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Eaoaae?a Enoi?ee

?AOA?AO

Ooia?eei A.A. Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

a?oiia I-12 ?aciaiiaa
I.A.

I.A. Noieuiei

iieeoe/aneee ii?o?ao

Niaea?aeaiea

Aeaaa ia?aay. Iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey

a ?innee a eiioea 19 ia/aei 20 aaea. no?. 2

Aeaaa aoi?ay. Ainoiae Noieuieia ia iieeoe/aneoth a?aio. no?. 5

Aeaaa o?aouey. Noieuiei e Aeoia. no?. 6

Aeaaa /aoaa?oay. 0eoya?enoneee oeaio?. “I?aaay” e “eaaay” o?aeoeee. no?.
12

Aeaaa iyoay. ?aaioa Noieuieia a III Aeoia. no?. 13

Aeaaa oanoay. Oooaeoaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo Ieeieaai II

e Noieuieiui. no?. 16

Aeaaa naaeueiay. Oaeenoai Noieuieia. no?. 18

Aeaaa ainueiay. Caeeth/aiea. no?. 19

Aeaaa 1. Iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey a ?innee

a eiioea 19ai – ia/aea 20ai aaea.

Aeey oiai, /oiau eo/oa iiiyoue aoiinoa?o, a eioi?ie i?eoeinue ?aaioaoue
Iao?o A?eaaeeaae/o Noieuieio, ioaeii ?anniio?aoue iieeoe/aneia e
yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea a no?aia n eiioea XIX aei ia/aea OO aaea.

Ia nouea XIX e XX aaea iauanoai anooieei a iiaoth oaco naiaai ?acaeoey,
eaieoaeeci noae ie?iaie nenoaiie. ?inney anooieea ia iooue
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey iicaea no?ai Caiaaea e iiyoiio iiiaea ai
aoi?ie yoaeii no?ai, oaeea no?aiu iacuaaee “iieiaeuie oeuieeaie”. A yoo
a?oiio aoiaeeee oaeea no?aiu, eae ssiiiey, Oo?oeey, Aa?iaiey, NOA.

Nei?inoue, n eioi?ie ?acaeaaeanue ?inney, auea i/aiue auniea, yoiio
niinianoaiaaea oaea ?acaeoay Aa?iia; iia ieacuaaea iiiiuue, aeaeeeanue
iiuoii, a oaeaea iai?aaeyea yeiiiieeo a ioaeiia ?onei. Iinea
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia 90o aiaeia, ?inney ia?aaeeea oyaeaeue
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen 1900-1903 aiaeia, caoai ia?eiae aeeeoaeueiie
aeai?annee 1904-1908 aiaeia. N 1909 ii 1913 aiaea yeiiiieea ?innee
naeaeaea aua iaeei ?aceee nea/ie. Iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
au?in a 1,6 ?aca, i?ioeann iiiiiieecaoeee yeiiiieee iieo/ee iiaue
eiioeuen, a ?acoeueoaoa e?ecena neaaua, iaeaiueeea i?aaei?eyoey
?aci?eeenue, /oi e onei?eei i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai a 80-90 aiaeu a?aiaiiua
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea iauaaeeiaiey auee caiauaiu e?oiiuie iiiiiieeyie;
ea?oaeyie, neiaeeeaoaie (I?iaeoaieue, I?iaeiaooue e o.ae.).
Iaeiia?aiaiii oei oe?aieaiea aaieiaie nenoaiu (?onnei-Aceaoneee,
Iaoa?ao?aneee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaiee).

Auaic eaieoaeea ec ?innee ia iieo/ee iniaiai ?aciaoa, /oi iauyniyeinue
eae iaaeinoaoeii oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, oae e iio?aaiinoyie inaiaiey
ia?iiiuo i?ino?ainoa no?aiu, ii a eiioea eiioeia ?inney aeeth/eeanue a
ai?ueao ca noa?u aeeyiey, /oi e iiaeaeei ca niaie aieio n ssiiieae,
iaeiie ec no?ai aoi?iai yoaeiia.

A ia/aea OX aaea ?inney yaeyeanue c?aaeia?acaeoie no?aiie. Ia?yaeo n
auniei?acaeoie eiaeono?eae a yeiiiieea no?aiu aieueoie oaeaeueiue aan
i?eiaaeeaaeae ?aiia-eaieoaeenoe/aneei e iieooaiaeaeueiui oi?iai
oicyenoaa – io iaiooaeoo?iiai aei iao?ea?oaeueii-iaoo?aeueiiai. ?onneay
aea?aaiy noaea nin?aaeioi/aieai ia?aaeeoeia oaiaeaeueiie yiioe.
Aaaeiaeoeie ec ieo auee e?oiiua iiiaue/uee caieaaeaaeaiey, oe?iei
i?aeoeeiaaeenue io?aaioee, yaeythuea niaie i?yiie ia?aaeeoie aa?ueiu.
E?anoueyineia iaeicaiaeuea, iaueia n aa ia?aaeaeaie oi?iiceee
iiaea?iecaoeeth e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa.

Nioeeaeueii-eeanniaay no?oeoo?a no?aiu io?aaeaea oa?aeoa? e o?iaaiue aa
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Ia?yaeo n oi?ie?iaaieai eeannia ao?aeoaciiai
iauanoaa (ao?aeoacey, iaeeay ao?aeoacey, i?ieaoa?eao), a iai
i?iaeieaeaee nouanoaiaaoue e nineiaiua aeaeaiey – ianeaaeea oaiaeaeueiie
yiioe. Ao?aeoacey caieiaea aaaeouoth ?ieue a yeiiiieea no?aiu aOO caea,
aei yoiai iia ia ea?aea neieueei-ieaoaeue naiinoiyoaeueiie ?iee a
iauanoaaiii iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu, oae eae iia auea iieiinoueth
caaeneia io naiiaea?aeaaey, a neaaenoaea /aai einoaaaeenue aiieeoe/iie e
eiina?aaoeaiie neeie.

Aeai?yinoai, eioi?ia nin?aaeioi/eei aieaa 6I% anao caiaeue, noaei
aeaaiie iii?ie naiiaea?aeaaey, oioy a nioeeaeueiii ieaia iii oa?yei
naith iaeii?iaeiinoue, naeeaeaynue n ao?aeoaceae.

E?anoueyinoai, ninoaaeyaoaa 3/4 ianaeaiey no?aiu, auei oaeaea cao?iiooi
nioeeaeueiui ?anneiaieai iauanoaa (20% – eoeaee, CI% – na?aaeiyee, 5I% –
aaaeiyee ) . Iaaeaeo iiey?iuie aai neiyie aicieeaee i?ioeai?a/ey.

A ia/aea OO aaea eeann iaaiiuo ?aai/eo ian/eouaae 16.8 iei. /aeiaae. Ii
aue iaiaeii?iaeai, aieueoay /anoue ?aai/eo ninoiyea ec iaaeaaii
i?eoaaeoeo a ai?iae e?anoueyi, ii aua ia iioa?yaoeo naycue n caieae.
ssae?ii yoiai eeanna noae oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneie i?ieaoa?eao, eioi?ue
ian/eouaae aieaa 3 iei. /aeiaae.

Iieeoe/aneei no?iai a ?innee inoaaaeanue aaniethoiay iiia?oey. Oioy a
7Iuo aiaeao XIX aaea aue naeaeai oaa ii iooe i?aa?auaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy a ao?aeoacioth iiia?oeth, oea?eci nio?aiee ana
ao?eaoou aniiethoecia. Caeii aeanee:”Eiia?aoi? ?inneeneee anoue iiia?o
naiiaea?aeaaiue e iaia?aie/aiue”.

Aei 1905 aiaea aunoei ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii a ?innee aue
ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, iinoaiiaeaiey eioi?iai eiaee ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa? aeey oea?y.

Naiao – aunoay noaeaaiay einoaioeey e oieeiaaoaeue caeiiia.
Eniieieoaeueiay aeanoue inouanoaeyeanue aeaoiy ieienoa?noaaie,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo eiio?iee?iaaeanue eiieoaoii ieieno?ia.

Ieeieae II, anaia?ii ia?aaeaeay naith aeanoue, i/aiue ?aaieai ioiineeny
e ethaie e?oiiie iieeoe/aneie ee/iinoe. Oae, N.TH.Aeooa, i?eia?aooee a
?acoeueoaoa oniaoiuo ?aoi?i aeeyiea a i?aayueo e?oaao, aue a 1903 aiaeo
niauai ni naiaai iinoa e iacia/ai ia aeieaeiinoue i?aaenaaeaoaey
eiieoaoa ieieno?ia.

Iniie i?iaeaiie aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa a yoe aiaeu aue iaoeeiiaeueiue
aii?in. 57% ianaeaiey ?innee auee ia?onneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, e iie
iiaeaa?aaeenue anyeiai ?iaea aeene?eieiaoeee ni noi?iiu ?onneeo
/eiiaieeia. A yoeo ioiioaieyo ?inney ia oieueei i?eoaniyea oa eee eiua
ia?iaeu , ii e noaeeeaaea eo iaaeaeo niaie. Iiiaea iiae aeaaeaieai
?onneiycu/iiai ianaeaiey yiea?e?iaaee a aeeaeaeoea no?aiu caiaaea, oai
iaieiaeenue ia ?aaioo. Caiaoioth /anoue yiea?aioia ninoaaeee ethaee,
eioi?ua oeaeueth naiae aeecie noaaeee ai?ueao i oea?eciii.

?inney iaaeeaiii, ii aa?ii ia/aea aiaoeaaoueny a ai?ueao ca ?uiee nauoa.
Ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ?inneae e ssiiieae ca ainiiaenoai ia ?uiea nauoa a
Eeoaa, noaea iaeiei ec i?eia?ia ?acaeaea noa? aeeyiey a ie?a. ss ia
aoaeo iienuaaoue aiaiiua aeaenoaey, eioi?ua ?acaa?ioeenue a ?acoeueoaoa
aieiu, ii iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeneacaiey Ieaaa, eioi?ue i?aae?aeae
aeey ?innee iaeaiueeoth iiaaaeiiinioth aieio, ia ii?aaaeaeenue. Aieia
/aoei iieacaea iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue ?onneie a?iee, a oaeaea
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiinoue yeiiiieee e aieia. N.TH.Aeooa ienae: “Aianoi oiai,
/oia ono?aieoue oa?ico aioo?aiieo iio?ynaiee, ian/anoiay aieia
i?eaeeceea ian ia aeanyoee eao e ?aaiethoeee. Aiaiiua ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua
iiianea ?inney a yoie aieia i?aauoaee 3 ie?ae. ?oaeae.

N ii?aaeaieai a aieia ia/aea ia?anoaoue ?aaiethoeeiiiay neooaoeey a
no?aia (1905-1907). Ec anaai yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ?innee
o?aaiaaeenue eae iieeoe/aneea, oae e yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua
niiaee au oe?aieoue e icaei?iaeoue yeiiiieeo ?innee. Ai aeaaa yoeo
?aoi?i aeieaeai aue anoaoue oiiue e /anoiue /aeiaae, aeey eioi?iai
i/aiue aaaeia auea noaeueaa ?innee. Ei noae Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei.

Aeaaa 2. Ainoiae Noieuieia ia iieeoe/aneoth a?aio.

Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei ia iioae ii o?aaeeoeeiiiie aeey aai oaieeee
neoaeaa, ii ia noae ie aeeieiiaoii, ie aiaiiui, eae aai aeaae, eioi?ue
caieiae iino eiiaiaeaioa E?aiey. Ieii/ea Aeeaineoth aeiiaceth (aeaonoai
ii i?iaae a Eieiiaa?aaeuea, iaaeaeaei io Eiaii), iaiaeeaeaiii aeey anao
?iaenoaaiieeia e ae?ocae, ii iinooiaao a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee
oaeoeueoao Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Iinea ieii/aiey oieaa?neoaoa ii
neoaeeo a ieienoa?noaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiouanoaa, ii /a?ac aiae
ia?aaiaeeony a IAAe e iiiaaeaao, i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aeai?yi, a Eiaaineoth
aoaa?ieth. Noieuiei aue ?aae yoiio iacia/aieth, iii iiiiaei aio
?ane?uoueny e eae /aeiaaeo, e eae oi?ioaio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth. Ii, iiaeieao
?acaiaa?eaaye n e?anoueyiaie, eae aoaea aieouaae ana i /ai iie aiai?eee
, a aiai?eee iie i caiea , i ?aoeeiiaeueiii aaaeaiee oicyenoaa e i
iiiaeo ae?oaeo aauao, eioi?ua o?aaiaeeee e?anoueyi. Anei?a ii caaae naia
oicyenoai. Aai aei/ue, I.I. Aie ienaea: “Iie ioaoe i/aiue ethaee
naeueneia oicyenoai, e eiaaea auaae a Eieiiaa?aaeuea, aanue ooiaeee a
caaiou i iinaaao, iieinao, iinaaeeao a eano e ?aaioo a o?oeoiauo
naaeao”.

*a?ac 10 eao Noieuiei iacia/aaony eiaaineei aoaa?iaoi?ii. A 1902 aiaeo,
iaoiaeynue a Eiaii, ii iieo/aao oaeaa?aiio io ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae
Ieaaa, a eioi?ie aiai?eeinue i oii, /oi I.A. Noieuiei iacia/aaony
a?iaeiaoeeei aoaa?iaoi?ii. Ieaaa a yoi a?aiy aa?ao oaa?aeue eo?n ia
caiauaiea aoaa?iaoi?neeo aeieaeiinoae ianoiuie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie.
Noieuieia iinaeeee a noa?ii caiea, eioi?ue iaoiaeeeny iaaeaeaei io
ai?iaea. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi Noieuiei noae naiui iieiaeui aoaa?iaoi?ii
?innee, iinea iacia/aiey ia yoo aeieaeiinoue ii n?aco acyeny ca
eco/aiea aeae aoaa?iee, ii aai aeaenoaey eiio?iee?iaaeenue
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii Aeeaineei e oioue iaaeaeo ieie ia auei ieeaeeo
o?aiee, yoi i?aoeei oa?aeoa?o Noieuieia.

Iaaei iiae/a?eiooue aua iaeio /a?oo oa?aeoa?a aoaa?iaoi?a. N ia?auo aea
aeiae aai noaee inaaeaeaoue i?inueaaie ?iaenoaaiieee i iieo/aiee ianoa,
ii Noieuiei oa?iaoue ia iia yoeo ienai e iinauaiee, oieueei ?aaeeea
ethaee iieo/aee i?ioaeoeeth io iaai.

A 1902 aiaeo Noieuiei o/anoaiaae a iniaii niaauaiee, ia eioi?ii
aiai?eeinue i ioaeaeao naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oai ii
?aoeoaeueii auneacaeny ca oie/oiaeaiea iaueiiie /a?aciieineoeu e
?annaeaiea ii oooi?ai. Yoa iiceoeey auea auneacaia iicaea a 1906 aiaeo a
eiiaeiaoeee n ae?oaeie iiaoanoaaie, a iauanoaa iia auea i?eiyoa eae
“Noieuieineay ?aoi?ia”, oioy Aeooa aee ia?aue eoi noae i?iaiaeeoue yoo
eaeath. Iaaei ioaeaoue aeieaeiia niaeinoe Noieuieia, aaaeue eiaaea
?acai?aeanue iieaieea i iooyo aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu iaaeaeo Aeooa e Ieaaa, ii
ia iiaeaea?aeae iiceoeee naiaai ia/aeueieea, ii a 1902 aiaeo oaaaeaeaiey
Noieuieia auee aua aanueia aeaeaee io /aoeie i?ia?aiiu Aeooa, eioi?ay
auea ioeeiiaia ia eaioia ?aaiethoeee 1905-1907 aiaea.

Ia i?iaua e aeanyoe ianyoeaa aoaa?iaoi?ii eiaaineie aoaa?iee, oaea a
ia?oa 1903 aiaea Noieuieia iacia/atho aoaa?iaoi?ii a aieaa e?oiioth e
aaaeioth na?aoianeoth aoaa?ieth. Ca yoio ei?ioeee n?ie oniaee caiaoeoue
a Iaoa?ao?aa niiniaiinoe iieiaeiai aoaa?iaoi?a e ?aoeee aeaoue aio aieaa
ioaaonoaaiiue iino. Caeanue e canoaea aai ia?aay ?aaiethoeey, a eioi?ie
ii i?eiaiee aanue a?naiae n?aaenoa – io i?yiiai ia?auaiey e ia?iaeo aei
?ani?aau n iiiiuueth eacaeia. I?e yoii a aeayoaeueiinoe aoaa?iaoi?a
iiyaeeenue aeaa io/aoeeaua /a?ou: ai-ia?auo, ii ia niouaeny ea?aoue ia
oieueei ae eaauo, ii e i?aauo, anee eo aeayoaeueiinoue ia?aoiaeeea ca
?aiee aeicaieaiiiai. Ai-aoi?uo, a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa
aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo aeayoaeae Noieuiei aue ee/ii o?aa? e ia aiyeny
inoaaaoueny eeoeii e eeoeo n ?acaiaaaiiie oieiie. Ii ia i?inoi cayaee
?aaiethoeeiia?ai n o?eaoiu Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu:” Ia caioaaaoa!”, ii e
ia naiii aeaea aae naay aanno?aoii.

A ai?aea 1906 aiaea Noieuiei iacia/ai ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae e any
ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae eiaeeony ia aai iea/e. Ianeieueei neiaeia auea
ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeiiiui aeaeaeaieai, iiaeii noaeeoue ii eieaa
I.A.Eo?eiaa, eioi?ue ?aaioae a io?aiea e /anoi auiieiye ee/iua ii?o/aiey
Noieuieia.

Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue iinea iacia/aiey ia iino ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae
Noieuiei i?eacaeaao a Oea?neia naei. Ieeieae II ano?aoee Noieuieia
aanueia ieeinoeeai e neacae, /oi aeaaii neaaeeo ca aai, oi anoue
Noieuieia, aeayoaeueiinoueth a Na?aoiaa, e n/eoaao aai eneeth/eoaeueii
auaeathueiny aaeieieno?aoi?ii, /oi ioaeii iacia/aoue eiaiii oaee ethaeae
ia noieue aaaeiua iinou. Noieuiei aea ia iaeeaeae oaeiai iacia/aiey e
i?aaeeiaeaiea neeueii oaeeaeei aai, ii n/eoae, /oi ianeieueei ianyoeaa
aoaa?iaoi?noaa a A?iaeia e ianeieueei eao a Na?aoiaa ia yaeythony
aeinoaoi/iie iiaeaioiaeie e oi?aaeaieth anae aioo?aiiae aeeciueth
?innee.

Naeaa naie aeaea ii aoaa?iee, Noieuiei aeeth/eeny a ?aaioo. Ii ia?aae
oai eae iu ?anniio?ei acaeiiioiioaiey Noieuieia e Aeoiu, iaaei neacaoue
i noieue auno?ie ea?uea?a Noieuieia. Aaaeue ia oieueei ii aue oi?ioei
aoaa?iaoi?ii a ?innee. Ii/aio auai? iae ia iaai?

Iieieaiiniia ainoiaeaeaiea a/a?a aua ?yaeiaiai aoaa?iaoi?a ia aa?oeio
iieeoe/aneiai aaea a aic?anoa 44 eao auei caaaaeeie aeey nia?aiaiieeia,
inoaaony caaaaeeie e iiiuia, iioiio /oi ieeaeeo iiuiuo naycae e
i?ioaeoeee o Noieuieia i?e aeai?a ia auei. Eoi iiaeneacae oea?th aai
eaiaeeaeaoo?o, iaecaanoii. I?aaaea, iaeei ec aai aeia?aoia, eaaeao
Ecaiaa, ienae, /oi eaiaeeaeaoo?o Noieuieia i?aaeeiaeee a ieieno?u
aioo?aiieo aeae oiaaeaoiee iaa?-i?ieo?i? Neiiaea eiycue Iaieaineee, ia
yoii anoue naeaeaoaeuenoai Oeiiaa, ii ae?oaea aeia?aou Noieuieia yoie
aa?nee ia i?eaea?aeeaathony. Aai a?ao A.A.Noieuiei oaea a yiea?aoeee
iaienae eieao, a eioi?ie ienae, /oi oea?ue iacia/ee aai a?aoa ieieno?ii
aioo?aiieo aeae “ii naiaio ee/iiio ii/eio” e ii nianoaaiiiio auai?o
iacia/ee aai i?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa ieieno?ia. Ii e yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea
aucuaaao niiiaiea, oae eae oiaea ia iaoiaeeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey a ae?oaeo
enoi/ieeao. Neoaeaaiue iooue i?iaeaeaiiue a i?iaeioeee, aue niaa?oaiii
i?aeeia?iui, ie/ai ia ioee/aaoeiny io ea?uea?u ae?oaeo /eiiaieeia,
noaaoeo aoaa?iaoi?aie.

Aeaaa C. Noieuiei e Aeoia.

Noieuiei aue iacia/ai ieieno?ii aioo?aiieo aeae 26 ai?aey 1906 aiaea.
Aeaiooaou I Aeoiu auee i?eiyou oea?ai, ia?aoeaoeiny e iei n ?a/ueth a
Ceiiai aeai?oea, ia ae?oaie aeaiue – 27 ai?aey. Iao niiiaiee, /oi
Noieuiei iieo/ee naie iino iiae Aeoio a oii niunea, /oi aio auei
aeiaa?aii i?ieiaeeoue iieeoe/aneee eo?n a iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo –
iaania/eoue niaeeoaeuenoai aeioiea ie/ai ia noaniaiiiai naiiaea?aeaaey n
“ia?iaeiui i?aaecoaaeoaeuenoaii”. Anei?a Noieuiei niaiyao Ai?aiueeia ia
iinoo i?aaenaaeaoaey Niaaoa ieieno?ia. E caeanue noaeueaa I Aeoiu
ieacaeanue acaeiinaycaiie i noaeueaie Noieuieia. ?inione I aeoiu
i?iecioae a aeaiue iacia/aiey Noieuieia i?aiuea?ii – 8 ethey 1906 aiaea.

Ca ei?ioeia a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey Aeoia caeeaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoai
cai?inaie. Ianoaeaeaeenue aii?inu i eiioeneaoeee caiaeue o iiiaueeia,
iono?aiaiea aaeieieno?aoeee, ioiaiu nia?oiie eacie aeey iieeoe/aneeo
caeeth/aiiuo, ioaeii neacaoue, /oi ia oieueei a Aeoia , ii e a eaaeiaoa
ieieno?ia ia auei niaeaney. Noieuiei ia n/eoae, /oi neea i?aaeoaeuenoaa
i?iyaeony eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iii aoaeao auiineoue naie ?aoaiey
“iauaaeeiaiiui” ieienoa?noaii e yoei iaeaa/eo ?aaioo ainoaea?th.

E yoiio aea a?aiaie ioiinyony ia?aaiai?u Noieuiei n eeaea?ii,
ainiiaenoaiaaaoae a I Aeoia, ia?oeae eaaeaoia, ii ieieno? ano?a/ae
oii?iia iaiiieiaiea e iaaeaeaiea onooieoue oioue a /ai-ieaoaeue.
eaaeaoai aea neeueii ia i?aaeeny Noieuiei ca naith oaa?aeinoue a
iiceoeeyo, aa?o a iiia?oe/aneoth ?inneth. I/aiue /anoi n eo noi?iiu
neuoaeenue aea?ceea neiaa a aae?an Noieuieia e aai naiuee. Ii eo iiaeii
auei iiiyoue, aaaeue iiaeeeth/eaoenue e ?aaioa, ii ia/ae iieeoeeo
oniieiaiey ia?iaea. Ia?u auee i/aiue no?iaea – aaaaeaiea aiaiii-iieaauo
noaeia, aaea eo/ea ioeoea?ia ?aoaea noaeueao /aeiaaea. *anoia i?eiaiaiea
a?iee “a iiiiuue a?aaeaeaineie aeanoe” Ia “oniieiaiea” auee a?ioaiu ana
neeu i?aaeoaeuenoaa e a?aiaiii oaeaeinue iiaeaaeoue ?aaiethoeeiiiia
aeaeaeaiea. Noieuiei, i?iaiaey oaeoth iieeoeeo, aue i?inoi iaiaoiaeei
aeai?yinoao e eeanno eioueo.

Eae y oaea ienae iieeoeea Noieuieia auea ia ii aeooa aa?anneaii
iano?iaiiui ia?oeyi, oai aea eaaeaoai. Yoi aueeeinue a oa??i?enoe/aneee
aeo, eioi?ue i?iecioae 12 aaaonoa 1906 aiaea. A yoio aeaiue ia
Aioaea?neii ino?iaa, aaea ?aniieaaaeenue aia?oaiaiou Noieuieia, aue
i?eaiiue aeaiue, e Noieuieio i?eoiaeeei iiiai ethaeae aeey oiai, /oiau
ii iiiia ?aoeoue ei eo i?iaeaiu. Iaeei ea iinaoeoaeae, eioi?iio
iin/anoeeaeeinue auaeeoue, ?anneacae, /oi e iiaeuacaeo iiaeuaoaei eaiaei
n aeaoiy ioae/eiaie a aeaiaea?ineie oi?ia. “AEaiaea?iu” yoe i/aiue
aicaoaeeee iiaeic?aiea noa?eea- oaaeoea?a e ninoiyaoaai i?e Noieuieia
aaia?aea Caiyoeia iai?aaeeueiinoueth oi?iu. Aeaei a oii, /oi ca aeaa
iaaeaee aei yoiai aue eciaiai aeaiaea?ineee aieiaiie oai?, i?eaoaaoea
aea auee a noa?uo eaneao. E oiio aea iie /a?an/o? aa?aaeii ianee
ii?ooaee. Oaaeoea? e Caiyoei, ii/oy iaaeia?ia, eeioeenue a ia?aaeithth,
/oia ia?ae?uoue iooue. “AEaiaea?iu” a?ineeenue a ia?aaeithth e a?ineee
ii?ooaee ia iie. Ac?ua aue i/aiue neeueiue. Aieueoay /anoue aea/e auea
?ac?ooaia ac?uaii. Naie ?aaiethoeeiia?u auee ?aci?aaiu a eei/uey. A
?acoeueoaoa ac?uaa iiaeaei 27 /aeiaae. Iino?aaeaee e aeaoe Noieuieia,
eioi?ue nai ia iino?aaeae, a iiiaio ac?uaa ii iaoiaeeeny a naiai ?aai/ai
eaaeiaoa, eioi?ue iaoiaeeeny a i?ioeaiiieiaeiii eiioea aea/e.

Iinea ac?uaa aai naiuey e ii ia?aacaeatho ia Oiioaieo. Iaiyoue i ac?uaa
/anoi o?aaiaeeea Noieuieia, ii i?eienuaae anth aeio naaa ca e?iaue e
neacu, ca eneaea/aiiua aeecie ethaeae, iino?aaeaaoeo io ac?uaa. Ii
anei?a ii iaoae a naaa neeu, ia i?a?uaay ?aaiou ie ia iaeei aeaiue, noae
aioiaeoue iiaua ?ac?aaioee ii niiniaai iiaeaaeaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
aeaeaeaiey. Iinea 12 aaaonoa i?anoeae Noieuieia iiaeiyeny n?aaee
ieieno?ia. Aeey anao ii noae i?eia?ii ii?aeueiie neeu. Naiuea Noieuieia
ia aeieai i?eoeinue aeeoue ia Oiioaiea, anei?a ainoaea?ue i?aaeeiaeee
Noieuieio iinaeeoueny a Ceiiai aeai?oea, oai auei eaa/a i?aaieciaaoue
io?aio naiuee. Aa?iainy aea e iieooaieth, ?aaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii yoiai
aeanoieiai aeoa yaeeanue auno?ay e aieaa aeanoieay ?aaeoeey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, Noieuiei naeaeae iaeneioi oneeee aeey yoiai. 24 aaaonoa
1906 aiaea auea iioaeeeiaaia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia, eioi?ay
ninoiyea ec aeaoo /anoae – ?ai?anneaiie e ?aoi?ienoneie. A iae
aiai?eeinue, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai i?ioeaiiinoaaeo ianeeeth neeo. A
ianoiinoyo, iauyaeaiuo ia aiaiiii iieiaeaiee, aaiaeeeenue aiaiii-iieaaua
noaeu (“nei?i?aoeoaeueiua”). A oeaio?a ?aoi?ienoneie i?ia?aiiu aue
ciaiaieoue oeac 9 iiya?y 1906 aiaea, i aiciiaeiinoe auoiaea ec iaueiu.
Oeaeue aeaiiiai caeiia, eioi?ue iiaeienae nia?oiue i?eaiai? ecaa/iie
e?anoueyineie iaueia – iiaa?iooue aa?a?ioth i?iaeaio ae?oaie noi?iiie,
aianoi oiai /oiau yeni?ii?ee?iaaoue caieth o iiiaueeia,
iaaccaiaeeaaeanue iaueia, oae eae i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea iaueia caiee
?ani?aaeaeyeenue iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie. Iaeiaei o?aaiaaeinue ?ac?aoaiea
iineaaeieo ia ?ac?ooaiea yoiai einoeoooa, oieueei oe?aieaoaainy a oiaea
?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoee. Ca oi a?aiy iiea ninoaaeyeenue e?anoueyineea
cai?inu e i?ioiaeeee caiaeueiua aoiou – iaueia ooaa?aeeeanu eae
ianoiyuee i?aai e?anoueyineiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Caiaeueiue aii?in, inoaaoeeny ia?aoaiiui, n nia?aiee I Aeoiu,
aaoiiaoe/anee iiyaeeny ia nia?aaoainy canaaeaiee II Aeoiu 20 oaa?aey
1907 aiaea. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeauai?iay eiiiaiey i?ioea ia aac
aiaoaoaeuenoaa e aeaaeaiey ia ecae?aoaeae ni noi?iiu aeanoae. Naiaoneea
“?acuyniaiey” eneeth/eee ec /enea ecae?aoaeae aieueoea a?oiiu e?anoueyi
e ?aai/eo. I?aneaaeiaaeenue eaaua auai?ueee, cai?auaeenue ecae?aoaeueiua
nia?aiey, ianna iaieioeyoeee auea i?aaei?eiyoa e iouaia a oiae ii /anoe
?annueie ecae?aoaeueiuo iiaanoie, iacia/aiea aeiy e ianoa auai?ia. Ii
ianiio?y ia yoi, e oioue auai?u i?ioiaeeee a ianoaiiaea niaaea
?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey, II Aeoia ieacaeanue aieaa eaaie, /ai
ia?aay.

Eaaua o?aeoeee a Aeoia iieo/eee a niaieoiiinoe 222 iaiaeaoa (43% iauaai
/enea eca?aiiuo aeaiooaoia). Ia?iaeieee ?aciuo iai?aaeaiee – 157 iano.
Nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay o?aeoeey ian/eouaaea 65 aeaiooaoia. A oi aea
a?aiy “oeaio?” – eaaeaou iioa?yee 80 iaiaeaoia. Iaeiia?aiaiii oneeeeenue
i?aaua e ieoya?enou, iie caiyee a Aeoia 54 ianoa (10%). ?aceia
ineaaeaiea eaaeaoneiai “oeaio?a” e noieue aea yaiia oneeaiea eaaiai
e?uea oaea aiai?eei i oii, /oi aiciiaeiinoue niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii e Aeoiie noaea aua nieaa i?ec?a/iie. II Aeoia ia/aea
naith ?aaioo 20ai oaa?aey 1907 aiaea, oaea 6 ia?oa Noieuiei aunooiee
ia?aae aeaiooaoaie n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiie. Nienie ioe?uaae
ciaiaieoue oeac 9 iiya?y, aeaeaa ia?a/eneyeenue ae?oaea aa?a?iua
ia?ii?eyoey. Ai anae inoaeueiie /anoe ?a/e Noieuiei /aoei aeae iiiyoue,
/oi i?aaeoaeuenoai aeey ?aaeecaoeee yoie i?ia?aiiu aioiai niaianoii i
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie i?eeiaeeoue ana oneeey, i?aoi? n?aco
iiyniee, eaeia i?aaeoaeuenoai ii eiaao a aeaeo: i?aaeoaeuenoai, eioi?ia
“o?aieo enoi?e/aneea caaaou ?innee”, oi anoue
naiiaea?aeaaii-iiia?oe/aneoth aeanoue.Eiioeiaea ?a/e yaii i?iaioee?iaaea
eaaoth /anoue Aeoiu ia ?aceea aunooieaiey, /oi e auei aeinoeaiooi. Iinea
Noieuieia aunooiae Oea?aoaeee, eioi?ue inoaeaeae aeaenoaey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ana yoi aiai?eeinue a iaaeii, aucuaathuai oiia. I?aaua
n?aco aea iiaeiyee e?ee e ia?aoeeenue e i?aaenaaeaoaeth, /oiau oio
inoaiiaee i?aoi?a, ii cai?aoa ia i?iaeieaeaiey ?a/e ia iineaaeiaaei.
Oea?aoaeee niaieee ae?oaea i?aoi?u io eaauo ia?oee, eioi?ua oae iieeaaee
a?ycueth i?aaeoaeuenoai, /oi Noieuiei iii?inee neiaa. Any i?ouay e
noiiouay oieia caiie/aea. Yoo ?a/ue Noieuiei aiai?ee n iniai
au?aceoaeueiie eioiiaoeeae, aai neiaa auee iaiieiaiu neeie e /oanoaii
iniaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa. ?a/ue auea ei?ioeie, ii neiaa, i?iecianaiiua a
iae, noaee enoi?e/aneeie: ana aaoe iaiaaeee ?ann/eoaiu ia oi, /oiau
aucaaoue o aeanoe e i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia?aee/ aiee e iunee; Ana iie
naiaeyony a aeaoi neiaai:”?oee aaa?o!” Ia yoe neiaa i?aaeoaeuenoai n
iieiui niieienoaeai e n niciaieai naiae i?aaiou , iiaeao ioaaoeoue oiaea
oieueei aeaoiy neiaaie “Ia caioaaaoa!”. Aei/ue Noieuieia, eioi?ay
i?enoonoaiaaea ia yoii canaaeaiee ienaea a naiae eieaa, /oi aia/aoeaiea,
i?iecaaaeaiiia anae ?a/ueth e iniaaiii iineaaeieie neiaaie, auei
iio?ynathuaa. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi noaei yniui,/oi II Aeoia iaia?aia
i?iyaeoue ianoieueei aea yaioth iiiiceoeeth i?aaeoaeuenoao, eae e
i?aaeoanoaothuay. Eae ie oyaeaei auei aia/aoeaiea, i?iecaaaeaiiia ia
iaai canaaeaieai 16 ia?oa, Noieuiei aua ia aeiioneae e iunee i ?inionea
Aeoiu. A yoi a?aiy a Aeoia oee aeaaaou ii aeaoi aii?inai: aa?a?iay
iieeoeea e i?eiyoea /?acau/aeiuo ia? i?ioea ?aaiethoeeiia?ia.
I?aaeoaeuenoai o?aaiaaei inoaeaeaiey ?aaiethoeeiiiiai oa??i?ecia, ii
aieueoeinoai aeaiooaoia ioeacaeenue yoi naeaeaoue. Aieaa oiai, 17 iay
Aeoia i?iaieiniaaea i?ioea “iacaeiiiuo aeaenoaee iieeoeee”. Oaea ie o
eiai ia inoaaaeinue niiiaiey, /oi nei?i II Aeoia i?ae?aoeo naia
nouanoaiaaiea, eneaeny oieueei i?aaeeia aeey ?inionea aeoiu. E anei?a
i?aaeeia iaoaeny. N iiiiuueth aeaoo i?iaieaoi?ia, aaaioia io?aiee auei
nino?yiaii iaaeiaiea nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie o?aeoeee II Aeoiu, a
iiaeaioiaea ath aiaiiiai caaiai?a, eioi?ue aue iai?aaeai i?ioea oea?y e
anaai ainoaea?noaa. Ia yoii iniiaaiee Noieuiei 1 ethiy 1907 aiaea
iio?aaiaae iono?aiaiey 55 aeaiooaoia e eeoiea 16 ec ieo aeaiooaoneie
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe, /oiau eo iiaeii auei iaiaaeeaiii a?anoiaaoue. N
ia?aiai iiiaioa e aeaiooaou, e i?anna, e any iauanoaaiiinoue iiiyee, /oi
aeaei nino?yiaii io?aieie. *a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa ia no?aieoeu ia/aoe
“auieuee” aeaa oaieeee – Oi?ieeiaa e A?iaeneee. Iie i?eciaaaeenue, /oi
“caaiai?” aue i?aaieciaai ii caaeaieth io?aiee.

3 ethiy Ieeieae II nai iauyaee i ?inionea aeoiu e iacia/ee nicua ia 1
iiya?y 1907 aiaea. A iaieoanoa, i?iaicaeaneaoei ?inione Aeoiu, auei
iauyaeaii i ei?aiiuo eciaiaieyo a caeiia i auai?ao. Aeo 3 ethiy 1907
aiaea aue ni?aaaaeeeai iacaai ainoaea?noaaiiui ia?aai?ioii, ii aue
niaa?oai a ia?ooaiea iaieoanoa 17 ieoya?y 1965 aiaea, niaeanii eioi?iio
ie iaeei caeii ia iiaeao auoue i?eiyo aac naieoeee Ainoaea?noaaiiie
Aeoiu. Iaaeaaeaeu Noieuieia ia oi, /oi iiaeao oaeanoueny neeiieoue
“oeaio?”, eioi?ue aue i?eaieai i?aaeoaeuenoao, ii oaea n ia?auo aeiae
noaei iiiyoii, /oi iaaeaaeaea ia?aaeueia.

Aua caaeieai aei yoiai N.A.E?uaeaiianeiio auei aeaii caaeaiea io
Ai?aiueeia i ?ac?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoa ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia, ii eiaaea
iniciaee , /oi aeoia ia iieaeao ia naiai? n i?aaeoaeuenoaii, iuneue i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiey ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia noaea aeaaiie caaea/ae
ia oieueei aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa e oea?y, ii e aeey anae ao?aeoacee. A yoi
a?aiy ia/aee ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoia. Ii aue ?ac?aaioai Niaaoii
iauaaeeiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa. Nionoy anaai eeoue iaaeaeth iinea ioe?uoey
II Aeoiu, ia canaaeaiee 27 oaa?aey 1907 aiaea. N oeaeueth ?ac?aaioe auea
nicaeaia eiienney, eoaea aioee: Eanaoeei-?inoianeee, Ia?uoeei,
Ienooueaa, Aia?eineee e eiycue Aieeiineee. I?iaeou ecae?aoaeueiiai
caeiia auoee ec ieoya?enoneie n?aaeu. oaeei ia?acii, oea?ue e Noieuiei,
anoaa ia iooue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aai?ioa, iie?aeenue ia iiaeaea?aeeo
ia oieueei /a?iinioaioeaa e iiianoiiai aeai?yinoaa, ii e aieueoae /anoe
oeaiciaie “iauanoaaiiinoe”, aeeth/ay ia oieueei ieoya?enoia, ii e
a?oiio i?iaannenoia, oioy iie i?aaeii/eoaee naia ni/oanoaea acyoiio
i?aaeoaeuenoaii eo?no ioe?uoi ia ioeoe?iaaoue. I?e ?ac?aaioea iiaiai
ecae?aoaeueiiai caeiia, auee iieiinoueth ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiu eaiou
auai?ueeia a iieueco ao?aeoacee e iiiaueeia. I e II Aeoiu yaii ia
aienuaaeenue a naiiaea?aeaaioth nenoaio, e iaaei auei nicaeaoue iiaoth
Aeoio, aieaa “iieeaaeenooth”, a aeey yoiai ana n?aaenoaa oi?ioe.

Oaia?ue, ecaaaeaoenue io iiiiceoeeiiiie aeoiu, Noieuiei iia i?iaiaeeoue
iieeoeeo aaoi?eoa?ioth e eiina?aaoeaioth, iniiaaiioth ia oaa?aeie
?aoeiinoe iaiiaeoue no?aio e oe?aieoue aeanoue. Ii/aa aeey yoiai auea
iiaeaioiaeaia iiaui ecae?aoaeueiui caeiiii.

Aeoineee ni?aai/iee 1916 aiaea ?enoao oaeoth ea?oeio: aeai?yia,
ninoaaeyaoea, ii ia?aiene 1897 aiaea, iaiaa 1% ianaeaiey, iieo/eee a III
aeoia 43% iano io iauaai /enea, oi anoue 66 iano, i?eia?ii 15% iano
iieo/eee iiiaueee . Eeoea eeaa?aeueiuo i?ioannee 84 (19,4%), oi?aiaoeu
-36 (7,5%), nayuaiieee e ienneiia?u iieo/eee 44 ianoa, /oi i?eia?ii
(10%) io iauaai /enea. ?aai/ea e ?aianeaiieee iieo/eee anaai 11
iano.Oaeei ia?acii, Aeoia iieo/eeanue oaeie,eaeay ioaeia auea Noieuieio.
Iia i?aaenoaaeyea oio iieeoe/aneee eino?oiaio, ia eioi?ii aio oaeanoueny
eniieieoue ana, /oi ii caoi/ao.

Aeaaa 4. Ieoya?enoneee “oeaio?”.

“I?aaay” e “Eaaay” o?aeoeee.

Aiciiaeiinoue iiaeiaiiai oaiiiaia ninoiyea a oii, /oi ieoya?enoneay
o?aeoeey ninoiyea ec iiiaueeia e ao?aeoacee. No?ao ia?aae ?aaiethoeeae,
eiina?aaoeci e iauea eioa?anu nieioeee eo. Yoi e aeaaaei Noieuieio
aieueoa oainia ia i?iaaaeaiea oniieieoaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee e i?iaaaeaiey
iaeioi?uo ?aoi?i. A ia?aua aiaeu ?aaiou Noieuiei caeeth/ee n Ao/eiaui
“iie/aeeaia niaeaoaiea”; ieoya?enou noaiiaeeenue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie
ia?oeae. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iie noaee ee/iie ia?oeae Noieuieia, a oae
aea ia?oey noaea aeaaiui eino?oiaioii aai aiiaia?oenoneiai eaae?iaaiey
iaaeaeo”i?aauie” e eeaa?aeaie.” Oaeei ia?acii, noieuieineee aa?a?iue
aiiaia?oeci, au?aaeaiiue a oeaca io iiya?y 1906 aiaea, eioi?ue
aeiiieiyao e caaa?oaao aiiaia?oeci iieeoe/aneee, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai
noaea III Aeoia. Yoa iieeoeea noaea oeaeie noeoeae aeey Noieuieia, ii
naeaeae noaaeo ia”neeueiuo” i?ioea “neaauo”, ia eaae?iaaiea a III Aeoia
iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e ao?aeoaceae. Ii ia/eiay n 1909 aiaea ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo Noieuieiui e Ao/eiaui ii?oyony ec-ca aii?ina i aiaiiuo
?anoiaeao. Ao/eia ianoaeaae ia oii, /oiau Aeoia eiio?iee?iaaea e
ianoaeaeaea aii?inu i aiaiiuo ?anoiaeao. Anei?a ia?oey ?aneieieanue ia
aieia iaoeeiiaeecia, /anoue ieoya?enoia naeeceeanue n aeanoyie e
ioiaaeaaaeanue io ia?oee. Inoaaoayny /anoue iauaaeeieeanue a iiaoth
a?oiie?iaeo e noaea ia?oeae ?onneeo iaoeeiiaeenoia, aiineaaenoaee noaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui oeaio?ii III Aeoiu. Aea iaa aieioue aei 1911 aiaea e
iie?aeny Noieuiei. Oeo?inoue Noieuieia ninoiyea a oii, /oi a i?iaaaeaiee
naiae iieeoeee ii iieueciaaeny ?acae?iaeaiiinoueth ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
iiiiceoeee, ionoonoaea niaeaney iaaeaeo ieie e ?aaeeeaeueii iano?iaiie
eioaeeeaaioeee.

Aeaaa 5. ?aaioa Noieuieia a III Aeoia.

16 iiya?y 1907 aiaea Noieuiei aunooiaao ia?aae Aeoiie n
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeaeea?aoeeae. Ia?aay e iniiaiay caaea/a, eae ii
aiai?ee, yoi ia ?aoi?iu, a ai?ueaa n ?aaiethoeeae, eioi?ay iiaeao
ni?aaoue ana, /oi auei caaeoiaii ei. Aoa iaaei auei ?acia?aoueny n
aa?a?iie ?aoi?iie, eioi?ay aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeanue ia ?aoaiiie. Iinea
i?eiyoey oeaca 9 iiya?y Aeoiie ii n aianaiiuie iii?aaeaie iinooiee ia
ianoaeaeaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e oaeaea aue i?eiyo, iinea /aai ii
aeaoa aai ooaa?aeaeaiey oea?ai noae eiaiiaaoueny caeiiii 14 ethiy 1910
aiaea. Ii naiaio yeiiiie/aneiio niaea?aeaieth yoi aue eeaa?aeueiue
ao?aeoaciue caeii, eioi?ue niinianoaiaae ?acaeoeth eaieoaeecia a
aea?aaia.

Eiia/ii aea yoi aue i?ia?anneaiue caeii, ii ii iaania/eaae i?ia?ann ii
ooaeoaio, i?onneiio ia?acoeo, eiaaea iiaeii auei iieoe ii aia?eeaineiio
iooe ?acaeoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, eioi?ue i?aaeoniao?eaae ?acaeoea
naeueneiai oicyenoaa iooai iaaeaeaiey e?anoueyi oa?iaie , aaea ii noaiao
iieiiaeaniui oicyeiii . Niune caeiia ?ane?uaaeny a aai ia?aie noaouea,
aaea aiai?eeinue, /oi eaaeaeue aeiiioicyei, aeaaeaaoee caieae ia
iaueiiii i?aaa, iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue “oe?aieaiey” yoie caiee a aai
/anoioth nianoaaiiinoue. Ii iia inoaaeoue ca niaie eceeoee, anee
e?anoueyiei iia ca ieo caieaoeoue ii aueoiiie oeaia 1861aiaea. Auoiae ec
iaueiu ?anniao?eaae naeueneee noiae, anee aea niaeanea ia auaeaaaeinue a
oa/aiea 30 aeiae, oi auaeae inouanoaeyeny caineei ia/aeueieeii.
Aeiiieiaieai e caeiio 14 ethiy 1916 aiaea oneeeaaaoei aai
ianeeuenoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, aue i?eiyoue iaaeie iaeaoaie caeii i
caieaono?ienoaa, iacuaaaoeeny caeiiii 29 iay 1911 aiaea. A niioaaonoaee
n iei aeey i?iaaaeaiey caieaono?ienoaa ia o?aaiaaeinue
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai cae?aieaiey caiee ca aeai?ioicyaaaie. E?anoueyineea
aaiee e i?ioeann ia?anaeaiey oaeaea ?ac?ooaee iaueio. A 1906 aiaeo
E?anoueyineiio aaieo auei ia?aaeaii ianeieueei aaeoa?ia oaeaeueiuo e
eacaiiuo caiaeue, ii naie aeaaiue caiaeueiue oiiae aaie nicaeaaae ca
n/ao neoiee iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue. A caaea/o ia?anaeaiue/aneiai oi?aaeaiey
aoiaeeei ?ac?yaeeoue caiaeueioth oaniioo, eioi?ay iaaethaeaeanue a
oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao ?innee. Iniiaiuie ?aeiiaie ia?anaeaiey yaeeenue
Neae?ue, Naaa?iue Eaaeac, N?aaeiyy acey. Ai ?aoi?ia ia oaeaeanue. Iia ia
aeinoeaea ie iieeoe/aneeo, ie yeiiiie/aneeo oeaeae, eioi?ua ia?aae iae
noaaeeenue. O e?anoueyi ia auei aeinoaoi/i iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa aeey
oiai /oiau iiaeiyoue naia oicyenoai, /oiau eoieoue iiaoth oaoieeo,
eioi?ay iicaieeea au iiauneoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueinoue, ii noieuieineee
aa?a?iue eo?n i?iaaeeeny e iieeoe/anee. Aeaei a oii, /oi e?anoueyia ia
niiaee caauoue i iiiaue/ueae caiea, aeaaea “eoeaee”,a?aay iaueiioth
caieth, aea?aeaee a oia e iiiaue/ueth. E oiio aea oaeeo neeueiuo oicyaa
auei anaai 5% naeueneiai ianaeaiey. Ei anaio i?i/aio, nioeeaeueiay
iai?yaeaiiinoue a aea?aaia ia niaea, a oneeeeanue aei i?aaeaea.
Iianiinoue ninoiyea a oii, /oi a?iaeaiea ooei a aeoaue e aue iaecaaaeai
iiaue ac?ua. E?ao noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu aue iaoneiaeai aeaaiui
iauaeoeaiui oaeoi?ii – oai, /oi iia i?iaiaeeeanue i?iaiaeeeanue a
oneiaeyo nio?aiaiey iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey. Oieueei eeeaeaeaoeey
iiiaue/ueaai oicyenoaa iiaea nianoe ?aoi?io Noieuieia.

Noieuiei ia ia?aie/eaaeny ?aoi?iaie a naeueneii oicyenoaa, ii iaaeoiuaae
?aoi?iu ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey, ia?aciaaiey aeey iieieioueo e e?anoueyi.
?a/ue, a eioi?ie cao?aaeaaeenue yoe aii?inu i?icao/aea a Aeoia 9 iiya?y
1908 aiaea. Anei?a a Aeoia aiciee “Iieueneee aii?in”, ii iiyaeeny a 1910
aiaeo a nayce n aii?inii i caiaaeiii cainoaa e auai?ao io caiaaeiuo
aoaa?iee a Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao. Aua a 1909 aiaeo a?oiia /eaiia
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa aianea caeiiiaeaoaeueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea, aai
oeaeueth auei nie?auaiea aeaiooaoia io caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee. Aeaei a oii,
/oi ana aeaiooaou auee iieyee, oae eae a eo ?oeao auee nin?aaeioi/aiu
e?oiiua caieaaeaaeaiey, a auai?u a ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao
i?iecaiaeeeenue ii caiaeueiiio oeaico. I?aaeeaaaeinue, ?acaeaeeoue
aeaayoue aoaa?iee ia o?e ecae?aoaeueiuo ie?oaa. ?onneea auai?ueee
auae?aee ii aeaa /aeiaaea io ie?oaa, a iieyee ii iaeiiio. Oaeei ia?acii
io aeaayoe aoaa?iee auae?aeinue au oanoue ?onneeo e o?e iieyea.
Noieuieio yoa eaeay i/aiue iii?aaeeanue: iieo/aeinue aaeaieia oi?ioi –
n iaeiie noi?iiu, eeaa?aeueiay oi?ia, a n ae?oaie – ?aaeecaoeey
ethaeiiai eicoiaa ” ?inney aeey ?onneeo”. 1 ethiy 1908 aiaea
caeiiii?iaeo aue ia?aaeai a ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao, a 17 ethey noae
caeiiii – n iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie.

“Iioiae ia Oeieyiaeeth”.

Oae Eaiei icaaeaaee naith noaoueth, yoi iacaaiea iieiinoueth ii?aaeaeyao
niune iieeoeee oea?ecia e III Aeoiu a ioiioaiee Oeieyiaeee. Oea?ue e
Noieuiei aianoa n i?aaiieoya?enoneei aieueoeinoaii Aeoiu oaa?aei ?aoeee
iieii/eoue n oeieyiaeneie eiinoeoooeeae, ia inoaiaaeeaaynue aeaaea
ia?aae i?eie?aieai aiaiiie neeu. Iaiaaenoue oea?ecia e Oeieyiaeee auea
iaoneiaeaia o?aiy i?e/eiaie : ai-ia?auo, i?iaae iieeoeee aaia?aea
Aia?eeiaa e ainnoaiiaeaiea oeieyiaeneie eiinoeoooeee a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aie ?onneie ?aaiethoeee; ai-aoi?uo, Oeieyiaeey yaeyeanue aeeaeaeoae
aacie e oaaaeeuai ?onneeo ?aaiethoeeiia?ia, a-o?aoueeo, aaoiiiiiay
Oeieyiaeey n aa anaiauei ecae?aoaeueiui i?aaii auea aeeaui io?eoeaieai
?inneeneie eiia?ee. Ia?aui oaaii Noieuieia a ioiioaiee Oeieyiaeee auee
aianaiiua aua a ia?aoth nanneth o?e cai?ina i?aaeoaeuenoao –
ieoya?enoia, iaoeeiiaeenoia e e?aeia i?aauo. A ia?aii cai?ina
au?aaeaeinue aaniieienoai ii iiaiaeo oiai, /oi yeiau i?aaeoaeuenoai
Oeieyiaeee ia auiieiyao auni/aeoaai oeaca io 19 ieoya?y 1905 aiaea i
ii?yaeea i?aaeuyaeaiey aeieeaaeia. Cai?in iaoeeiiaeenoia iauyniaiee i
i?eiyouo ia?yo ii ia?aaeaeaieth ainoaea?noaa io aioiayueoy
iinyaaoaeuenoaao ia ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?yaeie e aaciianiinoue ?innee.
E?aeia.gaaua o?aaiaaee cai?aoa iauanoaa “Aieia”. Cai?inu auee
?anniio?aiu a iany/iue n?ie. Noieuiei aunooiee ii yoiio aii?ino e ia
iniiaaiee anao o?ao cai?inia noi?ioee?iaae aeaaioth caaea/o: inoaiiaeoue
iaeiiaoe i?ioeann, eioi?ue i?e aeaeueiaeoai iiionoeoaeuenoaa iiaeao
i?eaanoe e iieiiio iainiaeaieth yoie no?aiu. Iaeio ec naiuo oi?ioeo
oi?ioee?iaie, ioiinyueony e oeineiio aii?ino , aeae 3 oaa?aey 1912 aiaea
Aeaeo?eo. Anee aea iiniio?aoue ia ana oa ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua auee caaeoiaiu
Noieuieiui e iauyaeaiu a aeaeea?aoeee, oi iu oaeaeei, /oi aieueoeinao ec
ieo ia oaeaeinue .nauoueny, a iaeioi?ua auee oieueei ia/aou, ii nia?oue
eo nicaeaoaey ia aeaea ei caaa?oeoueny, aaaeue iiiaea aaaaeaiey
aea?aeaeenue ia yiooceacia Noieuieia, eioi?ue iuoaeny oioue eae oi
oniaa?oainoaiaaoue iieeoe/aneoth eee yeiiiie/aneoth no?oeoo?o ?innee.

Aeaaa 6. Oooaeoaiea ioiioaiee iaaeaeo Noieuieiui e Ieeieaai 11.

Oaea a 1909 aiaeo ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Ieeieaai II e Noieuieiui ia/aee
ii?oeoueny. ss oaea ienae, /oi oea?ue ia ethaee ethaeae, eioi?ua eiaee
oaa?aeue oa?aeoa?, ii n/eoae, /oi iiaeiaiua eeoea “oco?ie?otho” aai
aeanoue. ?aoi?iu caaeoiaiiua Noieuieiui i?aia?aciaaiea ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey, ainoaea?noaaiiia no?aoiaaiea ?aai/eo, aaaaeaiea anaiauaai
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, aaaaeaiea cainoaa a caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo e
o.ae.) ia a?iceee onoiyi naiiaea?aeaaey, ii ?aaiethoeey auea
iiaaaeaeaia, e , eae n/eoae Ieeieae II e aai iiiiuieee ec Niaaoa
iauaaeeiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa, iiaaaeaeaia iaanaaaea, a iiyoiio ?aoi?iu ia
ioaeiu. Nenoaiaoe/aneea i?eaee?ee e eeyocu e?aeia i?aauo oea?th ia aeaao
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, /oi iaiaei iiii?oeei e?iae Noieuieio. ?aoaii auei
nicaeaoue Ii?neie aaia?aeueiue ooaa ec aeaoo aeanyoeia ethaeae, oae eae
yoi aucuaaei aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu, Noieuiei ?aoee i?iaanoe aai
ooaou /a?ac Aeoio, eioi?ay ooaa?aeaeaea athaeaeao. Ieeieae II n/eoae,
/oi ana aeaea i aii?oaeaiiuo neeao – aai ee/iay eiiiaoaioeey. Ieeieae II
aeaiiino?aoeaii ia ooaa?aeee caeiiii?iaeo. A yoi aea a?aiy ?aniooei
i?eia?aoaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea i?e aeai?a. Neaiaeaeueiua iioiaeaeaiey
“noa?oea” canoaaeee iii?ineoue oea?y auaiaoue ?aniooeia ec noieeoeu, ii
Ieeieae neacae, /oi eo/oa aeanyoue ?aniooeiuo, /ai iaeia enoa?eea
eiia?ao?eoeu. Ociaa i yoii ?acaiai?a Aeaenaiae?a Oaaei?iaia i?inoi
aiciaiaaeaeaea Noieuieia e a nayce n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui e?ecenii i?e
ooaa?aeaeaiee ooaoia Ii?neiai aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa ianoaeaaea ia aai
ionoaaea.

A ia?oa 1911 aiaea ?ac?aceeny aua aieaa iiuiue e?ecen. I?e o/?aaeaeaiee
caiaaeiuo cainoa, i?aaua iiniaoeee aeaoue aie Noieuieio a
ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa, e i?iaieiniaaee i?ioea eo?ee, iieo/ea iaaeaniia
?ac?aoaiea iiia?oa. Aeey Noieuieia eoiae aieiniaaiey yaeeenue iieiie
iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth, ii iiiye, /oi Ieeieae i?aaeae naiaai i?aiuea?a. ia
aeeaeaeoae aoaeeaioeee o oea?y Noieuiei iiaeae a ionoaaeo. Ii aue aiieia
oaa?ai, /oi aai ionoaaeo i?eioo, ii yoiai ia i?iecioei ec-ca aeaoo
i?e/ei. Ai-ia?auo, oea?ue ia i?eieiae ca ieieno?aie i?aaa auoiaeeoue a
ionoaaeo, n/eoay, /oi oieueei iiia?o iiaeao eeoaoue ieieno?ia eo iinoia,
a ai-aoi?uo, ii iiaeaa?any aeiaieueii aaeeiiaeooiie aoaea eiycae e
aaeianoaothuae eiia?ao?eoeu Ia?ee Oaaei?iaiu, eioi?ay iauyniyea
Ieeieath, /oi Noieuiei – /aeiaae, eioi?ue niiniaai auaanoe ?inneth ec
e?ecena. Oaeei ia?acii Noieuiei ia iieo/ee ionoaaeo, eioi?oth ii
aeaeae. Iiiya neooaoeeth, ii auaeaeaaao ia?aae Ieeieaai ?yae aeanoeeo
oneiaee. Ai-ia?auo, ?anionoeoue Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao e aeoio ia o?e
aeiy e caeiiii?iaeo i?iaanoe ii 87 noaouea, a aeaaiuo naieo i?ioeaieeia
– I.I. Aeo?iiai e A.O.O?aiiaa – Noieuiei o?aaiaae oaeaeeoue ec
ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa. E aua iacia/eoue n 1 yiaa?y 1912 aiaea ooaea
20 iiauo aeaiooaoia ii auai?o Noieuieia. Ii Ieeieae ieeiaaea ia i?iuae
oaeeo “neeiauo i?eaiia”.Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi Noieuiei a ?acoeueoaoa
naiae iyoeeaoiae aeayoaeueiinoe, iioa?ye ne?iiiinoue, i?eia?ae
iiioiaioaeueiinoue, ii ii ciae, /oi Ieeieae ia yoii aeaea ia inoaaeo.
Oea?ue ia/ae iaeei, ii iinoiyiii uaeeaoue ii iino naiaai i?aiuea?a: ia
iiaeienuaae caeiiii?iaeoia, eioi?ua auee i?eiyou iaaeie iaeaoaie,
iacia/ae a i?aaeoaeuenoai aeoeaiuo i?ioeaieeia Noieuieia. Iiecee neooe i
nei?ie ionoaaea i?aiuea?a.

Aeaaa 7. Oaeenoai Noieuieia.

A aaaonoa 1911 aiaea Noieuiei ioaeuoae a naiai eiaiee a Eieiia?aaeuea,
oai ii ?aaioae iaae iiauie i?iaeoaie, eioi?ua niae?aeny i?aaenoaaeoue ia
canaaeaiee Aeoiu, ii e ?aaioo, e ioaeuo i?eoeinue i?a?aaoue ec-ca
iiacaeee a Eeaa, aaea aeieaeai aue ioe?uoueny iaiyoiee Aeaenaiae?o II.
I?aauaaiea a Eeaaa ia/aeinue n inei?aeaiey. Noieuieio ia iaoeinue ianoa
a aaoiiiaeeyo, a eioi?uo neaaeiaaea oea?neay naeoa – aio yaii aeaaaee
iiiyoue, /oi ii eeoiee. I?aaenaaeaoaeth Niaaoa ieieno?ia i?eoeinue
eneaoue ecaic/eea. Eiaaea naeoa i?eoi?iiceea, ?aniooei iaeyioeny e
oaeaeae Noieuieia e eeeeooanee aiciiee “Nia?oue ca iei, Nia?oue ca iai
aaeao. Ca Iao?ii… ca iei!” ?aoathuea niauoey ?acaa?ioeenue 1 naioya?y.
A 6 /ania oo?a Eoeyaei, ia/aeueiee Eeaaneiai io?aiiiai ioaeaeaiey,
aeieiaeee i aioiayuainy iieooaiee eeaaneiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o
O.O.O?aiiao. A 7 /ania oo?a ii niiauee. ia yoii Noieuieio e iii?inee aai
ia aoeyoue ii ai?iaeo. Eiaaea Aia?ia iiyaeeny a oaao?a, Eoeyaei iii?inee
aai aa?iooueny ia eaa?oe?o. Aia?ia ooae e aa?ioeny /a?ac ianeieueei
ieioo e nae ia naia ianoi a 18-ii ?yaeo ia?oa?a. Ai a?aiy aio?aeoa
Eoeyaei iiaoi?ee naia i?eeacaiea, niiaa iiaoi?ee naie iaoeo?ue iaiaa?.
Iaeiaei ioeoea?, aeaaeo?eaoee o aoiaea, ia ioneae aai ia?aoii a oaao? e
oieueei aiaoaoaeuenoai Eoeyaei, i?ioiaeeaoaai a yoi a?aiy ieii,
iicaieeei Aia?iao ieacaoueny a oaao?a. Noieuiei noiye a yoi a?aiy eeoeii
e ia?oa?o, Aia?ia iiaeioae e Noieuieio e i?iecaae aeaa auno?aea. Iaeia
ioey iiiaea a ?oeo, a ae?oaay aeeaio. Noieuiei neii/aeny A naioya?y
1911aiaea a /anoiie eeeieea Iaeianeiai. Ioey i?e iiiaaeaiee caaeaea
ia/aiue, e yoi ?aoeei aeaei iaaeeoeeia ieacaeanue aaniiiiuiie.

Aia?iaa caaea?aeaee n?aco e noaee aeanoiei ecaeaaoue, aai n o?oaeii
oaeaeinue au?aaoue ec ?oe e?iaiaeaaeiie oieiu. Aai ioi?aaeee a “Einie
eaiiie?” e iinea iieieaiiniiai neaaenoaey aai iiaaneee. Iiaeeeiiay
i?iaeaia, naycaiiay n oaeenoaii Noieuieia,ninoieo ia a oii, eai ii aue
oaeo – aaaioii io?aiee eee ?aaiethoeeiia?ii, a a oii ciaea ee io?aiea i
caiunea Aia?iaa.

Aeaaaeinue aeaa iauyniaiey. Ia?aia – io?aiea a eeoea oiaa?eua aioo?aiieo
aeae, oaoa ioaeaeueiiai ei?iona aeaiaea?iia aaia?aea I.A.Eo?eiaa,
ia/aeueieea aeai?oeiaie iieeoeee A.E.Nie?eaeiae/a, Eoeyaei e
aeoea-aee?aeoi?a aeaia?oaiaioa iieeoeee eaia?-thiea?a Aa?eaeia, oi anoue
oiio, eiio auea ii?o/aia io?aia oea?y ai a?aiy oi?aeanoa, ?aoeee
einoeaie?iaaoue iieooaiea ia Noieuieia, iieooaiea oniaoii
i?aaeioa?aoeoue e iieo/eoue ca o?aa?inoue iaa?aaeu, ii a ?aoathuee
iiiaio iie iioa?yee oi?aeaiea iaae Aia?iaui. Aoi?ia-yoa /aoaa?ea oioaea,
/oiau Noieuiei aue oaeo, e naeaeaee iie yoi ?oaie Aia?iaa.

Aeaaa 8. Caeeth/aiea.

?aaiethoeey iieacaea ia?iiiue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee e iieeoe/aneee
?ac?ua iaaeaeo ia?iaeii e aeanoueth. No?aia o?aaiaaeenue ?aaeeeaeueiua
?aoi?iu, eioi?uo ia iineaaeiaaei. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi no?aia a ia?eiae
noieuieineeo ?aoi?i ia?aaeeaaea ia eiinoeoooeeiiiue e?ecen, a
?aaiethoeeiiiue. Noiyiea ia ianoa eee iieo?aoi?iu ia iiaee ?aoeoue
neooaoeeth, a oieueei iaiai?io ?anoe?yee ieaoeaea?i aeey ai?ueau ca
ea?aeeiaeueiua i?aia?aciaaiey. Oieueei oie/oiaeaiea oea?neiai ?aaeeia e
iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey iiaee eciaieoue oiae niauoee, ia?u, eioi?ua
i?aaei?eiye Noieuiei a oiaea naieo ?aoi?i auee iieiaei/aouie. Aeaaiue
aea e?ao ?aoi?i Noieuieia ninoieo a oii, /oi ii oioae inouanoaeoue
?ai?aaiecaoeeth aia aeaiie?aoe/aneei iooai e aii?aee aio No?oaa ienae:”
Eiaiii aai aa?a?iay iieeoeea ninoieo a e?e/auai i?ioeai?a/ee n aai
inoaeueiie iieeoeeie. Ii eciaiyao yeiiiie/aneee ooiaeaiaio no?aiu, oi
a?aiy eae any inoaeueiay iieeoeea no?aieony nio?aieoue a aiciiaeii
aieueoae iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe iieeoe/aneoth “iaaeno?ieeo” e eeoue neaaea
oe?aoaao aa oanaae. Eiia/ii aea Noieuiei aue auaeathueiny aeayoaeai e
iieeoeeii, ii i?e nouanoaiaaiee oaeie nenoaiu, eioi?ay auea a ?innee,
ana aai i?iaeou “?aceaeuaaeenue” i iaiiieiaiea eee i iaaeaeaiea iiiyoue
anth aaaeiinoue aai ia/eiaiee. Iaaei neacaoue, /oi aac oao /aeiaa/aneeo
ea/anoa, oaeeo eae: niaeinoue, oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue, iaii?enoinoue,
iieeoe/aneia /oouea, oeo?inoue – Noieuieio a?yae ee oaeaeinue naeaeaoue
oioue eaeie aeeaae a ?acaeoea no?aiu.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U

1 Nai?iee ?a/ae “Iao? A?eaaeueaae/ Noieuiei“

“Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney” Iineaa “Iieiaeay Aaa?aeey” 1990

2 A.ss.Aa?ao “I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee.” Iineaa
iieeoecaeao 1991

3 I.I.Aie “I.A.Noieuiei ainiiieiaiey ia iooea” Iineaa “Iiainoe” 1992

4 I.Aa?o “Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa” Iineaa “I?ia?ann” 1992

5 A.A.Eaca?acia “I Iao?a A?eaaeeaae/a Noieuieia” Iineaa AI
“Aa?ii?iiecaeao” 1991

6 A.I.Ei?aeei “E?aoeia iiniaea ii enoi?ee” Iineaa “Aunoay oeiea” 1992

7 I.O.Eo?eia “Aeaaeue eiia?aoi?neie ?innee” Iineaa “Nia?aiaiiee” 1992

8

“Eeethno?e?iaaiiay enoi?ey NNN?” Iineaa “Iuneue” 1977

9 I.I.Ooaeineie “Iaiyoe I.A.Noieuieia” Iineaa oiaa?euanoai oeiia?aoee
A.E.Iaiiioiaa 1913

10 I.I. Cu?yiia “Iao? A?eaaeeaae/ Noieuiei” Iineaa Aii?inu Enoi?ee N6
1990

11 Ino?ianeee “Noieuiei” Iineaa

1992

E?aoeia iiniaea ii enoi?ee. Ecaeaoaeuenoai “Aunoay oeiea” , no?.94

A.ss.Aa?ao, “I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee”,Iineaa-1991
no?.17

I.I. Aie, “Ainiiieiaiey i iiai iooea” , Iineaa 1991

I.Aa?o “Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa 1900-1991”, Iineaa, 1992, no?49

Eaca?acia “I Iao?a A?eaaeueaae/a Noieuieia” a.Iineaa 1991 no?.11

E .O . Oaoeeeei ” Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney “, a.Iineaa 1991 no? . 63

A.ss. Aa?ao “I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee” Iineaa 1991
no?.25

I. Aa?o “Enoi?ey niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa 1900-1991” a.Iineaa 1992
no?.50

A.ss. Aa?ao “I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueau ?aoi?i a ?innee” Iineaa 1991
no?.88

A.ss. Aa?ao “I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueaa ?aoi?i a ?innee”, Iineaa 1991
no?.4

A.ss. Aa?ao “I.A.Noieuiei e noaeueaa ?aoi?i a ?innee”Iineaa 1991
no?.257

I.I.Aie “I.A.Noieuiei ainiiieiaiey i iiai iooea” Iineaa 1992 no?.302

E.O.Oaoeeeei”Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney” a.Iineaa, 1991, no?.15

A.ss. Aa?ao “Noieuiei e o?aouey Aeoia” a.Iineaa 1991 no?.17

E.O.Oaoeeeei “Iai ioaeia aaeeeay ?inney” a.Iineaa 1991 no?.19

?aoa?ao I.A. Noieuiei. Iieeoe/aneee
ii?o?ao.

Enoi?ey ?innee

PAGE

– PAGE 1 –

Oeiainiaay Aeaaeaiey i?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Einoeooo Iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo Yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee

Iineaa 1993

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