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Aiaeeoe/aneay ?aaioa ii Enoi?ee Ioa/anoaa.

Oaia:

Eaeea eciaiaiey i?iecioee a nioeeaeueiie no?yeoy?a ?inneeneiai iauanoaa
a 17- 18aa.? Iaciaeoa iniiaiua nineiaey e eaeeie aeieyiaioaie
?aaeaiaioe?iaaeinue eo nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea?

Auiieiee : Ei?ieeia I.

Niaea?aeaiea:

1. Couanoaiaaee ee nineiaey a ?innee?;

2. Cineiaey, eo no?aoeoeeaoeey;

3. Eoiae io aannineiaiiai iauanoaa e nineiaiiio.

Nouanoaiaaee ee nineiaey a ?innee?

A aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?inneeneie enoi?eia?aoee auei auneacaii ianeieueei
oi/ae c?aiey ia nioeeaeueiue no?ie a ?innee, iaeioi?ua ec eioi?uo
ioee/aeenue ae?oa io ae?oaa aeoeaioaie, aeaoaeyie. Aano?aae?oynue io
ithainia, ionoue aaaeiuo, eo iiaeii naanoe e aeaoi eiioeaioeeyi.
Niaeanii ia?aie e 18a. Anoanoaaiiui e i?aaie/aneei ioo?i, a oiaea
nioeeaeueiiai, iieeoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu
noi?ie?iaaeny nineiaiue no?ie. Ainoaea?noai niaeaenoaiaaei oi?ie?iaaieth
nineiaee ?iaii ianoieueei, ianeieueei yoi o?aaiaaeinue a oiaea
iauaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey niauoee. AEaeiaaiiua a?aiiou aeai?yinoa e ai?iaeai
1785a. Iiaeaaee th?eaee/aneee eoia a yoii caeiiiia?iii i?ioeann. Aoi?ay
eiioeaioeey ioee/aeanue io ia?aie oai, /oi n/eoaea nineiaiue no?ie a
?innee o?oieie, iaaeieaiaa/iie e eneonnoaaiiie no?oeoo?ie, nicaeaiiie a
?acoeueoaoa iiiuoie ainoaea?noaa «i?eaeoue e ?onneie aeecie ia/aea
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea, /oaeaeua ?onneie enoi?ee». Eae aeaeei, noi?iiieee
aeaiiie oi/ee c?aiey oaeaea ia io?eoeatho oiai, /oi a oa/aiea aieueoae
/anoe eiia?aoi?neiai ia?eiaea a ?innee nouanoaiaaee nineiaey, ionoue e
eneonnoaaiii nicaeaiiua.

A niaaoneie enoi?eia?aoee nineiaey o?aeoiaaeenue, eae
«nioeeaeueii-i?aaiaua a?oiiu, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo ioee/aeanue naiei
th?eaee/aneei iieiaeaieai, ii?aaeaeaiiuie i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie a
iauanoaa; a ?acaeoii, neiaeeaoainy aeaea nineiaey oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue
ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth, ioiineoaeueiie caieiooinoueth, iniciaaaee naia
aaeeinoai, cae?aieaiiia a iauaainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa».

A iiaaeoae aia?eeaineie enoi?eia?aoee auneacaii ianeieueei iiaiee i
nioeeaeueiii no?ia ?inneeneiai iauanoaa eiia?aoi?neiai ia?eiaea.
I.Eiioeii iieaaaao, /oi nineiaee a ?innee ieeiaaea ia nouanoaiaaei, a
iauanoai aeaeeeinue ia iiiai/eneaiiua nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu. Aieueoeinoai
caiaaeiuo enoi?eeia a iiieiaiee nineiaiiai no?iy neeiiythony e iaeiiio
ec aa?eaioia ainoaea?noaaiiie oeieu, iieaaay, /oi nineiaey auee nicaeaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth a ?innee a oa/aiea 18a., iieo/eee ia?aia
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ioi?ieaiea aeaeiaaiiuie a?aiioaie aeai?yinoao e
ai?iaeai a 1785a.

Oaeei ia?acii, ca eneeth/aieai Eiioeii, enneaaeiaaoaee ?acee/iuo,
iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eaioaoeee i?eciatho a ?innee a 18 aaea, nineiaiiai
no?iy, oioy iiiaea aiai?yo i aai eneonnoaaiiinoe e i?eioeeieaeueiii
ioee/ee io caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iiaeaee. Iiyoiio, a oaeaea e a neeo oiai,
/oi ?onneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?eciaaaei nouanoaiaaiea nineiaee, a
ianniaia niciaiea i?eieiaei nineiaioth ia?aaeeaio, aiaeec nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?u oeaeaniia?acii i?iaiaeeoue eiaiii a nineiaiii ?ac?aca, ii
nia/aea ioaeii ioaaoeoue ia neaaeothuee aii?in: ianeieueei ?onneay
iiaeaeue nineiaiinoe niioaaonoaiaaea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie iiaeaee?

Anee i?eiaieoue e?eoa?ee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai nineiaey e nioeeaeueiui
a?oiiai ?innee ia?aie iieiaeiu 17a., oi ieaaeaony, /oi a ?innee a yoi
a?aiy aua ia nouanoaiaaei nineiaee. Ai-ia?auo, oioy ?acee/iua a?oiiu
ianaeaiey ioee/aeenue naiei nioeeaeueiui noaoonii, ii yoi ?acee/ea auei
nei?aa oaeoe/aneei, /ai th?eaee/aneei. Ai-aoi?uo, nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu
?acee/aeenue ia noieueei ii i?aaai, neieueei iaycaiiinoyie a ioiioaiee e
ainoaea?noao: iaeie neoaeeee aio ee/ii, ae?oaea ieaoeee iaeiae e ianee
iiaeiiinoe, eee oyaei, o?aouee ia ianee ie ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau, ie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oyaea. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio iauanoai ?acaeaeeeinue ia
o?e ninoiyiey:

1. neoaeeeua ethaee, eee /eiu neoaeeeua;

2. oyaeua ethaee, eee /eiu caineea, eee aeeeaoeeea ethaee;

3. iaoyaeua ethaee. Iie a naith i/a?aaeue iiae?acaeaeythony ia
ianeieueei ?ac?yaeia, niaaeeiyaoeo neoaeeeuo e oyaeuo ethaeae
iaoeiaeiuie ia?aoiaeaie.

Neoaeeeua ethaee ia ia?aciauaaee nineiaey. Iaaeaeo ieie ia nouanoaiaaei
nineiaiiai ?aaainoaa e ei?ii?aoeaiiai aaeeinoaa: iie iauaaeeiyeenue a
iiiai/eneaiiua neoaeaaiua ?ac?yaeu, iaei iaaeaeo niaie naycaiiua; aeaaea
iaaeaeo /eaiaie iaeiiai ?ac?yaea iinoiyiii nouanoaiaaee nii?u i
neoaeaaiii noa?oeinoaa, /oi ia niaianoeii n nineiaiui no?iai.
I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e neoaeeeui ethaeyi ii?aaeaeyeinue iaoiaeaeaieai ia
i?eaeai?iie, aiaiiie eee a?aaeaeaineie neoaeaa, a ia iaee/eai
iioiinoaaiiuo i?aa. Iaee/ea i?eaeeaaee ii?aaeaeyeinue neoaeaie, anee
/aeiaae inoaaeye neoaeao, ii oa?ye e i?eaeeaaee. Aei na?aaeeiu 17 a.
Neoaeeeuie ethaeueie iiaee noaoue eae iaoyaeua ethaee (oieiiu), oae e
i?aaenoaaeoaee oyaeuo ethaeae ( e?anoueyia, iinaaeneea ethaee e ae?.).
Eoeueoo?iua noaiaea?ou auee aaeeiuie aeey anao nioeeaeueiuo a?oii,
aeeth/ay e aunoee «/ei» aiy?noai.

Oyaeua ethaee oaeaea ia ia?aciauaaee nineiaey. Aeaa aeaaiuo i?eciaea
oyaeiai ninoiyiey – oieaoa ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeiaia e auiieiaiea
iiaeiiinoae e i?ee?aieaiea e ainoaea?noaaiiie e iinaaeneie iaueia – ia
yaeyeenue i?eciaeaie nineiaey. Iinaaeneea ethaee – oyaeia ianaeaiea
eaaeaeiai ai?iaea – ninoaaeyee oyaeoth iaueio ia oao aea iniiaaieyo, eae
e e?anoueyinoai a aieinoe: i?ee?aieaiea e ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa, iaueiiia
aeaaeaiea caieae, e?oaiaay ii?oea a oieaoa iaeiaia e ianaiee
iiaeiiinoae, auai?iia naiioi?aaeaiea. Iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e iinaaeneeie
ia auei ?acee/ee a i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo, e aeaaea nai ai?iae ia yaeyeny
ioaeaeueiie aaeieieno?aoeaiie aaeeieoeae. Ia?aoiaeu ec iaeiiai ?ac?yaea
oyaeiai ianaeaiey a ae?oaie auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu e caaenaee io
ia?aiai a eiouanoaaiiie ninoiyoaeueiinoe e caiyoeyo /aeiaaea.

Aua iaiaa aaeeinoaa eiaeinue n?aaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaoyaeuo ethaeae,
oae eae iie aeeth/aee aieueiuo, eee aoeyueo, ethaeae, auaoeo ee/ii
naiaiaeiuie, e oieiiia, iaoiaeeaoeony a ee/iie caaeneiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, Iineianeia ainoaea?noai yaeyeinue ainoaea?noaii
aaneeanniaui e aannineiaiui, o.e. nouanoaiaaaoea a oi a?aiy nioeeaeueiua
a?oiiu ia iiaeoiaeeee e auoa noi?ioee?iaaiiui i?eciaeai eeanna e
nineiaey. Iaycaiiinoe a ioiioaiee e ainoaea?noao, aieueoay eee iaiueoay
eiouanoaaiiay ninoiyoaeueiinoue, aeaeu eiouanoaa e caiyoey auee iaeaieaa
aaaeiuie ioee/eoaeueiuie i?eciaeaie ?acee/iuo ?ac?yaeia neoaeeeuo,
oyaeuo e iaoyaeuo ethaeae ii, eae yoi ie ia?aaeienaeueii, iie
o/anoaiaaee a ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, /oi
i?eiaieoaeueii e 17 a., anaaaea ?anniao?eaaaony enoi?eeaie eae
aaaeiaeoee i?eciae nineiaey. Nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu i?eia?aoaee e ae?oaea
i?eciaee nineiaey: ianeaaenoaaiiinoue nioeeaeueiiai noaoona; ?acee/ey a
i?aaao, oioy oieueei oaeoe/aneia; iaee/ea ei?ii?aoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee
(iai?eia?, iaueiu o oyaeuo ethaeae); naiioi?aaeaiea. N ia/aea 17 a.
iaiaoeeanue oaiaeaioeey e eiinieeaeaoeee nioeeaeueiuo a?oii a nineiaey.
A aeoao e a?aiioao, i?eiyouo ia caineeo niai?ao 17 a., iau/ii
oeacuaaeenue oa «/eiu», eioi?ua i?enoonoaiaaee ia canaaeaieyo e
iiaeaaaee naia iiaiea. Ia?a/aiue 6-8 /eiia a ii?yaeea nooiiae
ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoeu ia?aoiaeee n iaaieueoeie aa?eaoeeyie ec iaeiiai
aeoa a ae?oaie, i?eia?aoay oa?aeoa? yoaeiia. Eiiaaea yoe /eiu
naiaeeeenue a onoie/eainoue iiiaieeaoo?u /eiia iiaeao
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i ia?a?anoaiee « /eiiaiiai» no?iy a nineiaiue.
Iaeiaei iinoiyiiay ae?iaiinoue yoeo a?oii aiai?eo i oii, /oi i?ioeann
eiinieeaeaoeee nioeeaeueiuo a?oii a nineiaey a na?aaeeia 17a. aue
aanueia aeaeae io caaa?oaiey.

Oeiaeaiea 1649a. yaeyeinue aaaeiui ?oaaaeii a ?acaeoee nineiaiiai no?iy
a ?innee. Anee aei yoiai a?aiaie ioaeaeueiua nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu
?acee/aeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii iaycaiiinoyie, oi oaia?ue – oaeaea
cae?aieaiiuie a caeiia i?aaaie. Oeiaeaiea i?aaenoaaeei ei i?aeiouanoaa,
eee i?eaeeaaee, a iinoiyiiia e ianeaaenoaaiiia iaeaaeaiea n oeaeueth
cae?aieoue ca ieie iinoiyiiua ainoaea?noaaiiua iaycaiiinoe e iinoiyiiia
ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa. Ee/iia caieaaeaaeaiea noaei eneeth/eoaeueiui i?aaii
anao neoaeeeuo ethaeae, aeaaeaiea e?aiinoiuie – i?aaii oieueei
iioiinoaaiiuo neoaeeeuo ethaeae (neoaeeeuo ii ioa/anoao). Aeooiaainoai
iieo/eei eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia ?aeeaeicioth aeayoaeueiinoue.
Iinaaeneei auei i?enaiaii eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia caiyoea oi?aiaeae,
?aianeii e i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a /a?oa ai?iaea, a caieaaeaeue/aneee o?oae
noae i?aaii e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey, oioy e iaeneeth/eoaeueiui i?aaii,
o.e. iinaaeneei ia cai?auaeinue caieiaoueny naeueneei oicyenoaii. I?aaa,
iieo/aiiua a 17 a., ioaeaeueiuie nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie, noaee a 18a.
aaaeiui oaeoi?ii i?aa?auaiey eo a nineiaey.

Aoi?ui oaeoi?ii, niinianoaiaaaoei ?acaeoeth nineiaiiai no?iy, iineoaeeei
iiiyoea /eiiaiie /anoe. *aeiaae i?e iaianaiee aio inei?aeaiey aeaenoaeai
eee neiaii, /oi iacuaaeinue aan/anoueai, eiae i?aai ia iaoa?eaeueioth
eiiiainaoeeth niioaaonoaaiii aai /eio eee ia auaea/o inei?aeoaey
aieiaie, o.a. ia ieeinoue inei?aeaiiiai.

O?aoueei oaeoi?ii ?acaeoey nineiaiinoe neoaeeei ia?aie/aiea nioeeaeueiie
iiaeeueiinoe, ianeaaenoaaiiia i?ee?aieaiea nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e
caiyoeth, neoaeaa ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?eia?aoaaiua
eie i?aaa i?aa?auaeenue a ianeaaenoaaiiua.

I?ioeann ia?aciaaiey nineiaee a 18 aaea iioae aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie
iiae aeeyieai nineiaiiai no?iy, nouanoaiaaaoaai a 18a. a no?aiao
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iineoaeeei aaaeiie i?e/eiie oiai,
/oi ?inney e eiioeo 18a. n oi/ee c?aiey nineiaiiai no?iy auea iioiaea ia
nia?aiaiiua aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?noaa 18a., aaea ii oaea ?ac?ooaeny, a ia
ia caiaaeiue nineiaiue no?ie 13-15aa. a iiiaio aai ?anoeaaoa. I?e Iao?a
I ec neoaeeeuo ethaeae ii ioa/anoao ia/aei neeaaeuaaoueny oeyooeineia
eee aeai?yineia nineiaea, ec iinaaeneeo – iauaineia eee a?aaeaeaineia,
ec iecoeo ?ac?yaeia neoaeeeuo ethaeae e ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi –
nineiaea eacaiiuo e?anoueyi, ec /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneeo e?anoueyi e
oieiiia – e?aiinoiia nineiaea, ec aaeiai e /a?iiai aeooiaainoaa –
aeooiaiia nineiaea. A oea?noaiaaiea Iao?a I ca nineiaeyie nio?aieeanue
iaycaiiinoue neoaeeoue ainoaea?noao. Ii Aeaoa?eia II naieie aeaeiaaiiuie
a?aiioaie aeai?yinoao e ai?iaeai iuoaeanue nicaeaoue nineiaea, ia
oieueei ii oi?ia, ii e ii aeooo noiaeea n caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeie
nineiaeyie. E yoi, eae iu aeaeei aeaeaa, ae a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
oaeaeinue. Iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iaaaeaiiua ?aoi?iu Aeaoa?eiu II iieiaeeee
nineiaiue i?eioeei a iniiao anaai ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey e noaeiono?ienoaa,
i?eaeaa aio ia?iiiia ainoaea?noaaiiia cia/aiea.

Aeaaea iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey nineiaiie ia?aaeeaiu, ia aiai?y oaea i aieaa
?aiiai a?aiaie, eaaeaeiai ec /aou?ao nineiaee, eae iii ii?aaeaeyeinue a
caeiia, ieeiaaea ia ninoaaeyei aaeeiiai oeaeiai, a iiae?acaeaeyeinue ia
?ac?yaeu, aanueia ?acee/iua ii naiaio th?eaee/aneiio iieiaeaieth.
Aeai?yinoai ?acaeaeyeinue ia 2 ?ac?yaea – iioiinoaaiiia e ee/iia,
ai?iaeneia nineiaea – ia iyoue, aeooiaainoai – ia ianeieueei ii
aa?ieniiaaaeaieyi, e?anoueyinoai – ia ianeieueei ?ac?yaeia. Ianiio?y ia
yoi, a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee /aou?ao/eaiiay nineiaiay ia?aaeeaia
nouanoaiaaea aeinoaoi/ii /aoei e n oi/ee c?aiey i?anoeaea e
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiinoe nineiaey ?aiaee?iaaeenue neaaeothuei ia?acii:
aeai?yinoai – aeooiaainoai – ai?iaeneia nineiaea – e?anoueyinoai.
Aeaiiay no?aoeoeeaoeey iauanoaa iniiauaaeanue ia ia oi/iie ioeaiea
eaeiai – eeai iaeiiai «ia?aiao?a» /aeiaaea, a eiaea a aeaeo iiiaea
aniaeou: nianoaaiiinoue, aeanoue, ineoieiae/aneia oaeiaeaoai?aiea, ianoi
aeeoaeuenoaa, ?aeeaeth e o.i.

Nineiaey e eo no?aoeoeeaoeey.

Aeai?yinoai

Aeai?yinoai a ia?aie /aoaa?oe 18 aaea ia?aciaaeinue ec aunoeo ?ac?yaeia
neoaeeeuo ethaeae Iineianeiai ia?eiaea, eioi?ue iaoiaeeeenue ia
i?eaeai?iie, aiaiiie e a?aaeaeaineie neoaeaa e eiaee caaiea «neoaeeeuo
ethaeae ii ioa/anoao», o.a. auee ai-ia?auo, ianeaaenoaaiii-neoaeeeuie
ethaeueie, caianaiiuie a ?ac?yaeiua eieae 17 a. E Aa?oaoioth eieao
1687a., e , ai-aoi?uo, caieaaeaeueoeaie. Aeai?yinoai i?aa?aoeeinue a
nineiaea iinoaiaiii. Aaaeiaeoeie aaoaie yoie o?ainoi?iaoeee yaeyeenue
1714, 1719, 1762, 1766, 1775, e 1785aa. A 1714a., oea?neei oeacii
aeai?yineea iiianouey – oneiaiua aeaaeaiey auee ia?auaiu a
nianoaaiiinoue aeai?yi – a aio/eiu. A 1719a. ia?niiaeueii ca eaaeaeui
aeai?yieiii auee iaaa/ii cae?aieaiu ana e?anoueyia, aeeaoea a aai
iiianouea, a aai i?aaa iaae e?anoueyiaie auee nouanoaaiii oaaee/aiu: iie
i?eaeeceeenue e oai i?aaai, eioi?ua aei oie ii?u eiae ainiiaeei a
ioiioaiee naiaai oieiia, /oi iinoaaeei e?anoueyieia ia a?aiue
iiiaue/ueae nianoaaiiinoe. I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e i?aaa ia
e?anoueyi auee ii-i?aaeiaio iaoneiaeaiu neoaeaie, ii oaia?ue a oii
niunea, /oi ?anii?yaeaoueny iiianoueai eae naiae nianoaaiiinoueth e
aeaaeaoue aeeaoeie a iae e?anoueyiaie aeai?yia iiaee a oii neo/aa, anee
iie iaoiaeeeenue ia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa eee a caeiiiie ionoaaea. A
neo/aa ioeeiiaiey io neoaeau aac iaaeeaaeauae i?e/eiu iiianouea e
ainoaea?noai ioae?aeenue a iieueco ainoaea?noaa. Iaieoanoii 1762a.
aeai?yia auee inaiaiaeaeaiu io iaycaoaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau
(oieueei a neo/aa aieiu ana aeai?yia iiaee auoue i?ecaaiu ia aiaiioth
neoaeao) e iaycaoaeueiinoe iao/aiey n nio?aiaieai ca ieie ia i?aaao
nianoaaiiinoe iiianouey e e?anoueyi. A 1766 a. aeai?yia i?eia?aee i?aai
eiaoue ei?ii?aoeaioth i?aaiecaoeeth, i?aai eiaoue nineiaiue aeai?yineee
noae e eiiieaeoiaaoue ec naiae n?aaeu iooai auai?ia ei?iiioth oacaeioth
i?aaiecaoeeth. A 1785a. AEaeiaaiiay a?aiioa ia i?aaa, aieueiinoe e
i?aeiouanoaa aeaai?iaeiiio ?inneeneiio aeai?yinoao nenoaiaoece?iaaea e
iiaeoaa?aeeea ana iieo/aiiua i?aaeaea aeai?yinoaii i?aaa e aeiaaaeea
iiaua, a /anoiinoe, auee ia?aciaaiu naiioi?aaeythuaany aoaa?ineia
aeai?yineia iauanoai e aoaa?ineia aeai?yineia nia?aiea, eioi?ia iieo/eea
i?aaa th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. A?aiioa inaiaiaeeea aeai?yinoai io anao
iaeiaia, iiaeiiinoae e oaeaniuo iaeacaiee, onoaiiaeea aiaoiea i?eciaee
aeai?yineia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe – ioiaee?, oiaaa, ianoi a oea?eae, yeeiaae
e o.ae.. Aaaeiia ioee/ea AEaeiaaiiie a?aiiou io iaieoanoa 1762a.,
ninoiyea a oii, /oi iia ia inoaeaeaea oeeiiaiey io neoaeau e ia
i?aaiciineea neoaeauaai aeai?yieia, inoaaeyy ?aoaiea aii?ina neoaeeoue
eee ia neoaeeoue iieiinoueth ia oniio?aiea naiiai /aeiaaea. Oaeei
ia?acii, n 1785a. anaio aeai?yinoao, e oieueei aio, auee aea?iaaiu oeooe
aeaai?iaenoaa (aei Iao?a I i?eiaaeeaaeaaoee eeoue eeoeai oea?neie
oaieeee), i?aai eiaoue aa?a, aeaaeaoue caieae e e?aiinoiuie, caieiaoue
n?aaeiea e aunoea aeieaeiinoe a ei?iiiie aaeieieno?aoeee e a a?iee;
aeai?yinoai auei inaiaiaeaeaii io anao iaeiaia, iiaeiiinoae,
iaycaoaeueiie neoaeau e iauaaeeiyeinue a aoaa?ineea aeai?yineea iauanoaa
n i?aaaie naiioi?aaeaiey e th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. A ?acoeueoaoa aeai?yia
i?aa?aoeeenue a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia nineiaea e noaee acaeiii ?aaiu.

Aeaa aaaeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaa niioonoaiaaee iieo/aieth aeai?yiaie
nineiaiuo i?aa.

1- iie aeieai e oii?ii aeiaeaaeenue yoeo i?aa. Iniaia cia/aiea eiaee
iaoeoeee Aiia Eiaiiiaia a 1730a. e iaeacu aeai?yineei aeaiooaoai a
Eiiennee aeey ninoaaeaiey iiaiai Oeiaeaiey i?e Aeecaaaoa Iao?iaia e
Aeaoa?eia II. 2- th?eaee/aneiio ioi?ieaieth i?aa aei iaeioi?ie noaiaie
i?aaeoanoaiaaei oaeoe/aneia iaeaaeaiea yoeie i?aaaie. Oae, aeai?yinoai e
aei oeacia 1714 e 1719 aa. niaa?oaei naeaeee n iiianoueyie e
e?anoueyiaie, /oi noe?aei i?aaeaea /aoeoth a?aieoeo iaaeaeo iiianoueai e
aio/eiie, e ei?iiiay aaeieieno?aoeey niio?aea ia yoi nienoiaeeoaeueii.

Oacaeiay i?aaiecaoeey aeai?yinoaa nouanoaiaaea caaeieai aei 1775a. – a
16 -17aa., aeai?yia, aeeaoea a iaeiii oacaea, iauaaeeiyeenue a
ei?ii?aoeeth iiae iacaaieai «neoaeeeue ai?iae», a ?aieao yoie
i?aaiecaoeee neoaeeee e aeaeaee ea?uea?o. Oioy ei?ii?aoeey auea
i?aaeiacia/aia i?aaeoaeuenoaii aeey eiio?iey ca ianaieai aeai?yineie
neoaeau, ia i?aeoeea iia auiieiyea e ae?oaea nioeeaeueiua ooieoeee:
eniieueciaaeanue aeai?yinoaii aeey ionoaeaaiey naieo eioa?ania, aeey
aeaaeaiey ia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Io eiaie neoaeeeuo ai?iaeia aeai?yinoai
ia?auaeinue n i?ioaieyie e oea?th e iinueaei naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia
caineea niai?u. I?e Iao?a I oacaeiia aeai?yinoai noaei o/anoaiaaoue a
ianoiii oi?aaeaiee. Iii auae?aei aeai?yineea niaaou a iiiiuue ei?iiiiio
oacaeiiio aiaaiaea aeey oi?aaeaiey oacaeii, caineeo eiienna?ia n
?aciiia?aciuie iieeoeaeneeie iaycaiiinoyie a iiiiuue aoaa?iaoi?o. Oae
aeai?yinoai iinoaiaiii i?eia?aoaei aeeyiea a ianoiii oi?aaeaiee e
iaeioi?ua /a?ou naiioi?aaeaiey.

Aei 1762a. aaaeiaeoeie enoi/ieeaie aeai?yinoaa yaeyeanue neoaeaa e
?iaeaeaiea, n 1762a. ia ia?aia ianoi auoei ?iaeaeaiea. A 1785a.
aeiaaaeeenue iiaua niiniau i?eia?aoaiey aeai?yinoaa – i?aeai e
iiaeaeiaaiea ainoaea?ai. I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e aeai?yinoao
iiaeoaa?aeaeaeanue niaoeeaeueiui aeoii – aei 1785a – aianaieai a
Aa?oaoioth eieao, caaaaeaiioth a 1687a., a n 1785a. – aianaieai a
aoaa?ineea aeai?yineea eieae. Niaoeeaeueiia aa?ieueaeiaenoa?neia
o/?aaeaeaiea ?acae?aei ana aii?inu, naycaiiua n i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e
aeai?yinoao a iaua?inneeneii ianooaaa.

A aeai?yinoaa iinoaiaiii ?acaeaaeinue /oanoai aeai?yineie /anoe e
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e aeaai?iaeiiio nineiaeth, eioi?ia ai anai ioee/aaony
io ae?oaeo eeannia ianaeaiey. Aeaaea ?onneea i?inaaoeoaee e ienaoaee
18a. n/eoaee iaiaoiaeeiui i?ioeaiiinoaaeyoue ia?iae aeai?yinoao,
iieaaay, /oi aeai?yineay ii?aeue aeieaeia ioee/aoueny io ii?aee
e?anoueyineie, /oi aeai?yiei ai anao ioiioaieyo aeieaeai noiyoue auoa,
/ai i?inoiethaeei. E aeaenoaeoaeueii a oa/aiea 18 a. Aeai?yinoai oaa ca
oaaii io?uaaeinue ia?iaea, /aio a aieueoae noaiaie niinianoaiaaei e
i?aaeoaeuenoai. Aeai?yia noaee ioee/aoueny eiaiai e oaieeeae, ycueii e
ia?aciaaieai, iaia?aie e iaeaaeaeie, caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie i?eaioaoeeae e
iaioaeeoaoii.

Ia?aciaaiea aeai?yinoaa oaeaea i?eia?aei nineiaiue oa?aeoa?, e aeai?yia
noa?aeenue aeaoue ia?aciaaiea naiei aeaoyi a cae?uouo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaieyo, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo niaoeeaeueii aeey aeaai?iaeiiai nineiaey.
Oaea ia?aua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, ioe?uoua i?e Iao?a I, auee nineiaii
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiu: iiaeaioiaeo ioeoea?ia ec aeai?yinoaa iaania/eaaee
eaaeaoneea ei?iona, /eiiaieeia ec /enea i?eeaciuo ethaeae –
iiaeuey/aneea o/eeeua, nayuaiieeia ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeooiaainoaa –
aeooiaiua o/eeeua e naieia?ee. I?ioanneiiaeueii – nineiaiue oa?aeoa?
ia?aciaaiey nio?aiyeny a iniiaiii e a iineaaenoaee, /oi ieacaei aieueoia
aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea nineiaiiai no?iy.

Aieueooth ?ieue a i?aa?auaiee aeai?yinoaa a nineiaea ea?aea aaa?aeey,
iniaaiii a yiioo aeai?oeiauo ia?aai?ioia 1725-1762 aa. A aaa?aeee
neoaeee oeaao aeai?yinoaa, iiyoiio iia io?aaeaea e au?aaeaea eioa?anu e
o?aaiaaiey anae ei?ii?aoeee. Eiaiii a neeo yoiai a aaa?aeee
aue?enoaeeece?iaaeinue aeai?yineia naiiniciaiea, eioi?ia ec aaa?aeaeneeo
iieeia ?ani?ino?aieeinue ia ana ?inneeneia aeai?yinoai. O/anoea aaa?aeee
a aeai?oeiauo ia?aai?ioao iiauneei aa i?anoeae e oneeeei aa aeeyiea ia
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeaea, /oi iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeiyei ia iaauaaeoth
i?aaeaea aunioo e cia/aiea anaai aeai?yinoaa. Iii noaei /oanoaiaaoue
naay i?e/anoiui e i?eiyoeth aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aoaiee, io
eioi?uo caaenaea noaeueaa no?aiu. Iaeacu aeaiooaoai a Eiienneth aeey
ninoaaeaiey iiaiai Oeiaeaiey 1767a., ynii iieacaee, /oi aeai?yia a
oeaeii i?iieeioou niciaieai iauiinoe naieo eioa?ania, ninoaaeytho
aaeeiia oeaeia, /aoei ioaeaeytho naay io anao inoaeueiuo nineiaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, a 1785a. aeai?yinoai i?eia?aei ii/oe ana i?eciaee
nineiaey:

1.nineiaiua i?aaa auee cae?aieaiu a caeiia;

2. i?aaa yaeyeenue ianeaaenoaaiiuie e aaconeiaiuie;

3. aeai?yinoai eiaei nineiaioth i?aaiecaoeeth a aeaea oacaeiuo e
aoaa?ineeo aeai?yineeo nia?aiee;

4. iii iaeaaeaei nineiaiui niciaieai e iaioaeeoaoii;

5. aeai?yinoai eiaei i?aai ia naiioi?aaeaiea e o/anoea a ianoiii
oi?aaeaiee;

6. iii eiaei aiaoiea i?eciaee aeai?yineie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe.

Ii i?e/eia ionoonoaey a no?aia i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey o
aeai?yinoaa ia auei nineiaiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa i?e aa?oiaiie aeanoe.
Acaiai yoiai aeai?yinoai eiaei nineiaiue e iacaaeneiue io ei?iiiie
aaeieieno?aoeee noae , ecae?aei ec naiaai ninoaaa eeoe ia ei?iiioth
neoaeao a ianoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e eiaei i?aai iaoeoeee i naieo ioaeaeao
aunoae ei?iiiie aaeieieno?aoeee e naiiio ainoaea?th iin?aaenoaii
aae?ania e /a?ac niaoeeaeueii eca?aiiuo aeaiooaoia.

Aeooiaainoai

Noaiiaeaiea aeooiaiiai nineiaey i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoie eioa?an : iii
iaaeyaeii aeaiiino?e?oao, /oi a ?innee a 18 aaea ia?aciaaiea nineiaee
i?ienoiaeeei oiaea iauaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa, aieae e eieeaeoeaiuie
oneeeyie naieo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, ia oieueei i?e iiaeaea?aeee , ii e
eiiaaea aii?aee iaia?aieyi aunoae aeanoe. Nineiaiua i?aaa ia?aie/eaaee
aeanoue naiiaea?aeaaey, o.e. noaaeee iieiaeaiey nineiaee ia oaa?aeua
th?eaee/aneea iniiaaiey, iiyoiio ca i?aaa i?eoiaeeeinue ai?ioueny.

Aeooiaainoai ?acaeaeyeinue ia /a?iia, eee iiiaoanoaothuea, e aaeia, eee
i?eoiaeneia. N?aaee ?onneiai aeooiaainoaa ia aeieth iiiaoia
i?eoiaeeeinue ieiei 10 % anaai aeooiaainoaa, ii iie caieiaee eiiaiaeiua
iiceoeee a ?onneie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae. *a?iia aeooiaainoai
i?aaenoaaeyei niaie iniaoth i?ineieeo aioo?e aeooiaainoaa, eioi?ia, ia
aoaeo/e ianeaaenoaaiiui, ia auei e ia iiaei auoue nineiaeai. Iiyoiio
i?iua aoaeao ?anniio?aoue i?eoiaeneia aeooiaainoai.

A 17 aaea eee? oea?eae, ninoiyuee ec nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae e
oea?eiaiineoaeeoaeae, eee i?e/aoieeia ecae?aeny i?eoiaeaiaie. Auai?
nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae ooaa?aeaeaeny aieneiiaie iinea i?iaa?ee
eaaeeoeeaoeee eaiaeeaeaoia, io eioi?uo o?aaiaaeinue ciaiea a?aiiou,
Aeaeee e oea?eiaii neoaeau, a oaeaea iaeaaeaiea aieinii e
niioaaonoaothueie naio ii?aeueiuie ea/anoaaie, i?aaeaea anaai
o?acainoueth e ne?iiiinoueth iiaaaeaiey. O?aaiaaiey auee i?aeoe/anee
iaaaeeee, iiyoiio ni?aaeoueny n ieie iia i?aeoe/anee ethaie a?aiioiue
/aeiaae. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ninoaa aeooiaainoaa oai?aoe/anee iia iinoiyiii
iaiiaeyoueny ca n/ao i?eoiea ethaeae ec ae?oaeo neiaa ianaeaiey. E
iaiiaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaei ianoi, ii aai noaiaiue ia neaaeoao
i?aoaaee/eaaoue.

Anooieoue a ?yaeu aeooiaainoaa aeey ethaeae e?anoueyineeo e iinaaeneeo
auei iai?inoi ec-ca e?aeia neaaiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey a?aiioiinoe.
Aeai?yinoai aea , a n?aaea eioi?iai eiaeinue iaeaieueoaa /enei a?aiioiuo
ethaeae, ia no?aieeinue e ia?aoiaeo a aeooiaainoai. Ciaiea ia?yaeia,
nayuaiiuo eiea e oea?eiaiie neoaeau ec-ca iaaieueoiai /enea aeooiaiuo
oeie i?eia?aoaeinue a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa i?aeoe/aneei iooai. ssnii,
/oi e caeanue aeaoe eee?eeia eiaee ian?aaiaiii aieueoa aiciiaeiinoae
iaeaaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiuie iaaueaie n?aaieoaeueii n iinaaeneeie e
e?anoueyiaie. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 17 a. A nayce n ?aneieii ?onneie
i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, aucaaiiui ?aoi?iaie iao?ea?oa Ieeiia a oaeaea
ec-ca iianaiey, /oi a ninoaa aeooiaainoaa i?iieeioo ?aneieueieee,
o?aaiaaiey e eaiaeeaeaoai noaee iiauoaoueny. Aeooiaiua aeanoe i?e
ooaa?aeaeaiee eaiaeeaeaoia ioaeaaaee yaiia i?aaeii/oaiea aeaoyi
aeooiaainoaa. Oea?eiaiue niai? 1667a. i?yii inoaeee a?oea?aaa ca
iinoaaeaiea a nayuaiieee e aeueyeiiu ethaeae, ia i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e
aeooiaiiio caaieth. Naaoneea aeanoe oioy i?yii ia cai?auaee, ii
iaaaoeaii ioiineeenue e ia?aoiaeo e?anoueyi e iinaaeneeo a aeooiaainoai
ec-ca iaaeaeaiey oa?youe iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.

I?eoiaeneea iaueiu i?e auai?ao eaiaeeaeaoia ioaeaaaee i?aaeii/oaiea
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi aeooiaainoaa. I?e/eia i?inoay: i?eoiaeaia, naycaiiua
e?oaiaie ii?oeie a ianaiea iaeiaia e iiaeiiinoae, ia aeaeaee auae?aoue
aeooiaiuo eeoe ec naiae n?aaeu, iineieueeo ca /aeiaaea, ia?aoiaeyuaai a
ninoaa aeooiaainoaa ec e?anoueyi e iinaaeneeo, iaeiae aeieaeia auea
ieaoeoue aai iiaeaoiay iaueia.

*eneaiiinoue aeooiaiuo eeoe i?aainoiaeeea iauanoaaiioth a ieo
iio?aaiinoue, o.e. a n?aaea aeooiaainoaa nouanoaiaae i?aaeaeueii aunieee
anoanoaaiiue i?e?ino, /oi iauyniyeinue iaycaoaeueiui e ?aiiei
anooieaieai a a?ae e no?iaei cai?auaieai ethauo niiniaia ia?aie/aiey
?iaeaeaaiinoe. Iiyoiio aeooiaiua eeoea i?eieiaee ana aiciiaeiua ia?u,
/oiau cae?aieoueny ia iaeiii ianoa. A /anoiinoe, i?e caiyoee oea?eiaiiai
ianoa iie caeeth/aee n iaueiie aeiaiai?, a eioi?ii iaiaa?eaaeinue eo
i?aai ia iioiinoaaiiia aeaaeaiea aeiiii, i?eoea?eiaiie caieae e
oea?eiaiui aeioiaeii, o.a. oaeoe/anee i?aai ia ianeaaeiaaiea oea?eiaiie
eaoaae?u. Ia?aaeei nayuaiieee iieoiaee o i?eoiaeneeo iauei, oea?eiaiua
ianoa, eioi?ua aeaaiaea?y yoiio cae?aieyeenue ca ii?aaeaeaiiie naiueae e
noaiiaeeenue eae au aa nianoaaiiinoueth. Oae iaei-iiiaeo aianoa n
i?ioanneiiaeueiie ianeaaenoaaiiinoueth ?acaeaaeny iau/ae ianeaaeiaaiey
oea?eiaiuo iano. Ianeaaenoaaiiia aeaaeaiea oea?eiaiui ianoii oei a?ac?ac
n eaiiie/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie i?aaineaaey, iiyoiio oea?eiaiua aeanoe
aeieai ai?ieenue n yoei, ii aeeciaiiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa ieacuaaeenue /aua
anaai neeueiaa e canoaaeyee oea?eiaiua aeanoe niio?aoue ia yoi neaicue
iaeueoeu, a a eiioea eiioeia e i?eie?eoueny n yoei.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaea e eiioeo 17 a. I?eoiaeneia aeooiaainoai oaea
i?eia?aei oaeie aaaeiue i?eciae nineiaey, eae ianeaaenoaaiiinoue
nioeeaeueiiai noaoona e i?ioannee. Ii yoi ia auei aua cae?aieaii a
caeiia, a nouanoaiaaei eae oaeo e ii?ia iau/iiai i?aaa. A oa/aiea 18 a.
Aeooiaainoai i?eia?aei ae?oaea i?eciaee nineiaey, aeiaeeinue eo
th?eaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey e aeaaiaea?y yoiio ieii/aoaeueii i?aa?aoeeinue
a nineiaea. Ioaeii iiae/a?eiooue oi, /oi ia?aiia/aeueii yoi ieeae ia
aoiaeeei a iaia?aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iioiio /oi nineiaiua i?aaa caueuaee
aeooiaainoai io ei?iiiie aaeieieno?aoeee, a naiiaea?aeaaea a oa/aiea 18
a., iianaeinue aeooiaainoaa, o.e. aeaeaea a iai ne?uooth iiiiceoeeth
i?iaiaeeaoeiny ?aoi?iai ii aa?iiaecaoeee no?aiu. Oieueei iiae aeaaeaieai
iauaeoeaiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa e oea?eae iii onooieei e ?yaeii oeacia
th?eaee/anee ioi?ieei noeoeeii i?ioiaeeaoee i?ioeann i?aa?auaiey
aeooiaainoaa a nineiaea. Iineaaeiaa aei oiai caieioeinue aeey
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, a oea?eiaiay neoaeaa
ianoieueei naeaeaeanue aai eneeth/eoaeueiie i?eaeeaaeae, /oi
iinoi?iiiaio /aeiaaeo aanueia o?oaeii auei iiianoue aeaaea ia ianoi
oea?eiaiiai noi?iaea. ?aoathuoth ?ieue a yoi nua?aee 4 ?aoi?iu:

1.) ia?aie/aiea aeinooia e naiaiaeiiai auoiaea eo ninoaaa aeooiaainoaa;

2.) noaniaiey i?aaa auai?a i?eoiaeaiaie eee?a;

3.) o?aaiaaiea eiaoue niaoeeaeueiia aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea aeey
iinooieaiey ia aeooiaioth neoaeao;

4.) ocaeiiaiea i?aeoeee ianeaaenoaaiiinoe oea?eiaiuo aeieaeiinoae.

A oa/aiea 18 a. Aeooiaainoai i?eia?aei iniaua i?aaa, eioi?ua auee
cae?aieaiu a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A 1719a. iii auei inaiaiaeaeaii io
i?yiiai iaeiaa, a 1724 – 25aa. – io ?ae?ooneie iiaeiiinoe. N 1722a.
oieueei Neiiae a ea/anoaa niaoeeaeueiiai oea?eiaiiai noaea ?acae?ae ana
a?aaeaeaineea aeaea iaaeaeo aeooiaiuie eeoeaie e oaieiaiua i?anooieaiey,
e?iia naiuo oyaeeeo. Iineaaeiea, oae aea eae e a?aaeaeaineea aeaea
iaaeaeo aeooiaiuie e naaoneeie eeoeaie, ia/eiay n 1735a. ?acae?aeenue a
naaoneeo noaeao i?e iaycaoaeueiii i?enoonoaee iniauo aeaiooaoao io
aeooiaainoaa.

Aeooiaainoai ia iiaeieiaei ainnoaiee, ii ianoie/eai i?ineei, o?aaiaaei,
iieueciaaeinue ethaie aeaaii?eyoiie aiciiaeiinoueth, ee/iuie naycyie n
eiia?aoi?aie, /oiau aeiaeoueny i?aa, iiauneoue naie nioeeaeueiue noaoon
e caeiiiaeaoaeueii aai cae?aieoue. I?aaeoaeuenoai a oa/aiea anaai 18
aaea n/eoaeinue n Neiiaeii e oei ia onooiee, iiieiay eaeoth ia?iiioth
iianiinoue iiaeao i?aaenoaaeyoue aeooiaainoai a neo/aa aai a?aaeaeaaiiai
ioiioaiey e nouanoaothuaio ?aaeeio. A eiioea 18 a. Aeeyoaeueiua
aeooiaiua eeoea, iieuecoynue aeaaineeiiiui ioiioaieyi Iaaea I e oea?eae,
aeiaeeenue oiai, /oi aa?oiaiay aeanoue noaea ioia/aoue aeooiaainoai
iniauie iaa?aaeaie e ioee/eyie, /oi, o/eouaay niaoeeaeueioth iaeaaeaeo
aeooiaainoaa, niiauaei aio niaoeeoe/aneea aiaoiea i?eciaee.

Niaeanii o?aaeeoeeiiiiio acaeyaeo, neiaeeaoaiony a enoi?eia?aoee,
aeooiaainoai iinea iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i, oi?acaeiaiey iao?ea?oanoaa e
o/?aaeaeaiey Neiiaea a 1721a. ia eiaei naiae ei?ii?aoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee
e naiioi?aaeaiey, aai oea?eiaiay aaeieieno?aoeey yaeyeanue eioaa?aeueiie
/anoueth ei?iiiie aaeieieno?aoeee, a naia oea?eiaue – iaeiei ec
ainoaea?noaaiiuo einoeoooia, ninoaaiie /anoueth naiiaea?aeaaiiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy.

Iaeiaei a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ?onneay i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue yaeyeanue
iniaui einoeoooii, eioi?ue nouanoaiaae eae au ia?aeeaeueii
ainoaea?noaaiiui einoeoooai e iieueciaaeny cia/eoaeueiie aaoiiiieae.
Oea?eiaue yaeyeanue anee ia ainoaea?noaii a ainoaea?noaa, eae yoi auei
aei 18 a., oi, ii e?aeiae ia?a, noaiauanoaii a aieueoii iauanoaa. Iia
iaeaaeaea oaeie aaeieieno?aoeaiie e noaeaaiie i?aaiecaoeeae, eioi?ay
iicaieyea aeooiaainoao eiaoue naia iniaia oi?aaeaiea n aieueoie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, oioy aunoee i?aai oea?eiaiiai oi?aaeaiey –
Nayoaeoee i?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Neiiae n/eoaeny a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a,
yaeyeny ainoaea?noaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai, a naii oi?aaeaiea oea?eiaueth n
eiioea 18 a. no?ieeinue ia ath?ie?aoe/aneeo i?eioeeiao. Ioaeii
aeiaaaeoue, /oi aioo?aiieie nineiaiuie aeaeaie aeooiaainoaa oi?aaeyee
ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii aeooiaiua eeoea, /anoueth auae?aaiua, /anoueth
iacia/aaiua. Ana yoi aeaao iniiaaiea aeey ia?aaeienaeueiiai ia ia?aue
acaeyae caeeth/aiey, /oi a ?aieao anae ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu
aeooiaainoai eae nineiaea iieueciaaeinue naiioi?aaeaieai.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeooiaainoai e eiioeo 18 a., ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n
aeai?yinoaii, i?aa?aoeeinue ai aoi?ia naiaiaeiia nineiaea. Iineieueeo
noaei iaeaaeaoue anaie i?eciaeaie nineiaey. Aeaa i?eciaea – o/anoea a
nineiaii – i?aaenoaaeoaeueiii o/?aaeaeaiee e iaee/ea ei?ii?aoeaiie
i?aaiecaoeee – a ?inneeneeo oneiaeyo i?eiyee eioth oi?io, /ai yoi auei a
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao. Aeooiaainoai eiaei niaoeeoe/aneia
naiioi?aaeaiea e naiaia?aciia nineiaiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?e
aa?oiaiie aeanoe /a?ac aunoee i?aai oea?eiaiiai oi?aaeaiey Neiiae, a i?e
ianoiie ei?iiiie aeanoe – /a?ac aeooiaiua eiinenoi?ee. Iaiaoiaeeii
iniaaiii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?eia?aoaiea nineiaiuo i?aa iiiiaei aaeiio
aeooiaainoao ecaaaeoueny io e?aiinoie/anoaa a?oea?aaa a 1764a. Eiaiii
ai?ueaa ca ee/iia aeinoieinoai e naiaiaeo neoaeeei iiaoaeeoaeueiui
iioeaii no?aieaieai aeooiaainoaa noaoue nineiaeai.

Ai?iaeneia nineiaea

I?ienoiaeaeaiea ai?iaeneiai nineiaey, eioi?ia a oa/aiea eiia?aoi?neiai
ia?eiaea ianeieueei ?ac eciaiyei naia iacaaiea – iinaaeneia, a?aaeaeaia,
eoioeu, ai?iaeneea iauaaoaee, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, ooiaeeo a 17 a.,
eiaaea aai i?aaenoaaeoaee iacuaaeenue iinaaeneeie ethaeueie. Aaaeiay
?ieue a i?ioeanna eo i?aa?auaiey a nineiaea i?eiaaeeaaeaea Oeiaeaieth
1649a. Iii onoaiiaeei ai?iaeneea a?aieoeu, aieaa /aoei iainiaeei
iinaaeneeo e ae?oaeo eaoaai?ee ai?iaeneiai e naeueneiai ianaeaiey,
ianeaaenoaaiii i?ee?aieei eo e ai?iaeneie iaueia, i/a?oeei e?oa eo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaea, iaycaei ieaoeoue iaeiae e ianoe ?aciua
iaoo?aeueiua iiaeiiinoe, iiiiiieece?iaaei ca ieie oi?aiai –
i?iiuoeaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue a /a?oa ai?iaea, naieoeeiie?iaaei eo
iauaaeeiaiea a naiioi?aaeythueany ai?iaeneea iaueiu, naycaa anao /eaiia
e?oaiaie ii?oeie. Aeaa aaaeiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaa nii?iaiaeaeaee i?eiyoea
iiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ai-ia?auo, noaouee Oeiaeaiey, iinayuaiiua
iinaaeneiio ianaeaieth, auee aeeth/aiu ooaea iiae i?yiui aeaaeaieai
iinaaeneeo, e yaeeenue ioaaoii ia eo i?ioaiea, iiaeaiiua ia eiy oea?y.
Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i neeaaeuaaiee nineiaiiai naiiniciaiey iinaaeneeo
– aoaeouaai ai?iaeneiai nineiaey. Ai-aoi?uo, Oeiaeaiea auei i?eiyoi ia
Caineii Niai?a, aaea ia?yaeo n aeai?yiaie e aeooiaainoaii auee
i?aaenoaaeaiu oaeaea e iinaaeneea ethaee. Oaeei ia?acii, oaea a 17 a.,
iinaaeneea i?eia?aee aaaeiaeoea i?eciaee nineiaey:

1. ianeaaenoaaiiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai noaoona;

2. naiioi?aaeythuothny ei?ii?aoeaioth i?aaiecaoeeth;

3. nineiaiue iaioaeeoao;

4. i?aai o/anoaiaaoue a i?aaenoaaeoaeueiii o/?aaeaeaiee.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Iao?a I oneeeei ei?ii?aoeaiua i?aaiecaoeee iinaaeneeo
e o/?aaeeei aeey ieo niaoeeaeueiue noae.

A ia?aie /aoaa?oe 18 a. a ninoaa a?aaeaeai aioee i?aaenoaaeoaee
iai?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo neoaeeeuo ethaeae, ai?iaeneea aeeoaee, ia
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea ie e eaeiio caaieth eee /eio, eeoea naiaiaeiuo
i?ioannee. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ianeieueei caaea?aeaei, ii ia inoaiiaeei
eiinieeaeaoeeth a?aaeaeai a nineiaea.

Iinea nia?oe Iao?a I nineiaiue noae aue ioia/ai, a naiioi?aaeaiea
ai?iaeneeo iauaaoaeae auei noaniaii ei?iiiie aaeieieno?aoeeae. Ii iii
aic?iaeeeinue n aua aieueoae neeie iinea ?aaeecaoeee A?aiiou ia i?aaa e
auaiaeu ai?iaeai ?inneeneie eiia?ee, aea?iaaiiie iaeiia?aiaiii n
A?aiioie aeai?yinoao a 1785a. aeaeiaaiiay A?aiioa ai?iaeai, eioi?ay
aeeth/aea oaeaea i?ino?aiiia ?aianeaiiia iieiaeaiea, ii?aaeaeeea
th?eaee/aneia iieiaeaiea ai?iaeneiai nineiaey, ei?ii?aoeaiua oi?iu
nouanoaiaaiey, nicaeaea nineiaiue noae e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu aeey
i?aaeeueiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Aaeaeo iaaeaeaiey aeai?yinoaa e
aeooiaainoaa i?enoonoaiaaoue a i?aaiao naiioi?aaeaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
e cai?auaiea o/anoaiaaoue a ieo aiaiiui e e?anoueyiai, iinoiyiii
i?iaeeaaaoei a ai?iaea- n ae?oaie, ai?iaeneia naiioi?aaeaiea oaeoe/anee
i?aa?aoeeinue a naiioi?aaeaiea ai?iaeneeo iauaaoaeae , o.a. eoioeia,
iauai e ?aianeaiieeia. A i?aaiao naiioi?aaeaiey ia auee i?aaenoaaeaiu
eeoea, ia eiaaoea nianoaaiiiai aeiia, eaieoaea, ?aianea e iieiaea 25
eao, a oaeaea aeaiueiu. I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e ai?iaeneiio nineiaeth
cae?aieyeanue aianaieai a ai?iaeneoth iauaaoaeueneoth eieao. A?aiioa
cae?aieea ca ai?iaeneeie iauaaoaeyie eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia caiyoea
oi?aiaeae e i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a /a?oa ai?iaea, oneeeea eo ei?ii?aoeaiua
i?aaa, i?enaieea i?aai nineiaiiai naiioi?aaeaiey /a?ac ai?iaeneoth aeoio
e ai?iaeneoth aieiao, ia?aaeaea a nianoaaiiinoue iaueiu ai?iaeneea
caiee, a a nianoaaiiinoue ioaeaeueiuo eeoe – oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiua
caaaaeaiey, aaaea nineiaiua noaeu e inaiaiaeeea eo io auiieiaiey
oyainoiuo eacaiiuo neoaea. Eaaeaeue ai?iae iieo/ee naie aa?a. Eoia/anoai
auei inaiaiaeaeaii io i?yiiai iaeiaa, aianoi eioi?iai iii noaei ieaoeoue
iniaue i?ioeaio n iaayeaiiiai eaieoaea, e iieo/eei i?eaeeaaeth
ioeoiaoueny aeaiueaaie io ?ae?ooneie iiaeiiinoe. A?aiioa caueoeea
eiouanoai, /anoue e aeinoieinoai ai?iaeneeo iauaaoaeae: oieueei noae iia
eeoeoue eo aea?iaaiiuie ei i?aa; noae aea i?enoaeaeae ca inei?aeaiea e
oo?aoo, eioi?iio iiaeaa?aaeinue oaeaea e aeai?yinoai. Iie iieo/eee i?aai
i?eiineoue aeaeiau i naieo ioaeaeao ia eiy aoaa?iaoi?a. Iaeiiaoe,
a?aiioa i?enaieea eoioeai ia?aie aeeueaeee i?aai acaeeoue a ea?aoa,
cai?yaeaiiie ia?ie eioaaeae, eoioeai aoi?ie aeeueaeee – a eieynea,
cai?yaeaiiie ia?ie eioaaeae, eoioeai o?aoueae aeeueaeee – a yeeiaaea,
cai?yaeaiiii iaeiie eioaaeueth. Iauaia e ?aianeaiieee, iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue aeieaeiu auee oiaeeoue iaoeii eee acaeeoue ia oaeaaao.

I?aaa, iieo/aiiua ai?iaeneeie iauaaoaeyie, niioaaonoaiaaee eo
o?aaiaaieyi, auneacaiiui a iaeacao naiei i?aaenoaaeoaeyi a Eiienneth ii
ninoaaeaieth iiaiai Oeiaeaiey 1767 a., e yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi o ieo e
iiiaioo ecaeaiey AEaeiaaiiie A?aiiou noi?ie?iaaeinue nineiaiia
naiiniciaiea. Ai?iaeneea iauaaoaee iaeaaeaee niaoeeoe/aneei
iaioaeeoaoii, eiaee naith noaeoeueoo?o, /oi io?aaeaeinue a eo aiaoiai
iaeeea. Oaeei ia?acii, e eiioeo 18 a. ieii/aoaeueii noi?ie?iaaeinue
ai?iaeneia nineiaea. Iii ia eiaei oieueei iaeiiai i?eciaea ianoiyuaai
nineiaey – ia o/anoaiaaei a i?aaenoaaeoaeueiii o/?aaeaeaiee.

E?anoueyinoai

Aaaeiay ?ieue a i?ioeanna i?aa?auaiey e?anoueyi a iai?eaeeaae?iaaiioth
nioeeaeueioth a?oiio i?eiaaeeaaeaea Oeiaeaieth 1649a., eioi?ia
ianeaaenoaaiii i?ee?aieei eo e naeueneie iaueia, eeoeei naiaiaeu
ia?aaeaeaeaiey, iaycaei ieaoeoue iaeiae e ianoe ?aciua iaoo?aeueiua
iiaeiiinoe, naieoeeiie?iaaee eo iauaaeeiaiea a naiioi?aaeythueany
iaueiu, naycaa anao /eaiia e?oaiaie ii?oeie. A na?aaeeia 17a. e?anoueyia
i?eia?aee aeaa nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaea nineiaey :

1.ianeaaenoaaiiinoue nioeeaeueiiai noaoona;

2.ei?ii?aoeaiay i?aaiecaoeey a oi?ia ie?a, eee iaueiu.

Ii aaeoi? eo nioeeaeueiie yaiethoeee aue iai?aaeai ia a noi?iio ?acaeoey
nineiaiuo i?aa e i?eaeeaaee, a a noi?iio oe?aieaiey i?eciaeia
e?aiinoiiai ninoiyiey, /oi iieo/eei naia ieii/aoaeueiia a oa/aiea 18 a.
Oioy e eiioeo 18 a., e?anoueyia i?eia?aee aua aeaa i?eciaea nineiaey:
1.niaoeeoe/aneee iaioaeeoao; 2. aiaoiea i?eciaee nineiaey, iie eiaee
iaei i?aa e nianai ia ?aniieaaaee i?eaeeaaeyie. Aeaoa?eia II a 1785a.
iiaeoaa?aeeea aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi i?iaeo AEaeiaaiiie
A?aiiou, a eioi?ie ooaa?aeaeaeenue eo nineiaiua i?aaa – ee/iay naiaiaea,
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe, e?anoueyineee noae, naiioi?aaeaiea. Iaeiaei ii
iieeoe/aneei niia?aaeaieyi – ec-ca iaaeaeaiey aicaoaeaeaoue aeai?yinoai
e aiciouaoue iaieaeaiiuo a a?aiioa iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi – i?iaeo ia aue
?aaeeciaai, oioy ii eniieueciaaeny ia i?aeoeea a ainoaea?noaaiiie
aea?aaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, e?anoueyia a iaeiaiueoae noaiaie niioaaonoaiaaee iiiyoeth
nineiaey. Iaeiaei, iineieueeo iie ana aea iaeaaeaee aaaeiuie i?eciaeaie
nineiaey, eo iiaeii n/eoaoue anee ia nineiaeai, oi ai anyeii neo/aa
iieonineiaeai eee eaacenineiaeai.

Eoiae: io aannineiaiiai iauanoaa e nineiaiiio.

Iineianeia ainoaea?noai yaeyeinue ainoaea?noaii aannineiaiui. Aieueoay
eee iaiueoay eiouanoaaiiay ninoiyoaeueiinoue, aeaeu eiouanoaa e caiyoey
neoaeeee iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ioee/eoaeueiuie i?eciaeaie nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii, eioi?ua auee ioe?uou i?e aoiaea e auoiaea. Iniiaiua eaoaai?ee
ianaeaiey ia yaeyeenue nineiaeai a aa?iiaeneii niunea yoiai iiiyoey, ii
iie oaeaea ia aiieia niioaaonoaiaaee nia?aiaiiiio iiiyoeth «eeann», o.e.
i?ienoiaeaeaiea ea?aei aaaeioth, a a neo/aa n yeeoie ?aoathuoth ?ieue
aeey nioeeaeueiie eaeaioeoeeaoeee. I?eiyoea Iiaiai Oeiaeaiey 1649a.
onei?eei ?acaeoea iaiaoeaoaeny oaiaeaioeee e i?aa?auaieth nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii a nineiaey. Anee aei yoiai a?aiaie iie ?acee/aeenue
i?aeiouanoaaiii iaycaiiinoyie, oi oaia?ue iie noaee ioee/aoueny oaeaea e
i?aaaie.

A 18a. i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey nineiaee iioae aua aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie,
/aio i/aiue niinianoaiaae iaieoano i aieueiinoe aeai?yinoaa 1762a. e
AEaeiaaiiua a?aiiou aeai?yinoao e ai?iaeai 1785a. E eiioeo 18a. a ?innee
a iniiaiii, oioy e iaeioi?uie iniaaiiinoyie n?aaieoaeueii n
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie, noi?ie?iaaeenue nineiaey, eioi?ua
iaeaaeaee aeaaiuie i?eciaeaie enoeiiiai nineiaey:

1. eo nineiaiua i?aaa auee cae?aieaiu a caeiia;

2. i?aaa yaeyeenue ianeaaenoaaiiuie e aaconeiaiuie;

3. iie eiaee naie nineiaiua i?aaiecaoeee (aeai?yineea nia?aiey,
ai?iaeneea aeoiu, eoia/aneea, iauaineea, ?aianeaiiua, e?anoueyineea
iauanoaa e ae?.) e nineiaiue , iacaaeneiue io ei?iiiie aaeieieno?aoeee
noae;

4. iieueciaaeenue i?aaii naiioi?aaeaiey;

5. iaeaaeaee nineiaiui naiiniciaieai e iaioaeeoaoii;

6. eiaee aiaoiea i?eciaee nineiaiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe.

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