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С.Ю.Витте и П.А.Столыпин – крупные политические деятели

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Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneee ainoaea?noaaiiue

a?oeoaeoo?ii-no?ieoaeueiue oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a enoi?ee

N. TH. Aeooa e I. A. Noieuiei –

e?oiiua iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee

?aoa?ao

Ooeueaeiie Aiiu Ieoaeeiaiu

a?. 1-I-I

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

1998

Niaea?aeaiea

TOC \o “1-3” 1. Aaaaeaiea 3

2. Iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey a ?innee ia ?oaaaea aaeia e
eaeaieiaey ?aoi?i 3

3. A?aiy e ?aoi?iu N. TH. Aeooa 7

4. Iieeoe/aneay ea?uea?a e ?aoi?iu I. A. Noieuieia 12

5. I?e/eiu iaoaea/ ?aoi?iaoi?ia 17

6. Caeeth/aiea: O?iee ?aoi?i 19

Eeoa?aoo?a 20

1. Aaaaeaiea

Eaaeaeue ia?eiae a?aiaie a ?inneeneie enoi?ee aeeye ia aeaeueiaeooth
aeeciue no?aiu. Iaeiaei, ioaeaeueiua ia?eiaeu ii?aaeaeyee iineaaeothuoth
aeeciue ia?iaea ia aeieaea aiaeu. Iaeiei ec oaeeo aaaeiaeoeo yoaiia
?inneeneie enoi?ee auee aoi?ay iieiaeia XIX aaea e ia/aei XX aaea; a?aiy
?acaeoey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey, a?aiy ea?aeeiaeueiuo ia?aiai a
aeecie iaoae no?aiu.

Ia iieeoe/aneie a?aia aeaenoaiaaee a yoi a?aiy, eiia/ii, ia oieueei
i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ii iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea e i?ioeainoiyuaio aieueoaaeeai eaaa?th, ?aiaa
ecia?aaeaeenue, eae i?aaeei, eneaaeaiii. Iaaeaeo oai ia enoi?e/aneie
noeaia a oio ia?eiae aeaenoaiaaee y?eea e neeueiua enoi?e/aneea
ee/iinoe, i?eaea?aeeaaaoeany ?acee/iuo iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
acaeyaeia e no?aieaoeany ?aoi?ie?iaaoue ?inneth aane?iaiui, ia
?aaiethoeeiiiui iooai. N?aaee ieo – N. TH. Aeooa e I. A. Noieuiei.

Yoio yoai enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey iaoae no?aiu iniaaiii eioa?anai iai
nae/an, a oae iacuaaaiue ia?aoiaeiie ia?eiae – io oioaeeoa?ecia e
aeaiie?aoee, ia?eiae yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo ?aoi?i. E enoi?e/aneee
iiuo iaoeo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia iia au iicaieeoue iai aieaa
i?ioanneiiaeueii e i?iaeoiaiii i?iaiaeeoue yoe ?aoi?iu e ia iiaoi?youe
eo ioeaie.

2. Iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey a ?innee ia ?oaaaea aaeia e
eaeaieiaey ?aoi?i

E eiioeo XIX aaea noaei ynii, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiue i?aia?aciaaoaeueneee
iioaioeeae ?aoi?i 1861 aiaea /anoe/ii en/a?iai, a /anoe/ii auoieiuai
eiio??aoi?ienoneei eo?nii eiina?aaoi?ia iinea o?aae/aneie aeaaee
Aeaenaiae?a II a 1881 a. Iaiaoiaeei aue iiaue oeeee ?aoi?i.

Iinea yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia 90-o aiaeia, ?inney ia?aaeeea oyaeaeue
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1900-1903 aiaeia, caoai ia?eiae aeeeoaeueiie
aeai?annee 1904-1908 aiaeia. A ia/aea OX aaea ?inney yaeyeanue
n?aaeia?acaeoie no?aiie. Ia?yaeo n auniei?acaeoie eiaeono?eae a
yeiiiieea no?aiu aieueoie oaeaeueiue aan i?eiaaeeaaeae
?aiiaeaieoaeenoe/aneei e iieooaiaeaeueiui oi?iai oicyenoaa – io
iaiooaeoo?iiai aei iao?ea?oaeueii-iaoo?aeueiiai. ?onneay aea?aaiy noaea
nin?aaeioi/aieai ia?aaeeoeia oaiaeaeueiie yiioe. Aaaeiaeoeie ec ieo auee
e?oiiua iiiaue/uee caieaaeaaeaiey, oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeenue io?aaioee,
yaeythuea niaie i?yiie ia?aaeeoie aa?ueiu. E?anoueyineia iaeicaiaeuea,
iaueia n aa ia?aaeaeaie oi?iiceee iiaea?iecaoeeth e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa.

Neeoeii iaaeeaiiia iieeoe/aneia ?acaeoea ?innee ii?aaeaeyeinue, a
iniiaiii, aa aa?a?iui ono?ienoaii. Nieaeaieoeei iauyniyao: “?inneeneay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeanoue n?ineanue n eiouei iaioaaiiui aeai?yinoaii,
aanue i?aayuee neie ae?iaeae e ei?unoii aea?aeaeny ca naie caiee –
aeai?yineea, aaeeeieiyaeaneea, oaeaeueiua. Oieueei ia/ienue
aaea-ieaoaeue eaeia-ieaoaeue aeaeaeaiea caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe – ao,
eae au ia aeioei e aei iaoae”. Aea?aeanue ca aeanoue e ca caieth,
naiiaea?aeaaea, iiiaueee, aiaiiay e a?aaeaeaineay ath?ie?aoey
iaaeayeenue: “aoaeao aio oae naii-naii-naii ieuoue aua o?enoa eao” [1].

Nioeeaeueii-eeanniaay no?oeoo?a no?aiu io?aaeaea oa?aeoa? e o?iaaiue aa
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Ia?yaeo n oi?ie?iaaieai eeannia ao?aeoaciiai
iauanoaa (ao?aeoacey, iaeeay ao?aeoacey, i?ieaoa?eao), a iai
i?iaeieaeaee nouanoaiaaoue e nineiaiua aeaeaiey – ianeaaeea oaiaeaeueiie
yiioe. Ao?aeoacey caieiaea aaaeouoth ?ieue a yeiiiieea no?aiu a OO aaea,
aei yoiai iia ia ea?aea neieueei-ieaoaeue naiinoiyoaeueiie ?iee a
iauanoaaiii iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu, oae eae iia auea iieiinoueth
caaeneia io naiiaea?aeaaey, aneaaenoaea /aai e inoaaaeenue aiieeoe/iie e
eiina?aaoeaiie neeie.

Aeai?yinoai, eioi?ia nin?aaeioi/eei aieaa 60% anao caiaeue, noaei
aeaaiie iii?ie naiiaea?aeaaey, oioy a nioeeaeueiii ieaia iii oa?yei
naith iaeii?iaeiinoue, naeeaeaynue n ao?aeoaceae.

E?anoueyinoai, ninoaaeyaoaa 3/4 ianaeaiey no?aiu, auei oaeaea cao?iiooi
nioeeaeueiui ?anneiaieai iauanoaa (20% – eoeaee, 30% – na?aaeiyee, 50% –
aaaeiyee). Iaaeaeo iiey?iuie aai neiyie aicieeaee i?ioeai?a/ey.

A ia/aea OO aaea eeann iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ian/eouaae 16,8 iei. /aeiaae. Ii
aue iaiaeii?iaeai, aieueoay /anoue ?aai/eo ninoiyea ec iaaeaaii
i?eoaaeoeo a ai?iae e?anoueyi, ii aua ia iioa?yaoeo naycue n caieae.
ssae?ii yoiai eeanna noae oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneie i?ieaoa?eao, eioi?ue
ian/eouaae aieaa 3 iei. /aeiaae.

Iieeoe/aneei no?iai a ?innee inoaaaeanue aaniethoiay iiia?oey. Oioy a
70-uo aiaeao XIX aaea aue naeaeai oaa ii iooe i?aa?auaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy a ao?aeoacioth iiia?oeth, oea?eci nio?aiee ana
ao?eaoou aaniethoecia. Caeii aeanee: “Eiia?aoi? ?inneeneee anoue iiia?o
naiiaea?aeaaiue e iaia?aie/aiiue” [2].

Aei 1905 aiaea aunoei ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii a ?innee aue
ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, iinoaiiaeaiey eioi?iai eiaee ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa? aeey oea?y.

Naiao – aunoay noaeaaiay einoaioeey e oieeiaaoaeue caeiiia.
Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyeanue aeaoiy ieienoa?noaaie,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo eiio?iee?iaaeanue eiieoaoii ieieno?ia.

?inney iaaeeaiii, ii aa?ii ia/aea aiaoeaaoueny a ai?ueao ca ?uiee nauoa.
Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?inneae e ssiiieae ca ainiiaenoai ia ?uiea nauoa a
Eeoaa, noaea iaeiei ec i?eia?ia ?acaeaea noa? aeeyiey a ie?a. E
niaeaeaieth, aa?oe ia?aaeei ia nianai aa?ii ioeaieaaee ?aaeueioth
nioeeaeueii- iieeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth a iauanoaa e ec-ca yoiai niaa?oaee
iaiii?aaeiua ioeaee. I/a?aaeiay iiiuoea oeoe io ?aoi?i iin?aaenoaii
“iaeaiueeie iiaaaeiiiniie aieiu” n ssiiieae ia oieueei ia oaeaeanue, ii
e i?eaaea e oiio, /oi no?aia ni?aaeanue a ?aaiethoeeiiioth aacaeio. E
oea?neay aeeianoey ia iiaeaea a iae eeoue iioiio, /oi aicea oea?y
ieacaeenue oaeea auaeathueany ethaee eae N. TH. Aeooa e I. A. Noieuiei.

Aieia /aoei iieacaea iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue ?onneie a?iee, a oaeaea
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue yeiiiieee e aieia. N. TH. Aeooa ienae: “Aianoi
oiai, /oia ono?aieoue oa?ico aioo?aiieo iio?ynaiee, ian/anoiay aieia
i?eaeeceea ian ia aeanyoee eao e ?aaiethoeee.” Aiaiiua ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua
iiianea ?inney a yoie aieia i?aauoaee 3 ie?ae. ?oaeae.

N ii?aaeaieai a aieia ia/aea ia?anoaoue ?aaiethoeeiiiay neooaoeey a
no?aia (1905-1907). Ec anaai yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ?innee
o?aaiaaeenue eae iieeoe/aneea, oae e yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua
niiaee au oe?aieoue e icaei?iaeoue yeiiiieeo ?innee. I?iaiaeieeaie yoeo
?aoi?i eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX yaeeenue oaeea ?aciua iieeoe/aneea
aeayoaee eae N. TH. Aeooa e I. A. Noieuiei. Iaa iie ia auee
?aaiethoeeiia?aie e no?aieeenue nio?aieoue nouanoaothuee a ?innee no?ie
e oaa?a/ue aa io ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iio?ynaiee “nieco”.

Iaeiaei, N. TH. Aeooa, aoaeo/e eeaa?aeii, iieaaae, /oi ana eciaiaiey a
iauanoaaiiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie iaaei ia/eiaoue n eciaiaiey
iieeoe/aneiai no?iy: nicaeaoue ea/anoaaiii iiaoth ainoaea?noaaiioth
iaoeio, a oaea caoai i?iaiaeeoue i?aia?aciaaiey a yeiiiieea. A?yae ee
aiciiaeii oniaa?oainoaiaaoue oi?io caieaaeaaeaiey, ?aoeoue i?iaeaiu
aa?a?iiai ii?yaeea aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ia?aoiaea io ?aanoaa e
naiaiaea.

I. A. Noieuiei iieaaae, /oi, iai?ioea, ia?aiaiu a iieeoe/aneii no?ia, a
ainoaea?noaa, – ia nooue aeaaiia e, oai aieaa, ia anoue oneiaea ?aoi?i
yeiiiie/aneeo. Ionthaea i?ienoaeaao neaaeothuaa i?ioeai?a/ea a aai
iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe: i?ia?aiia ?aoi?i auea ?ann/eoaia ia
ao?aeoacii- aeaiie?aoe/aneia ?acaeoea, iie e ii nooe naiae ao?aeoacii-
aeaiie?aoe/aneea (iai?eia?, a aii?inao, eanathueony caineeo i?aaiia
aeanoe), ii Noieuiei ene?aiia iaaeayeny inouanoaeoue eo a ?aieao
i?aaeiae, ?aa?anneaiie, einiie aeey ea/anoaaiii iiaiai o?iaiy
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi nai
Noieuiei aue ia oieueei oaaaeaeaiiui iiia?oenoii, ii e aa?ee a ee/iinoue
eiia?aoi?a- iieeoeea, neaaeai, iaaeaeaeiai. Aai iooue ?aoi?i neoaeeo
iaeie iiaeaeueth “?aaiethoeee naa?oo” [3].

?aoi?iaoi? n/eoae, /oi ia?aiaiu iaiaoiaeeiu, ii a oie ia?a e oai, aaea
iie iaiaoiaeeiu aeey yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu. Iiea iao yeiiiie/anee
naiaiaeiiai oicyeia – iao e aacu aeey ae?oaeo oi?i naiaiaeu (iai?eia?,
iieeoe/aneie eee ee/iie). Noieuiei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi, iiea e?anoueyiei
aaaeai, ia iaeaaeaao ee/iie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth, iiea ii
iaoiaeeony oeneao iaueiu, ii inoaaony ?aaii, e ieeaeie ienaiue caeii ia
aeano aio aeaaa a?aaeaeaineie naiaiaeu [4].

Neaaeai, e neiao, /oi yoio nii? aeooaeai e naaiaeiy, nionoy ii/oe aae.
Oaniaeoay naycue yeiiiieee e iieeoeee ia aeaao aeinoe/ue iieiaeeoaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey iaeiie iauanoaaiiie noa?u aac eciaiaiey
ae?oaie. Ii iiaieth A. Iiiiaa nia?aiaiiua ?aoi?iu oiaea ia/eiaeenue “n
eo?na ia iiaia ainoaea?noai. A oaia?ue iu aeaeei, eae ia aai eeoea
?anoao oi?ioi iai ciaeiiay uaoeia aaoi?eoa?iiai ath?ie?aoecia. Aea ie/ai
eiui aiia?ao auoue e ia iiaeao, iiea ii anaaeanoai, e anee iao a no?aia,
aiai?y neiaaie Noieuieia, naiinoiyoaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia.” [5].

3. A?aiy e ?aoi?iu N. TH. Aeooa

N. TH. Aeooa (17.06.1849 – 28.02.1915) ?iaeeeny a Oeoeena e ainieouaaeny
a naiuea naiaai aeaaea A. I. Oaaeaaaa, oaeiiai niaaoieea, auaoaai a
1841-1846 aa. na?aoianeei aoaa?iaoi?ii, a caoai /eaiii niaaoa oi?aaeaiey
Eaaeacneiai iaianoieea e oi?aaeythuei yeniaaeeoeeae ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiouanoa Caeaaeacneiai e?ay.

Ii i?ienoiaeee ec iaeiecaanoiuo ia?onaaoeo iaioeaa, noaaoeo aeai?yiaie a
1856 a. (oioy ii nai ianaaeaeae aa?neth iioiinoaaiiiai aeai?yinoaa e
aa?iinoe i?aaineaaeth). ?aiiea aiaeu Aeooa i?ioee a Oeoeena e Iaeanna,
aaea, a 1870 ii eii/ee eo?n iaoe a iiai?inneeneii oieaa?neoaoa ii
iaoaiaoe/aneiio oaeoeueoaoo ni noaiaiueth eaiaeeaeaoa, iaienaa
aeenna?oaoeeth “I aaneiia/ii iaeuo aaee/eiao”. 1 ethey 1871 aiaea Aeooa
aue i?e/eneai /eiiaieeii a eaioeaey?ee Iiai?inneeneiai e Aanna?aaneiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, a aua /a?ac aeaa aiaea iacia/ai noieiia/aeueieeii.

Iinea ieii/aiey ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu 1877-1878 aa. i?eiaaeeaaeaaoay
eacia aeaeaciay aei?iaa aeeeanue a /anoiia Iauanoai THai-Caiaaeiuo
aeaeaciuo aei?ia. Oai Aeooa iieo/ee ianoi ia/aeueieea yenieoaoaoeeiiiiai
ioaeaea (1878, Iaoa?ao?a). N 1880 – ia/aeueiee yenieoaoaoeee, a 1886 –
oi?aaeythuee THai-Caiaaeiie aeaeaciie aei?iae (Eeaa). Oaea ia yoeo
iinoao y?ei i?iyaeyaony ?aoi?iaoi?neee iano?ie Aeooa [6]. Ii aaae a
i?aeoeeo auaea/o nnoae iiae oeaaiua a?ocu, i?iaiaeee oa?eoioth iieeoeeo
ia i?eioeeiao eiieo?aioeee: aeey eaaeaeiai a?oca onoaiaaeeaaeny
iaeneiaeueiue oa?eo, ?acei nieaeaaoeeny a neo/aa ioi?aaeaiey a?oca ii
THai-Caiaaeiuo aeaeaciuo aei?iaa; aiaae?ee oaoie/aneea
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey, iiauneaoea nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey iiacaeia.
Aunieiia?aciaaiiue niaoeeaeeno, Aeooa oe?iei eniieueciaae a ?aaioa
iao/iua e noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua. Aai aeoeaiinoue ia auea iacaia/aiiie,
e a 1889 Aeaenaiae? III i?eaeaeaao aai a Ieienoa?noai oeiainia a
ea/anoaa aee?aeoi?a Aeaia?oaiaioa ae.-ae. aeae, a a 1892 ii oaea ieieno?
oeiainia e ia/eiaao aeoeaioth ?aoi?iaoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue a
yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea ?innee.

Caiya e?anei ia iinoo iaeiiai ec naiuo aeeyoaeueiuo ieieno?ia, Aeooa
iieacae naay ?aaeueiui iieeoeeii. A/a?aoiee neaayiioee, oaaaeaeaiiue
noi?iiiee naiiauoiiai ?acaeoey ?innee a ei?ioeee n?ie i?aa?aoeeny a
eiaeono?eaeecaoi?a aa?iiaeneiai ia?acoea, cayaeaoaai i naiae aioiaiinoe
a oa/aiea aeaoo iyoeeaoee auaanoe ?inneth a ?ac?yae ia?aaeiauo
i?iiuoeaiiuo aea?aeaa.

A ia/aea 90-o aiaeia Aeooa aua ia eciaiee iaueiiui eaeaaeai, n/eoae
?onneia e?anoueyinoai eiina?aaoeaiie neeie e “aeaaiie iii?ie ii?yaeea”.
Aeaey a iaueia iieio i?ioea nioeeaeecia, ii ni/oanoaaiii ioiineeny e
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui ia?ai eiioea 1880-o – ia/aea 1890-o aiaeia,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia aa oe?aieaiea. Oioy i?iiuoeaiiinoue, no?ieoaeuenoai e
aeaeaciua aei?iae a 90-o aiaeao aeoeaii ?acaeaaeenue, naeueneia
oicyenoai – iniiaiie iieio aa?a?iie ?innee – iinea iao?iaeay 1891 e
iineaaeiaaaoaai ca iei iaieuaiey (aieioue aei aieiaea) e?anoueyi e
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa iaoiaeeeanue a i/aiue oyaeaeii ninoiyiee. Eiaiii yoio
oiaaeie a yeiiiieea e i?eaae iauanoaaiiinoue e iniciaieth iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?eiyoue ia?u aeey iaocaeaiey ?aaeoeeiiiuo aeayoaeae a i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
oieeaaoeo no?aio ia a?aiue yeiiiie/aneiai e aeooiaiiai ?aniaaea. A yoie
ianoaiiaea iiyaeeny ia iieeoe/aneie noeaia N. TH. Aeooa. Ia yoiai a
aunoae ia?a oaeaioeeaiai /aeiaaea eaaea caaea/a i?aia?aciaaiey
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie no?aiu.

A 1894-95 a. Aeooa aeiaeeny noaaeeecaoeee ?oaey, a a 1897 naeaeae oi,
/oi ia oaeaaaeinue aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeai, – aaae cieioia aeaiaaeiia
ia?auaiea, iaania/ea no?aia oaa?aeoth aaethoo aieioue aei ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu e i?eoie eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeia. I?e yoii ?acei oaaee/eeinue
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea. Iaeiei ec naiuo yooaeoeaiuo n?aaenoa auea/eaaiey
aeaiaa ec ia?iaeiiai ea?iaia noaea aaaaeaiiay Aeooa ainoaea?noaaiiay
iiiiiieey ia i?iaeaaeo nie?oa, aeia e aiaei/iue ecaeaeee.

Ia ?oaaaea XX aaea yeiiiie/aneay ieaooi?ia Aeooa i?eiyea aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiue e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue oa?aeoa?: a oa/aiea i?eia?ii 10 eao
aeiaiaoue a i?iiuoeaiiii ioiioaiee aieaa ?acaeoua no?aiu Aa?iiu, caiyoue
i?i/iua iiceoeee ia ?uieao Aeeaeiaai, N?aaeiaai e Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea.
Onei?aiiia i?iiuoeaiiia ?acaeoea iaania/eaaeinue iooai i?eaea/aiey
eiino?aiiuo eaieoaeia, oaiiaeaiiie caueou i?iiuoeaiiinoe io caiaaeiuo
eiieo?aioia e iiiu?aiey auaica. Eiino?aiiui eaieoaeai a iae ioaiaeeeanue
iniaay ?ieue – a eiioea 90-o aiaeia Aeooa aunooiee ca iaia?aie/aiiia
i?eaea/aiea eo a ?onneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiia aeaei,
iacuaay yoe n?aaenoaa eaea?noaii i?ioea aaaeiinoe e nnueaynue i?e yoii
ia i?eia? ec enoi?ee NOA e Aa?iaiee.

Iniaaiiinoue i?eaiaeeiiai Aeooa eo?na ninoiyea a oii, /oi ii eae ie
iaeei ec oea?neeo ieieno?ia oeiainia, oe?iei eniieueciaae
eneeth/eoaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth neeo aeanoe, nouanoaiaaaooth a ?innee.
I?oaeeyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa neoaeeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue
aaie e o/?aaeaeaiey ieieno?a oeiainia, eiio?iee?iaaaoea aeayoaeueiinoue
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.

A oneiaeyo iiaeuaia 1890-o aiaeia nenoaia Aeooa niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa; e 1900 aiaeo ?inney
auoea ia 1 ianoi a ie?a ii aeiau/a iaooe. Eacaaoeeny noaaeeueiui
iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei e ?acaeaaaoayny yeiiiieea caai?aaeeaaee iaeeiai
aa?iiaeneiai aea?aeaoaey, ioioii iieoiaaoaai aunieii?ioeaioiua
iaeeaaoeee ?onneeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo iauanoa.

A 1890-ua aiaeu ?acei aic?inei aeeyiea Ieienoa?noaa oeiainia, a nai
Aeooa ia eaeia-oi a?aiy auaeaeioeny ia ia?aia ianoi a ath?ie?aoe/aneii
aiia?aoa eiia?ee. A eiioea 1890-o aiaeia eacaeinue, /oi Aeooa aeieacae
naiae iieeoeeie iaaa?iyoiia: aeecianiiniaiinoue oaiaeaeueiie ii naiae
i?e?iaea aeanoe a oneiaeyo eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, aiciiaeiinoue oniaoii
?acaeaaoue yeiiiieeo, ie/aai ia iaiyy a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey.

Iaeiaei, /anoiethaeaui caiuneai Aeooa ia noaeaeaii auei inouanoaeoueny.
Ia?aue oaea? ii iei iaian ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, ?acei
caoi?iiceaoee ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe; nie?aoeeny i?eoie eiino?aiiuo
eaieoaeia, ia?ooeeinue athaeaeaoiia ?aaiiaanea. Yeiiiie/aneay yeniainey
ia Aeaeueiai e N?aaeiai Ainoiea iaino?eea ?onnei-aiaeeeneea i?ioeai?a/ey
e i?eaeeceea aieio n ssiiieae. N ia/aeii aea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee ie i
eaeie iineaaeiaaoaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiia ia iiaei oaea auoue
?a/e.

Onei?aiiay eiaeono?eaeecaoeey ?innee ia iiaea auoue oniaoiie i?e
nio?aiaiee o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaiu aeanoe e nouanoaiaaaoeo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee a aea?aaia e Aeooa nei?i ia/ae ioaeaaaoue naaa a io/ao. “…
naeaeaaoenue iaoaieeii neiaeiie iaoeiu, eiaioaiie oeiainaie ?inneeneie
eiia?ee ioaeii auei auoue aeo?aeii, /oiau ia iiieiaoue, /oi iaoeia aac
oiieeaa ia iieaeao. Oiieeai yoi – yeiiiie/aneia ninoiyiea ?innee, a oae
eae aeaaiay /anoue ianaeaiey – yoi e?anoueyinoai, oi ioaeii auei
aieeiooue a yoo iaeanoue” [7]. A 1896 aiaeo Aeooa ioeacaeny io
iiaeaea?aeee iaueiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey. A 1898 ii naeaeae ia?aoth iiiuoeo
aeiaeoueny a eiieoaoa ieieno?ia ia?aniio?a aa?a?iiai eo?na, ni?aaiioth,
iaeiaei, A. E. Ieaaa, E. I. Iiaaaeiiinoeaaui e I. I. Aeo?iiai. A yiaa?a
1902 aiaea Aeooa aicaeaaee Iniaia Niaauaiea i ioaeaeao
naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oai naiui, acya, eacaeinue au, e
naaa a ieienoa?noai oeiainia iauoth ?ac?aaioeo e?anoueyineiai aii?ina. A
i?aaenoaaeaiiie caienea aunooiee noi?iiieeii eeeaeaeaoeee e?anoueyineie
nineiaiie iainiaeaiiinoe a iaeanoe i?aaa, oi?aaeaiey e
caieaiieueciaaiey, auneacuaaeny ca naiaiaeiue auoiae ec iaueiu, ca
ia?aie/aiey ia ?anii?yaeaiea iaaeaeueiuie caieyie. Iieiaeaiey aai
i?ia?aiiu auee aiineaaenoaee eniieueciaaiu I. A. Noieuieiui i?e
?ac?aaioea aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu. Iaeiaei, ec-ca i?ioeaiaeaenoaey Ieaaa e
ae?oaeo /eiiaieeia Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae (iiaeaea?aeaiiuo
Ieeieaai II) aeiaeeny eeoue ioiaiu e?oaiaie ii?oee a iaueia (1903) e
iaeaa/aiey ianii?oiiai ?aaeeia e?anoueyi. Aeooa n/eoae, /oi anee au
Niaauaieth aeaee ieii/eoue ?aaioo, oi iiiaia, /oi iioii i?iecioei, auei
au ono?aiaii. E?anoueyinoai, aa?iyoii, ia auei au oae acaaeaio/aii
?aaiethoeeae, eae iii ieacaeinue.

A iaieoanoa 26 oaa?aey 1903 aiaea, ii?aaeaeeaoai i?ia?aiio oea?ecia,
eaeie aa aeaeaee Ieeieae II e Ieaaa, niiaa, oioy e n iaeioi?uie
iaiai?eaie, i?iaicaeaoaeanue “iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue iaueiiiai no?iy
e?anoueyineiai caieaaeaaeaiey”. Iauaaeeiaiiuie oneeeyie i?ioeaieee Aeooa
i?e i/aaeaeiii ni/oanoaee eiia?aoi?a (caiaoei, /oi Ieeieae II, anaia?ii
ia?aaeaeay naith aeanoue, i/aiue ?aaieai ioiineeny e ethaie e?oiiie
iieeoe/aneie ee/iinoe) ia/aee iooaniyoue ieieno?a oeiainia e io ?u/aaia
oi?aaeaiey aeaeueiaainoi/iie iieeoeeie, iaoiaeeaoeony aei oiai a aai
ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueiii aeaaeaiee. Eaeiau au ie auee a niaieoiiinoe
i?e/eiu oaieueiaiey Aeooa n aeieaeiinoe ieieno?a, ionoaaea a aaaonoa
1903 aiaea iaianea aio oaea?: iino i?aaenaaeaoaey eiieoaoa ieieno?ia,
eioi?ue ii iieo/ee, aue iaecia?eii iaiaa aeeyoaeai. Nai Aeooa iiyoiio
n?aaieaae naia i?aauaaiea ia yoii iinoo n oth?aiiui caeeth/aieai.

Ii iiaieth A.O. Ea?aineiai [8], ono?aiaiea Aeooa e caiaia aai a 1903
aiaeo iaieoaeui ?aaeoeeiia?ii Ieaaa, n?aco aea i?enooieaoei e
?ac?ooaieth iniia iieeoe/aneie aeecie eiia?ee, iciaiaiiaaee ia/aei oiai
ia?eiaea a ?onneie enoi?ee, eioi?ue iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?ieia e
?aaiethoeee 1905 aiaea. Iineaaenoaey aeayoaeueiinoe Ieaaa auee noieue
iea/aaiu, /oi a ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea iinoaiaiii aoyaeaaeenue ia
oieueei iaeaieaa i?ia?anneaiua i?aaenoaaeoaee cainoaa e eioaeeeaaioeee,
ii e ?aai/ea, a caoai e e?anoueyia.

Naiiaea?aeaaea, noaaoaa e oiio a?aiaie ia aieaa /ai ia?aaeeoeii
?inneeneie enoi?ee, auei ia?a/aii. Iaeiaei, Ieeieae II, aianoi oiai,
/oiau i?iaeieaeeoue ?aoi?iu naiaai aeaaea e aea?iaaoue eiinoeoooeeth, n
iiiiuueth oaeeo ethaeae, eae Ieaaa, oi?yii oyioe no?aio iacaae, e naiui
i?a/iui a?aiaiai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aaniethoecia.

Iinea 15 ethey 1904 aiaea, eiaaea aue oaeo ieieno? aioo?aiieo aeae Ieaaa
e ia iino ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae iacia/ai i?ia?anneaiue
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? Aeeueiu eiycue I. Ae. Nayoiiiee – Ie?neee, Aeooa
aica?auaaony e aeoeaiie iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A 1904 a. ii
ioaeeeoao naith aioeiaueiioth ieaooi?io (“Caienea ii e?anoueyineiio
aeaeo”). ?ino yooaeoeaiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?e
ieceeo oeaiao ia aai i?iaeoeoeeth aue aaaeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth
i?ia?aiiu eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. Ii aeaeae a yoii n?aaenoai e aeey
aunaiaiaeaeaiey a aea?aaia ?aai/eo ?oe, eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue au a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aeey oaeaoaaeaiey o?oaea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?ieaoa?eaoa.
Ooo-oi aeaaiui oi?iicii e ieacuaaeanue iaueia, i?eaa?aeaioeai eioi?ie ii
aue a iieiaeinoe. Aeooa noae aeaeaoue a iaueia i?e/eio e?anoueyineiai
ineoaeaiey e o?aaiaae naeaeaoue ec e?anoueyieia “ia?niio” iooai
o?aaiaiey e?anoueyi a i?aaao n ae?oaeie nineiaeyie. ?a/ue oea i?e yoii
iai anao i?aaao, a oii /enea e eiouanoaaiiuo, eiuie neiaaie – i auoiaea
ec iaueiu n auaeaeii caiee. A iaueia Aeooa aeaeae ia oieueei i?aiyonoaea
e ?acaeoeth naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ii e iaeio ec oi?i
?aaiethoeeiiiie oa?icu, iineieueeo iia ainieouaaea i?aiaa?aaeaiea e
i?aao nianoaaiiinoe.

Iaae oai i?eaeeaeaeny yiaa?ue 1905, e oaea oea ?onnei – yiiineay aieia.
Ii?aaeaiey a Iai/aeo?ee niiaa i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee neaainoue aeanoe.
Eeaa?aeu ni/ee, /oi ca i?iea?aiioth aieio oea?eci auioaeaeai aoaeao, eae
e a 1861 aiaeo, caieaoeoue ?aoi?iaie. *oiau aeiaeoueny yoeo ?aoi?i, e a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiinoeoooeee, iie ia oieueei oneeeee i?iiaaaiaeo a
caineeo e eioaeeeaaioneeo e?oaao, ii e ?aoeeenue ia iiiuoeo
neii?aeeie?iaaoue aeaenoaey n ?aaiethoeeiia?aie.

Niauoey “E?iaaaiai aine?anaiuey” i?iecaaee ei?aiiie ia?aai?io a iuoeaiee
?aai/eo iann, ?aci?aaee oa aeooiaiua ocu, eioi?ua naycuaaee oea?y e
i?inouo ?aai/eo.

17 yiaa?y 1905 aiaea Ieeieae II, ia?auaaoeeny ca niaaoii e Aeooa e
ae?oaei ieieno?ai, i?eeacae aio ninoaaeoue ec ieo niaauaiea ii “ia?ai,
iaiaoiaeeiui aeey oniieiaiey no?aiu”, e i aiciiaeiuo ?aoi?iao. Eiaiii
inaiueth 1905 aiaea (a ieoya?a) aia?aua ianoaeaeaeanue ia niaauaiee
Aeooa n “iauanoaaiiuie aeayoaeyie” eaiaeeaeaoo?a Noieuieia ia iino
ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae. N yoiai ia?eiaea iie iaoiaeeeenue ia
iieeoe/aneie a?aia iaeiia?aiaiii.

4. Iieeoe/aneay ea?uea?a e ?aoi?iu I. A. Noieuieia

I. A. Noieuiei (1862-1911 aa.) – auoiaeaoe ec noa?iai aeai?yineiai
?iaea, ecaanoiiai n eiioea XVI aaea. ?iae Noieuieiuo aeae ?innee
auaeathueony iieeoe/aneeo e eeoa?aoo?iuo aeayoaeae. Aaaooea
I. TH. Ea?iiioiaa – o?iaeaeaiiay Noieuieia. I?aaeaae – naiaoi?
A. A. Noieuiei – ae?oa I. I. Nia?aineiai, e?oiiaeoaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeayoaey ia/aea XIX aaea. Ioaoe – A?eaaeee Aeieo?eaae/ – o/anoiee
E?uineie aieiu, ae?oa E. I. Oienoiai, iaaauaaoee aai a ssniie Iieyia.
Iaoue I. A. Noieuieia – Aiia Ieoaeeiaia – o?iaeaeaiiay Ai?/aeiaa –
ieaiyiieoea eaioeea?a ?innee A. I. Ai?/aeiaa, iaeiieeannieea
A. N. Iooeeia ii eeoeath. AEaia Iao?a A?eaaeueaae/a – i?aaio/ea
A. A. Noai?iaa. Oaeei ia?acii, naiuey Noieuieiuo a XIX – XX aaeao auea a
?iaenoaa e ae?oaeaa ni ciaiaieoaeoeie ethaeueie ?innee. Naiuey
I. A. Noieuieia aeaaeaea iiianoueyie a Ieaeaai?iaeneie, Eacaineie,
Iaicaineie e iicaea Eaoianneie aoaa?ieyo.

Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei ia iioae ii o?aaeeoeeiiiie aeey aai oaieeee
neoaeaa, ii ia noae ie aeeieiiaoii, ie aiaiiui, ieii/ea Aeeaineoth
aeiiaceth, iaiaeeaeaiii aeey anao ?iaenoaaiieeia e ae?ocae, ii iinooiaao
ia oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee oaeoeueoao Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Iinea
ieii/aiey oieaa?neoaoa ii neoaeeo a ieienoa?noaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eiouanoaa, ii /a?ac aiae ia?aaiaeeony a Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae e
iiiaaeaao, i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aeai?yi, a Eiaaineoth aoaa?ieth, aaea ia
nianoaaiiii iiuoa iiciaao caaiou e oyaiou aa?a?iie ?innee.

A 1902 aiaeo Noieuiei o/anoaiaae a iniaii niaauaiee, ia eioi?ii
aiai?eeinue i ioaeaeao naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oai ii
?aoeoaeueii auneacaeny ca oie/oiaeaiea iaueiiie /a?aniieineoeu e
?annaeaiea ii oooi?ai. Yoi cayaeaiea yaeeinue iaeei ia/aeueiui
iieiaeaieai aai a aoaeouai iaoe?iie “aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu”. Iaaei ioaeaoue
aeieaeiia niaeinoe Noieuieia: eiaaea ?acai?aeanue iieaieea i iooyo
aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu iaaeaeo Aeooa e Ieaaa, ii ia iiaeaea?aeae iiceoeee
naiaai ia/aeueieea, oioy a 1902 aiaeo oaaaeaeaiey Noieuieia auee aua
aanueia aeaeaee io /aoeie i?ia?aiiu Aeooa, eioi?ay auea ioeeiiaia
iaeaioia ?aaiethoeee 1905-1907 aiaea.

A ia?oa 1903 aiaea Noieuieia iacia/atho aoaa?iaoi?ii a aieaa e?oiioth e
aaaeioth na?aoianeoth aoaa?ieth. Caeanue e canoaea aai ia?aay
?aaiethoeey, a eioi?ie i?iyaeeenue aeaa aai oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou:
ai-ia?auo, ii ia niouaeny ea?aoue ia oieueei eaauo, ii e i?aauo, anee eo
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?aoiaeeea ca ?aiee aeicaieaiiiai. Ai-aoi?uo, a ioee/ea
io aieueoeinoaa aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo aeayoaeae Noieuiei aue ee/ii o?aa? e
ia aiyeny inoaaaoueny eeoeii e eeoeo n ?acaiaaaiiie oieiie. Ii ia i?inoi
cayaee ?aaiethoeeiia?ai n o?eaoiu Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu: “Ia
caioaaaoa!”, ii e ia naiii aeaea aae naay aanno?aoii.

A ai?aea 1906 aiaea Noieuiei iacia/ai ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae e any
ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae eiaeeony ia aai iea/e. Anei?a ii niaiyao
Ai?aiueeia ia iinoo i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa ieieno?ia. Aio auei aeiaa?aii
i?ieiaeeoue iieeoe/aneee eo?n a iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo –
iaania/eoue niaeeoaeuenoai aeioiea ie/ai ia noaniaiiiai naiiaea?aeaaey n
“ia?iaeiui i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii”. Iiaeeeth/eaoenue e ?aaioa, ii ia/ae
iieeoeeo oniieiaiey ia?iaea.

Noieuiei aue oaaaeaeaiiui i?ioeaieeii ?aaiethoeeiiiuo e?oouo ia?,
eioi?ua, ii aai iiaieth, ia aoaeoo niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth yeiiiieee e
iiauoaiey ea/anoaa aeecie ia?iaea. A iaia?aiey Noieuieia ia aoiaeeei ie
ainnoaiiaeaiea aaniethoecia, ie oie/oiaeaiea ia?iaeiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa – ii no?aieeny eeoue e onoaiiaeaieth a ?innee
eiina?aaoeaiie, ii no?iai eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee. Aai ia/oie auea
iiao/ay, oeaio?aeeciaaiiay eiia?ey, yeiiiie/anee caei?iaay e eoeueoo?ii
?acaeoay. “I?ioeaieeai ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, – neacae ii, aunooiay a
Aeoia, – oioaeinue au eca?aoue iooue ?aaeeeaeecia, iooue inaiaiaeaeaiey
io enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai ?innee, inaiaiaeaeaiey io eoeueoo?iuo
o?aaeeoeee. Ei ioaeiu aaeeeea iio?ynaiey, iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney!”

Noaeueaa iiia?oee caaenaea io aiee e niiniaiinoae aa?oiaiie aeanoe
inouanoaeoue eiiieaen ?aoi?i, eioi?ua iauaeoeaii noiyee ia?aae no?aiie.
?aoeoue yoo caaea/o i?ecaaia auea i?ia?aiia, eioi?oth I.A.Noieuiei
eceiaeee 24 aaaonoa 1906 aiaea. Iia ninoiyea ec aeaoo /anoae “oniieiaiey
e ?aoi?i”. Iiaue i?aiuea? ieieno? iieaaae, /oi 20 eao aioo?aiiaai e
aiaoiaai niieienoaey ?innee ?aaeeeaeueii i?aia?acyo aa. Ia?aay /anoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu i?aaeoniao?eaaea aaniiuaaeioth ai?ueao n
?aaiethoeeiiiui aeaeaeaieai. Yoie oeaee neoaeeei e iauyaeaiea ia aiaiiii
iieiaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo aoaa?iee, aaaaeaiea a ieo aiaiii-iieaauo noaeia,
eioi?ua ?acae?aee aeaea e auiineee i?eaiai?u a oa/aiea 48 /ania. Ca
aaaono 1906- ai?aeue 1907 auei auianaii 1102 nia?oiuo i?eaiai?a(ca 30
eao aei 1905 eo auei aaeaia iaiueoa). Aunueea a aaeieieno?aoeaiii
ii?yaeea iaaeaaiiaaeaaeiiai a iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee yeaiaioa ec e?oiiuo
ai?iaeia a 1906-1907 aiaeao ninoaaeea ia iaiaa 26 oun. /aeiaae.

Aoi?ay /anoue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu i?aaeeaaaea i?iaaaeaiea
?aoi?i. Aa noa?aeiai noaea aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia. N 1861 aiaea iia auea
aoi?ui e?oiiui oaaii, i?ecaaiiui eciaieoue iieiaeaiea e?anoueyinoaa.
?aaiethoeey iieacaea, /oi iaaeaaeaeu oea?y ia e?anoueyinoai eae iieio
?aaeeia ieacaeenue ianinoiyoaeueiu. Iiyoiio Noieuiei iieaaae nicaeaoue a
aea?aaia neie e?oiiuo oicyaa (eoeaeia), eioi?ua iiaee noaoue iii?ie
aeanoe a ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae. Nio?aiaiea a aea?aaia iaueiu
i?aiyonoaiaaei ?acaeoeth ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee. ?ac?ooaiea iaueiu e
ianaaeaeaiea /anoiie e?anoueyineie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ninoaaeyei
aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu. *oi eanaaony iiiaue/ueaai
caieaaeaaeaiey, oi aai oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii auei iiaea?iece?iaaoue a
eioa?anao naieo aea iiiaueeia – nieceoue eo aeeyiea ia aaaeaiea aeae a
e?anoueyineii oicyenoaa, ii nio?aieoue ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea
aeai?yineiai nineiaey a ?inneeneii ainoaea?noaa. Eaaeaeue e?anoueyiei
ioiuia iia aueoe ec iaueiu, iauyaeoue naiae /anoiie nianoaaiiinoueth
iaaeaeueiue o/anoie caiee. Ana caiee, ?aca?inaiiua a ?aciuo ianoao,
?ac?aoaeinue niaaeeieoue a iaeei o/anoie, i?eniaaeeiea i?eonaaeaaiue
o/anoie, e ia?aianoe aeii n iino?ieeaie (oooi?). Yoi aaei e oiio, /oi
aaeeiue aea?aaaineee ie? (iaueia) en/acae, eae en/acaea e aea?aaiy.

Noieuiei ?ac?aaioae e ?aaeeciaae ?aoi?io i aeia?iaieue/aneii ia?anaeaiee
e?anoueyi a ?aeiiu Caiaaeiie Neae?e. Ia?anaeaiea a ?aeiiu Neae?e e
ae?oaea iaeiinaiaiiua oa??eoi?ee ?innee cia/eoaeueiuo iann ianaeaiey
oeaio?aeueiuo aoaa?iee ?aoaei aaaeioth iauaiaoeeiiaeueii-no?aoaae/aneoth
caaea/o- oe?aieaiea iai?iiu no?aiu e neoaeeei n?aaenoaii ai?ueau n
iaeicaiaeueiui ia?aianaeaieai oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiia ?innee. A oa/aiea 15
eao ianaeaiea Neae?e oaaee/eeinue ia 3 iei. /aeiaae. Ii ai iiiaeo
ioaeeeaoeeyo aei neo ii? ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi aa?a?iua i?aia?aciaaiey,
inouanoaeaiiua iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Noieuieia, ia i?eianee aeaeaaiuo
?acoeueoaoia.

A 1906 – 1907 aiaeo oeacaieyie oea?y /anoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
oaeaeueiuo caiaeue auea ia?aaeaia E?anoueyineiio aaieo aeey i?iaeaaee
e?anoueyiai n oeaeueth ineaaeaiey caiaeueiiai aeaoeoeeoa. E?iia oiai, n
?aciaoii i?iaiaeeeanue Aaieii iieoiea caiaeue n iineaaeothuae
ia?ai?iaeaaeae eo e?anoueyiai ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo, iin?aaeie/aneea
iia?aoeee ii oaaee/aieth e?anoueyineiai caieaiieueciaaiey. Ii oaaee/ee
e?aaeeo e?anoueyiai e cia/eoaeueii oaeaoaaee aai, i?e/ai aaie ieaoee
aieueoee i?ioeaio ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai, /ai ieaoeee aio e?anoueyia.
?acieoea a ieaoaaea iie?uaaeanue ca n/ao noaneaeee ec athaeaeaoa,
ninoaaea ca ia?eiae n 1906 ii 1917 aiae 1457,5 ie?ae. ?oaeae.

Aaie aeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaae ia oi?iu caieaaeaaeaiey: aeey e?anoueyi,
i?eia?aoaaoeo caieth a aaeeiiee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue, ieaoaaee
nieaeaeenue. A eoiaa, anee aei 1906 aiaea iniiaioth ianno iieoiaoaeae
caiee ninoaaeyee e?anoueyineea eieeaeoeau, oi e 1913 aiaeo 79,7%
iieoiaoaeae auee aaeeiiee/iuie e?anoueyiaie.

Nnoaeu e?anoueyineiai aaiea ia iiaee iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?eoue ni?in
e?anoueyieia ia aeaiaaeioth ianno. Iiyoiio cia/eoaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iieo/eea e?aaeeoiay eiiia?aoeey, eioi?ay i?ioea a naiai aeaeaeaiee aeaa
yoaia. Ia ia?aii yoaia i?aiaeaaeaee aaeieieno?aoeaiua oi?iu
?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee iaeeiai e?aaeeoa. Nicaeaaay eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua
eaae?u einiaeoi?ia iaeeiai e?aaeeoa e anneaioy cia/eoaeueiua e?aaeeou
/a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiua aaiee ia ia?aiia/aeueiua caeiu e?aaeeoiui
oiaa?euanoaai e ia iineaaeothuea caeiu, i?aaeoaeuenoai noeioee?iaaei
eiiia?aoeaiia aeaeaeaiea. Ia aoi?ii yoaia naeueneea e?aaeeoiua
oiaa?euanoaa, iaeaieeaay nianoaaiiue eaieoae, ?acaeaaeenue
naiinoiyoaeueii. A ?acoeueoaoa auea nicaeaia oe?ieay naoue einoeoooia
iaeeiai e?anoueyineiai e?aaeeoa, nnoaeinaa?aaaoaeueiuo aaieia e
e?aaeeoiuo oiaa?euanoa, ianeoaeeaaaoeo aeaiaaeiue iai?io e?anoueyineeo
oicyenoa. E 1 yiaa?y 1914 aiaea eiee/anoai oaeeo o/?aaeaeaiee i?aauneei
13 ouny/.

E?aaeeoiua ioiioaiey aeaee neeueiue eiioeuen ?acaeoeth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, iio?aaeoaeueneeo e nauoiauo eiiia?aoeaia. E?anoueyia
ia eiiia?aoeaiuo ia/aeao nicaeaaaee iiei/iua e ianeaiua a?oaee,
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua iauanoaa, iio?aaeoaeueneea eaaee e aeaaea
e?anoueyineea a?oaeueiua iiei/iua caaiaeu.

A yiaa?a 1916 a. ec iaueiu auoei ieiei 3 iei. aeiiioicyenoa Iiaieaeuey,
thaa Oe?aeiu, Neae?e. A oeaeii ?aoi?ia niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth
ao?aeoaciuo ioiioaiee a aea?aaia. Cia/eoaeueii oneeeeanue iiceoeey
eoeaea , eioi?ue aeaaae 50 % oiaa?iiai oeaaa e ia/ae inaaeaaoue aiaoiee
?uiie. Iinaaiua ieiuaaee oaaee/eeenue ia 10 %. Yenii?o oeaaa aeinoea
20-25 %, a a o?iaeaeiua aiaeu – 40 %.

Iaeiaei aaeaa ee i?aaiia?ii ioiineoue yoi oieueei e aeinoeaeaieyi
noieuieineie ?aoi?iu: ioiaia aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae noeioee?iaaea ?acaeoea
aa?a?iiai naeoi?a; ?ino ie?iauo oeai ia oeaa niinianoaiaae aai auaico:
nua?aee naith ?ieue e iiaiaeiua oneiaey, eiaaea a 1912-13 aa. auee
iieo/aiu i/aiue aunieea o?iaeae.

Aeanoe ia oaeaeinue aeaaiia – ?ac?ooeoue iaueio e nicaeaoue n?aco
ianniaue neie e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia. Io?oaa e oooi?a naie ii naaa ia
yaeyeenue aua oneiaeai i?ia?anna, ieiei 50 % eo ieacaeenue
iaaeecianiiniaiu. Ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea, i?e anao aa iaaeinoaoeao,
aia niiiaiey, auea yaeaieai iieiaeeoaeueiui. Ii iia ia eeeaeaee?iaaea ie
ia?aianaeaiiinoe, ie caiaeueiiai aieiaea a aea?aaia.

Ath?ie?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu, noaiaoeci a inouanoaeaiee ?aoi?iu, ineoieiaey
e?anoueyi cao?oaeiyee aa oniaoiia i?iaaaeaiea. Iaueia iaia?oaeeea naith
aeecianiiniaiinoue. Iia iaania/eea ia oieueei caueoo io iiiaueea, ii e
ieieiaeueiue i?iaeeoi/iue o?iaaiue. Aeaaiia aea ninoiyei a oii, /oi
iaeia yoa ?aoi?ia, noaaoay “inueth” anae aioo?aiiae iieeoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ia niiniaia auea ?aoeoue i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua noiyee ia?aae
no?aiie. O?aaiaaeny eiiieaen ?aoi?i.

Iie eiaeenue a a?naiaea Noieuieia. ?ai?aaiecaoeey caineiai
naiioi?aaeaiey i?ecaaia auea ioe?uoue aei?iao a iaai e?aieei oicyenoaai,
i?iaeo i?aia?aciaaiee ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeee – aoaa?ineiai e oacaeiiai
caaia – nieaeae aeeyiea ia yoe i?aaiu iiiaueeia, ?aai/aa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai (no?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo, nie?auaiea ?aai/aai aeiy e
ae?.) aeieaeii auei ia?aaanoe ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea n ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ia
?aoi?ienoneee iooue, a aii?inao aa?ieniiaaaeaiey Noieuiei i?aaeeiaeee
niyoue ?yae ia?aie/aiee (i noa?iia?yaeoeao, ia?aoiae ec i?aaineaaey,
iaeaa/aiea niaoaiiuo a?aeia), /oi niya/eei au ?aeeaeicioth ai?ueao a
no?aia.

I?aaeiieaaay aeaoeaio?aeeciaaoue oi?aaeaiea ?inneae, Noieuiei aue
iaia?ai i?iecaanoe ?ai?aaiecaoeeth aaeieieno?aoeee e iieeoeee ?innee.
I?aa?aaeie e ?ai?aaiecaoeee ia naiuo iecao ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey
yaeyeanue nineiaiay ea?a?oey. Oacaeu aicaeaaeyee oacaeiua i?aaeaiaeeoaee
aeai?yinoaa, iiiaei ec eioi?uo, iaeiaei, ii i?e/eiai iaaaeiaiey
aeai?yinoaa, i?iecioaaeoaai aua a eiioea i?ioeiai noieaoey,
i?eoiaeeeinue neoaeeoue a ai?iaeao e iiyaeyoueny a naieo oacaeao eeoue
ec?aaeea. Naycue iaaeaeo oacaeaie e aeai?yinoaii auea ineaaeaia. A
iaaeaeo oai, i?ienoiaeee ?ino ae?oaeo neiaa ianaeaiey – i?iiuoeaiieeia e
eoioeia, ai?iaeneie eioaeeeaaioeee e ae?. – eioi?ua aeiaeaaeenue i?aaa
aieina. N o/aoii yoiai a i?iaeoa i?aaeeaaaeinue aianoi i?aaeaiaeeoaeae
aeai?yinoaa iinoaaeoue ai aeaaa oacaea oacaeiuo ia/aeueieeia ec ianoiie
n?aaeu, iacia/aiiuo ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae. Ia aoaa?ineii o?iaia
i?iaeo i?aaeiieaaae oneeaiea aeanoe aoaa?iaoi?ia, nin?aaeioi/aiey a aai
?oeao anaai iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey aoaa?ieae. Ia?aeeaeueii n yoei aue
?ac?aaioai i?iaeo ?ai?aaiecaoeee iieeoeee, /eneaiiinoue eioi?ie a oa
a?aiaia auea yaii iaaeinoaoi/iie.

I?ia?aiia ?aoi?i cao?aaeaaea ana io?anee ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e
auea ?ann/eoaia, ii caiuneo Noieuieia, ia 20 eao. Yoe ?aoi?iu, ii iunee
Noieuieia, aeaeaee eiia?eth aieaa nia?aiaiiie, aaee e oe?aieaieth
iiia?oee. Yoie aea oeaee neoaeee e caeiiii?iaeo i aaaaeaiee anaiauaai
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey a no?aia.

Iaeiaei ana yoe i?iaeou ano?aoeee iaeanoi/aiiia nii?ioeaeaiea
ainiiaenoaothueo eeannia. Oieueei a iaoeeiiaeueiii aii?ina iaaeaeo
Noieuieiui e ieie ?aciiaeaney ionoonoaiaaee. Aie?oa eo?na i?aaeoaeuenoaa
?acai?aeanue ino?ay ai?ueaa. Ieeieae II anoae a eiioea eiioeia ia
noi?iio i?aauo. Ii iianaeny, /oi ?aoi?iu a eiia/iii eoiaa iinoaayo iiae
aii?in naii nouanoaiaaiea iiia?oee. A i?eaeai?iuo e?oaao caaiai?eee ia
ionoaaea Noieuieia. ?acaycea auea o?aae/aneie – 1 naioya?y 1911 a.
I. A. Noieuiei aue nia?oaeueii ?aiai a Eeaaa aaaioii io?aiu
Ae. A. Aia?iaui, i?e i?anooiiii iiionoeoaeuenoaa aunoeo /eiia iieeoeee.
Aeaaeue Noieuieia icia/aea, /oi aeanoue, naeaeaa oaa ia iooe
i?aia?aciaaiey iiia?oee a ao?aeoaceth, ioeacaeanue io i?aaeuaeoueo
?aoi?i.

5. I?e/eiu iaoaea/ ?aoi?iaoi?ia

N?aaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae iineaaeieo eao nouanoaiaaiey
?inneeneie eiia?ee N. TH. Aeooa auaeaeyeny iaiau/iui i?aaiaoeciii,
a?aie/eaoei n iieeoeeainoaii. I?aaiaoeci Aeooa aue ia oieueei
io?aaeaieai naienoa aai ee/iinoe, ii e yaeaieai a?aiaie. Aeooa iieacae
naay auaeathueiny ianoa?ii eaoaoue ?aniiecoeeny iieeoe/aneee ?aaeei,
ia?aaeaeay aai io ?aaeeeaeueiiai iaiiaeaiey. Ii iiiaia naeaeae aeey
oiai, /oiau i?iaeeeoue aae noa?ie aeanoe, iaeiaei aue ia a neeao
i?eniiniaeoue ioaeeaooth naia nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e
iiaui ioiioaieyi e einoeoooai e i?ioeainoiyoue anoanoaaiiiio oiaeo
aauae.

Iieeoeea eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, i?iaiaeeiay Aeooa aac o/aoa aa?a?iie
iai?aaeaiiinoe yeiiiieee no?aiu, niinianoaiaaea oaeoaeaieth e?ecena
naeueneiai oicyenoaa ia ?oaaaea XIX – XX aaeia. ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ai anao no?aiao oei ca n/ao n?aaenoa, iaeiieaiiuo ia?aiia/aeueii a
naeueneii oicyenoaa. Oai, aaea yoio i?ioeann oae anoanoaaiiui e
ianiaoiui oaiiii, ii ia aue aieaciaiiui. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue auno?iai nea/ea
ieacaeanue /oanoaeoaeueiie. ?inney auea aeiaiiythuae no?aiie e
?aniea/eaaeanue ca yoi. Iiieiaiea yoie i?iaeaiu i?eoei e Aeooa iicaeii,
iiyoiio iiiuoea eni?aaeoue neooaoeeth auiaea oaea ia aeieth aai
i?aaiieea – I. A. Noieuieia.

Iaeiaei, no?aia a ia?eiae noieuieineeo ?aoi?i ia?aaeeaaea
?aaiethoeeiiiue e?ecen. Noiyiea ia ianoa eee iieo?aoi?iu ia iiaee
?aoeoue neooaoeeth, a oieueei iaiai?io ?anoe?yee ieaoeaea?i aeey ai?ueau
ca ea?aeeiaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey. Oieueei oie/oiaeaiea oea?neiai ?aaeeia
e iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey iiaee eciaieoue oiae niauoee, ia?u,
eioi?ua i?aaei?eiye Noieuiei a oiaea naieo ?aoi?i auee iieiaei/aouie.
Aeaaiue aea e?ao ?aoi?i Noieuieia ninoieo a oii, /oi ii oioae
inouanoaeoue ?ai?aaiecaoeeth aiaaeaiie?aoe/aneei iooai e aii?aee aio.
No?oaa ienae:” Eiaiii aai aa?a?iay iieeoeea ninoieo a e?e/auai
i?ioeai?a/ee n aai inoaeueiie iieeoeeie. Ii eciaiyao yeiiiie/aneee
ooiaeaiaio no?aiu, a oi a?aiy eae any inoaeueiay iieeoeea no?aieony
nio?aieoue a aiciiaeii aieueoae iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneoth
“iaaeno?ieeo” e eeoue neaaea oe?aoaao aa oanaae” [9].

Eiia/ii aea Noieuiei aue auaeathueiny aeayoaeai e iieeoeeii, ii i?e
nouanoaiaaiee oaeie nenoaiu, eioi?ay auea a ?innee, ana aai i?iaeou
“?aneaeuaaeenue” i iaiiieiaiea eee i iaaeaeaiea iiiyoue anth aaaeiinoue
aai ia/eiaiee. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi aac oao /aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa, oaeeo
eae: niaeinoue, oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue, iaii?enoinoue, iieeoe/aneia
/oouea, oeo?inoue – Noieuieio a?yae ee oaeaeinue naeaeaoue oioue
eaeie-oi aeeaae a ?acaeoea no?aiu.

I?e/ei e?aoa ?aoi?i auei ianeieueei: i?ioeaiaeaenoaea e?anoueyinoaa,
iaaeinoaoie auaeaeyaiuo n?aaenoa ia caieaono?ienoai e ia?anaeaiea,
ieioay i?aaiecaoeey caieaono?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio, iiaeuai ?aai/aai
aeaeaeaiey a 1910-1914 aa. Ii aeaaiie i?e/eiie auei nii?ioeaeaiea
e?anoueyinoaa i?iaaaeaieth iiaie aa?a?iie iieeoeee.

N?aco aea iinea ieii/aiey ?aaiethoeee 1905-1907 aiaeia niauoey i?eiyee
nianai ia oio iai?io, ia eioi?ue ?ann/eouaae Noieuiei. ?aaiethoeey
?aciaea/eea oea?neee no?ie, iooieeioea io iaai ii/oe ana eeannu. E
oieueei eeann iiiaueeia a naiai ia?iiiii aieueoeinoaa inoaaaeny ia
noi?iia i?aayuaai ?aaeeia, oieueei ia iaai yoio ?aaeei iia n
oaa?aiiinoueth iia?aoueny. Niioaaonoaaiii aic?inea caaeneiinoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa io iano?iaiee iiiaueeia. A iineaaeiea auno?i iiiiieeenue
io no?aoa e ?aoeee, /oi aeeciue aioea a i?aaeithth eieath e ie/aai ia
ioaeii a iae iaiyoue. Eae ieoao Nieaeaieoeui [1], i?aaui e?oaai e
aiaoiei noa?ai Noieuiei aue ioaeai aeey ai?ueau n ?aaiethoeeae, a eiaaea
?aaiethoeey ioioea, “iieeoeea Noieuieia noaea ei anai iaoa?ieia e
iaaiciiaeia”.

E aua iaeia i?e/eia i?iaaea ?aoi?i – ?aoi?iaoi?u, oaaaeaeaiiua a
i?aaeeueiinoe naieo i?iaeoia, ia n/eoaee ianoiyoaeueii iaiaoiaeeiui
oaaaeeoue a yoii ia?iae, e?anoueyinoai, eioi?ua, ii eo iiaieth, ii naiae
“iaeoeueoo?iinoe” ia niciaaaei nianoaaiiie iieuecu. Noieuieineay
i?ia?aiia auea “?aaiethoeeae naa?oo”, eioi?oth ia iiaeaea?aeeaaee ie
iaeei e?oiiue iauanoaaiiue eeann, ie iaeia ia?oey eee iauanoaaiiay
i?aaiecaoeey.

Iineaaeothuee ia?eiae iieacae, ianeieueei ianeo/aeiie auea
ianiiniaiinoue Noieuieia eniieueciaaoue neeo ainoaea?noaa a aeaea
i?aia?aciaaiey ?innee – ca inoaaoeany aei e?aoa eiia?ee aiaeu ia auei ie
iaeiiai ae?oaiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, enoiaeyuaai io i?aayueo e?oaia,
nouanoaaiii eciaieoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee.

6. Caeeth/aiea: O?iee ?aoi?i

E?ao ?aoi?i, iaaiciiaeiinoue n?anoeoue oioaeeoa?eci e aaoi?eoa?eci n
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, e?ao eo?na ia e?anoueyieia – oa?ia?a noae o?ieii
aeey aieueoaaeeia, eioi?ua i?aaeii/ee iia?aoueny ia eieoicu.

Iooue Noieuieia, iooue ?aoi?i, iooue i?aaeioa?auaiey ieoya?y 17 aiaea
aue ioaa?aioo. E oaie, eoi ?aaiethoeee ia oioae. E oaie, eoi e iae
no?aieeny.

*oi aea iu iiaeai ii/a?iiooue ec iiuoa iaoeo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia?

Ai-ia?auo, iiieiaiea oiai, /oi enoi?ey iiaoi?yaony. ?acaa ia oa aea
i?ioeannu eaeoo a iaoae Aeoia, /oi e ia ?oaaaea i?aaeuaeoueo aaeia –
iooi?aeaiea caeiia i /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, ioe?uoua
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea auneacuaaiey, iai?eyoea i?ia?anneaiuo caeiiia e
ia/eiaiee e o.ae.? A aeaenoaey “?aoi?iaoi?neiai” i?aaeoaeuenoaa – oa aea
iieo?aoi?iu, a ia naiii aeaea – eo ionoonoaea, oi aea iaaeaeaiea
aiai?eoue n ia?iaeii (ii ia iieiao!), oi aea i?aiaa?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiie
iieeoeeie.

Ai-aoi?uo, iiieiaiea oiai, /oi enoi?e/aneee iiuo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaen/a?iaaiue enoi/iee oeaiiaeoae eioi?iaoeee: eiie?aoii- enoi?e/aneeo
i?eia?ia. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i ?aoi?iaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi iiaeii n
oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi ia iniiaa yoeo i?eia?ia iiaeii a eaeie – oi
ia?a i?eaeeceoueny e iiieiaieth ?aoi?i nia?aiaiiuo, a a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
neo/ayo e i?aaeneacaoue, ni?iaiice?iaaoue i?eioeeieaeueiua iai?aaeaiey
eo ?acaeoey a aoaeouai.

Iiaeao ana-oaee iii?iaoai o/eoueny ia /oaeeo, a ia ia naieo ioeaeao?

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aeyeei A. N. Aue ee oain o Noieuieia?, Caacaea, 12, 1990.

Ei?aeei A. I. E?aoeia iiniaea ii enoi?ee, Iineaa: “Aunoay oeiea”, 1992.

Yeaeaeueiai I. “?aaiethoeey naa?oo” a ?innee, Iineaa: “Eieaa”, 1989.

Aie. I. A. Noieuiei, Iineaa: “Nia?aiaiiee”, 1992.

Iiiia A. I noieuieineie ?aoi?ia, Iaoea e aeeciue, N , 199 .

Ioa/anoaaiiay Enoi?ey (Enoi?ey ?innee n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei 1917 a.),
Iineaa: “Aieueoay ?inneeneay yioeeeeiiaaeey”, 1994.

Aiaiueei A. A., ?. O. Aaiaeei. Na?aae THeueaae/ Aeooa, Aii?inu enoi?ee,
8, 1990.

Ea?aineee A. O. ?inney ia enoi?e/aneii iiai?ioa, Aii?inu enoi?ee, 6 – 8,
1990.

Noieuiei I. A.  Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney, nai?iee ?a/ae, Iineaa:
“Iieiaeay Aaa?aeey”, 1991.

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