einoe aeeaioiuo,
a a Eaiaiiiiinoneie iaua?a iie iaeaeaiu a eciaeeee, aeeth/ay einoe
aeiiaoieo. E, iaiai?io, a iineaaeiae iao caieaaeaeue/aneeo i?oaeee, caoi
iie anoue a ?aeiia Ni/e – Aaeea?. Iaa iaiyoieea, acaeiiaeiiieiyy ae?oa
ae?oaa, aeatho aiciiaeiinoue oa?aeoa?eciaaoue iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey.

Oae, ii – i?aaeiaio, oe?iei eniieuecothony iee?ieeou, ii iiyaeythony e
e?oiiua oiii?iaeaeiua i?oaeey. Ecaanoiu ecaeaeey ni oeeoiaaiiie
iiaa?oiinoueth. I/aiue aaaeii, /oi iaeaeaia iinoaea ec iaiaeae?iiie
aeeiu – ea?aieea. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoai ea/anoaaiii iiaiai ioiioaiey
/aeiaaea e i?e?iaeiui iaoa?eaeai – ii eciaiyao naienoaa iau/iie aeeiu e
iieo/aao iaoa?eae, i?e?iaea iaecaanoiue.

Iaoiaeee eo yoeo iaiyoieeia iieacuaatho, /oi /aeiaae ia/ae caieiaoueny
caieaaeaeeai e neioiaiaenoaii. Eiaiii yoi – ia?aoiae io i?enaaeaathuaai
oicyenoaa e i?iecaiaeyuaio – ninoaaeyao iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea iaieeoa. A
iaoea oaeie ia?aoiae iieo/ee iacaaiea «iaieeoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey».
Aeieacaoaeuenoaii nouanoaiaaiey caieaaeaeey yaeythony iaoiaeee eaiaiiuo
iiouaeae a ?aeiia Ni/e – Aaeea?.

A a Eaiaiiiiinoneie iaua?a iaeaeaiu einoe iaeiiaoiaiiuo niaaee, auea,
eicu (iaoeu) e naeiuee. Ii, iaaei iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ?a/ue eae?o eeoue i
ia/aeueiuo noaaeeyo ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeyuaai oicyenoaa. Caeai/eaaaony
yiioa iaieeoa ia Eoaaie i?eia?ii a 5 ouny/aeaoee aei iaoae y?u.
Iiyaeaiea caieaaeaeey e neioiaiaenoaa a iaieeoa Caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca noaei
iiaaaeie i?ia?anneaiie eeiee ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee. A
aeaeueiaeoai, eae au ie iaiyeanue eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneay ianoaiiaea,
aaia?aeueiie eeieae ?acaeoey inoaaaeinue niaa?oainoaiaaiea
i?iecaiaeyuaai oicyenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiyaeaoenue ieiei 130 ouny/ eao iacaae a i?aaeaeao iaoaai
e?ay, /aeiaae aeee caeanue iai?a?uaii. Ii inaaeaae i?e?iaeiua aiaaonoaa
?aaeiia, niaa?oainoaiaae oaoieeo i?iecaiaenoaa, anooiae a eiioaeou n
ninaaeyie, iaiyy iinoaiaiii naie oece/aneee iaeee, oe?aieyy
iauanoaaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth e oai naiui, caeeaaeuaay iniiau aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey.

N aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe a niciaiee ethaeae neeaaeuaaaony aa?a a caa?iaioth
aeeciue. Ae?aaiea ethaee i?aaenoaaeyee naaa, /oi e iinea nia?oe aeooa
/aeiaaea aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue aeeoue ii/oe oaeie aea iaoa?eaeueiie
aeeciueth, eae e ia caiea. Ionthaea e aicieeatho neiaeiua ia?yaeu
caoi?iiaiey, eiiaaea /aeiaa/aneeie aea?oaii?eiioaieyie, iiiauaieai a
iiaeeo aianoa n iieieieeii aai ee/iuo aauae, iaioonoaaiiie ieue, aiaaiai
eiiy, a n aiaeae?i – aai neoa, ?aaia, iaeiaeieoe, ianeeuenoaaiii
oia?uaeyaiuo i?e iioi?iiao. E naie iiaeeu iiae eo?aaiiuie ianuiyie
?acee/iu. Oi?ia, oeiu e eiino?oeoeey eo caaeneo eae io yiioe,
nouanoaothueo ia?yaeia, oae e io ciaoiinoe oia?oaai. Ano?a/athony e
i?inoua iiaeeueiua yiu, e aieueoea au?uoua a caiea iiaeeu n oao?iaui
ia?ae?uoeai, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiui aea?aayiiuie noieaaie, e n ieineei
a?aaai/aoui ia?ae?uoeai, n aeeeiiuie nioneathueieny aiec ei?eaei?aie, a
eioi?uo iiiauaee iia?aaaeueiua eieanieoeu, e n eaiaiiuie neeaiaie, e n
a?iaieoeaie, iaeiaeaiiuie nu?oeiaui ee?ie/ii (naiaiii). E n
iia?aaaeueiuie eaia?aie oeia eaoaeiia. A 6-4 aaeao aei iaoae y?u aianoa
ni ciaoiui iieieieeii eeaaeoo aeanyoee e nioie eioaaeae. Aieia oi?iiyo a
iieiii aiaaii nia?yaeaiee – ni oeaiii, a iaioee?a, ni ueoii, ia/ii,
eiiueyie, eoeii e no?aeaie; aeaiuei a eo/oae iaeaaeaea, a aiaaoii oai?a,
n iaea?aeueyie, na?ueaaie, a?aneaoaie. A iiaeeo noaiiaeony e ooaa?ue. E
/ai ciaoiaa aue oia?oee, oai aieueoa eeaeinue aauae, oai auoa ianuiaeny
eo?aai.

N eiioea 19 aaea ia/eiathony aeiaieueii eioaineaiua ?aneiiee eo?aaiia ia
Eoaaie. Iie naycaiu aeaaiui ia?acii n eiaiai i?ioanni?a Iaoa?ao?aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa Ieeieay Eaaiiae/a Aanaeianeiai (1848 – 1918). O?eaeoeaoue
eao naiae aeecie ii iinayoee ?aaioa a A?oaieiae/aneie eiiennee, noa?oei
/eaiii eioi?ie ninoiye. A?oaieiae/aneea ?aneiiee Aanaeianeie I.E. auee
naycaiu n thaii ?innee. Aeanyoee e nioie eo?aaiia iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii
?aneiiaiu ia Aeiai?a, a E?uio, ia Eoaaie e Aeiio, a eo /enea ciaiaieoua
neeoneea eo?aai Nieioa, ia Eoaaie – Iaeeiineee, Eaea?ianneea, O?aeueneea
e ae?oaea.

Iineaaeithth naith a?oaieiae/aneoth eiiiaieth – a 1917 aiaeo I.E.
Aanaeianeee i?ia?e ia Eoaaie, a noaieoea Aeecaaaoeineie.

Eo?aaiu yaeythony aaaeiui enoi?e/aneei enoi/ieeii aeey eco/aiey aeecie
ieai?i e ia?iaeia, ianaeyaoeo a aeae?eii i?ioeii I?eeoaaiuea. Iaeaieaa
ae?aaieie eo?aaiaie yaeythony eo?aaiu yiioe ?aiiaai iaoaeea – aoi?ie
iieiaeiu 3 e 2 ouny/aeaoee aei iaoae y?u. Iacaaiey ieai?i, aeeaoeo a oi
a?aiy ia naaa?i-caiaaeiii Eaaeaca, iaecaanoiu. Oneiaii eo i?eiyoi
iacuaaoue ieaiaiaie iaeeiineie eoeueoo?u, a aeey 2 ouny/aeaoey ieaiaiaie
naaa?ieaaeacneie eoeueoo?u yiioe a?iicu. A noaiiie i?aaiaa?aaeiie /anoe
I?eeoaaiuey a yoi a?aiy aeeee ieaiaia oae iacuaaaiie ae?aaiayiiie e
eaoaeiiaiie eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe. Yoi auee neioiaiae/aneea
ieaiaia, o eioi?uo iiouaeiia aeaei ea?aei iiaeniaioth ?ieue. A ai?iuo
?aeiiao naaa?i-caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca a yoio ia?eiae aeeee ae?oaea ieaiaia,
inoaaeaoea iai naiaia?aciua iia?aaaeueiua iaiyoieee a aeaea iacaiiuo
neeaiia, neiaeaiiuo ec ia?iiiuo eaiaiiuo ieeo, iieo/eaoea a eeoa?aoo?a
iacaaiea aeieueiaiia.

A ai?iuo ?aeiiao iaoaai e?ay e ii *a?iiii?neiio iiaa?aaeueth, ii o?aaoai
e neeiiai ai?, a ouaeueyo, ia iieyiao, ii aunieei ieaoi ano?a/athony
naiaia?aciua iaiyoieee, iieo/eaoea a iaoea iacaaiea aeieueiaiia.
Aeineiaii aeieueiai – yoi eaiaiiue noie. E aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia caiaaea
O?aioeee, a A?aoaie, aeieueiaiu iioiaee ia ia?iiiua eaiaiiua noieu.

Aeieueiaiu naaa?i-caiaaeiiai Eaaeaca ianeieueei eiua. Oeie/iie oi?iie
aeieueiaia yaeyaony aeieueiai, neiaeaiiue ec /aou??o ianneaiuo eaiaiiuo
ieeo e iie?uoue iyoie ieeoie. Ieeou ouaoaeueii io?naiu, e a i?iaeieueiuo
noaieao naeaeaiu iacu aeey oe?aieaiey iiia?a/iuo ieeo. Iie aieueoae
/anoueth caieyiie, ii eiiaaea ninoieo ec eaiaiiuo ieeo (iaeiie – aeaoo).
A ia?aaeiae noaiea, eae i?aaeei, aeaeaeinue iaaeueiia eee e?oaeia
ioaa?noea, cae?uaathuaany eaiaiiie a?eaiia?aciie aooeeie (i?iaeie).
Eiiaaea aeieueiaiu aunaeaeenue a oeaeyo aeuaao eee neaeao. A eeoa?aoo?a
iie iieo/eee iacaaiea aeieueiaiia – iiiieeoia. Oaeie aeieueiai ecaanoai
a Eaca?aaneii ?aeiia o naea Aieeiiea ia ?aea Aiaeeee.

Ai?acaei /aua, iniaaiii ia *a?iiii?neii iiaa?aaeuea, ano?a/athony
iieoiiiieeou, eiaaea e?uoa ninoieo ec ioaeaeueiie ieeou. O yoeo
aeieueiaiia ioaa?noea aieueoae /anoueth auaaao a caaeiae, ?aaea a
aieiaie noaiea, a ia ia?aaeiae ieeoa eiaaony oieueei eieoaoeey ioaa?noey
eee i?iaee. Iioiaeea ii aiaoiaio aeaeo ia eaiaiiua aeiieee, iie
i?eaiaeeee a ecoieaiea a?iiaaeiuie ?acia?aie e oyaeanoueth ieeo.

Aeieueiaiu ecaeaaia i?eaeaeaee aieiaiea ianoiiai ianaeaiey. I ieo
neeaaeuaaeenue iiyoe/aneea eaaaiaeu e neacaiey, eioi?ua ia?aaeaaaeenue
eo ono a onoa ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea e aeiaeeee aei iaoeo aeiae.

Ii aaeuaaeneiio i?aaeaieth a aeaaiea a?aiaia a ai?ao aeeee ieaiy
ea?eeeia e aaeeeaiia. Ea?eeee ia eiaee aeiiia, e ia auei o ieo
aeinoaoi/ii nee, /oiau iino?ieoue naaa aeeeeua. Iooiai iiaeaa?aaeenue
iie any/aneei iaacaiaeai aani?ethoiie aeecie: iieee iiae aeiaeae?i,
i??cee, ceiie eo caniaei niaaii. Naeaeeeenue iaae ieie aaeeeaiu e ?aoeee
iino?ieoue aeey ea?eeeia aeiia. Aaeeeaiu auee ianoieueei neeueiu, /oi
eaaeaeue ec ieo iia au?oaeoue ia?iiioth ieeoo ec eaiiy e, acaaeea a? ia
iea/e, i?eianoe a? e ianoo iino?ieee. Ec /aou??o oaeeo ieeo, neiaeaiiuo
a aeaea eaaae?aoiiai yueea, ninoaaeyeny aeii, i?ee?uaathueeny naa?oo
iyoie ieeoie. Aianoi aeaa?e, niia?acii ?inoo ea?eeeia, a ia?aaeiae ieeoa
aaeeeaiu i?iaeaaee e?oaeua ioaa?noey, /a?ac eioi?ua ea?eeee auacaeaee
aa?oii ia caeoeao. E iooiai aaeuae iacaaee aeieueiaiu «niu – oia», /oi
cia/eo ea?eeeiaua aeiia. Aeaaii auia?ei ieaiy ea?eeeia, e iao oaea
aaeeeaiia, a aeiia ea?eeeia au? noiyo. Oaeiaa eaaaiaea.

?onneia ianaeaiea, iiyaeaoaany ia naaa?i-caiaaeiii Eaaeaca a 19 aaea,
iacuaaei aeieueiaiu «aiaaou?neeie oaoeaie».

Ia naiii aea aeaea yoi iia?aaaeueiua nii?oaeaiey, naiaai ?iaea neeaiu,
ioiinyueany a iniiaiii ei aoi?ie iieiaeia 3 – 2 ouny/aeaoee aei iaoae
y?u, oi anoue eiathuath 3 -, 4 -, 5- ouny/aeaoithth aeaaiinoue. Iie
ano?a/athony a iaeeii/eo eee ia?acotho cia/eoaeueiua neiieaiey,
ian/eouaathuea ianeieueei nio. Eae i?aaeei, aeieueiaiu ?aniieiaeaiu
anaaaea ia iiaa?oiinoe, ii ano?a/athony e a?uoua a caieth – iaiieiaeio
eee iieiinoueth. A ?aaeeeo neo/ayo aeieueiaiu iaoiaeyony e iiae
eo?aaiiuie ianuiyie.

Oae, a 1936 aiaeo, aeec noaieoeu Na?aoianeie i?e caieyiuo ?aaioao iiae
eo?aaiii aue iaia?oaeai aeieueiai, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeeny /aeiaa/aneee
neaeao a nei?/aiiii iieiaeaiee, iie?uoue e?aniie eaneie, e aianoa n iei
iaaeiua oiii?, oanei, a?aneao e aeeiyiue ninoaeee. A 50-o aiaeao
ianoiyuaai noieaoey aeieueiai iiae iaaieueoie eo?aaiiie ianuiueth aue
ioe?uo aeec iin?eea E?aniay Iieyia.

Ii iaeaieaa eioa?aniua aeieueiaiiia?aciua a?iaieoeu iiae eo?aaiaie auee
?aneiiaiu I.E. Aanaeianeei a eiioea i?ioeiai noieaoey aeec noaieoeu
Iiainaiaiaeiie (auaoay noaieoea Oea?neay), ?aniieiaeaiiie a ai?ao, e
thao Iaeeiia, ia eaaii aa?aao ?aee Oa?n. Iaaeaeaei io Iiainaiaiaeiie,
ainoi/iaa noaieoeu Aaaaecaeneie, iaoiaeeony ciaiaieoay «Aiaaou?neay
iieyia», ia eioi?ie auei aieaa 300 aeieueiaiia; thaeiaa, aeec noaieoeu
Aeaoianeie, a aeieeia ?aee Aaeie ia Aeaaoaeneie iieyia a iaaeaaiai
i?ioeii ian/eouaaeinue ianeieueei nio, a iaaieueoea a?oiiu eo
ano?a/athony iianthaeo. An? yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi ai 2 iieiaeia 3 – 2
ouny/aeaoee aei iaoae y?u ?aeii aue aonoi canae?i. E naaa?o io
Iiainaiaiaeiie, a 5 eeeiiao?ao io a? oeaio?a, a o?i/eua, ecaanoiii o
ianoiuo aeeoaeae iiae iacaaieai «Eeaaeu», ia aicauoaiiinoe, ii?inoae
eanii, ?aniieiaeaia a?oiia eo?aaiia, ia/eouaathuay nauoa 30 ianuiae e
aeieueiaiia.

Au? a 1869 aiaeo auaoei aoaiaiii Iaeeiineiai ioaeaea iieeiaieeii I.E.
Eaiaiaaui a yoie a?oiia aue ?aneiiai iaeei ec eo?aaiia, a eioi?ii
iaia?oaeaia eaiaiiay a?iaieoea iaeeiiaaeoeaoea?aiiie oi?iu n eiie/aneie
e?uoae. A iniiaaiee a?iaieoeu iaoiaeeeanue ianneaiay eaiaiiay ieeoa a
oi?ia i?aaeeueiiai e?oaa, aeeaiao?ii a 3 iao?a. A iaeiie ec aieiauo ieeo
eiaeinue eaaae?aoiia ioaa?noea, n ia?oaeiie noi?iiu cae?uoia eaiaiiie
aooeeie. A a?iaieoea auee iaeaeaiu aeaa aeeiyiuo ai?oea, aeaa a?iiciauo
eiiuey, eieueoea e i?auiaue i?aii?iue oa?ee. Yoe i?aaeiaou aeatho
iniiaaiea ioiineoue iia?aaaiea e ia/aeo 2 ouny/aeaoey aei iaoae y?u.

A 1898 aiaeo i?ioanni?ii I.E. Aanaeianeei caeanue oaea ?aneiiaii aeaa
iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo eo?aaia, niaea?aeaaoeo aeieueiaiiia?aciua
a?iaieoeu n caia/aoaeueiuie caoi?iiaieyie. Iaa eo?aaia aeinoeaatho
auniou ieiei 10 iao?ia. ?aneiiee aaeenue oe?ieie aeooie o?aioaae. A
iaieo eo?aaiao ia o?iaia ii/au iaia?oaeaiu naiaia?aciua aeieueiaiu,
eaaeaeue eo eioi?uo ninoiye eo aeaoo ioaeaeaiee. A ia?aii eo?aaia
aeieueiai i?aaenoaaeye niaie eaiaiiue aeiiee aeeeiie nauoa o??o iao?ia n
aeaoiy eiiiaoaie e aeaoneaoiie e?uoae. E?uoa nii?oaeaia ec aeaoo
aeeeiiuo ieeo. Noaiu neiaeaiu oiaea eo ieeo, oi?ioi io?naiiuo e
ouaoaeueii i?eaiaiiuo. Oieueia eo iaiaeeiaeiaa – io 18 aei 27
naioeiao?ia. Iiia?a/iie ia?aai?iaeeie aeieueiai ?acaeaeyeny ia aeaa
ioaeaeaiey: aieueoia e iaeaiueeia. A ia?aai?iaeea naeaeaii
/aou??ooaieueiia ioaa?noea (40 o 44 naioeiao?a). Iii auei caeiaeaii
niaoeeaeueii ieioii i?eaiaiiie eaiaiiie ieeoie e canoaaeaii au? eaiiai.
Enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho, /oi oaeay ouaoaeueiay caaeaeea ioaa?noey
naycaia n ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie ethaeae, eioi?ua n/eoaee, /oi
aeooa oia?oaai ia aeieaeia auoiaeeoue ec iia?aaaeueiiai nii?oaeaiey,
neoaeeaoaai ae aa/iui aeiiii. Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi iiaeiaiia
/aou??ooaieueiia ioaa?noea eiaaony o iiaecaiiiai aeieueiaia,
iaia?oaeaiiiai a iaaeaaiaa a?aiy a iin?eea Aeaeoaaa, a oi a?aiy eae o
aieueoeinoaa aeieueiaiia ioaa?noey e?oaeua eee iaaeueiua. I?iaeieueiua
noaiee yoiai nii?oaeaiey ninoiyee ec aeaoo ieeo, niioaaonoaothueo
?acia?o eaia?. Aan eaaeaeie ieeou ia iaiaa 1,5 oiii, a ana aa?iae ieeou,
ninoaaeyaoae oieueei iaeei neao e?uoe, 2,5 oiiiu. Iie a aieueoie eaia?a
ninoiye ec ianneaiie eaiaiiie ieeou, a a iaiueoae aue caieyiie. A
aieueoie eaia?a iieieiee aue iieiaeai o caiaaeiie noaiu, aieiaie ia tha,
ia i?aaii aieo, a ne?th/aiiii iieiaeaiee – eae au a iica canioaoaai.
Iinea iia?aaaiey iieieiee aue aonoi onuiai no?eeii, a eiaaea o?oi
enoeae, e?anea inaea ia einoe neaeaoa e ie?aneea eo. Ia?yae yoio aue
oe?iei ?ani?ino?ai?i o ieai?i yiioe iaaee e a?iicu tha Aa?acee. A iiaeea
iaeaeaii aieueoia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia: oe?aoaiee, i?oaeey,
i?oaeee o?oaea, a oaeaea aeeiyiie e a?iiciaie iinoaeu. Iiiaea aaue
naeaeaiu ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia, iieooeaiiuo eaiiae, /oi oeacuaaao ia
iniaia iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia caieiae oia?oee a ?iaea. O aieiau iieieieea
eaaeaee: cieioua na?ueae a aeaea oiieeo eieaoe i?eaaneaie ec eaco?eoa;
cieioua aeni/iua eieueoea; aonu cieioua, na?aa?yiua, o?onoaeueiua,
na?aeieeeiaua; cieioay aoeaaea a oi?ia eaeu, aeaa na?aa?yiua aoeaaee
iinioiaeaeiie oi?iu n caaioouie aa?oieie eiioeaie, a eioi?uo eiathony
ioaa?noey. Ieiei a?oaee neaeaoa eaaeaee iaaeiua e a?iiciaua i?oaeey e
i?oaeea: o?e aeieioa, o?e oanea, iiae, ainaiue iaaieueoeo
eeiaeaeue/eeia, iaeiia/iee eiiuey, aeaa aeeiia?aciuo i?oaeey caaioouie
eiioeaie e aooeeie aeey oe?aieaiey aea?aayiiie ?oeiyoee, neoaeeaoea, ii
– aeaeeiiio, aeey aeinoaaaiey iyna ec aieueoeo eioeia; o?aouey oaeay aea
aeeea naiay iaeaiueeay, ii e naiay eioa?aniay. A aa?oiae /anoe ae
?aniieiaeaiu iaeia i?ioea ae?oaie aeaa /aeiaa/aneea oeao?ee aunioie 3-4-
naioeiao?a. O.A. Iiiiaa, caieiaaoayny eco/aieai iiainaiaiaeiaineeo
aeieueiaiia, n/eoaao, /oi ianoa?-iaoaeeo?a ecia?acee aeaoo ai?oeia a
aiaaie iiceoeee. E?iia oiai, o neaeaoa auee iaeaeaiu /aou?a a?iiciauo
iaaieueoeo oiii?a, iaeei ec eioi?uo oe?aoai i?iaiaioii, ninoiyuei ec
aeai/oaeeiie, eaeoueo ii iaooo, e iana/ae ii a?aaith iaooa e aieiaui
noi?iiai oiii?eea, a?iiciaue /a?iae n aeeeiie ?oeiyoeie aeey ?aceeaaiey
aeeaeeinoe. O i?ioeaiiieiaeiie, ainoi/iie noaiee eaia?u noiyee o?e eioea
ec oiieie eenoiaie iaaee, aeaa iaeaiueeeo ninoaeeea a oi?ia ai?oi/ea e
iyoue aeeiyiuo ai?oeia. A iaeiii ec ninoaeeeia iaoiaeeeenue
na?aeieeeiaua, o?onoaeueiua e na?aa?yiua aonu. A iaiueoai ioaeaeaiee
aeieueiaia eaaeaee oieueei aaue: i?auiaue oa?ee ec aaeie ianou, oanoue
eenoiaeaeiie oi?iu e?aiiaauo iaeiia/ieeia ae?ioeeia. *aou?a aeeiyiuo
ninoaea, aeaa eaiaiiuo oi/eeueiuo a?onea, iyoue /aou??ooaieueiuo iaaeiuo
oeeueaa e einoyiua aonu (121 oooea), ii oi?ia eieoe?othuea coau ieaiy, e
oieueei /aou?a ec ieo yaeythony iiaeaaneaie ec iiaeeeiiuo coaia ieaiy.

Ai aoi?ii eo?aaia, ?aneiiaiiii I.E. Aanaeianeei a oii aea aiaeo, auea
iaia?oaeaia aeieueiaiiia?aciay a?iaieoea n oai aea ia?yaeii iia?aaaiey,
/oi e a ia?aii eo?aaia. A?iaieoea ?acaeaeyeanue iiia?a/iie eaiaiie
ieeoie ia aeaa ioaeaeaiey, ec eioi?uo aieueoaa n eaiaiiui iieii neoaeeei
iia?aaaeueiie eaia?ie, a iaiueoaa n caieyiui – oieueei aeey aauae.
Ioee/ea caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi ai aoi?ii eo?aaia aeieueiai eiae ia
aeaoneaoioth e?uoo, a ieineoth, ninoiyuoth ec aeaoo ieeo. Iaeia ec ieo
aaneea ieiei 3 oiii. Aoi?ay ieeoa eaaeaea iiae ia?aie, iia ieacaeanue
?acaeaaeaiiie e i?iaaeeeanue /anoe/ii ai aoi?ia ioaeaeaiea. A n?aaeiae
iiia?a/iie ieeoa, ?acaeaeythuae iaa eaia?u. Auei naeaeaii e?oaeia
ioaa?noea aeeaiao?ii 40 naioeiao?ia. Iii auei caeiaeaii eaiaiiui,
/?acau/aeii oi/ii i?eaiaiiui e?oaei/eii, canoaaeaiiui ni noi?iiu aoi?iai
iinauaiey iniaie caneiieie a aeaea eaiaiiiai iieoe?oaa e caaaeaiiui
eaiaiiie ieeoie. A eaia?a n eaiaiiui iieii o caiaaeiie noaiee aieiaie ia
tha a nei?/aiiii iieiaeaiee ia i?aaii aieo aue iieiaeai iieieiee, aonoi
iinuiaiiue no?eeii. Iaeaieaa eioa?aniuie iaoiaeeaie a aeaiiii iia?aaaiee
yaeyeenue inoaoee iaeaaeaeu ia neaeaoa. Aa?oiyy iaeaaeaea. A iaoai
iiiyoee iiaeiaea ooau, auea /??iii iaoo, oa?noueth ia?oaeo. Iiae iae
iaeaaeaea, oeoay ec oiieie oa?noyiie oeaie ae?eoiai oeaaoa n /??iui
oci?ii ec eeaoie e iiein. Yoi aiai?eo i aunieii o?iaia ?acaeoey
oea/anoaa e auaaaeaiee ii?iaeenouo aeaeia iaaoe n oii/aeoae oa?noueth e
aeeeiiui aieieiii. Iiae inoaoeaie oa?noyiie iaeaaeaeu iaia?oaeaiu
inoaoee oieuiaie oeaie, y?ei aue?aoaiiie a io?io?iue oeaao e iie?uoie
e?aniuie ieoyie. O /a?aia iaoiaeeeenue naiue e?aiiaauo iaeiia/ieeia
no?ae o?aoaieueiie oi?iu, aeaa na?aa?yiua aoeaaee, iiaeiaea oai, /oi
auee iaeaeaiu a ia?aii aeieueiaia, iaaeiue oiii?, iaaeiia oanei, iiae e
iaaieueoie eeiaeaeue/ee a iaaeiuo iiaeiao. N ainoi/iie noi?iiu neaeaoa
eaaeae aea?aayiiue i?aaeiao a aeaea eciaiooie iaeee n iaaeiui e?theii,
cae?aie?iiui a aea?aayiiii noa?aeia iaaeiui nie?aeueiui eieueoeii e
iaiioaiiue ieoeaie. Iaae aieiaie iieieieea aue ono?iai oaeiee – a
iiia?a/iie ieeoa auaeieaeaii iaaieueoia, oeeeeiae?e/aneie oi?iu
oaeoaeaiea. Eoaea iieiaeaiu: oienoia e oiieia cieioua eieueoea e
cieioua, na?aa?yiua, na?aeieeeiaua aonu, iaiecaiiua ia e?aniue ieao?iue
oio?. O eieai neaeaoa eaaeaee o?e i?auiauo oa?eea ec oeaaoiiai eaiiy. O
ainoi/iie, i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noaiee eaia?u noiyee a ?yae /aou?a aeeiyiuo
ai?oea. Ec eioi?uo aeaa iie?uou e?aniie e?aneie, a aeaa – /??iua. Ai?oee
i?iaiaioe?iaaiu ia?aciui i?iaiaioii a aeaea ?ei/ae, /??oi/ae, auioeeei a
oi?ia aeai/oaeeiie e i?. Ieiei ai?oeia eaaeae oi/eeueiue eaiaiiue
a?onie. Ai aoi?ii ioaeaeaiee aeieueiaia auei iaeaeaii aieueoia
eiee/anoai einoyiuo aon, oaeeo aea, eae e a ia?aii aeieueiaia, n?aaee
ieo iaaeiia oeei.

Ia?yae iia?aaaiey a iaieo eo?aaiao ieacaeny niaa?oaiii oiaeaeanoaaiiui.
Noaey ii iiioiaioaeueiinoe a?iaieoe, ?acia?ai eo?aaia e aiaaonoao aauae,
a ieo auee iia?aaaiu i?aaenoaaeoaee ?iaeiieaiaiiie ciaoe. Ia?aiia/aeueii
nii?oaeaeny aeieueiai. Eaiaiiua ieeou au?oaaeenue aaea-oi a ai?ao,
ia?aaaouaaeenue e io?nuaaeenue, a iioii oaea aeinoaaeyeenue e ianoo
iino?ieee. Ia?aoaueoue ieeou a ianeieueei oiii auei aeaeii i/aiue
o?oaeiui e neiaeiui. Iaaea?ii aicieeee eaaaiaeu i aaeeeaiao. A ia naiii
aeaea aeieueiaiu no?ieee oaeea aea ethaee, eae e iu, oieueei ia eiaaoea
iiaeu?iiuo e?aiia e iiiaioiiiuo iaoei. Ii iie ciaee oaea oaeea
i?inoaeoea oaoie/aneea i?eniiniaeaiey, eae eaoie, ?u/aa, iaeeiiiay
ieineinoue, eaiaou, a eieeaeoeaiue o?oae ?iaea iicaieye i?aiaeieaoue ana
o?oaeiinoe.

Iinea iino?ieee aeieueiaia e iia?aaaiey a i?i iieieieea aeie eaia?u e
aai naiiai iinuiaee e?aniie e?aneie, /oiau i/enoeoue iiaeeo io ceuo
aeooia, e iae?uaaee aai ieeoaie. A aeaiiii neo/aa i/aaeaeii, e
i?eiaiyeanue iaeeiiiay ieineinoue. E?oaii aeaeaeny eieueoeaia?aciue aae
ec aieuoae, eioi?ue aeinoeaae auniou aieaa iaeiiai iao?a, a nai
aeieueiai caeeaaeuaaeny naa?oo e /anoe/ii n aieia eaiiai. Iiaa?o anaai
ianuiaeny caieyiie eo?aai. Aue ee a eo?aaia Ieei aeieueiai eee eo?aai
ianuiaeny iaae ianeieueeeie, inoaeinue iaauyniaiiui, oae eae I.E.
Aanaeianeei ia enneaaeiaaia any eo?aaiiay ianuiue, a iaia?oaeaiiua ei
aeieueiaiu iaoiaeeeenue ia iiae aa?oeiie eo?aaia.

Aeieueiaiiua iia?aaaiey aeec noaieoeu Iiainaiaiaeiie aeaoe?othony
?oaaaeii 3 – 2 ouny/aeaoee aei iaoae y?u. Eee naiui ia/aeii 2
ouny/aeaoey. AEeaoea caeanue ieaiaia i?iaeieaeaee caieiaoueny
ianoooaneei neioiaiaenoaii e iiouaeiui caieaaeaeeai. ?acaiaeeee e?oiiue
e iaeeee ?iaaoue neio, naeiae. Iie inaieee oaea ia?aue iaoaee – iaaeue
aeey ecaioiaeaiey i?oaeee o?oaea e i?oaeey. Oeie/aneea aiaeecu
iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia, iaeaeaiiuo a iiainaiaiaeiaineeo aeieueiaiao,
iieacaee, /oi ianaeaiea eniieueciaaei iuoueyeiaenoua iaaeiua ?oaeu e
aeey aieueoae oa??aeinoe iaoaeea i?aaeiaia?aiii aeiaaaeyee au? iuoueye e
iaaeiie ?oaea. Aieueoeinoai iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia, ioeeouo ec nieaaa
iaaee e iuoueyea, ianoiie ?aaiou. Yoi i?iooiua oiii?u, eeiaeaeu, o?nea,
aeieioa, eiiueth e a?iiciaay iinoaea. Ii iaoaee aue aei?iainoiyuei, e
iiyoiio iiiaea i?oaeey o?oaea e aeaaea i?oaeea aeaeaeenue ec eaiiy.
Iaeiia/ieee no?ae, a oaeaea ae?ioeeia e eiiee auee au? e?aiiaaua. Iie
ouaoaeueii ioaeaeuaaeenue, eiaee ecyuioth oi?io, iie?uaaeenue oiieie
?aoooueth, ii … an?-oaee auee eaiaiiua.

A 1979 aiaeo ?aneiiee ia o?i/eua «Eeaaeu», aaea auea ioe?uoa
auoaiienaiiay aeieueiaiiia?aciay a?iaieoea. Aiciaiiaeeenue. Nthaea
i?eaoae io?yae a?oaieiae/aneie yeniaaeeoeee Eaieia?aaeneiai ioaeaeaiey
einoeoooa AI NNN? iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii A.Ae. ?acaieeia. Aeey enneaaeiaaiey
aue aua?ai eo?aai aunioie 4,5 iao?a e aeeaiao?ii 60 iao?ia. Iaeaieueoee
eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyea aeaooeaia?iay aeieueiaiiia?aciay a?iaieoea,
niaa?oaiii aiaeiae/iay ?aneiiaiiui I.E. Aanaeianeei a 1898 aiaeo.
A?iaieoea auea nii?oaeaia a ianuie oaea nouanoaiaaaoaai aieaa ae?aaiaai
eo?aaia. Neiaeaia iia auea ec eaiaiiuo ieeo e aeaeeeanue ia aeaa /anoe
iiia?a/iie ieeoie n e?oaeui ioaa?noeai. A ia?aie eaia?a ia eaiaiiii iieo
eaaeaee aeaa neaeaoa – ac?ineiai e ?aa?iea. I?e ieo auei iaeaeaii
aieueoia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia. Iaeieo oieueei aauae ec a?iicu
e na?aa?a ieiei iyoeaeanyoe, a oii /enea naiue aiaaoi i?iaiaioe?iaaiiuo
a?iiciauo ninoaeia, aeaa a?iiciauo e?thea aeey aeinoaaaiey iyna ec
eioea, iyoue a?iiciauo oiii?ia, i?e/?i aeaa oiii?a iie?uou i?iaiaioii, a
iaeei eie?onoe?iaai na?aa?ii, ai aooeea nio?aieeinue aea?aai io
oiii?eua. Oieeaeueiui yaeyaony a?iiciaue iaithaeiino?ue ia/ aeeeiiie
63,5 naioeiao?a. Yoi iaeaieaa ae?aaiee ia/, iaeaeaiiue a Aa?iia. E?iia
iaoaeee/aneeo i?oaeee o?oaea, iaeaeaiu aeaa neoeueioo?iua oeao?ee niaae
– iaeia ec a?iicu, ae?oaay ec na?aa?a. Iie aeatho i?aaenoaaeaiea i
nouanoaiaaaoeo a oi a?aiy ii?iaeao. Ia?yaeo n iiiai/eneaiiuie
i?aaeiaoaie e ?acee/iuo iaoaeeia, a iiaeea iaeaeaii aieaa aeaoonio aon e
ae?oaeo oe?aoaiee ec cieioa, na?aa?a, ai?iiai o?onoaey e na?aeieeea. Ai
aoi?ie eaia?a caieyiie iie aue canuiai aaeueeie, e iia?aaaiey ia
niaea?aeae. Caeanue eaaeaee einoe aeeaioiuo – inoaoee iia?aaaeueii ieue
e aaeieue caiaaeiie noaiu noiyei oanoue aeeiyiuo ninoaeia.

25 ethiy 1879 aiaea a Aeaoa?eiiaea?a iiauaae /eai Iineianeiai
a?oaieiae/aneiai iauanoaa A.E. Aa?iooai. Ii enneaaeiaae eo?aaiu e
ai?iaeeua, i?eeaaaaoea e ai?iaeo, e a nayce n iiaeaioiaeie e iyoiio
A?oaieiae/aneiio nuacaeo a Oeoeena i?ia?e ?aneiiee iaioneiai ai?iaeeua,
?aniieaaaaoaainy aaa?o ii oa/aieth ?aee Eoaaie, ii ninaaenoao n
ee?ie/iuie caaiaeaie Ao?naea, ?aoieey e ae?oaeo, a oaeaea ianeieueeeo
aieaa iicaeieo, n?aaeiaaaeiauo eo?aaiia. «Eae eo?aaiu, oae e ai?iaeeua,
– ienae ii, – a oaeaea an? ie?anoiia iiea iie?uou aeoaiaie ca?ineueth,
inoaoeaie iaaeaaii au?oaeaiiiai aeoaiaiai eana». ?acaaaei/iua ?aneiiee
iicaieeee iaia?oaeeoue o?aaiaiou ea?aieee, aeeiyiua aaci/ee, ?uaieiaiua
a?oceea, einoe aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo, ioeoe, e ?ua e oae. Yoi auee ia?aua
iao/iua ecuneaiey a ai?iaea. A.E. Aa?iooai caienae oaeaea ?anneacu i
oii, /oi ?aai/ea caaiaea ?aoieey ianeieueei eao iacaae i?e aeiau/a aeeiu
aeec ai?iaeeua yeiau aueiiaee na?aa?yiiai, iiaeiyaoaainy ia aeuau eiiy.
Ii iiaieth o/?iuo, yoi anaai eeoue eaaaiaea, ?ani?ino?ai?iiay iau/ii a
oao ianoao, Aaea anoue eo?aaiu. Caeanue aea aieueoiai eo?aaia ia auei,
ii oaioacey ethaeae «iiianoeea» eiiu a ai?iaeeua, naeaeaoaeuenoaoaony a
eieaeiii ecaeaiee «Aeaoa?eiiaea? – E?aniiaea?» ca 1993 aiae.

Ana i?iaiaeeaoeany ?aneiiee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, eae aeeee iaoe
ae?aaiea i?aaeee. Eaeiau auea eo eoeueoo?a.

Ii i?aaiio aa?aao ?aee Eoaaie oceie iieinie ?aniieaaaeenue ae?aaiea
iinaaeaiey iaioia. Iie oyioeenue ii/oe iai?a?uaiie oeaiueth io iuiaoiae
noaieoeu Ia?ueyineie e aei noaieoeu Oaieaeaaeneie. Yoi auee ?iaeiaua
oe?aie?iiua iin?eee (ai?iaeeua) caieaaeaeueoeaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ai?iaeeua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oieiiia?aciua iaaeueiua aicauoaiiinoe,
?aniieiaeaiiua ia naiii e?ath aunieie oa??anu ?aee Eoaaie e ie?oae?iiua
aeoaieeie ?aaie. Yoi aioo?aiiea oeeoaaeaee iin?eeia, e eioi?ui i?eiueaea
iniiaiay ieiuaaeue iinaeaiey, a naith i/a?aaeue, caueuaaoayny n
iaiieueiie noi?iiu ?aii e aaeii. A ae?aaiinoe ii aaeo no?ieee, ii –
aeaeeiiio, au? e aea?aayiiua oe?aieaiey. Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee enoi?ee
Aeeiaei?, aeeaoee a 1 aaea aei iaoae y?u, iienuaae e?aiinoue A?eoa?ia,
aiaeaey iaeiiai ec iaioneeo ieai?i Oaoaaa, ioia/aao, /oi aeaaiue i?ioiae
e e?aiinoe aue caueu?i aunieeie aaoiyie, a aiaoiea oe?aieaiey ninoiyee
ec aea?aayiiuo iaeenaaeia. Aieaa iiae?iaiua naaaeaiey ia oe?aieaieyo
i?eaiaeeo ?eineee enoi?ee Oaoeee. Ii ieoao, /oi ai?iae Onia,
iaoiaeeaoeeny aaea-oi ia ?aea Ay, aue caueu?i noaiaie e ?aaie. Noaiu
auee iino?iaiu ia ec eaiiy, a ec ieaoiae e i?ooueaa n ianuiaiiie iaaeaeo
ieie caie?e. Oaeea oe?aieaiey, aiciiaeii, auee e ia ae?oaeo ai?iaeeuao
I?eeoaaiuey. Aeaa ouny/e eao oiio iacaae aeeciue aeea caeanue eeth/ii.
Ii oo?ai noaaea ei?ia e ioa?u iaaoe aiaee a noaiue. Neuoaeny ne?ei
iiaicie, eae niaae. Ianeenue anaaeieee ia iecei?ineuo, ii auiineeauo
eioaaeyo, aii?oae?iiua aeeeiiuie eiiueyie, iiaeiiynaiiua ia/aie, e n
iiaeaaoaiiui e iiyno oooey?ii n eoeii e no?aeaie. Ii ?aea neieueceee
/aeiu, auaeieaeaiiua ec oeaeiai noaiea aea?aaa, ?uaaee caa?anuaaee
aieueoea naoe n oyae?euie aeeiyiuie a?oceeaie, ii aiaoiaio aeaeo
iaiiieiathuea oyiee. Ii oceei e?ooui aei?iaeeao iiaeieiaeenue aeaiueiu,
iany ia iea/a aieueoea aeeiyiua eoaoeiu, iaiieiaiiua eeth/aaie aiaeie.
Iiaeecinoe io ai?iaeeu i?inoe?aeenue iiey, canayiiua ioaieoeae, y/iai?i
e i?inii. Eiiaaea ie?iay aeeciue iin?eea ia?ooaeanue iaiaaeaieai
ei/aaieeia. Oiaaea an? ianaeaiea i?yoaeinue ca ?au e noaiu e ioaeaaeinue
io iai?ioaiiuo ainoae. AEeciue a oa a?aiaia auea oyae?eie, e aei
aeoaieie noa?inoe iaei eoi aeiaeeaae.

Ca aiaoieie ?aaie iinaeaiee i?inoe?aeenue «ai?iaea i??oauo» – nieioiua
iiaeeueieee ?yaeiaiai caieaaeaeue/aneiai ianaeaiey, a ianeieueei
iiiaeaeue aicauoaeenue eo?aaiu. Iie auee ianuiaiu iaae iiaeeaie
?iaeiieaiaiiuo aiaeaeae, ciaoiuo aieiia, i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?iaeiaie
a?enoie?aoee. Eo?aaiu aieueoae /anoueth ?aniieiaeaiu a?oiiaie. Eiiaaea
iie auaatho auoyioou a oeaii/eo iaaeaeo ai?iaeeuaie, aaeieue e?ay
oa??anu.

N 1901 aiaea enneaaeiaaieai yoeo eo?aaiia caiyeny I.E. Aanaeianeee.
Iiaeaiaey eoiae naieo ?aaio a aeieeaaea ia 12 A?oaieiae/aneii nuacaea,
eioi?ue ninoiyeny a 1902 aiaeo a Oa?ueeiaa, ii aiai?ee: «A 1901 aiaeo
iia iin/anoeeaeeinue ioe?uoue ia?iiiia eo?aaiiia eeaaeaeua, oyioaoaany
ii/oi nieioiie, ii aeiaieueii oceie iieinie ii i?aaiio aa?aao ?aee
Eoaaie, io Eacaineie noaieoeu aeaeaa ia caiaae, ca noaieoeo
Onoue-Eaaeineoth e Ai?iiaaeneie. Ia yoii aieaa 70-aa?oiii i?ino?ainoaa
aunyony nioie ia iniaaiii e?oiiuo eo?aaiia, aieueoae /anoueth a?oiiaie,
ia oaeaeyynue aioo?ue noaie».

Ca o?e aiaea (n 1091 ii 1093) I.E. Aanaeianeee ?aneiiae caeanue noi
aeaaaeoeaoue eo?aaiia. Iniiaiay ianna eo aeaoe?iaaeanue 1 – 2 aaeaie
iaoae y?u. I?aaaea, ec?aaeea ano?a/aeenue eo?aaiu aieaa ae?aaiea,
ioiinyueany au? e iaaeii-a?iiciaiio aaeo, a ianuiyo eioi?uo eiiaaea
iaia?oaeeaaee iia?aaaiey e ia?auo aaeia iaoae y?u.

Eo?aaiu 1 – 2 aaeia iaoae y?u eiatho oa?aeoa?ioth oi?io, ioee/ioth io
ae?oaeo. Iie ia e?oaeua, eae iau/ii, a iaaeueiie, yeoeaaeaeiie a
iniiaaiee oi?iu, auoyiooua n ainoiea ia caiaae oae, /oi caiaaeiay iiea o
ieo aeeeiiaa. Cia/eo, ianuiaeenue yoe eo?aaiu n caiaaea. Iie auee
ie?oaeaiu iaaeoaieei ?aii. Iiae eo?aaiii, a iaoa?eea, a?uaaeinue
aeiaieueii neiaeiia iia?aaaeueiia nii?oaeaiea, ninoiyuaa ec
/aou??ooaieueiie yiu – eieiaeoea, ?acia?aie a n?aaeiai 4,2 o 3,2 iao?a,
aeoaeiie aei /aou??o iao?ia. A caiaaeiie noaiea, eioi?ie au?uaaeanue
aeiaieueii aieueoay eaia?a. Oaeie oei iiaee iieo/ee iacaaiea eaoaeiiau,
oioy i?aaeeueiaa auei au iacaaoue aai eaia?iie a?iaieoeae. Aeeeia eaia?
?aaiyeanue 2,5 – 3,2 iao?a i?e oe?eia io 2 aei 3 iao?ia, aunioie aei 1,5
iao?ia. Eaia?a neoaeeea iia?aaaeueiie eiiiaoie, eoaea eeaee iieieieea
aianoa n aauaie. Eaoaeiiaa anaaaea iaoiaeeeanue iiae caiaaeiie iieie
eo?aaia. Oaeay onoie/eainoue a ?aniieiaeaiee iia?aaaeueiiai nii?oaeaiey
i?eaiaeeea e aacioeai/iiio i?iieeiiaaieth a?aaeoaeueneeo oiaeia i?yii a
eaoaeiiao. Ana iia?aaaiey i?e ?anneaaeiaaiee ieacaeenue ?aca?aaeaiiuie.
Ii, ianiio?y ia ia?aaeaiea, a iiaeeao inoaaaeinue aeiaieueii iiiai
aauae, a oii /enea aeaaea cieiouo, /oi aeaei iniiaaiea I.E. Aanaeianeiio
iacaaoue enneaaeiaaiiua ei eo?aaiu iaaeaeo noaieoeaie Eacaineie e
Ai?iiaaeneie «Cieioui eeaaeaeuai».

Aio iienaiea iaeiie oeaeie iiaeeu, iicaieythuaa nicaeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea
i oa?aeoa?a iia?aaaeueiiai eiaaioa?y. A 1902 aiaeo I.E. Aanaeianeei aue
?aneiiai eo?aai ia naaa? io noaieoeu Oaeeenneie, ecaanoiue o ianoiuo
aeeoaeae iiae iacaaieai Aeaieniaa eo?aaia. Iniiaiia iia?aaaiea
ieacaeinue aieaa ae?aaiei. Eaoaeiiau auea au?uoa a caiaaeiie /anoe oaea
?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoaai eo?aaia, a ia niaoeeaeueii aeey yoiai
nii?oae?iiiai. Yoi nianei iia?aaaiea io ?aca?aaeaiey. A eaoaeiiaa aue
iioi?iiai aiei. I?e i?i iaeaeai aeaeaciue iaioee?ue, eeiaeae, aeaeaciua
iaeiia/ieee eiiuea e iaeiia/ieee no?ae. Aeec eeiaeaea eaaeaee aeaa
inaeea, /oiau oi/eoue i?oaeea. Ia oaa iieieiiai auea a?eaia ec oienoie
cieioie i?iaieiee. A?eaiu o ioae/ei yaeyeenue ia oieueei oe?aoaieai, ii
e neiaieii ii?aaeae?iiie aeanoe. Caeanue aea iaoiaeeeenue aeaa cieiouo
oeeeeiae?e/aneie oi?iu oe?aoaiey n auioeeui oeni?iui i?iaiaioii. Ia
i?aaoth ?oeo aue iaaeao i?iaiei/iue cieioie aeaaeeee a?aneao (a?aneaou a
ae?aaiinoe iineee eae aeaiueiu, oae e ioae/eiu), ia eaaie aieaie –
cieioay niieiooay oeaii/ea. Iiyn (eiaea ia nio?aieeanue) aue oe?aoai
cieiouie ieanoeieaie. O naaa?iie noaiu eaia?u eaaeaea noii/ea n aonaie e
?yaeii iaeeea ooaiiiaaiiua iaoeaiua cieioua aeyoee. E?iia oiai, iaeaeaiu
?acee/iua aonu ec iieoae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae (aeueiaiaeeia, ae?thcu,
oaeoeaaeiia) a cieioie ii?aaa e cieioua i?iiecee. I/aiue eioa?anai
a?iiciaue iaeiia/iee a aeaea neoeueioo?iie aieiau aeeeiai eaaaia n
aeaeaciuie eeueaie. Ec i?aaeiaoia iia?aaaeueiie ooaa?e a iiaeea auee
iaeaeaiu: iaaieueoay na?aa?yiay /aoa n i?iaiaioii ii ooeiao, a?iiciaay
/aoa n aeaoiy ai?eciioaeueiuie ?o/eaie, eiioeu eioi?uo caeai/eaathony
ciaeiuie aieiaaie, a?iiciaue eoaoei eoaeeeneiai i?iecaiaenoaa n
?aeueaoiui ecia?aaeaieai o iniiaaiey ?o/ee Y?ioa, aea?aeaaoaai aaai/eo e
naaoeeueiee. Iaaeaeaei io nu?oeiaie noaiee, eioi?ay cae?uaaea aoiae a
eaia?o, eaaeaee aeaeaciua oaeeea, aeaeaciua i?yaeee e aeyoe io ocaea/ee.
Inoaaeaiiua a?aaeoaeyie aeiaieueii iiiai/eneaiiua i?aaeiaou a
?aneiiaiiuo I.E. Aanaeianeei eo?aaiai, aeatho i?aaenoaaeaiea i aunieie
eoeueoo?a ieai?i I?eeoaaiuey a 1 – 2 aaeao aei iaoae y?u.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, aeaaiaea?y eco/aieth ai?iaeeu e a?oioiauo
iiaeeueieeia, i?iaiaeeaoaiony a niaaoneia a?aiy, iu ai?acaei eo/oa ciaai
i ieaiaiao I?eeoaaiuey ia?auo aaeia iaoae y?u.

A niaaoneia a?aiy a?oaieiae/aneea ?aaiou cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeenue e
i?eiyee ae?oaie oa?aeoa?. Nae/an ia Eoaaie aaeaaiaeii ?aaioatho aeanyoee
a?oaieiae/aneeo yeniaaeeoeee. Anee a aei?aaiethoeeiiiia a?aiy o
enneaaeiaaoaeae auea oeaeue iouneaoue aiaaoua caoi?iiaiee aeey
iiiieiaiey eiia?aoi?neiai Y?ieoaaea cieiouie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie
ecaeaeeyie ae?aaiinoe, oi niaaoneea a?oaieiae iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyee
?aneiieai ae?aaieo iinaeaiee, ai?iaeia, ?yaeiauo iiaeeueieeia. Aei
?aaiethoeee iaiyoieee yoe niaa?oaiii ia enneaaeiaaeenue, iaaeaeo oai,
aac eo eco/aiey iaaiciiaeii ainnicaeaoue enoi?eth ae?aaieo ieai?i e
ia?iaeia, eo oicyenoai, auo, iaoa?eaeueioth e aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o.

N 1936 aiaea aaaeoony nenoaiaoe/aneea ?aneiiee aioe/iuo ai?iaeia e
iinaeaiee Ainii?neiai oea?noaa ia Oaiaineii iieoino?iaa – Oaiaai?ee,
Aa?iiiannu, Eai e ae?. A Aiaia enneaaeothony ?oeiu ae?aaiae Ai?aeiee,
nouanoaiaaaoae caeanue a 5 aaea aei iaoae y?u. Ieiei Naiea?aoneeo
eo?aaiia ?aniieiaeaiu inoaoee ae?aaiaai neiaeneiai ai?iaea, eioi?ue a
oa/aiea aeanyoe eao ?aneaiuaaeny yeniaaeeoeeae E?aniiaea?neiai iocay.

A noaieoea Aeecaaaoeineie iaoiaeeony iaioneia ai?iaeeua, enneaaeiaaiiia
a niaaoneea aiaeu, e ?acei auaeaeythuaany ec anao ai?iaeeu N?aaeiaai
I?eeoaaiuey. Caeanue n eiioea /aoaa?oiai aaea aei iaoae y?u aicieeea
ainii?neay oi?aiaay oaeoi?ey e n?aaee iaioia iinaeeeenue ainii?neea
a?aee – eoioeu e ?aianeaiieee. Yoi inoaaeei neaae e ia eoeueoo?a anaai
iinaeaiey. ?aneaiuaaeny oaeaea oeaeue ?yae iaioneeo ai?iaeeu N?aaeiaai
I?eeoaaiuey. A 1969 aiaeo i?e ?aneiieao iaeiiai ec ai?iaeeu aeec
noaieoeu Noa?iei?noineie aue ioe?uo oeaeue eaa?oae aii/a?ia,
nouanoaiaaaoee caeanue 1700-1800 eao oiio iacaae. Ia iaaieueoie ieiuaaee
auei io?uoi oanoue aii/a?iuo ia/ae. Eioa?anii, /oi iaeia ec ieo a
ae?aaiinoe iieiinoueth ia auea ?aca?oaeaia e a iaaeeaaoaeueiie eaia?a
inoaeanue /anoue i?iaeoeoeee – ieiei noa aeeiyiuo ?uaieiaiuo a?ocee.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, iaiaaeaiea a?aaia eee eaeea-oi ae?oaea i?e/eiu i?eaaee e
?aci?aieth iinaeaiey. Iiaeaea aii/a?iay ianoa?neay. Ia a? ianoa a aieaa
iicaeiaa a?aiy auea nii?oaeaia iiaay aii/a?iay ia/ue, ii iaiueoaai
?acia?a.

Eiiaaea a?oaieiao i?eoiaeeeinue auoue … neaaeiaaoaeai. Oae, i?e
?aneiieao aieueoiai iaioneiai ai?iaeeua, ?aniieiaeaiiiai ia
i?aaiaa?aaeuea ?aee Eoaaie iaaeaeo ai?iaeii Onoue-Eaaeineii e noaieoeae
Ai?iiaaeneie, ia aeoaeia aieaa /aou??o iao?ia, ?an/euaeanue aieueoay,
eiioniaeaeiie oi?iu yia, neoaeeaoay a ae?aaiinoe iia?aaii. A iaeiie ec
noaiie auea caia/aia iaaieueoay ieoa a aeaea oceiai iiaeaiy. I?e
?an/enoea ieoe a iae aue iaia?oaeai, noaey ii einoyi, neaeao aeaiueiu
n?aaeieo eao. Ii aue ne?th/ai, eneiaa?eai, eaaeae a iaanoanoaaiiie iica.
An? oeacuaaei ia oi, /oi iieieiee aue aoeaaeueii aoenioo a iaaieueooth
ieoo, ?oee e iiae auee neeueii niaioou, aiciiaeii, auaa?ioou. Caeanue
a?oaieiae ano?aoeeenue n oaeiui caoi?iiaieai. Aiciiaeii, yoi auei
oaeenoai, niaa?oaiiia 2300 eao oiio iacaae.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aaaeoony eioaineaiua ?aneiiee eo?aaiia a noaiiie ciia
i?aaiaa?aaeuey Eoaaie. Ai iiiaeo eo?aaiao, ioiinyueony au? e yiioa
?aiiaai iaoaeea, ano?a/athony aieaa iicaeiea caoi?iiaiey aoi?ai aaea aei
iaoae y?u, i?eiaaeeaaeauea ei/aaieeai-na?iaoai.

Oaeea iia?aaaiey auee iaia?oaeaiu a eo?aaia noaieoeu Aeeineie, caoai a
eo?aaiao noaieoe Iiaioeoa?ianeie, Iiaiaeaea?aeeaaneie, ?acaeieueiie,
aeec oooi?ia Aieeiiiio?a, Yeeoiiai E?aniia?iaeneiai ?aeiia, noaieoeu
Noa?iieaeanoaaeeaaneie, ai?iaea Ei?aiianea e ae?. A ieo iaoiaeyo iiiai
cieioa, i?oaeey, i?eaiciuo a?iiciauo e noaeeyiiuo ninoaeia, ianoiua
a?iiciaua eioeu e ae?.

A eo?aaia aeec oooi?a Aieeiiiio?a aue iioi?iiai aiei. I?e i?i aue
iaeaeai oieeaeueiue aeey I?eeoaaiuey aeaeaciue oeai n iau?/ieeaie,
eicu?ueeii e iacaoueueieeii. Iau?/ieee oe?aoaiu ecia?aaeaieyie aieiau
auea.

Aeey yoeo eo?aaiia oa?aeoa?iie iaoiaeeie yaeythony e?oaeua cieioua
oeaoeu n oeeea?aiiui i?iaiaioii e anoaaeaie ec na?aeieeea. Oeaoeu iau/ii
neoaeeee aeey caeaeuaaiey ieaua. N oeeea?aiiui i?iaiaioii auee e cieioua
na?ueae n iiaeaaneaie ia oeaii/eao (eo?aaiu noaieoe Aeeineie,
?acaeieueiie). A?iiciaay iinoaea, a eneeth/aieai ianoiuo a?iiciauo
eioeia, iinooiaea e na?iaoai ec ?eineeo i?iaeioeee eee ec naiie Eoaeee,
a noaeeyiiua ?aciua /aoe – ec Ne?ee eee Aeaenaiae?ee.

Ana yoe iaoiaeee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aeiaieueii eioaineaiii
i?iieeiiaaiee na?iaoia a noaiioth /anoue i?aaiaa?aaeuey I?eeoaaiuey.

A 1962 aiaeo aeec oooi?a Noiianeiai (Oao/aaeneee ?aeii), i?e i?i?uoee
o?aioae, a iaaieueoii eo?aai/eea iaia?oaeaii iia?aaaiea aaeuaneiai
aieia. I?e i?i aue aeeeiiay neaai eciaiooay naaey, aeaeaciua iaeiia/ieee
no?ae, a?iiciaua iiciei/aiiua iieua ioaiaeoeu, aeeiyiue eoaoei, /anoe/ii
iie?uoue naaoei-cae?iie iieeaie. Naiie caia/aoaeueiie iaoiaeeie aue
na?aa?yiue eiao Aeieo?ey E?oaeaeiae/a. Ii naiae oi?ia eiao oeie/ai aeey
Ae?aaiae ?one. Yoi n?aaieoaeueii iaaeoaieay /aoa n iaaieueoie, ioiaiooie
e aa?oo ai?eciioaeueiie ?o/eie (ia eioi?ie eiaaony ecia?aaeaiea i?ea) e
e?oaiaie iaaeiene iiae aai/eeii.

Aiaeiae/iua eiaoe ecaanoiu eae eiyaeaneea, oae e aiy?neea. Oeaiiinoue
eoaaineiai eiaoa caeeth/aaony, ai-ia?auo, a iaaeiene ia i?i, a
ai-aoi?uo, a ianoa iaoiaeee. Iaaeienue ia eiaoa aeaneo «Na eiaou
Aeieo?ey E?oaeaeiae/a, eoi eniue?ou – oiio (ia) caei?i (auea)».
Iineaaeiea o?e aoeau ia eiaoa ia iiianoeeenue. I/aaeaeii,
ia?aiia/aeueiui aeaaeaeueoeai eiaoa aue aiy?ei Aeieo?ee E?oaeaeiae/, a
iineaaeiei, – noaey ii ianoo iaoiaeee, – aaeuaneee aiei. Iaaeienue n
eiaiai Aeieo?ey E?oaeaeiae/a aei yoiai ie ?aco ia ano?a/aeanue.

Nae/an o?oaeii neacaoue, eae iiiae eiao ec Eeaaneie ?one ia
naaa?i-caiaaeiue Eaaeac. Ai anyeii neo/aa, ii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
nouanoaiaaiee a 12 aaea oaniuo naycae iaaeaeo ?onueth e aaeuaaie. Oaeay
iaoiaeea aiineo iiaoth no?ieo a enoi?eth ieai?i e ia?iaeia I?eeoaaiuey …
Caiey i?iaeieaeaao ?ane?uaaoue naie oaeiu!

Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

1. «Aeaoa?eiiaea? – E?aniiaea?», E?aniiaea?neia eieaeiia ecaeaoaeuenoai,
1993 aiae.

2. «Ii no?aieoeai enoi?ee Eoaaie» (e?aaaaae/aneea i/a?ee), «Niaaoneay
Eoaaiue, E?aniiaea?, 1993 aiae.

3. I.A. Aioeiia «Eo?aaiu ?anneacuaatho…», E?aniiaea?neia eieaeiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1982 aiae.

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