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Столыпинская поземельная реформа в Башкортостане

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Noieuieineay iicaiaeueiay ?aoi?ia a Aaoei?oinoaia.

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

1) I?aaeunoi?ey aa?a?iiai aii?ina a Aaoei?oinoaia.

2) Oeaee ?aoi?iu a Aaoee?ee

3) Iniaaiiinoe i?iaaaeaiey iicaiaeueiie ?aoi?iu a Aaoee?ee.

4) ?acoeueoaou ?aoi?iu.

Caeeth/aiea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aaaaeaiea.

I?aaeaea /ai ia/aoue ?anniio?aiea aii?ina i iniaaiiinoyo i?iaaaeaiey
Noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu a Ooeineie e I?aiao?aneie aoaa?ieyo, iai
eaaeaony iaiaoiaeeii ia/aoue ?aaioo n e?aoeie oa?aeoa?enoeee nianoaaiii
?inneeneie Noieuieineie ?aoi?iu. Aac iauae ea?oeiu caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu,
aa oeaeae, iaoiaeia, ?acoeueoaoia, inaauaiea aii?inia ?aaeiiaeueiuo
aoaeao ia nianai ei??aeoii, ia neiaeeony iauae ea?oeiu, iiiaea ithainu
aoaeoo ia ioaa/aiu. Oeaee noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu caeeth/aeenue
a i?eaea/aiee ia noi?iio ?aaeeia oe?ieeo neiaa e?anoueyinoaa e
i?aaeioa?auaiea iiauo aa?a?iuo aunooieaiee. I?e yoii ?aoi?iaoi?u ia
no?aieeenue ?ac?ooeoue nioeeaeueii-aaeieieno?aoeaioth i?aaiecaoeeth
iaueiu. ?a/ue oea eeoue i eeeaeaeaoeee aa yeiiiie/aneiai
caiea?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai iaoaiecia. Eiia/iie oeaeueth i?iaicaeaoaeny
iauee iiaeuai naeueneiai oicyenoaa no?aiu. Eciaiaiea oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe
ia e?anoueyineoth caieth, i?aa?auaiea eo a iieiii?aaiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa
naieo iaaeaeia i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?aaeaea anaai iooai oe?aieaiey iaaeaeia
a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue. E?iia oiai, ii caeiio 1911 a. ?ac?aoaeinue
i?iaiaeeoue caieaono?ienoai (naaaeaiea caiee a oooi?a e io?oaa) aac
oe?aieaiey, iinea /aai e?anoueyia oaeaea noaiiaeeenue
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie. A oi aea a?aiy i?iaeaaaoue iaaeae e?anoueyiei iia
oieueei e?anoueyieio, /oi ia?aie/eaaei i?aai caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a
oneiaeyo e?anoueyineie /a?aniieineoeu (2/3 e?anoueyi oeaio?aeueiuo
?aeiiia eiaee iaaeaeu, ?acaeaeaiiua ia 6 e aieaa iiein a ?acee/iuo
ianoao iaueiiiai iiey) e aeaeueiicaiaeuey (40% e?anoueyi Oeaio?a
aeieaeiu auee i?ioiaeeoue io naieo onaaeaa aei iaaeaeia 5 e aieaa
aa?no), ieaie?iaaeenue ?aaiou ainoaea?noaaiiuo caieaono?ieoaeueiuo
eiiennee ii naaaeaieth iiein e?anoueyineiai iaaeaea a aaeeiue o/anoie –
io?oa. Anee oaeie io?oa iaoiaeeeny aeaeaei io aea?aaie, ia iaai
ia?aiineeanue onaaeueaa, ia?aciauaaeny oooi?.

Aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu e?anoueyineiai iaeicaiaeuey e nieaeaiey aa?a?iie
ia?aianaeaiiinoe a Oeaio?aeueiuo ?aaeiiao aeoeaece?iaaeanue
ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea, i?aaeaea anaai a Neae?ue, e auaea/e nnoae ia
aeaaiono?ienoai. I?iaeaaea e?anoueyiai caiee a ?ann?i/eo /a?ac
E?anoueyineee aaie oaeaea iaiaoiaeeia auea aeey nie?auaiey iaeicaiaeuey.
I?aa?auaiea e?anoueyi a caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa ia ia?aii yoaia (1907-1910
aa.) a niioaaonoaee n Oeacii 9 iiya?y oei ianeieueeeie iooyie:
Oe?aieaiea /a?aniieiniuo o/anoeia a nianoaaiiinoue (auei oe?aieaii 2
iei. iaaeaeia). Anaai a 1907-1915 aa. “oe?aieaioeaie” noaee 2,5 iei.
/ae. – 26% e?anoueyi – iaueiieeia Aa?iiaeneie ?innee (aac Caiaaeiuo
aoaa?iee e Cao?aeuey), ii ii/oe 40% ec ieo i?iaeaee naie o/anoee, a
aieueoeinoaa naiai ia?anaeeaoenue ca O?ae, oeaey a ai?iae eee iiiieiea
neie naeueneiai i?ieaoa?eaoa. Caieaono?ienoai ia aoi?ii yoaia (1911-1916
aa.) ii caeiiai 1910 e 1911 aa. aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey iaaeaea
a nianoaaiiinoue aaoiiaoe/anee iinea nicaeaiey io?oaia e oooi?ia. Oaeei
iooai noaee caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie 1,6 iei. /ae. Aeaaiui iai?aaeaieai
?aoi?iu noaei caieaono?ienoai, eioi?ia oaia?ue naii ii naaa i?aa?auaei
caieth a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue e?anoueyi. Anaai e 1916 a. 1,6 iei.
aaeeiiee/iuo oicyenoa (oooi?a e io?oaa) auee ia?aciaaiu i?eaeeceoaeueii
ia 1/3 e?anoueyineie iaaeaeueiie (iaueiiie e iiaeai?iie) e eoieaiiie
e?anoueyiaie o aaiea caiee. Iieo/ea nnoaeo io i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ia iiaua
caiee ca O?ae aeaeioeinue 3,3 iei. /ae. 0,5 iei. aa?ioeenue. Yoi
iai?aaeaiea ?aoi?iu ieacaeinue iaeiaiaa yooaeoeaiui i?e i?eaioaoeee ia
ia?anaeaiea aaaeiyeia. Cia/eoaeueiua ?acia?u i?eia?aea iieoiea caiee
e?anoueyiaie n iiiiuueth E?anoueyineiai aaiea (auei i?iaeaii 15 iei.
eacaiiie e iiiaue/ueae caiee, ec iaa 90% eoieee a ?ann?i/eo e?anoueyia).
Aieueoeie oaiiaie ?acaeaaeinue eiiia?aoeaiia aeaeaeaiea: n 1905-1915 aa.
/enei e?aaeeoiuo oiaa?euanoa oaaee/eeinue n 1680 aei 15,5 oun.

1) I?aaeunoi?ey aa?a?iiai aii?ina a Aaoei?oinoaia.

Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey e ?innee a aaoee?neii iauanoaa neiaeeeenue
oieeaeueiua a enoi?ee oi?iu caieaaeaaeaiey e caiaeueiua ioiioaiey.
Aaoee?u auee i?eciaiu aio/eiieeaie naieo caiaeueiuo aeaaeaiee.
Niaoeeoeea aio/eiiiai i?aaa aaoee? caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi iii iineei
iaueiiue oa?aeoa?, e /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth ionoonoaiaaea.
Iieiii?aaiua /eaiu iaueiu — “anaaa” eiaee iaeeiaeiaua i?aaa ia
aeaaeaiea, iieueciaaiea e ?anii?yaeaiea ?aaiie aeieae oaiaeee, o.a.
yaeyeenue niaeaaeaeueoeaie iaueiiie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ae?oaie
aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth aaoee?neiai caieaaeaaeaiey auei oi, /oi
oaeoe/anee caieae ?anii?yaeaeenue aaoee?neea oaiaeaeu: aee-eiycuey,
oa?oaiu, noa?inou, noa?oeiu. ?aaeueiia aeaaeaiea o aaoee? caaenaei
oaeaea e io eiee/anoaa neioa. Aio/eiiee, eiathuee iiiai neioa,
oaeoe/anee aeaaeae e aieueoae aeieae iaueiiie caiee. I?e oa?aeoa?enoeea
aaoee?neiai caieaaeaaeaiey neaaeoao oeacaoue e ia ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa?
eo aio/eiiiai i?aaa. Aa?oiaiui nianoaaiieeii aaoee?neeo aio/ei yaeyeny
?onneee oea?ue. Ii iiaeoaa?aeaeae aio/eiiia i?aai aaoee? iooai auaea/e
aeaeiaaiiuo a?aiio. Aaoee?u iaycuaaeenue ianoe a iieueco ainoaea?noaa
aiaiioth neoaeao e ieaoeoue iicaiaeueiue iaeia — ynae. I?e yoii ei?aiiua
aeeoaee e?ay ia iiaee naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny caiaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoueth. Aei ecaeaiey oea?neiai oeaca io 11 oaa?aey 1736 a. ei
cai?auaeinue i?iaeaaaoue eee ioaeaaaoue a a?aiaeo ia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie
aio/eiiua oaiaeuey.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?e i?eniaaeeiaiee e?ay oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai
iaauaei nio?aieoue ana caiee ca aaoee?aie, iieeoeea iinoaiaiii
eciaiyaony, ia/eiaaony caoaao aaoee?neeo caiaeue. N 30-o aiaeia XVIII
aaea ?acaa?ouaaaony no?ieoaeuenoai e?aiinoae e caaiaeia a e?aa, ?acaea/a
oaiaeee aeai?yiai, /eiiaieeai, ioeoea?ai, e?anoueyiai-ia?anaeaioeai. Ana
yoi i?eaaei e ianniaiio iaaeiaieuenoao n?aaee ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey
iieeoeeie oea?neiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii caiaeueiiio aii?ino.

Aeey ii?iaeecaoeee ianoaiiaee a no?aia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoeei i?iaanoe
Aaia?aeueiia iaaeaaaiea anao caiaeue. Oeacu ii yoiio aii?ino auee
i?eiyou a 1765—1766 aa. Auei ?aoaii i?iaa?eoue caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey ii
anae no?aia, eo niioaaonoaea eiathueiny aeieoiaioai o aeaaeaeueoeaa.
Oaeei iooai aeanoe iaia?aaaeenue naanoe e ieieioio caiaeueiua nii?u e
oniieieoue ianaeaiea.

I?iaaaeaiea Aaia?aeueiiai iaaeaaaiey a 1798—1842 aa. ia oa??eoi?ee e?ay
ieii/aoaeueii ia o?aaoee?iaaei caiaeueiua ioiioaiey. I?e/eia yoiai
caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi oneiaiay oa??eoi?eaeueiay aaeeieoea iaaeaaaiey
— “aea/a” ioaaouaaea iau/ii i?aaeaeu aieinoe, o.a. a?oiiu ianaeaiiuo
ioieoia. Iinea yoiai i?aaeoaeuenoai ieaie?iaaei ioaeaeeoue aeey
eaaeaeiai aeai?a aaoee?-aio/eiieeia eee e?anoueyi ii?aaeaeaiiia
eiee/anoai caiee. Yoa caaea/a noaea iinoaiaiii ?aoaoueny ia iniiaa oeaca
io 10 oaa?aey 1869 a. a ?aieao niaoeeaeueiiai iaaeaaaiey aaoee?neeo
aea/.

Yoi ia?ii?eyoea ii a?aiaie niaiaei n ia/aeii iiaiai yoaia
ia?anaeai/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a Aaoei?oinoai. I?aaeoaeuenoai iuoaeinue
oii?yaei/eoue ana yoe yaeaiey. A /anoiinoe, eoiey-i?iaeaaea aaoee?neeo
oaiaeee aeiioneaeanue oieueei iinea ?acaeaea oa??eoi?ee aea/e ia
iaio/oaeaeaaiua aeooaaua iaaeaeu aeey aaoee?-aio/eiieeia, aeey
i?eiouaiieeia-a?aiaeaoi?ia (anee iie auee), ioaeaeaiey ?aiaa eoieaiiuo
o/anoeia a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue e auaeaeaiey “naiaiaeiuo naa?o
aeooaaiai iaaeaea” caiaeue aaoee?-aio/eiieeia. Iaeiaei yoe ?anii?yaeaiey
ca/anooth ia auiieiyeenue. I?e/eia ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, caeeth/aaony a e?ecena aaoee?neiai oicyenoaa, naycaiiiai
n ia?aoiaeii io iieoei/aaiai neioiaiaenoaa e inaaeeiio caieaaeaeeth. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, no?aieoaeueiue iaieua ia oa??eoi?eth e?ay aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa ?acee/iuo neoiueeia caiee oaeaea iaoneiaee eaii?e?iaaiea
?anii?yaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ana yoe oaiaeaioeee y?ei i?iyaeeenue a
70-o aa. XIX aaea. Iaaeaaua ?aaiou ia oa??eoi?ee Ooeineie e I?aiao?aneie
aoaa?iee, i?iecaiaeeaoeany ia i?ioyaeaiee XIX — ia/aea XX aaea, eiaee
?yae iineaaenoaee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iie niinianoaiaaee ?aoaieth iiiaeo
caiaeueiuo nii?ia, nai?o naaaeaiee i oicyenoaa e /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey,
ieiuaaee aieinoae, no?oeoo?a caieaiieueciaaiey. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
caieaia?u ocaeiieaaee aicieeoea caiaeueiua aeaaeaiey, eioi?ua a naith
i/a?aaeue eiaee aeaeaei iacaeiiiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Oiaiueoaiea
caiaeueiuo ieiuaaeae yoeo aieinoae niinianoaiaaei ia?aoiaeo ianaeaiey io
iieoei/aaiai neioiaiaenoaa e inaaeeiio caieaaeaeue/anei-neioiaiae/aneiio
oicyenoao e ?acee/iui i?iiuneai. Ia?aoiae e iiaui aeaeai oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe aue aeinoaoi/ii aieaciaiiui aeey aaoee?, /oi oi?ie?iaaei
oe?ieia iauanoaaiiia iaaeiaieuenoai. Aeanoe no?aieeenue iaania/eoue
aaeain eioa?ania eae aaoee?, oae e ?acee/iuo ia?anaeaioeaa. Aeey yoiai
auee ecaeaiu ?yae caeiiia, iaania/eaaaoeo iiaeaea?aeeo aaoee?neiai
caieaaeaaeaiey.

2) Oeaee Noieuieineie iicaiaeueiie ?aoi?iu a Aaoei?oinoaia.

Aiaeece?oy neiaeeaoothny neooaoeeth a iicaiaeueiuo ioiioaieyo a ooeineie
e I?aiao?aneie aoaa?ieyo iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea oeaee i?iaiaeeiie
caiaeueiie iieeoeee: eeeaeaeaoeeth iaeicaiaeuey i?e nio?aiaiee
iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey, eioaineoeeaoeeth oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e?anoueyinoaa

ia iniiaa /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, oaaee/aiea oiaa?iinoe
e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa, ?anoe?aiea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea aeey nauoa
i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Oaeaea iiaeii auaeaeeoue: ?ac?ooaiea iaueiiuo
ioiioaiee a Ooeineie e I?aiao?aneie Aoaa?ieyo, eeeaeaeaoeeth e
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo eiioeeeoia aeaaiaea?y i?iaiaeeiie
aeoeaiie ia?anaeai/aneie iieeoeea, aneaaenoaea eioi?ie niioiioaiea
aaoee?neiai ianaeaiey noaei iaiiiai iaiueoa, /ai ?onneiai, oaoa?neiai,
/oaaoneiai e ae?oaeo. Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a eioaineoeeaoeee ?acaeoey
eaieoaeecia a aaoee?neie aea?aaia aeieaeii auei nua?aoue ?ac?ooaiea
o?aaeeoeeiiiie aaoee?neie iaueiu, aaea ?aaeueiui nianoaaiieeii iaueiiie
caiee yaeyeny aae, enei?aiaiea ia?aaeeoeia iieoei/aaiai neioiaiaenoaa,
e , eae ?acoeueoao eiouanoaaiiia ?anneiaiea a aaoee?neie aea?aaia,
i?eoie ianaeaiey a ai?iaea, o?aaiecaoeey Aaoei?oinoaia, ?ino naiaiaeiuo
?aai/eo ?oe aeey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, e a iauai eioaineaiia
?acaeoea eaieoaeecia ia oieueei a naeueneii oicyenoaa ii e a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

3) Iniaaiiinoe Iicaiaeueiie Noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu a Aaoee?ee.

Iniiaiay ianna e?anoueyi e ?aoi?ia ioianeanue io?eoeaoaeueii. Ca
1907-1915 a aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee ec iaueiu auoei eeoue 24%
iaaeaeueiuo aeai?ia. A Ooeineie aoaa?iee auoee ec iaueiu e cae?aieee
caieth a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue 15%, a I?aiao?aneie aoaa?iee – 30%
iaaeaeueiuo aeai?ia. Ca 1907-1916 a Ooeineie aoaa?iee ia oooi?a e io?oaa
auaeaeeeinue 5,8% iaaeaeueiuo aeai?ia, a I?aiao?aneie aoaa?iee oaeeo
aiiaua ia auei. Ec iaueiu auoiaeeee eoeaee, no?aieaoeany iooai
oe?aieaiey iaaeaeia caiyoue iaueiiua caiee, e e?anoueyia, ?aoeaoea
i?iaeaoue naie iaaeaeu (a 1907-1914 a Ooeineie aoaa?iee i?iaeaee naie
iaaeaeu 20,2%, a I?aiao?aneie aoaa?iee – 11,3% e?anoueyi). Iniiaioth
ianno oaeeo e?anoueyi ninoaaeyee aaaeiyee, eioi?ua ooiaeeee ia
i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey eee a iiiaue/uee e eoeaoeeea oicyenoaa a
ea/anoaa iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu. Iieoiaoaeyie caiaeue yaeyeenue
i?aeiouanoaaiii eoeaee. Aneaaenoaea iniaaiiinoae aaoee?neie iaueiu
auaeaeaiea aaoee? ec iaueiu oei iaaeeaiiaa, /ai n?aaee ?onneeo
e?anoueyi, iaei auei io?oaueeia e oooi?yi. A inouanoaeaiee Noieuieineie
aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu aaaeioth ?ieue ea?ae E?anoueyineee iicaiaeueiue aaie.
Oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoaei ana aa?a?iua aii?inu ca n/ao ?anoeuaiey
aaoee?neeo caiaeue. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu, e?anoueyineee iicaiaeueiue
aaie neoiae caiee ii oeaiai, iaiiiai ieaea ?uii/iuo. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i aaoee?u iioa?yee 300 ouny/ aa eaniuo aio/eiiuo
caiaeue. A 1906-1915 Ooeineei. e I?aiao?aneei. ioaeaeaieyie
E?anoueyineiai iicaiaeueiiai aaiea auei eoieaii 464,6 oun. aeanyoei
caiee (417,9 oun. aeanyoei iiiaue/ueeo e aaoee?neeo e 46,7 oun. aeanyoei
oaeaeueiuo). Aaie iiiiaae iiiaueeai auaiaeii eeeaeaee?iaaoue eiaiey,
eneonnoaaiii acaei/eaay oeaiu ia /anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneea caiee; aaoee?neea
caiee iieoiaeenue ei a 3-5 ?ac aeaoaaea. Ca 1906-1915 a Ooeineie e
I?aiao?aneie aoaa?ieyo e?anoueyia eoieee 498,5 oun. aeanyoei
/anoiiaeaaeaeue/aneeo caiaeue. I?e i?iaeaaea nianoaaiiuo caiaeue,
iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeeyo aaie i?iaiaeee iieeoeeo ianaaeaeaiey oooi?ia
e io?oaia. A 1907-1916 aa. 63,9% (80 oun. aeanyoei) ?aaeeciaaiiuo a
Ooeineie aoaa?iee aaieianeeo caiaeue auei i?iaeaii oooi?neeie e
io?oaiuie o/anoeaie. Iniiaiuie iieoiaoaeyie aaieianeie caiee auee
eoeaee, eioi?ui aaie auaeaaae nnoaeo. N i?iaaaeaieai Noieuieineie
aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu naycaia 4-y aieia ia?anaeai/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a e?ae.
Aaoee?ey yaeyeanue ia noieueei ?aeiiii aunaeaiey e?anoueyi, neieueei
iauaeoii eieiiecaoeee. Noieuieineay aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia niinianoaiaaea
oneeaieth nioeeaeueiiai ?anneiaiey n?aaee e?anoueyinoaa (a 1912 a
Ooeineie aoaa?iee ian/eouaaeinue 32 oun. aaccaiaeueiuo e 42 oun.
aanneioiuo aeai?ia). A Ooeineie aoaa?iee ca 1905-1912 ?anoe?eeenue
iinaaiua ieiuaaee n 1919,5 oun. aei 2821,3 ouny/ aeanyoei; a
I?aiao?aneie aoaa?iee ca 1905-1916 – n 1833,2 oun. aei 2272,1 ouny/
aeanyoei. Au?inei i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?iiai oeaaa, oaaee/eeny aai auaic ca
i?aaeaeu e?ay. Noieuieineay aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia ia niiaea iieiinoueth
?aoeoue i?iaeaio ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia a aa?a?iii naeoi?a.

4) ?acoeueoaou ?aoi?iu.

A oi aea a?aiy ?acaeoea eaieoaeecia a naeueneii oicyenoaa niinianoaiaaei
?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ai anai ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, oioy e ca n/ao
eioa?ania ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey. Noi?ie?iaaeenue iaeaieaa aaaeiua io?anee
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa: oi?aiaey e i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a eioi?ie
ooieoeeiie?iaaei 28 aeaeaciaeaeaoaeueiuo e iaaeaieaaeeueiuo caaiaeia,
ionthaea ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa aeaeaca e noaee. Nouanoaiaaei iiiaeanoai
ae?oaeo caaiaeia e i?aaei?eyoee, eiathueo aaaeiia cia/aiea, ii iaeaieaa
i?ei?eoaoiie yaeyeanue ai?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue, eioi?ay ia?aaeeea a
na?aaeeia XIX aaea e?ecen, a n 70-o aiaeia noaea ?acaeaaoueny auno?uie
oaiiaie, a iae ia/eiatho nicaeaaaoueny aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa. Ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIX aaea iiyaeythony e ?ani?ino?aiythony aaiee, /a?ac eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeeeenue oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoue, a oaeaea
?acaeaaaony o?ainii?o, e oaea nouanoaothuaio nooiiooiiio e aiaeiiio
aeiaaaeyaony aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue. No?ieoaeuenoai Naia?i–Ceaoionoianeie
aeaeaciie aei?iae i?i/ii naycaei aaoee?neee e?ae n oeaio?aeueiuie
?aeiiaie no?aiu.

A oi aea a?aiy i?iaeieaeaeanue eieiieaeueiay iieeoeea, e?aiinoie/aneea
ia?aaeeoee ineiaeiyee iieiaeaiea ia?iaea. A. Oniaineee, i?iaoaa ii yoie
caiea, ai?anoii e?eeioe ia anth ?inneth: “I?iiaaeaao aaoee?!”. AEeay a
oyaeaeuo aeeeeuiuo oneiaeyo, ethaee ?aaioaee ii 12-14 /ania a nooee,
?inei i?eiaiaiea aeaineiai e aeaoneiai o?oaea. Ana yoi aueeaaeinue a
i?ioanou, eioi?ua au?aaeaeenue a naiiaieueiuo ooiaeao n ?aaiou, a
iicaeiaa e a noa/eao. Iie i?iaeieaeaeenue aieioue aei Ia?aie ?inneeneie
?aaiethoeee 1905 aiaea. A yoio aiae n iay ii aaaono i?iecioea 31 noa/ea.
A ?acoeueoaoa, e inaie auee oaeiaeaoai?aiu iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey ?aai/eo:
aaaaeai ainueie/aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue, iiauoaia ca?aaioiay ieaoa e oae
aeaeaa.

Iaieoano 17 ieoya?y 1905 aiaea iineoaeee iiaui noeioeii aeey
aeoeaecaoeee ?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey, ia aieueoae /anoe i?aaei?eyoee e
o/?aaeaeaiee ?aai/ea i?iaiaeeee caaanoiaee. A e?oiiuo ai?iaeao aicieeaee
Niaaou ?aai/eo aeaiooaoia, eioi?ua i?ecuaaee ia?iae e ainnoaieth, e iii
?ac?aceeinue, ia/eiay n ?aai/eo aeaeaciie aei?iae, i?inouo e?anoueyi aei
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ianoiie ionoeueiaineie ao?aeoacee e ioaaouaay niaie ana
aieinoe e oacaeu Aaoei?oinoaia. Aaoee?u aeiaeaaeenue aica?auaiey naieo
caiaeue, ai?ieenue i?ioea iiauo caoaaoia. A 1905 aiaeo auea nicaeaia
ia?oey “Eooeoae-aeue-ioneeiei” (“Nithc ionoeueiai”), /anoue eioi?ie
ninoaaeyee aaoee?u. Yoa ia?oey i?aoaiaeiaaea ia iauaaeeiaiea anao
ionoeueiai e aunooiaea ca o?aaiaiea eo n ?onneeie a iieeoe/aneeo,
?aeeaeiciuo e ae?oaeo i?aaao.

E 1907 aiaeo ineaaei ?aai/aa, e?anoueyineia e iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea
eae a e?aa, oae e ii anae no?aia, a ?ac?aceaoayny a 1914 aiaeo Ia?aay
ie?iaay aieia, aua aieueoa oooaeoeea iieiaeaiea ia?iaea. Ia/aeanue
iiaeeecaoeey ioae/ei ia o?iio, i?eioaeeoaeueiua iiaeiiinoe, eiioeneaoeey
eioaaeae e oeaaa. ?aceia oooaeoaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey ianaeaiey,
aaeoaoeey iiiiceoeeiiiuo ia?oee i?eaaee e ?inoo iauaai iaaeiaieuenoaa
iieeoeeie oea?ecia, nicaeaaaee aaco aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiie
neooaoeee.  

Caeeth/aiea

A iineaaeiea aiaeu iieeoeee, yeiiiienou, th?enou a oie eee eiie nayce
aeaaaee naiua ?acee/iua ioeaiee noieuieineie ?aoi?ia, io aaconeiaii
iaaaoeaiuo aei i?yii ainoi?aeaiiuo. Eiiieaen ?aoi?i, i?aaei?eiyouo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Iao?a A?eaaeueaae/a Noieuieia,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aanueia neiaeiia e ?aciiieaiiaia yaeaiea, o?aaothuaa
acaaoaiiie e aeaoaeueiie ioeaiee. A?yae ee iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa
?aoi?io a ethaie iaeanoe, a oae oai aieaa a aa?a?iie noa?a, eioi?ay
iiaea au auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia oieueei eae oi?ioay eee eeoue eae
ieioay.

Ii anae aeaeeiinoe, auei au aieaa ni?aaaaeeeai niaeaneoueny n oaie
o/aiuie, eioi?ua, ioia/ay ?yae e?oiiuo iaaeinoaoeia e i?in/aoia
noieuieineie ?aoi?iu, oeacuaatho, /oi a oeaeii aa i?iaaaeaiea ioaa/aei
eae eioa?anai ?acaeaathuaainy ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa, oae e eioa?anai
aa a?aaeaeai, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo i?eiaaeeaaeaei e e?anoueyineiio
nineiaeth.

?aoi?iu Noieuieia auee iai?aaeaiu ia i?aiaeieaiea nouanoaiaaaoaai aaeaie
iaueiiiai caieaiieueciaaiey, eioi?ia a ia/aea XX aaea oaea nouanoaaiii
naea?aeeaaei ?acaeoea aa?a?iiai oicyenoaa ?innee.

Onoaiiaeoue aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?aoaoue caieth a nianoaaiiinoue icia/aei
noeioee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue iaeaieaa aeoeaiie /anoe ianaeaiey,
aeaeaaoae naiei o?oaeii ia naiae nianoaaiiie caiea i?iecaiaeeoue
noieueei naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, /oiau e naaa oaaoaei, e
iiaeii auei au i?iaeaoue.

Aeeth/eoue caieth a a?aaeaeaineee iai?io icia/aei i?eaea/ue a naeueneia
oicyenoai anaaaea iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aai ?acaeoey oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa,
eee, eae oaia?ue aiai?yo, eiaanoeoeee.

Ca aiaeu ?aoi?iu cia/eoaeueii iiauneeanue oiaa?iinoue e?anoueyineiai
oicyenoaa, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ca n/ao oooi?ia e io?oaia.
Aaiaeeeenue iiaua nenoaiu caieaaeaeey e naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eoeueoo?u.
Io o?aoe aei iieiaeiu aaeeiiee/ieeia o/anoaiaaee a e?aaeeoiuo
oiaa?euanoaao, /oi aeaaaei ei n?aaenoaa aeey iiaea?iecaoeee. A oeaeii
aea ia?aai?io a aa?iyeiiiieea ia i?iecioae, ii i?e ioeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo
?acoeueoaoia aaaeii o/eouaaoue, /oi ?aoi?ia, ?ann/eoaiiay ia
aeanyoeeaoey, ca ianeieueei eao eeoue oniaea ooi/ieoue iai?aaeaiea e
iaa?aoue oaiiu. A nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee ?aoi?ia eiaea
ioiineoaeueiue oniao. Iaueia eae i?aai naiioi?aaeaiey ?inneeneie
aea?aaie ia auea cao?iiooa ?aoi?iie, ii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee
i?aaieci iaueiu ia/ae ?ac?ooaoueny. *enei iauei nie?aoeeinue ni 135 oun.
aei 110 oun. A oi aea a?aiy a oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao ?aniaae iaueiu ii/oe
ia iaaethaeaeny. A Oeaio?a iaueiiua o?aaeeoeee auee iaeaieaa neeueiuie,
a naeueneia oicyenoai iaeaieaa ionoaeui a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii
ioiioaiee. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie ioiineoaeueiie iaoaea/e ?aoi?iu yaeeanue
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay iieiaei/aoinoue i?aia?aciaaiee, i?iyaeaoayny a
nio?aiaiee iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue a iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe. Ia?aoiae e iiaui
aeaeai oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe aue aeinoaoi/ii aieaciaiiui aeey
aaoee?, /oi oi?ie?iaaei oe?ieia iauanoaaiiia iaaeiaieuenoai. Aeanoe
no?aieeenue iaania/eoue aaeain eioa?ania eae aaoee?, oae e ?acee/iuo
ia?anaeaioeaa. Aeey yoiai auee ecaeaiu ?yae caeiiia, iaania/eaaaoeo
iiaeaea?aeeo aaoee?neiai caieaaeaaeaiey. Iaeiaei iioie ia?anaeaioeaa
aic?anoae e iniaaiii a eiioea XIX — ia/aea XX aaea. Ana yoi iaoneiaeei
aeinoaoi/ii iai?yaeaiiua ioiioaiey a ?aaeiia iaaeaeo aaoee?aie e
ae?oaeie eaoaai?eyie ianaeaiey. I?iaeieaeathuayny eieiiecaoeey e?ay,
eaii?e?iaaiea aeanoyie iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?iaeai iaoneiaeee aeoeaiia
o/anoea aaoee? a niauoeyo ia?eiaea ?aaiethoeee e a?aaeaeaineie aieiu.

A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, i?eoaaeoaa e aeanoe a ?acoeueoaoa ao?aeoaciie
Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee, a ia?oa 1917 aiaea i?iaicaeaneei ?inneth
?anioaeeeie e iauyaeei ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoueth eaaeiaoneea e
oaeaeueiua caiee, a inoaeueiua caiee inoaaeei a ?oeao i?aaeieo /anoiuo
nianoaaiieeia.

Aeae?ao i nioeeaeecaoeee caiee, ooaa?aeaeaiiue AOeEE 9 oaa?aey 1918
aiaea, onoaiiaee, /oi anyeay nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth a i?aaeaeao
?inneeneie Niaaoneie Oaaea?aoeaiie ?anioaeeee ioiaiyaony iaanaaaea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. A. Aeiaiia. A oneiaeyo iaino?aiey caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.// Aaoaiaeao.
? 8, 2001 a.

2. Oniaiia O.O. Noieuieineay aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia a Aaoee?ee. Ooa, 1958;

3. Aeoa?ianeee N.I. Noieuieineay caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia. I., 1963.

4. Aoia?ia O. O. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee Aaoei?oinoaia. *anoue ia?aay.
O/aaiia iiniaea. Ooa. Eeoai. 1996.

5. Aaoei?oinoai. E?aoeay yioeeeeiiaaeey. Ooa. Iao/iia ecaeaoaeuenoai.
«Aaoee?neay Yioeeeeiiaaeey». 1996.

6. Eoeueoa?eiia I. I. Enoi?ey Aaoei?oinoaia. XX aae. O/aaiia iiniaea.
Ooa. Eeoai. 2001.

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