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Столыпин П.А.

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Iaoe

N.A.N.

Iaeaaeaiea

no?.

Aaaaeaiea
2

1. Nioeeaeueii- iieeoe/aneia e yeiiiie/aneie

iieiaeaiea a ?innee ia ?oaaaea

aaeia. Eaeaieiaey ?aoi?ie?iaaiey 3

2. Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia: “aiaaoia e?anoueyinoai

neoaeeo aacaea eo/oae iii?ie ii?yaeea”
7

2.1. Nouiinoue noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu 7

2.2. Niaea?aeaiea noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu 9

2.3. Iaoiaeu noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu 12

2.4. Eoiae ?aaeecaoeee aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu 13

3. Eiua iai?aaeaiey ?aoi?ie?iaaiey 16

4. ?aoi?iu e aeoia. Noieuiei e eiia?aoi?.

Aeaeaeouea neeu ?aoi?i.
18

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u
22

Aaaaeaiea

I?iaeaia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa a aieueoae eee
iaiueoae noaiaie caaioeo ii/oe eaaeaeiai a?aaeaeaieia iaoae no?aiu.
Aii?inu i?aiaeieaiey ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea aucuaatho, neaaeai i?yii,
i?ioeai?a/eaua oieee…

Eae eco/eoue, iiiyoue ni anae iauaeoeaiinoueth ?aoi?ienoneee eo?n
naaiaeiyoiaai ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu? Aaaeue oaea aeaaii iiaeia/aii, /oi
?aaeueiua ?acoeueoaou ?aoi?i, eae e iaeaieaa iauaeoeaiua eo ioeaiee,
iiyaeythony ia n?aco, a nionoy iaeioi?ue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie. Ionthaea
i?ienoaeaao any eo o?oaeiinoue aeey iiieiaiey a ia?eiae, eiaaea ?aoi?iu
oieueei ?acaa?ouaathony, oieueei iaae?atho oaiiu.

Iaaeaeo oai enoi?e/aneee iiuo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaen/a?iaaiue enoi/iee oeaiiaeoae eioi?iaoeee: eiie?aoii- enoi?e/aneeo
i?eia?ia. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i ?aoi?iaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi iiaeii n
oaa?aiiinoueth neacaoue, /oi ia iniiaa yoeo i?eia?ia iiaeii a eaeie- oi
ia?a i?eaeeceoueny e iiieiaieth ?aoi?i nia?aiaiiuo, a a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
neo/ayo e i?aaeneacaoue, ni?iaiice?iaaoue i?eioeeieaeueiua iai?aaeaiey
eo ?acaeoey a aoaeouai. Caeanue oianoii aeiaaaeoue, /oi, e niaeaeaieth,
oeaiiue enoi?e/aneee iiuo eiiaaea inoaaony iaaino?aaiaaiiui: iu niiaa e
niiaa iiaoi?yai ioeaee i?ioeiai, /oiau iaoe iioiiee a naith i/a?aaeue e
a naia a?aiy caauee ia ioeaeao iaoeo. Auoue iiaeao yoi caieiooue e?oa?
Ia ciath, ii oi/aony aa?eoue, /oi iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue iiuo
i?aaeuaeoueo iieieaiee ana- oaee aiciiaeii. A yoii eeth/a y ?aoee
inoaiiaeoue naie auai? ia aeaiiie oaia.

Noieo oiiiyiooue i oii, ianeieueei oi?ioi aeaiiay oaia enneaaeiaaia
iaoeie. Ia iie acaeyae, aeiaieueii iniiaaoaeueii. I?e/ai iniaaiii iiiai
ioaeeeaoeee auei naeaeaii ca iineaaeiea 10 eao- iiiyoii, ii/aio. Eae y
oaea neacae, eioa?an e ?aoi?iaoi?ai i?ioeiai iiauoaaony a nayce n
iaoaea/aie(oi/aony aa?eoue- a?aiaiiuie) ?aoi?iaoi?ia nia?aiaiiinoe.

Iaiaoiaeeii inoaiiaeony ia eiiiiceoeee ?aoa?aoa: a aa no?oeoo?a ia
ia?aue ieai auoiaeeo aeaaa, iinayuaiiay aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia I. A.
Noieuieia. E yoi, ia iie acaeyae, ni?aaaaeeeai, o. e. eiaiii aa?a?iay
?aoi?ia ?aniieiaeaia a naiii oeaio?a i?ia?aiiu noieuieineeo
i?aia?aciaaiee, yaeyaony iniiaiie aa ninoaaiie /anoueth. A ia/aoe /anoi
iiaeii ano?aoeoue neiaini/aoaiea “noieuieineay ?aoi?ia”, iiae eioi?ie
?acoiaaony eeoue aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia. Ii oae eae iu eiaai aeaei n
i?ia?aiiie, o. a. naiaai ?iaea oii?yaei/aiiie nenoaiie, oi niaa?oaiii
iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue aa?a?ioth ?aoi?io a aa ia?ac?uaiie nayce n
iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie iai?aaeaieyie ?aoi?ie?iaaiey, a oaeaea n i?iaeaiaie,
eioi?ua oae eee eia/a eiatho e iae ioiioaiea: e i?eia?o, aii?in i
niioiioaiee ?aoi?iu e Aeoiu.

A aeiiieiaiea y oioae au neacaoue ianeieueei neia i i?eioeeiao, eioi?ua
y iuneaiii caeiaeee a ?aoa?ao iuneaiii e iiiuoaeny, ianeieueei yoi
oaeaeinue, ?aaeeciaaoue ia i?aeoeea. Ia?aue i?eioeei- yoi naycue n
nia?aiaiiinoueth. Iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu, ?anniio?aiiua a ?aoa?aoa, eiatho
naie i?yiua aiaeiae a ianoiyuai. Aoi?ie- eniieueciaaiea enoi?e/aneeo
ia?aeeaeae ?aoi?iu 1906 a., e i?eia?o, ?aoi?iu 1861 a., a oaeaea eo
e?aoeay n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea. Yoi iicaieeo, ia iie acaeyae,
?anniio?aoue i?iaeaio, ia au?uaay aa ec enoi?e/aneiai eiioaenoa, a a
oaniie nayce n iei.

1. Nioeeaeueii- iieeoe/aneia e yeiiiie/aneie iieiaeaiea a ?innee ia
?oaaaea

aaeia. Eaeaieiaey ?aoi?ie?iaaiey.

E eiioeo XIX aaea noaei ynii, /oi iieiaeeoaeueiue i?aia?aciaaoaeueneee
iioaioeeae ?aoi?i 1861 aiaea /anoe/ii en/a?iai, a /anoe/ii auoieiuai
eiio??aoi?ienoneei eo?nii eiina?aaoi?ia iinea o?aae/aneie aeaaee

Aeaenaiae?a II a 1881 a. Iaiaoiaeei aue iiaue oeeee ?aoi?i.

Ia ?oaaaea XIX- XX aaeia iio?aaiinoue a onei?aiee eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
?acaeoey noaea i?iyaeyoueny iniaaiii io/aoeeai. Iinea 60-o aa.
ao?aeoaciua ioiioaiey ?acaeeenue aei oiai iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy, /oiau
aeaei aeioei aei ioe?uoiai i?ioeainoiyiey oaiaeaeueiie e
eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoai. Yoio eiioeeeo ia iia ia ?ac?aoeoueny. Aii?in
eeoue a oii, eae? Ecaanoii, /oi aeeni?iii?oeey iaaeaeo iieeoe/aneie
iaaeno?ieeie e aacenii (nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie)
iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e e?eceno, y?ei au?aaeaiiiio i?ioeai?a/eth, eioi?ia
iiaeao iineoaeeoue i?e/eiie ?aaiethoeee. Aeiaaaei, e neiao, /oi ii
oeaeiio ?yaeo i?e/ei, ia?a/eneyoue eioi?ua iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe,
iniaaiiinoueth eiaiii ?inneeneie e?oiiie ao?aeoacee auea aioiaiinoue
iieoe ia eaeie- eeai eiii?iienn n aaniethoeciii e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
niioaaonoaothuae aio oaiaeaeueiie nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneie aacie. Ia
niio?y ia yoi, auoue iiaeao ii /enoi noauaeoeaiui niia?aaeaieyi oea?y,
aaniethoeci ia aeaeae eaeoe iaano?a/o. E a XVIII, e a XIX, e a XX aaea
aeanoe oee ia eaeea- eeai i?aia?aciaaiey a iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa ec
niia?aaeaiee nio?aiaiey aeeianoee, oe?aieaiey naieo iiceoeee.

E niaeaeaieth, aa?oe ia ?aaeei ia nianai aa?ii ioeaieaaee ?aaeueioth
nioeeaeueii- iieeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth a iauanoaa e ec-ca yoiai niaa?oaee
iaiii?aaeiua ioeaee. I/a?aaeiay iiiuoea oeoe io ?aoi?i iin?aaenoaii
“iaeaiueeie iiaaaeiiiniie aieiu” n ssiiieae ia oieueei ia oaeaeanue, ii
e i?eaaea e oiio, /oi no?aia ni?aaeanue a ?aaiethoeeiiioth aacaeio. E
oea?neay aeeianoey ia iiaeaea a iae eeoue iioiio, /oi aicea oea?y
ieacaeenue oaeea auaeathueany ethaee eae N. TH. Aeooa e I. A.
Noieuiei.

1905- 1907 aa. ni anae i/aaeaeiinoueth iieacaee ia?aoaiiinoue aa?a?iiai
e ae?oaeo ianouiuo aii?inia oiaaeaoiae ?innee. Enoi?ey aea, ii iiaieth

I. Yeaeaeueiaia, i?aaeeaaaao o?e iooe(:

1. I?iaeieaeaiea ?aaiethoeee nieco, /oi i?aaenoaaeyaony aanueia
?aaeueiui;

2. Eiio??aaiethoeey naa?oo; a eaeie- oi noaiaie iia inouanoaeyaony:
ia?aai?io

3 ethiy 1907 a. -?acaii II Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu – aeiaieueii
io/aoeeaue

i?eia?… Iaeiaei aieueoaai i?aaeoaee naaa iicaieeoue ia iiaee. E?iia
iiaiai,

“aannouaeaai” ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia, oaaee/eaoaai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai a Aeoia

e?oiiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e ao?aeoaciuo yeaiaioia, ieeaeeo e?oiiuo

eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo ia? ia iineaaeiaaei.

I?e oa?ica iiauo ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aieiaiee nieco e aieaa /ai ne?iiiuo
oniaoao eiio??aaiethoeee naa?oo aeaeaaony iiiuoea iieoe ii o?aoueaio
iooe – aua iaeiie ?aaiethoeee naa?oo. Iiiyoii, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i
Noieuieia e aai ?aoi?iao, eioi?ua Eaiei ii?aaeaeee eae aoi?ie oaa ?innee
ii iooe e ao?aeoaciie iiia?oee. N. TH. Aeooa, aoaeo/e eeaa?aeii,
iieaaae, /oi ana eciaiaiey a iauanoaaiiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie
iaaei ia/eiaoue n eciaiaiey iieeoe/aneiai no?iy: nicaeaoue ea/anoaaiii
iiaoth ainoaea?noaaiioth iaoeio, a oaea caoai i?iaiaeeoue i?aia?aciaaiey
a yeiiiieea. A?yae ee aiciiaeii oniaa?oainoaiaaoue oi?io caieaaeaaeaiey,
?aoeoue i?iaeaiu aa?a?iiai ii?yaeea aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ia?aoiaea io
?aanoaa e naiaiaea!

Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi I. A. Noieuiei iieaaae, /oi, iai?ioea,
ia?aiaiu a iieeoe/aneii no?ia, a ainoaea?noaa, ia nooue aeaaiia e oai
aieaa ia anoue oneiaea ?aoi?i yeiiiie/aneeo. Ionthaea i?ienoaeaao
neaaeothuaa i?ioeai?a/ea: i?ia?aiia ?aoi?i auea ?ann/eoaia ia
ao?aeoacii- aeaiie?aoe/aneia ?acaeoea, iie e ii nooe naiae ao?aeoacii-
aeaiie?aoe/aneea(iai?eia?, a aii?inao, eanathueony caineeo i?aaiia
aeanoe), ii Noieuiei ene?aiia iaaeayeny inouanoaeoue eo a ?aieao
i?aaeiae, ?aa?anneaiie, einiie aeey ea/anoaaiii iiaiai o?iaiy
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi nai
Noieuiei aue ia oieueei oaaaeaeaiiui iiia?oenoii, ii e aa?ee a ee/iinoue
eiia?aoi?a- iieeoeea, neaaeai, iaaeaeaeiai. I iineaaenoaeyo yoiai iu
iiaiai?ei iicaea, eiaaea aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue eoiae ?aoi?i, ii yoio
oaeo aaeaa ee ia

( I. Yeaeaeueiai. “?aaiethoeey naa?oo” a ?innee., no?. 162

iniiaiie a eaeaieiaee noieuieineiai ?aoi?iaoi?neiai eo?na ii
eioa?anothuei ian aniaeoai aa niaea?aeaiey.

?aoi?iaoi? n/eoae, /oi ia?aiaiu iaiaoiaeeiu, ii a oie ia?a e oai, aaea
iie iaiaoiaeeiu aeey yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu. Iiea iao yeiiiie/anee
naiaiaeiiai oicyeia – iao e aacu aeey ae?oaeo oi?i naiaiaeu (iai?.
iieeoe/aneie eee ee/iie). Noieuiei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi, iiea e?anoueyiei
aaaeai, ia iaeaaeaao ee/iie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth, iiea ii
iaoiaeeony oeneao iaueiu, ii inoaaony ?aaii, e ieeaeie ienaiue caeii ia
aeano aio aeaaa a?aaeaeaineie naiaiaeu.(

Neaaeai, e neiao, /oi yoio nii? aeooaeai e naaiaeiy, nionoy ii/oe aae.
Oaniaeoay naycue yeiiiieee e iieeoeee ia aeaao aeinoe/ue iieiaeeoaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoia ?aoi?ie?iaaiey iaeiie iauanoaaiiie noa?u aac eciaiaiey
ae?oaie. Ii iiaieth A. Iiiiaa nia?aiaiiua ?aoi?iu oiaea ia/eiaeenue “n
eo?na ia iiaia ainoaea?noai. A oaia?ue iu aeaeei, eae ia aai eeoea
?anoao oi?ioi iai ciaeiiay uaoeia aaoi?eoa?iiai ath?ie?aoecia. Aea ie/ai
eiui aiia?ao auoue e ia iiaeao, iiea ii anaaeanoai, e anee iao a no?aia,
aiai?y neiaaie Noieuieia, naiinoiyoaeueiuo nianoaaiieeia.”( (

XXX

6 ia?oa 1907 aiaea, I. A. Noieuiei aunooiee ia?aae II Ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoiie n eceiaeaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu ?aoi?i. Nienie
ioe?uaae ciaiaieoue oeac 9 iiya?y, a oaeaea ae?oaea aa?a?iua
ia?ii?eyoey. Ianeieueei caeiiii?iaeoia eanaeenue naiaiaeu
niaanoe(ia?aoiae ec iaeiiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey a ae?oaia, caeii i
noa?iia?yae/aneeo iaueiao e ae?. ). Auee iaauaiu caeiiii?iaeou i
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe ee/iinoe e aaaaeaiee aieinoiiai cainoaa, ?aai/ei-
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai nithca e ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?aoiaaiey, no?aia a
oeaeii – ?aoi?ia ia?aciaaiey. Aieueoia cia/aiea a i?ia?aiia
i?eaeaaaeinue aic?iaeaeaieth aiaaie iiue a?iee e oeioa, oo?a/aiiie a
?onnei- yiiineoth aieio.

10 iay Noieuiei aunooiee n eceiaeaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiioeaioeee
?aoaiey aa?a?iiai aii?ina. Yoi auea aai eoiaiaay ei?iiiay ?a/ue ai II
Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoia. Oeac 9 iiya?y o?aeoiaaeny eae auai? iaaeaeo
e?anoueyieiii- aacaeaeueieeii e e?anoueyieiii- oicyeiii a iieueco
iineaaeiaai.

Anaaaea auee e aoaeoo ooiayaeoeu, ?aoeoaeueii cayaee i?aiuea?. Ii ia ia
ieo

( ?a/ue Noieuieia., i?iecianaiiay a AAe 16 iiya?y 1907a.// I. Aie, I. A.
Noieuiei, no?. 232

(( A. Iiiia. I noieuieineie ?aoi?ia// Iaoea e aeeciue, no?. 44

aeieaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny ainoaea?noai: oieueei “i?aai niiniaiiai, i?aai
aea?iaeoiai nicaeaei i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia Caiaaea”. Niiniaiue,
o?oaeiethaeaue e?anoueyiei- “nieue caiee ?onneie”, e iiyoiio aai iaaei
iinei?aa inaiaiaeeoue “io oeneia” iaueiu, ia?aaeaa aio caieth a
iaiouaieaioth nianoaaiiinoue.(

*oiau iiae/a?eiooue aaia?aeueiia cia/aiea eca?aiiiai eo?na, Noieuiei
caeii/ee naia aunooieaiea o?acie, eioi?ay, eae iieacaei a?aiy,
ieacaeinue eo/oae a aai i?aoi?neii a?naiaea e iaeaieaa iieeoe/anee
yooaeoiie. Iia caeai/eaaeanue oae: “ei [i?ioeaieeai ainoaea?noaaiiinoe,
?aaeeeaeai- A. E.] ioaeiu aaeeeea iio?ynaiey, iai ioaeia aaeeeay
?inney”.

E aeaenoaeoaeueii, e yoei “i?ioeaieeai ainoaea?noaaiiinoe”
i?aaeoaeuenoai ioianeinue ni anae aeanoieinoueth.

24 aaaonoa 1906 aiaea auea iioaeeeiaaia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia,
ninoiyuay ec aeaoo /anoae- ?ai?anneaiie e ?aoi?ienoneie. A niioaaonoaee
n ia?aie a ianoiinoyo, iauyaeaiuo ia aiaiiii iieiaeaiee e iieiaeaiee
/?acau/aeiie io?aiu, aaiaeeeenue aiaiii- iieaaua(“nei?i?aoeoaeueiua”)
noaeu, a a oeaio?a ?aoi?ienoneie /anoe aue auoaoiiiyiooue oeac 9 iiya?y
1906 aiaea i auoiaea ec iaueiu n niioonoaothueie aio caeiiaie. Eiaiii n
yoeie ninoaaeythueie, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao A. ss. Aa?aoa,- noieuieineie
aa?a?iie iieeoeeie e “noieuieineeie aaenooeaie”- o nia?aiaiieeia a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue e annioeee?iaaeny iiaue aeaaa i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Aai aeaeea?aoeey ia?aae III Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie, iaei /ai
ioee/aaoayny io i?aaeuaeouae, iauyaeyea ia?aie e iniiaiie caaea/ae
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia “?aoi?iu”, a ai?ueao n ?aaiethoeeae, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy
yoiio yaeaieth oieueei neeo.

Aoi?ie oeaio?aeueiie caaea/ae i?aaeoaeuenoaa Noieuiei iauyaeye
i?iaaaeaiea aa?a?iiai caeiia 9 iiya?y, yaeythuaainy “ei?aiiie iuneueth
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ?oeiaiaeyuae aai eaeaae… ia aanii?yaei/iay ?acaea/a
caiaeue, ia oniieiaiea aoioa iiaea/eaie- aoio iiaaoaaony neeie, a
i?eciaiea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e eae iineaaenoaea,
ionthaea auoaeathuaa, nicaeaiea iaeeie ee/iie nianoaaiiinoe, ?aaeueiia
i?aai auoiaea ec iaueiu e ?ac?aoaiea aii?inia oeo/oaiiiai
caieaiieueciaaiey – aio caaea/e, inouanoaeaiea eioi?uo i?aaeoaeuenoai
n/eoaei e n/eoaao aii?inaie auoey ?onneie aea?aeaau””((

Ec ?aoi?i auee iaauaiu ?aoi?iu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, i?inaauaiey,
no?aoiaaiey ?aai/eo e o. ae. Aeaeaa Noieuiei i?iaicaeanee iieioth
iiaeaea?aeeo

ainiiaenoaothuae i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, iieeoeeo iaoeeiiaeecia e iaauae

( A. ss. Aa?ao. I. A. Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee, no?. 23

(( Oai aea, no?. 37

i?iyaeoue “iniaua caaiou” ii iiaeiyoeth ia aunioo aii?oaeaiiuo nee.

Iiaeaiaey eoia neacaiiiio, caiaoei, /oi eaeoiioeaii noieuieineeo
i?aia?aciaaiee iauanoaaiiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie iiaeii aua?aoue
o?aco “nia/aea oniieiaiea, caoai ?aoi?iu”.

2. Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia:

“aiaaoia e?anoueyinoai neoaeeo aacaea eo/oae iii?ie ii?yaeea”. Noieuiei.

2.1. Nouiinoue noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

Iu oaea oiiieiaee i oii, /oi ai aeaao oaea naieo i?aia?aciaaiee
Noieuiei noaaee eciaiaiey a noa?a yeiiiieee. N /aai ia/aoue a iae?
I?aiuea? aue oaaaeaeai, e aai aunooieaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia yoii,
/oi ia/eiaoue iaiaoiaeeii n aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu. E nai Noieuiei, e aai
iiiiiaiou iiae/a?eeaaee aeaaioth caaea/e ?aoi?iu- nicaeaoue aiaaoia
e?anoueyinoai, i?iieeiooia eaeaae nianoaaiiinoe e iioiio ia
ioaeaeathuaany a ?aaiethoeee, aunooiathuaa eae iii?a i?aaeoaeuenoao.
Caeanue /aoei i?inooiatho iieeoe/aneea niia?aaeaiey aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu:
aac e?anoueyinoaa ieeaeay ?aaiethoeey a ?innee auea iaaiciiaeia. 5
aeaeaa?y 1908 aiaea a ?a/e i “caiaeueiii caeiiii?iaeoa e caieaono?ienoaa
e?anoueyi” Noieuiei ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “ianoieueei ioaeai aeey
ia?aono?ienoaa iaoaai oea?noaa, ia?aono?ienoaa aai ia e?aieeo
iiia?oe/aneeo onoiyo, e?aieee ee/iue nianoaaiiee, ianoieueei ii yaeyaony
i?aa?aaeie aeey ?acaeoey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey, aeaeii ec o?oaeia
iineaaeiaai nuacaea nioeeaeenoia- ?aaiethoeeiia?ia, auaoaai a Eiiaeiia a
naioya?a ianoiyuaai aiaea… aio oi, /oi ii iinoaiiaee:
>””(

E?iia iieeoe/aneeo ono?aieaiee, a caeii 9 iiya?y i?aaeoaeuenoai
caeiaeeei e yeiiiie/aneee niune. Noieuiei ooaa?aeaeae a ?a/e ia?aae
Ainoaea?noaaiiui Niaaoii 15 ia?oa 1910, /oi “…eiaiii yoei caeiiii
caeiaeai ooiaeaiaio, iniiaaiea iiaiai nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneiai
e?anoueyineiai no?iy”((. Yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou ?aoi?i

( ?a/ue i caiaeueiii caeiiii?aeoa e caieaono?ienoaa e?anoueyi,
i?iecianaiiay a AAe 5 aeaeaa?y

1908a.// I. Aie, I. A. Noieuiei, no?. 241

(( Oai aea, no?. 245

iniiauaaeenue ia oii, /oi aac ii?iaeueiiai aa?a?iiai ooiaeaiaioa, aac
i?ioeaaoathuaai naeueneiai oicyenoaa, aac auieaneeaaiey ec naea ia ?uiie
o?oaea ieeeeiiia auaoeo e?anoueyi, aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeu,
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?innee aoaeao ia?a/aia ia /aoeoth aeeciue i?e iinoiyiiie
“iiaeei?iea” a aeaea eacaiiuo caeacia.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, niaeanii eiioeaioeee Noieuieia, iiaea?iecaoeey no?aiu
o?aaiaaea ianeieueeeo oneiaee: ia?aia- naeaeaoue e?anoueyi
iieiiaeanoiuie nianoaaiieeaie, /oiau “e?aieea e neeueiua”,
inaiaiaeeaoenue io iiaee iaueiu, iiaee iaieoe “oaiaeo e iueyiuo”. E
aoi?ia- aeiaeoueny oneeaiiiai ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iiaee?aieaiiiai
?acaeoeai aioo?aiiaai ?uiea.

Aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia aeeth/aea a naay ?yae acaeiinaycaiiuo i?iaeai, e ana
eo ?aoaiey i?iiecuaaea e?aniay ieoue- oii? ia ia iaueio, a ia
aaeeiiee/iiai nianoaaiieea. Ianiiiaiii, yoi aue iieiue ?ac?ua n
eaeaieiaeae ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea, eiaaea oii? aue naeaeai eiaiii ia
e?anoueyineoth iaueio eae ia aeaaioth iii?o, aaco naiiaea?aeaaey e,
niioaaonoaaiii, ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a oeaeii.

?ac?ooaieth e?anoueyineie iaueiu niinianoaiaae ia oieueei oeac io 9
iiya?y 1906 aiaea, ii e ae?oaea caeiiu 1909- 1911 aa.,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuea ?inione iaueiu e aiciiaeiinoue aai i?iaaaeaiey
?aoaieai i?inoiai aieueoeinoaa, a ia 2/3, eae yoi auei ?aiueoa. Iinea
i?eiyoey oeaca 9 iiya?y Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiie ii iinooiee ia
ianoaeaeaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e oaeaea aue i?eiyo, iinea /aai
noae eiaiiaaoueny caeiiii 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea. A yoie aeaaa iu ia iiaeai
?anniio?aoue niaea?aeaiea yoeo aeaoo caeiiia- caeanue oianoii eceiaeeoue
eo nouiinoue, iniiaiua /a?ou. Ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth yoi
auee, aaconeiaii, eeaa?aeueiua ao?aeoaciua caeiiu, niinianoaothuea
?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a aea?aaia e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ia?anneaiua.
?aciua enneaaeiaaoaee aeatho ?acee/ioth nouiinoioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo yoeo
caeiiia.

Oae, niaeanii eiioeaioeee A. ss. Aa?aoa, caeii “iaania/eaae i?ia?ann ii
ooaeoaio, i?onneiio ia?acoeo, oiaaea eae ?aaiethoeeiiiue iooue ioe?uaae
“caeaioth oeeoeo” “aia?eeaineiio”, oa?ia?neiio iooe, iaeneiaeueii
yooaeoeaiiio e auno?iio, a ?aieao ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa”(.

A. Iiiia ?anniao?eaaao nouiinoue noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouiinoue aa iniiaiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, ii- eiiio. Aio
oiae aai ?annoaeaeaiee. Aua Eaiei n/eoae, /oi ?aoi?ia Noieuieia-
i?onneee iooue ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia, ia/oi, auaiaeiia iiiaueeai. Ii
aaaeue iii?a i?onneiai

( A. ss. Aa?ao. I. A. Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee, no?. 86

iooe- thiea?a, iiiaue/uee oicyenoaa. Noieuiei aea eneae iii?o n?aaee
aiaaoiai e?anoueyinoaa. Eaiei aeiionoee oo aea ioeaeo, /oi e
*a?iuoaaneee, eioi?ue n/eoae ?aoi?io 1861 aiaea iiiaue/ueae. Ia naiii
aeaea ana eiie?aoiua ?aoaiey ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea ioaa/aee a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue eioa?anai nio?aiaiey oea?y e aai ath?ie?aoee. E Noieuiei oiaea
aeoiae i nio?aiaiee ath?ie?aoee, a oe?ieii niunea neiaa – i nio?aiaiee
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. A 1861 aiaeo n yoie oeaeueth ioaa?aee e
iiiaue/ee aa?eaio ?aoi?iu(inaiaiaeeoue e?anoueyi aac caiee) e
e?anoueyineee aa?eaio(inaiaiaeeoue, ioaeaa e?anoueyiai anth caieth).
Aua?aee iaueiiue aa?eaio inaiaiaeaeaiey. Eiaiii ii iicaieee nio?aieoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth iaoeio ?innee e ?inneeneoth eiia?eth. Oaea oiaaea
noaei ynii, /oi oea?y aieueoa eioa?anoao ?inneeneia ainoaea?noai, /ai
iiiaueee. Noieuiei oiaea eneae iooue nio?aiaiey i?aaeaea anaai
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noai, eioi?ia ii ioiaeaeanoaeye n i?aaeoaeuenoaii e
oea?ai. Noieuiei aeeaea ia e thiea?neiio, a e aia?eeaineiio iooe. A NOA
Eeieieuei ioe?ue aei?iao ia caiaae anai, aeaeaaoei noaoue oa?ia?aie.
Ii/oe oi aea iuoaeny naeaeaoue Noieuiei, oieueei aei?iao ii ioe?ue ia
Ainoie. Ii nouanoao ii iuoaeny niaaeeieoue aia?eeaineee iooue ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee eaieoaeecia n nio?aiaieai aiia?aoa ath?ie?aoee
naiiaea?aeaaey.(

2.2. Niaea?aeaiea noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu

Eiie?aoiua ia?u aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu Noieuieia aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi ecaanoiu.
Niaeanii 1 noaouee caeiia 14 ethiy 1910 aiaea “eaaeaeue aeiiioicyei,
aeaaeathuee iaaeaeueiie caieath ia iaueiiii i?aaa, iiaeao ai anyeia
a?aiy o?aaiaaoue oe?aieaiey ca niaie a ee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue
i?e/eoathuaeny aio /anoe ec icia/aiiie caiee”((. Aieaa oiai, caeii
?ac?aoee aio inoaaeoue ca niaie eceeoee, anee ii ca ieo caieaoeo iaueia
ii aieaa ieceie aueoiiie oeaia 1861 a. Ii o?aaiaaieth auaeaeeaoeony
iaueia auea iaycaia auaeaeeoue ei acaiai /a?aciieinuo caiaeue
ioaeaeueiue eiiiaeoiue o/anoie- io?oa. Aeiiieiaieai e caeiio 14 ethiy
1910 aiaea aue i?eiyoue iaaeie iaeaoaie 29 iay 1911 aiaea caeii i
caieaono?ienoaa. A niioaaonoaee n iei aeey i?iaaaeaiey caieaono?ienoaa
ia o?aaiaaeinue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oe?aieaiey caiee ca aeai?ioicyaaaie.
Naeaiey, aaea auee i?iaaaeaiu caieaono?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou, aaoiiaoe/anee
iauyaeyeenue ia?aoaaeoeie e ianeaaenoaaiii- iiaeai?iiio aeaaeaieth.
Caieaono?ieoaeueiua eiiennee auee iaaeaeaiu oe?ieeie

( A. Iiiia. I noieuieineie ?aoi?ia// Iaoea e aeeciue, no?. 46

( I. Aie. Ainiiieiaiea i iiai iooea, no?.224

iieiiii/eyie, eioi?ua iie ioneaee a oiae, /oiau ianaaeeoue eae iiaeii
aieueoa oooi?ia e io?oaia.

Aaaeiui eino?oiaioii ?ac?ooaiey iaueiu e ianaaeaeaiey iaeeie /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe aue e?aaeeoiue aaie. Iin?aaenoaii iaai ainoaea?noai
iiiiaaei iiiaei e?anoueyineei naiueyi a i?eia?aoaiee caiaeue. Aaie
i?iaeaaae a e?aaeeo caiee, neoieaiiua ?aiaa o iiiaueeia, eee
i?eiaaeeaaeauea ainoaea?noao. I?e yoii e?aaeeo aeey aaeeiiee/iiai
oicyenoaa aue aaeaia ieaea, /ai ii e?aaeeoai iaueia. Iaaeaeo 1905 e 1914
aa. a ?oee e?anoueyi ia?aoee oaeei iooai 9,5 iei. aa caiee. Iaiaoiaeeii,
iaeiaei caiaoeoue, /oi oneiaey i?iaeaae auee aeiaieueii aeanoeeie- ca
i?in?i/eo ieaoaaeae caiey o iieoiueea ioae?aeanue e aica?auaeanue a
aaieianeee oiiae aeey iiaie i?iaeaaee. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao I. Aa?oa, yoa
iieeoeea auea aanueia ?acoiiie a ioiioaiee iaeaieaa ?aaioiniiniaiie
/anoe e?anoueyi, iia iiiiaea ei, ii ia iiaea ?aoeoue aa?a?iue aii?in a
oeaeii(e?anoueyia- aaaeiyee ia iiaee i?eia?anoe caiee). Aieaa oiai,
auaeaeaiea a ioaeaeueiia oicyenoai iau/ii ia aeaaaei o/anoee,
aeinoaoi/iua aeey yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou e aeaaea e?aaeeou aeaea nouanoaaiii
ia iaiyee, e Noieuiei acye eo?n ia ia?anaeaiea e?anoueyi ia naiaiaeiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua caiee. Ii iiaieth I. Yeaeaeueiaia ianniaia ia?anaeaiea
auei i?aaieciaaii aeey oiai, /oiau, ia iaaeaeyy e?anoueyi iiiaue/ueae
caieae(?aaeeeaeeci), iaiaaoeoue iaeieo e?anoueyi ca n/ao ae?oaeo,
?anionoea iaueio e iaeaa/ea ia?aoiae oiai, /oi i?eiaaeeaaeaei aaaeiyeai
a nianoaaiiinoue caaeeoi/iuo ioaeeeia. Inoaaoeony aac caiee aeieaeai aue
ai-ia?auo i?eiyoue ai?iae, a ai- aoi?uo ie?aeiu, eoaea i?aaiecoaony
ia?anaeaiea. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey Noieuiei noa?aeny aeinoe/ue eiii?iienna
iauanoaaiiuo nee, /oiau, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ia ouaieyoue caeiiiuo i?aa
iiiaueeia ia caieth, a n ae?oaie – iaania/eoue caieae iaeaieaa
niciaoaeueioth /anoue e?anoueyinoaa- , eae i?aaeiieaaaeinue, iii?o
naiiaea?aeaaey(.

Ia?aae oai eae i?iaeieaeeoue enneaaeiaaiea ia?anaeai/aneie iieeoeee I.
A. Noieuieia, iaiaoiaeeii, ia iao acaeyae, i?iaanoe iiaa?oiinoiue aiaeec
caneoaeeaathuae aieiaiey noaouee eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe A.
Iaioaeaaaa “Neae?neay iaeennay Noieuieia”.

A eiioea aaaonoa- ia/aea naioya?y 1910 aiaea I. Noieuiei e
aeaaiioi?aaeythuee caieaono?ienoaii e caieaaeaeeai A. E?eaioaei
niaa?oeee iiacaeeo ii Neae?e. Ii ieii/aieth aeaeaaaoeee aue ninoaaeai
io/ao, n o/aoii eioi?iai Noieuiei e

( I. Yeaeaeueiai. “?aaiethoeey naa?oo” a ?innee., no?. 163

E?eaioaei auaeaeioee eiiieaenioth i?ia?aiio i?eaaoecaoeee neae?neie
caiee. A ei?ioeee n?ie aue ?ac?aaioai iaeao caeiiii?iaeoia e
iinoaiiaeaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia aaaaeaiea /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth
a Neae?e. Oaea a iiya?a 1910 aiaea Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea caieaono?ienoaa e
caieaaeaeey iai?aaeei a Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio aeaaiaeoee ec oao
aeieoiaioia- “Iieiaeaiea i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi e
eii?iaeoeaa ia eacaiiuo caieyo neae?neeo aoaa?iee e iaeanoae”. Nooue aai
auea aanueia ?aoeoaeueia: aac anyeiai aueoia i?aaeinoaaeoue caieth
neae?neei naeueneei iauaaoaeyi a nianoaaiiinoue.

I?iaaaeaiea caeiiii?iaeoa a aeeciue ano?aoeeinue n iaiaeuie
o?oaeiinoyie:

ai- ia?auo caieaono?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou a Neae?e ia caaa?oeeenue(ec- ca
iaoaaoee ainoaea?noaaiiuo caieaia?ia), a ai- aoi?uo ia oaaoaei n?aaenoa.

Eae aua iaeio i?e/eio iiaeii auaeaeeoue ia?aaeienaeueioth ia ia?aue
acaeyae i?iaeaio, eioi?ay, eae iieacaea enoi?ey, eiaea i/aiue aaaeiua
iineaaenoaey aeey anae ?inneeneie eiia?ee a oeaeii: Neae?ue, aoaeo/e
“no?aiie e?anoueyineie” ca i?aaua ia?oee ia auai?ao a Ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeoio ia aieiniaaea(!). Ninoaa neae?neeo aeaiooaoia aue i?aaenoaaeai
eneeth/eoaeueii iiiiceoeeiiiuie oiaaeaoiaio iieeoe/aneiio ?aaeeio
ia?oeyie e ieacae aieueoia aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa? ianoaeaeaiey
caeiiii?iaeoa i caieaono?ienoaa e?anoueyi Neae?e. Ii/aio iu
aeoeaioe?iaaee aieiaiea ia yoie i?iaeaia, iacaaa aa
iauaainoaea?noaaiiie?

Aeey ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in iaiaoiaeeii ioaea/ueny io iauaai oiaea
iiaanoaiaaiey… Aua ?aiueoa, ia auai?ao a ia?aoth Ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeoio a/a?a aua iao?ea?oaeueiue ioaeee eca?ae aeoio aac aaeeiiai
i?aaiai(!). Eiaiii caeanue e i?iecioae ia?aue na?ueaciue i?ieie a
eniuoaiiii eicoiaa “Oea?ue e ia?iae”. Yoi icia/aei, a naith i/a?aaeue,
e?ao iiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa, caeeth/athuaeny a oii, /oiau
aiieioeoue eaeath aaeeiaiey oea?y n ia?iaeii a aeeciue, iaeoe iii?o
naiiaea?aeaaeth a aeaea iao?ea?oaeueiiai e?anoueyineiai ianaeaiey,
“aaie?ionoai oeaca?ecia”. Ia o?oaeii aeiaaaeaoueny i oao iineaaenoaeyo,
eioi?ua, auoue iiaeao oieueei iac?aaaee a oio ia?eiae, auee iacaiaoiu,
ii eioi?ua iaycaoaeueii aeaaeoo i naaa ciaoue iaiiiai iicaea…

Eoae, auoaoeacaiiue i?iaeo i caieaono?ienoaa ieacaeny neae?neei
aeaiooaoai ia ii aeooa: iie iioeae?iaaee yoi oai, /oi “neae?neea
noa?iaeeeu, aeeay naiae aeeciueth, ieeaeiai caieaono?ienoaa ia i?inoyo”.
Ianoaeaeaiea caeiiii?iaeoa caoyioeinue aac?acoeueoaoii aieioue aei
i?ae?auaiey aeayoaeueiinoe IV Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu. I?aaaea, aei
nia?oe Noieuieia ?aaioa oea n?aaieoaeueii nii?i, ii iioii, eae ecaanoii,
iinea nia?oe i?aiuea?a, caeiiii?iaeo eeoeeny aeaaiie naiae caaiaeiie
i?oaeeiu e ?aaioa caoyioeanue.

Iaeiaei, aua a 1908 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai i?enooieei e ?aciaaeaaaieth
iaaeaeia e?anoueyineeo iauei a Neae?e. Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue iaeei
oee?eoey?, ioi?aaeaiiue i?aiuea?- ieieno?ii neae?neei aoaa?iaoi?ai: “ia
aeiioneay eaeeo- eeai ianeeee iaae aieath naieo noa?iaeeeia eee
iiainaeia, niaeaenoaiaaoue oiio, /oiau naeueneea iauanoaa n iaueiiui
caieaiieueciaaieai ia?aoee e aeaaeaieth ee/iiio”. Ianoiui /eiiaieeai a
aanaaeao n ianaeaieai ?aeiiaiaeiaaeinue i?iyaeyoue neoaeaaiue oaeo e
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueioth ianoie/eainoue. Ianiiiaiii a yoii i?aaeienaiee
io?aceeenue iiaua iiaeoiaeu a iiiuoeao i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?iaanoe
oa?ia?ecaoeeth ?innee. Aaaeue a oeaio?aeueiuo iaeanoyo ianeeea i?e
nicaeaiee oooi?ia e io?oaia auei iau/iie i?aeoeeie.

A Aa?iiaeneie ?innee iiiuoee auaeaeeoueny ia oooi?a e io?oaa iau/ii
aucuaaee nii?ioeaeaiea na?aaeiyoeeie /anoe aea?aaie(iiiaea e?anoueyia
ineoieiae/anee ia iiaee inaiaiaeeony io iaueiiiai oeeaaea aeecie). A
Neae?e aea iaueia auea caiaoii neaaae, e e?anoueyia ioioii oee ia
ioaeaeaiea. Eiaiii ioiineoaeueiay iac?aeinoue neae?neie iaueiu ai iiiaii
aeaeaea ei?aiiiai aea?aaaineiai ioaeeea, ia aiai?y oaea i ia?anaeaioeao,
iaaeaaeiui noi?iiieeii noieuieineeo i?aia?aciaaiee.

Eoae, aa?iainy e i?iaeaia ia?anaeai/aneie iieeoeee. A caaea/o
ia?anaeai/aneiai oi?aaeaiey, eae yoi oaea auei neacaii, aoiaeeei
?ac?aoaiea ianouiiai aii?ina ia?aianaeaiiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo aoaa?iee
?innee. Iniiaiuie ?aeiiaie ia?anaeaiey auee Neae?ue, N?aaeiyy Acey,
Aeaeueiee Ainoie e Naaa?iue Eaaeac. I?aaeoaeuenoai any/anee iiiu?yei
canaeaiea aeaiiuo ?aaeiiia: auee ono?aiaiu ana i?aiyonoaey e nicaeai
na?ueaciue noeioe aeey ia?anaeaiey a inaaeaaaiua ?aeiiu no?aiu.
E?aaeeou, ioioneaaiua ia?anaeaioeai, oaaee/eeenue a /aou?a ?aca ii
n?aaiaieth n ia?eiaeii 1900-1904 aa. I?iacae aue aanieaoiui,
niaoeeaeueiua ii eiino?oeoeee, “noieuieineea” aaaiiu, iicaieyee aacoe n
niaie neio e eiouanoai.

2.3. Iaoiaeu noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

Aei Noieuieia i?aaeoaeuenoai oiaea noa?aeinue iiiiaaoue aiaaoui
e?anoueyiai- aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue eueaioiua e?aaeeou E?anoueyineiai
aaiea. Caiaoei, /oi Noieuiei, iai?ioea, ioaiaeee aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue
a aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai iiiu?aiey ia e?aaeeoai(o.a. aeaiaaeiui
n?aaenoaai), a aiai?y nia?aiaiiui ycueii, aauanoaaiiui ?u/aaai.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeaiueae e?anoueyiei iia iii?inoo i?iieoue, noaoue
aea?oaie aeaeueoeia, oeiainiauo ai?ioee e /eiiaieeia. Eiaiii iiyoiio
Noieuiei noa?aeny ?aaeeciaaoue iiiiuue a iaoo?aeueiii aeaea. Ai- ia?auo,
iooai nicaeaiey ?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?u: a ciiao ia?anaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoai no?ieei aeaeaciua aei?iae, aiaeio?aieeeua, eieiaeoeu,
oeieu. Oae, e i?eia?o, oieueei iaaeeoeeineeo ioieoia auei ioe?uoi ieiei
500.

E?anoueyiei oaeaea iieo/ae iiiiuue a aeaea naiyi, neioa, eiaaioa?y- ana
yoi iiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue oieueei a oicyenoaa: i?iaeaoue ana yoi a
Neae?e auei iaeiio. A naycea “ainoaea?noai- e?anoueyiei” eneeth/aeny
ia?aeoiuee- oi?aiaaoe.

Aiai?y i iaoiaeao i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue, /oi iie
iie?aeenue ia iaaeei aiia?aoa, /eiiaieeia, iieeoeee.(Aaaeue yoi auea
?aaiethoeey naa?oo!). Iu oaea oiiieiaee, ?aoi?ia ?aaeeciaaeanue a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea a no?aia oea?eea ianoaiiaea ?anno?aeia, aenaeeoe, i?yiiai
ianeeey aeanoae. I?anooiiee ii e anoue i?anooiiee, ii oi, /oi naia
aeanoue n iiiiuueth aiaiii- iieaaiai noaea, a ninoaa eioi?iai Noieuiei
cai?aoee aeeth/aoue th?enoia, ?anno?aeeaaao naieo a?aaeaeai- yoi auei
iaaeaeaiii. Ca ia?eiae n 1905 aei 1909 aiaea /enei eaciaiiuo
?aaiethoeeiia?ia ia i?aauoaei 2,4 oun. /aeiaae(n?aaieoa n 2,7 oun.
oaeouo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeanoe) , ii yoi iaianei ia?iiiue ii?aeueiue
oaea? ii aeanoyi. Noieuiei nicaeae i?aoeaaeaio: i?aai aeanoe ea?aoue aac
iauyniaiee.

Noieuiei ooaa?aeee e i?aai aeanoe aiaoeaaoueny a noaoai yeiiiie/aneea
ioiioaiey. I?aai ainoaea?noaa ia ianeeea a yeiiiieea aia?aua
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii a iaua?inneeneii ianooaaa eiaiii Noieuieiui a oiaea
aai ?aoi?i.

2.4. Eoiae ?aaeecaoeee aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu

Eaeiau aea auee eoiae noieuieineiai aa?a?iiai eo?na, eioi?ue aue
iineaaeiae noaaeie oea?ecia a ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea? Oaeaeanue ee
aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia ii Noieuieio? Enoi?eee a iniiaiii n/eoatho, /oi
?acoeueoaou auee i/aiue aeaeaee io iaeeaeaaiuo… Ii iiaieth A.
Aiiaea?aaa, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee, iaaeaeaiea e?anoueyi
i?aaii /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth oaeaeinue eeoue /anoe/ii, i?e
yoii nio?aieeinue aioaaiienoe/aneia i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e
iiiaueeaie; i?iaaaeaiea caieaono?ieoaeueiuo ?aaio, ioaeaeaiea e?anoueyi
ii iaueiu oaeaeinue a iacia/eoaeueiie ia?a- ieiei 10% e?anoueyi
auaeaeeeinue ec oooi?a; ia?anaeaiea e?anoueyi a Neae?ue, N?aaeithth
Aceth, ia Aeaeueiee Ainoie a eaeie- oi noaiaie oaeaeinue. Yoi- auaiaeu,
aeey iauaeoeaiie ioeaiee iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeony e iniiaiui oeeo?ai e
oaeoai.

I?eia?ii ca aeanyoue eao oieueei 2,5 iei. e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa
oaeaeinue inaiaiaeeony io iiaee iaueiu. Aeaeaeaiea ca oi?acaeiaiea
“ie?neiai” i?aaeaiey ia naea aeinoeaei iaeaunoae oi/ee iaaeaeo 1908 e
1909 aa. (ieiei iieieeeeiia cai?inia aaeaaiaeii). Iaeiaei aiineaaenoaee
yoi aeaeaeaiea caiaoii nie?aoeeinue. Neo/ae iieiiai ?inionea iaueiu a
oeaeii auee e?aeia ?aaeeeie(ieiei 130 oun.). “Naiaiaeiua” e?anoueyineea
caieaaeaaeaiey ninoaaeee eeoue 15% iauae ieiuaaee ia?aaaouaaaiie caiee.
Aaeaa ee iieiaeia ?aaioaaoeo ia yoeo caieyo e?anoueyi (1,2 iei.)
aeinoaeenue io?oaa e oooi?a, cae?aieaiiua ca ieie iinoiyiii, a /anoioth
nianoaaiiinoue. Nianoaaiieeaie niiaee noaoue eeoue 8% iauaai /enea
o?oaeaieeia, ii iie oa?yeenue a ianooaaao no?aiu.

Caieaono?ieoaeueiay iieeoeea ia aeaea ea?aeeiaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia.
Noieuieineia caieaono?ienoai, ia?aoaniaaa iaaeaeueiua caiee, ia eciaieei
caiaeueiiai no?iy, ii inoaeny i?aaeiei- i?eii?iaeaiiui e eaaaea e
io?aaioeai, a ia e iiaaeoae aa?eeoeueoo?a oeaca 9 iiya?y.

Aeayoaeueiinoue e?anoueyineiai aaiea oaeaea ia aeaea aeaeaaiuo
?acoeueoaoia. Anaai ca 1906- 1915 aa. aaie i?eia?ae aeey i?iaeaaee
e?anoueyiai 4614 oun. aeanyoei caiee, iiaeiya oeaiu n 105 ?oa. a 1907 a.
aei 136 ?oa. a 1914 a. ca aeanyoeio caiee. Aunieea oeaiu e aieueoea
ieaoaaee, iaeaaaaiua aaieii ia caaiueeia, aaee e ?aci?aieth iannu
oooi?yi e io?oaieeia. Ana yoi iiae?uaaei aeiaa?ea e?anoueyi e aaieo, e
/enei iiauo caaiueeia iioei aiec.

Ia?anaeai/aneay iieeoeea iaaeyaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea iaoiaeu e eoiae
noieuieineie aa?a?iie iieeoeee. Ia?anaeaioeu i?aaeii/eoaee
iainiiauaaoueny a oaea iaaeeouo ianoao, oaeeo eae O?ae, Caiaaeiay
Neae?ue, iaaeaee caieiaoueny inaiaieai aacethaeiuo eaniuo cii. Iaaeaeo
1907 e 1914 aa. 3,5 iei. /aeiaae auaoaee a Neae?ue, ieiei 1 iei. ec
aa?ioeenue a aa?iiaeneoth /anoue ?innee, ii oaea aac aeaiaa e iaaeaaeae,
eai i?aaeiaa oicyenoai auei i?iaeaii.

Iaeiei neiaii, ?aoi?ia ia oaeaeanue. Iia ia aeinoeaea ie yeiiiie/aneeo,
ie iieeoe/aneeo oeaeae, eioi?ua ia?aae iae noaaeeenue. Aea?aaiy a ianoa
n oooi?aie e io?oaaie inoaaaeanue oaeie aea ieuae, eae e aei Noieuieia.
Oioy, iaiaoiaeeii i?eaanoe oeeo?u, eioi?ua i?eaiaeeo A. Iiiia- iie
iieacuaatho, /oi eia- eaeea naeaeae a iieiaeeoaeueioth noi?iio
iaaethaeaeenue: n 1905 ii 1913 aa. iauai aaeaaiaeiuo caeoiie
naeueoicoaoieee au?in a 2-3 ?aca. I?iecaiaenoai ca?ia a ?innee a 1913 a.
i?aauoaei ia o?aoue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa ca?iiauo a NOA, Eaiaaea,
A?aaioeia aianoa acyouo. ?inneeneee yenii?o ca?ia aeinoea a 1912 a. 15
iei. oiii a aiae. A Aiaeeth ianea auaiceeinue ia noiio, aaeaia
aieueooth, /ai noieiinoue anae aaeaaiaeiie aeiau/e cieioa a Neae?e.
Ecauoie oeaaa a 1916 a. ninoaaeye 1 ie?ae. ioaeia. Ia i?aaaea ee,
iaiaaeaaeeaathuea iieacaoaee? Ii ana aea, ii iiaieth Iiiiaa, aeaaioth
caaea/o- naeaeaoue ?inneth no?aiie oa?ia?ia- ?aoeoue ia oaeaeinue.
Aieueoeinoai e?anoueyi i?iaeieaeaee aeeoue a iaueia, e yoi, a /anoiinoe,
i?aaeii?aaeaeeei ?acaeoea niauoee a 17 aiaeo. Aeaei a oii, e iu oaea
e?aoei eanaeenue yoie i?iaeaiu, eiaaea aiai?eee i ?acoeueoaoao auai?ia a
Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio, /oi noieuieineee eo?n i?iaaeeeny iieeoe/anee.
Ii ia canoaaee e?anoueyieia caauoue i iiiaue/ueae caiea, eae
?ann/eouaaee aaoi?u oeaca 9 iiya?y. Iiaienia/aiiue ?aoi?iie eoeae, a?aay
iaueiioth caieth, aea?aeae a oia e iiiaue/ueth, eae e inoaeueiua
e?anoueyia. E oiio aea ii noaiiaeeny ana aieaa caiaoiui yeiiiie/aneei
eiieo?aioii iiiaueea ia oeaaiii ?uiea, a ii?ie e iieeoe/aneei, i?aaeaea
anaai a cainoaa. E oiio aea iiaay iiioeyoeey “neeueiuo” oicyaa, ia
eioi?uo ?ann/eouaae Noieuiei, auea iaaeinoaoi/iie, /oiau noaoue iii?ie
oea?ecio…

Caeanue y?ei i?iyaeyaony iniiaiay i?e/eia iaoaea/ ao?aeoaciuo ?aoi?i-
iiiuoea eo i?iaaaeaiey a ?aieao oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiu. E neiao, neaaeai,
/oi iiaeii ano?aoeoue ooaa?aeaeaiea, aoaeoi Noieuieiuie ?aoi?iai i?inoi
ia oaaoeei a?aiaie aeey iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia iao acaeyae,
yoe ?aoi?iu ii naiae nouiinoe ia iiaee auoue ?aaeeciaaiu yooaeoeaii a
oie neooaoeee. Yoiai a?aiaie o ieo iii?inoo ia iiaei auoue: ia eaeii-
eeai yoaia iie iii?inoo caaycee au. Iiyoue iiaoi?ei, /oi iaaiciiaeii, ia
iaiyy iaaeno?ieee, eciaieoue aacen- nioeeaeueii- yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey
e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaiaeeoue ao?aeoaciua ?aoi?iu a ?aieao
aaniethoecia( aeaaea n eca?aieai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaia nouiinoue
aeanoe iaei /ai eciaieeanue) ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Caeanue
eiia/ii iu eiaai a aeaeo iaeneio i?aia?aciaaiee. Iiaeii aeiionoeoue, /oi
noieuieineea ?aoi?iu, anee au iie i?iaeieaeaeenue, neaaeai, aua eao 10,
i?eianee au ii?aaeaeaiiua ?acoeueoaou, aeaaiui ec eioi?uo auei au
nicaeaiea neiy iaeeeo e?anoueyineeo nianoaaiieeia- oa?ia?ia, aea e oi a
oii neo/aa, ii au?aaeaieth Eaieia, anee “ianoiyoaeuenoaa neiaeeeenue
eneeth/eoaeueii aeaaii?eyoii aeey Noieuieia”. Ii ?acaa ia yoe naiua
oa?ia?u a NOA noaee aacie aeey iiyaeaiey iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
aioeath?ie?aoe/aneeo oi?i aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee? Ia iao acaeyae
naiui ?aaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii auei au nicaeaiea iauanoaaiiie neeu,
eioi?ay iaieioaii i?eaaea au a eiioea eiioeia ia e ?aaiethoeee. Ii ia
nioeeaeenoe/aneie, a eeoue ao?aeoaciie. Ii ?acaa iiaeii n/eoaoue oaeie
eoia oniaoiui n oi/ee c?aiey aaniethoecia, a ?aieao e ai eiy eioi?iai
i?aoai?yeanue a aeeciue aa?a?iay ?aoi?ia!?

3. Eiua iai?aaeaiey ?aoi?ie?iaaiey

A ?aieao oeieueiie ?aoi?iu, ooaa?aeaeaiiie caeiiii io 3 iay 1908 a.,
i?aaeiieaaaeinue aaanoe iaycaoaeueiia ia/aeueiia aanieaoiia iao/aiea
aeey aeaoae n 8 aei 12 eao. N 1908 ii 1914 a. athaeaeao ia?iaeiiai
ia?aciaaiey oaeaeinue oaaee/eoue ao?ia, auei ioe?uoi 50 oun. iiauo oeie.
Caiaoei, /oi Noieuiei noaaee o?aoueei oneiaeai iiaea?iecaoeee
no?aiu(iiieii aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu e ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe) aeinoeaeaiea
anaiauae a?aiioiinoe a iauaia iaycaoaeueiie aeey anao /aou?aoeaoiae
ia/aeueiie oeieu. Aua aoaeo/e i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aeai?yinoaa a Eiaii, ii
ienae ii yoiio iiaiaeo, /oi oieueei a?aiioiinoue iiiiaeao
?ani?ino?aiaieth naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ciaiee, aac eioi?uo ia iiaeao
iiyaeoueny eeann ianoiyueo oa?ia?ia. Iiaeaiaey eoia oeieueiie ?aoi?ia,
neaaeai, /oi aeey iaa aeaenoaeoaeueii ia oaaoeei a?aiaie: aeey
?aaeecaoeee ieaia anaiauaai ia/aeueiiai iao/aiey oaeeie oaiiaie, eae a
1908- 1914 aa., o?aaiaaeinue aua ia iaiaa 20 eao.

Noieuiei auniei ioeaieaae ?ieue cainoa e iiyoiio iaia/ae
?ani?ino?aieoue caineea o/?aaeaeaiey ia iiiaea aoaa?iee, aaea iie ia
aeaenoaiaaee ii oeaeiio ?yaeo i?e/ei, e iiaeaanoe iiae ieo ooiaeaiaio a
aeaea aieinoiiai cainoaa ia niaio ioaeeaoeo naie aae aieinoiuo noiaeia.
Noieuiei niaa?oee na?ueacioth ioeaeo a aii?ina ia o/?aaeaeaiee cainoa a
caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo(1911 a.), a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ii eeoeeny iiaeaea?aeee
ieoya?enoia. Aeaei a oii, /oi caiaaeiua aoaa?iee yeiiiie/anee
i?iaeieaeaee caaenaoue io iieueneie oeyoou. Aeaau oeo/oeoue a ieo
iieiaeaiea aaei?onneiai e ?onneiai ianaeaiey, ninoaaeyaoaai
aieueoeinoai, Noieuiei ?aoee o/?aaeeoue oai caineoth oi?io i?aaeaiey.
Aeoia ioioii iiaeaea?aeaea aai, iaeiaei Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao caiye
i?ioeaiiieiaeioth iiceoeeth- eeanniaua /oanoaa nieeaea?iinoe ni oeyooie
ieacaeenue neeueiaa iaoeeiiaeueiuo. Noieuiei ia?aoeeny e Ieeieath II n
i?inueaie i?a?aaoue ?aaioo iaaeo iaeao ia o?e aeiy, /oiau ca yoi a?aiy
i?aaeoaeuenoai n?i/ii i?eiyei iiaue caeii. Canaaeaiey Aeoiu auee
i?einoaiiaeaiu e caeii i?eiyo. Iaeiaei aeaiiay i?ioeaaeo?a yaii
i?ioeai?a/eea caeiiiiio ii?yaeeo i?eiyoey caeiiia, /oi
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaei i?aiaa?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e naiei
nianoaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieyi. Yoi i?eaaei e ?aneieo iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaii
e aeaaea naiuie oia?aiiuie eeaa?aeaie. Noieuiei iioa?ye iiaeaea?aeeo

Ieeieay II, eioi?iio yaii i?aoeei eiaoue noieue aeoeaiiai ieieno?a,
iaaeiaiiiai e?aeia i?aauie i?ioeaieeaie a aeaeaiee “yeni?ii?ee?iaaoue
anao iiiaueeia aiiaua” n iiiiuueth aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

Neaaeoao e?aoei inaaoeoue i?aia?aciaaiey a noa?a noaeaaiie aeanoe.
I?eioeeieaeueii, a naiuo iaueo /a?oao, ianoiue noae, eneaaeaiiue
?aaeoeeiiiuie ?aoi?iaie eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a III, aeieaeai aue
aa?iooueny e naiaio ia?aiia/aeueiiio iaeeeo.

Iaeiiaoe inoaeinue cao?iiooue ?aai/ee aii?in. Ii oae aea eae e
e?anoueyineee, aeinoaeny Noieuieio a ianeaaenoai io ?aaiethoeee 1905-
1907 aa. Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi aei yoiai ia oieueei oea?eci, ii e
ao?aeoacey io?eoeaea aai nouanoaiaaiea. Ii iiaieth A. ss. Aa?aoa yoi
iai?eciaiea auei ?aaiicia/ii i?eciaieth ianinoiyoaeueiie iieeoeee iii?u
ia e?anoueyineoth iaueio. ?aaiethoeey ?acaayea ana niiiaiey… Auea
nicaeaia niaoeeaeueiay eiienney ii ?aai/aio aii?ino. Iu ia aoaeai
aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaaoue ?ac?aaioeo caeiiii?iaeoia e o.ae- a yoii iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, inaaoei i?iaeaio a naiuo iaueo /a?oao. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue
ianeieueei yoaiia ?ac?aaioee caeiiii?iaeoia. Ia?aue naycai n
aeayoaeueiinoueth auoaoiiiyiooie eiiennee iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii
Eieiaoeiaa, oiaaeaoiaai ieieno?a oeiainia. Aa aeayoaeueiinoue n?aco
ii?iaeeea ioe?uoue eiioeeeo n ao?aeoaceae- iia ia aeaeaea eaeoe ia
aeaaea noaoai yeiiiie/aneea onooiee ?aai/ei e iaaeiyea i?aaeoaeuenoai a
oii, /oi iii oi/ao ?aoeoue ?aai/ee aii?in ca n/ao caaiae/eeia e
oaa?eeaioia. Eiienney Eieiaoeiaa i?ae?aoeea nouanoaiaaiea. Oai ia iaiaa,
ia niio?y ia i?iaae, ii?aaeaeaiiue eoia aue aeinoeaioo. Ii ninoiye a
oii, /oi oea?eci iiae aeeyieai ?aaiethoeee oaa?aei acye eo?n, oae aea
eae e a aa?a?iie iieeoeea, ia ao?aeoacioth iieeoeeo a ?aai/ai aii?ina,
ioeacaaoenue io /enoi iieeoeaeneiai niiniaa aai ?ac?aoaiey. Iauae
ieaooi?iie i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?iiuoeaiieeia auei i?eciaiea i?aaa
?aai/eo ia noa/eo e naie i?ioanneiiaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee. ?aai/ee aii?in
a ao?aeoaciii ?ac?aoaiee ia?yaeo n aa?a?iui noae iaeiei ec e?aaoaieueiuo
eaiiae o?aoueethiueneiai eo?na, iaeiei ec i?iyaeaiee o?aoueethiueneiai
eo?na oea?ecia, noieuieineiai aiiiia?oecia n oie ?acieoeae, /oi a iaeiii
neo/aa eaae?iaaiea oei iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyinoaii, a ai aoi?ii-
iaaeaeo ao?aeoaceae e i?ieaoa?eaoii. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ?aai/aai
aii?ina a “aa?oao” e Aeoia aeieacaei yoi ni anae i/aaeaeiinoueth

Neaaeothuei yoaiii a ?aoaiee ?aai/aai aii?ina auei Iniaia
niaauaiea(1906- 1907 aa.). Yoi oaea auea oeaeeeii y?a Noieuieia. Ia
iiaanoeo nannee auee auianaiu 10 caeiiii?iaeoia, naiaeeaoeony e
ianeieueeei ioieoai: no?aoiaaiea aieaciae, ian/anoiuo neo/aa,
eiaaeeaeiinoe; naa?aaaoaeueiua eannu iaania/aiey; i?aaeea iaeia ?aai/eo;
?aai/aa a?aiy; ia?u iiiu?aiey no?ieoaeuenoaa caei?iauo e aeaoaauo
aeeeeu; e o.i. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aac aieiaiey inoaeny aii?in i
?aai/eo i?aaiecaoeeyo- n/eoaeinue, /oi “A?aiaiiua i?aaeea” i nithcao ia
a?aiy ?aoatho i?iaeaio. Ia iniiaa yoeo i?aaee a aiaeu noieuieineiai
i?aaeaiey auee cae?uou nioie i?ioi?aaiecaoeee e aua nioiyi ioeacaii a
?aaeno?aoeee.

Inoaeueiua aii?inu ianoaeaeaeenue, ii ano?aoeee neeueiaeoaa
nii?ioeaeaiea ni noi?iiu i?iiuoeaiieeia, o.a. e?oiiie ao?aeoacee. E
i?eia?o, Iiaaeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “anee iai ia aoaeao i?aaeinoaaeaii
i?aai iaeioi?iai i?ioeaiaeaenoaey aeeyieth iannu, oi iu i?iiaee…”

N ia?aaea/ae a ethia 1908 a. caeiiii?iaeoia a Aeoio ianooiee eo
iineaaeiee yoai i?aa?auaiey a caeiiu. Ii noae naiui aeeeiiui.
Nii?ioeaeaiea auei ia oieueei ni noi?iiu i?iiuoeaiieeia, ii e neaaa:
o?oaeiaeee e nioeeae- aeaiie?aou aunooieee n e?eoeeie no?aoiauo
caeiiii?iaeoia n iiaeeeiii aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iiceoeee.

No?aoiaua caeiiii?iaeou noaee a eiia/iii eoiaa iaeiie ec i?e/ei,
iaino?eaoae ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aauie e ieoya?enoaie, iiiaueeaie e
ao?aeoaceae. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi noieuieineay ?aai/ay iieeoeea
i?iaaeeeanue. Ioaaoii ia iaa ni noi?iiu ?aai/aai eeanna aue iiaue
?aaiethoeeiiiue iiaeuai.

4. ?aoi?iu e aeoia. Noieuiei e eiia?aoi?. Aeaeaeouea neeu ?aoi?i.

Ii iiaieth A. Iiiiaa, nouanoaoao iinoiyiiue ia?aaeien, ninoiyuee a
neaaeothuai: n iaeiie noi?iiu ?aoi?ie?iaaiea ?innee i?aaeiieaaaao
nicaeaiea e ?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe, a n ae?oaie, a
aaneiia/iuo aeaaaoao anao aaoaae yoie aeanoe- ia/eiay n Aeoiu- ia
aeieaea ianyoeu “oiioo” naiua iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u. Yoio i?ioeann
anoanoaaiai, ii iaoneiaeai naiie i?e?iaeie i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeanoe:
iia i?ecaaia iaania/eoue ie?iia o?aaoee?iaaiea eioa?ania ?acee/iuo a?oii
iauanoaa, a, neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoio i?ioeann ia iiaeao ia auoue iieiui
eiii?iiennia e aeeeoaeueiui. A no?aia, aaea iauanoaaiiay neooaoeey
aeinoaoi/ii aeaaiiieo/ia, yoe aeaiie?aoe/aneea ia?eaiaioneea i?ioeaaeo?u
ea?atho a oeaeii i?ia?anneaioth e iieiaeeoaeueioth ?ieue. Ii a yiioo
?aoeoaeueiuo, ei?aiiuo ?aoi?i (oai aieaa a aacena!), eiaaea i?iiaaeeaiea
“?aaiineeueii nia?oe” yoe i?ioeannu a?icyo aiiaua ana caoi?iiceoue.

E Noieuiei, e i?aaeoaeuenoai iniciaaaee, /oi caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia /a?ac
Aeoio a eaeea- oi i?eaieaiua n?iee ia i?ieaeao, a oi e aiana “ooiiao”.

N naiiai ia/aea iia ieacaeanue a oeaio?a aeaaiuo caaio Noieuieia. Ia?aay
Aeoia

naiei aieueoeinoaii auaeaeaaea o?aaiaaiey, ia i?eaieaiua aeey
naiiaea?aeaaey e 8 ethey 1906 aiaea auea ?aniouaia.

II Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia auea eca?aia Noieuieiui eae iieeaii aeey
aoaeouaai aiiiia?oenoneiai eo?na, oioy auai?u i?ienoiaeeee ii noa?iio
ecae?aoaeueiiio caeiio. Ii ?aceia ineaaeaiea eaaeaoneiai oeaio?a e
noieue aea yaiia oneeaiea eaaiai e?uea oaea aiai?eei i oii, /oi
aiciiaeiinoue niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo i?aaeoaeuenoaii e Aeoiie noaea aua
aieaa i?ec?a/iie. I?aiuea? yaii i?iaioee?iaae Aeoio ia ioe?uoua
eiioeeeou n i?aaeoaeuenoaii, i?eaeeaeay /an ?acaiia.

III Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia, eca?aiiay ii “aannouaeaio” ecae?aoaeueiiio
caeiio, auoea eiaiii oaeie, eaeay aio auea ioaeia, yaeeinue oai
eino?oiaioii, ia eioi?ii, eae ii iieaaae, aio oaeanony eniieieoue naith
nieueioth ia?oeth. Aeaaiay iniaaiiinoue ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia III
ethiy, iiieii aai e?aeiaai aioeaeaiie?aoecia, ninoiyea a aiiaia?oecia,
nicaeaiee aiciiaeiinoe eaae?iaaiey iaaeaeo i?aaui e eaaui e?ueii Aeoiu.
Noaoenoe/aneee aiaeec iieacuaaao, /oi aieueoeinoai iia nicaeaoue oieueei
ieoya?enoneee “oeaio?”, aieinoy ni naieie i?aauie eee eaauie ninaaeyie.
Oaeei ia?acii, noieuieineee aa?a?iue aiiaia?oeci aue caaa?oai e
aeiiieiai aiiaia?oeciii iieeoe/aneei, aiieiuaiiui a o?aoueethiueneie
Aeoia. Ii noae ia caiaio i?iaaeeaoaainy oeaca?ecia(n iii?ie ia
e?anoueyinoai). Yoi oioue eae- oi naeaaeeei i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii e aeoiie.

Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi Noieuiei ianeieueei ?ac ia?ooee caeii aeey
inouanoaeaiey naiae iieeoeee(auoue iiaeao, yoi iaeia ec aeoaeiiuo i?e/ei
iaoaea/ aai ?aoi?ienoneiai eo?na…). Oae, e i?eia?o auno?i ooaa?aeeoue
o oea?y Oeac i caiaeueiie ?aoi?ia noaei aiciiaeiui oieueei aeaaiaea?y
noaouea 87 Iniiaiuo caeiiia ?inneeneie eiia?ee. Yoa noaouey aeaaaea
i?aai i?aaeoaeuenoao iaaeaeo Aeoiaie i?eieiaoue /?acau/aeiua oeacu ii
iaioeiaeiui aii?inai. Noieuiei e ainiieueciaaeny 87 noaoueae e ooaa?aeee
aa?a?iia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai n?aco iinea ?inionea ia?aie e aei nicuaa
aoi?ie Aeoi. I?e yoii ii aeaaaeaeu ia?ooee noaoueth 87(ai- ia?auo
aa?a?iia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia auei /?acau/aeiui aii?inii, iai?ioea, yoi
aue aeaaiue aii?in ?innee; ai- aoi?uo aeaooiany/iue n?ie ia aue
niaethaeai). Oaeei ia?acii, ei?aiiie aii?in- ia aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia- aue
?aoai ii/oe aac o/anoey ?inneeneiai ia?eaiaioa e a iaoiae aai. Eae e a
1861 a., ath?ie?aoey iaioeanue aac aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iaoaieciia.

Ieeieae II iaeia?ee ?aoi?io, ii ia aue aa aeaeaaoaeai. Aeaeaaoaeai aue
nai Noieuiei(yoi, enoaoe, ioee/aaony io neooaoeee 18- 19 aaea, eiaaea
eieoeeaoi?aie ?aoi?i aunooiaee eiia?aoi?u) Eieue nei?i i/aa
i?aia?aciaaiee iaoiaeeeny ia ia aa aa?oeia, oi yia?aey o?aoeeanue ia
oieueei ia i?aia?aciaaiey naa?oo- aiec, ii e ia “?aaioo n
ia/aeuenoaii”. Aicieeaao ai?ueaa ia aeaa o?iioa, eioi?ay ioaeaeaao
?ano?nu e eciaouaaao neeu. E aeaaea aeaaioneay yia?aey Noieuieia ia
auaea?aeeaaea oaeiai ii?yaeea i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i.

A aaniethoenoneie iiia?oee- eae e ethaie ae?oaie oioaeeoa?iie nenoaia-
i/aiue neiaeii i?iaiaeeoue ?aoi?iu: noa?ue ?aaeei, caueuay naay, ia
iicaieyao noi?ie?iaaoueny neeai, caeioa?aniaaiiui a ?aoi?iao. Ii ana
iiaeaaeyao. Eiaiii iiyoiio aeaeaeouae neeie iiaeao oieueei nai ?aaeei,
aa?iaa oa aai /anoue, eioi?ay ?aoeeanue ia ?aoi?iu. Eoae, ?aoi?ia n
naiiai ia/aea auea ineaaeaia oai, /oi aa aaei ia ia?aia eeoei ie?aieaeu
aeanoe. Ii yoa ?aoi?ia aua aieaa ineaaea, iineieueeo o iaa ia auei e
aeinoaoi/iie iiaeaea?aeee a iauanoaa. Noieuiei ai iiiaii ia?aioeaiee
aeoeaiinoue oie /anoe e?anoueyi, eioi?ay oioaea ?acaiaaoaoue. Aiaaoua
e?anoueyia aua ia noaee a naea naiinoiyoaeueiie neeie. Niioaaonoaaiii,
iie ia niiaee noaoue iii?ie noieuieineie ?aoi?iu. A ia?niaeoeaa,
eiia/ii, neie naiinoiyoaeueiuo e?anoueyi- oa?ia?ia noae au iiuiui
oaeoi?ii iieeoe/aneie aeecie ?innee. Ii yoi a ia?niaeoeaa. A a ia/aea
ana caaeneo io aeoeaiinoe aa eieoeeaoi?ia. Iaeiaei aeeeoaeueiui ia/aoia
naa?oo auoue ia iiaeao- oniao ?aoi?i caaeneo io auno?iai oi?ie?iaaiey eo
nioeeaeueiie aacu. Noieuiei oae e ia noiae iaeoe niinia, eioi?ue
iicaieee au ia/aoie naa?oo neeaie ath?ie?aoee aa?a?iie ?aoi?ia
iia?aoueny ia aeoeaiinoue e?anoueyinoaa. Iii, e niaeaeaieth, inoaaaeinue
eeoue iaoa?eaeii, eioi?ue ?aoi?ie?iaaee. Eeoaiiay nioeeaeueiie iii?u,
noieuieineay ?aoi?ia inoaaaeanue eiiieaenii aaeieieno?aoeaiuo ia?. A a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu ii- i?aaeiaio aeaenoaiaaee neeu, aunooiaaoea
i?ioea ?aoi?iu- e ni?aaa, e neaaa. A yoie nioeeaeueiie e iieeoe/aneie
ecieyoeee ninoieo, enoaoe, aeaaiia ioee/ea ?aoi?iu 1906 a. io ?aoi?iu
1861 a.

Caeai/eaay ?aoa?ao, iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaanoe eoia anaio auoaneacaiiiio.
Aea, iu iiiai aiai?eee iiiooii i oao i?ioeai?a/eauo yaeaieyo, eioi?ua
aicieeaee a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee noieuieineie ?aoi?iu, cao?aaeaaee e
i?e/eiu, eo ii?iaeeaoea. I?eaaaeai aeaaiua ec ieo: ionoonoaea
nioeeaeueiie iii?u ?aoi?iu e nii?ioeaeaiea naiiaea?aeaaey, ath?ie?aoee e
ao?aeoacee.

E?ao noieuieineie ?aoi?iu, iaaiciiaeiinoue n?anoeoue oioaeeoa?eci e
aaoi?eoa?eci n naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth, e?ao eo?na ia e?anoueyieia-
oa?ia?a noae o?ieii aeey aieueoaaeeia, eioi?ua i?aaeii/ee iia?aoueny ia
eieoicu.

Iooue Noieuieia, iooue ?aoi?i, iooue i?aaeioa?auaiey ieoya?y 17 aiaea
aue ioaa?aioo. E oaie, eoi ?aaiethoeee ia oioae. E oaie, eoi e iae
no?aieeny.

Noieuiei iiieiae e aa?ee a naie ?aoi?iu. Ii aue eo eaeaieiaii. Yoi-
neeueiay noi?iia Noieuieia. Aoaeai iauaeoeaiuie: eae iieeoee ii niaa?oae
ioeaee- ii ii/aio au iai ia iio/eoueny ia ieo?

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A. ss. Aa?ao. I. A. Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee., I.:
Ecaeaoaeuenoai

iieeoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, 1991.

2. I. Aa?o. Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa., I.: EIA, 1995.

3. A. Aiiaea?aa. Eoi anoue eoi e ii/aio., I., 1995.

4. I. Aie. I. A. Noieuiei., I.: “Nia?aiaiiee”, 1992.

5. A. Iaioaeaaa. Neae?neay iaeennay Noieuieia., Aueia, N 9- 10, 1996.

6. I. Yeaeaeueiai. “?aaiethoeey naa?oo” a ?innee., I.: “Eieaa”, 1989.

7. A. Iiiia. I noieuieineie ?aoi?ia., Iaoea e aeeciue, N O, OOOO.

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