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Становление и развитие феодальной экономики

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Noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea oaiaeaeueiie yeiiiieee.

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Ca?iaeaeaiea oaiaeaeecia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

2. ?acaeoea oaiaeaeueiie yeiiiieee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a XI – XV aa.

Ia?aoiae e oaiaeaeecio a ?aciuo iauanoaao i?ioiaeee ii-?aciiio, O
iaeioi?uo ia?iaeia ii neaaeiaae ca ?aaiaeaaeaieai e i?aaeoanoaiaae
eaieoaeecio. Aa?iaioeu, neaayia, a?aau, eaeueou, ia?iaeu o?iie/aneie
Ao?eee ieiiaaee ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneoth noaaeeth, e oaiaeaeeci o ieo
iineaaeiaae ca ia?aiauoiiiaueiiui no?iai.

Oaiaeaeueiay nenoaia oi?ie?iaaeanue ia neaaeothueo i?eioeeiao:

• ainiiaenoaa e?oiiie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e iiiiiieee ia iaa
oaiaeaeia;

• iaiin?aaenoaaiiue i?iecaiaeeoaeue — e?anoueyiei aaaeao
naiinoiyoaeueiia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia oicyenoai ia caiea, iieo/aiiie io
oaiaeaea ai a?aiaiiia eeai ianeaaenoaaiiia iieueciaaiea (aea?aeaiea);

.• aiayeiiiie/aneii i?eioaeaeaiee, eioi?ia yaeyaony oi?iie caaeneiinoe
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey io oaiaeaea;

« ?aioiuo ioiioaieyo. E?anoueyiei ieaoee oaiaeaeo ?aioo ca iieueciaaiea
caieae, a ?aioiua ieaoaaee aceiaeenue a iaoo?aeueiie (aa?ueia, ia?ie)
eeai aeaiaaeiie oi?iao;

• nineiaiii iaiieiii?aaee e?anoueyi (io noaeaaiie e iicaiaeueiie aei
ee/iie caaeneiinoe);

1 ainiiaenoaa iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa e iaeeiai i?iecaiaenoaa;

• i?aiaeaaeaiee aa?a?iiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee;

1 i?eieoeaiii o?iaia oaoieee, i?eiaiyaiie a i?iecaiaenoaa (iniaia
cia/aiea i?eia?aoatho eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaauee);

nineiaiii oa?aeoa?a iauanoaa;

ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?a oaiaeaeueiiai nineiaey;

ei?ii?aoeaiuo ioiioaieyo.

Oaiaeaeueiua nenoaiu neeaaeuaaeenue ia?aaiiia?ii a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo
Aa?iiu, Acee, Ao?eee. Aaeeiue ii naiae nouiinoe i?ioeann aaiacena
oaiaeaeecia a eaaeaeie no?aia eiae cia/eoaeueiua eieaeueiua e
?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe. A ea/anoaa iniiaiiai e?eoa?ey aeey auaeaeaiey
aeaaiuo iiaeaeae (oeiia) yoiai i?ioeanna iiaeii i?eiyoue eioaineaiinoue
auc?aaaiey yeaiaioia oaiaeaeecia a iaae?ao ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai eee
ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy.

1. Ca?iaeaeaiea oaiaeaeecia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia

Aa?iiaeneee oaiaeaeeci — ?acoeueoao ?aaeecaoeee o?ao oeiia aaiacena
oaiaeaeecia.

Ia?aue oei ?iaeaeaeny iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy
aa?aa?ia, ieioy noaaeeth ?acaeoiai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa. A
Aa?iia i?eia?ii iiaeiaiiai aa?eaioa yaeythony Aiaeey, Neaiaeeiaaey,
Ca?aeineay Aa?iaiey, ?onue, Iieueoa, *aoey.

Aoi?ie oei neeaaeuaaeny ia iniiaa neioaca yeaiaioia oaiaeaeecia,
auc?aaathueo aioo?e ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai iauanoaa, n oaiaeaeueiuie
ioiioaieyie, oi?ie?othueieny ia iineaaeiae noaaeee ?acaeoey
ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai no?iy aa?aa?ia. I?e/ai yoe yeaiaiou a ?aaiie noaiaie
ninoaaeyee iniiao aoaeouaai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iauanoaa. Yoio oei aaiacena
oaiaeaeecia iaoae naia aiieiuaiea a Naaa?iie Aaeeee, o ?yaea
thaeiineaayineeo ia?iaeia.

O?aoee oei ca?iaeaeaeny ia aaca neioaca yeaiaioia iicaeiaaioe/iiai
iauanoaa n oaiaeaeueiuie ioiioaieyie, oi?ie?iaaaoeieny a aa?aa?neeo
iauanoaao, n yaiui i?aiaeaaeaieai aioe/iuo ia/ae. Yoio iooue aue
oa?aeoa?ai aeey Aecaioee, Eoaeee, THaeiie Aaeeee, Aanoaioneie Eniaiee.

Ainoi/iue oaiaeaeeci, neiaeeaoeeny ia aaca aceaoneiai niiniaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, oianeaaeiaae ana aai oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou: i?aiaeaaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaiaeaeueiie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, nio?aiaiea
niaoeeoe/aneeo oi?i iaueiiie i?aaiecaoeee e?anoueyinoaa; iniaua oi?iu
i?aaiecaoeee nineiaey oaiaeaeia e ?aaeecaoeee eie naiae iiiiiieee
aeaaiui ia?acii /a?ac i?iaeoeoiaoth ?aioo; aunieoth noaiaiue
ainoaea?noaaiiie oeaio?aeecaoeee.

Oaiaeaeueiay nenoaia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia i?ioea a naiai ?acaeoee /a?ac
ianeieueei yoaiia.

V—IX aa. — yiioa aaiacena e ?acaeoey oaiaeaeecia, a?aiy iinoaiaiiiai
ia?aciaaiey e?oiiie caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, iiiiiieecaoeee aa
iaiueoeinoaii ianaeaiey, i?aa?auaiey naiaiaeiuo caieaaeaeueoeaa a
caaeneiuo e?anoueyi, onoaiiaeaiey aannaeueii-eaiiuo ioiioaiee.

X—XV aa. — yoi ?anoeaao oaiaeaeecia a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu,
ioia/aiiue yeiiiie/aneei iiaeuaiii, iniiaaiiui ia aioo?aiiae
eieiiecaoeee: inaiaiee iiauo caiaeue, oaaee/aiee nai?a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?, ?acaeoee aeeaioiiaiaenoaa; aic?iaeaeaiee
ai?iaeia, i?aa?aoeaoeony a oeaio?u ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
oi?aiaee. ?acaeoea oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee nii?iaiaeaeaeinue eiiiooaoeeae ?aiou, iiyaeaieai y?ia?ie,
e?aaeeoiiai aeaea, aaieia. A yoi a?aiy aiaae?yeenue oaoie/aneea
iiaoanoaa — aao?yiay iaeueieoea, aeiiaiiay ia/ue, a?oeeea?ey,
eieaiia/aoaiea e ae?., oi?ie?iaaeenue oeaio?aeeciaaiiua ainoaea?noaa.

Eiiaoe XV—XVII aa. – a?aiy ?aceiaeaiey, e?ecena oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiu e
ca?iaeaeaiey eaieoaeecia. A yoio ia?eiae ?anoe?yeenue oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua
ioiioaiey, oie/oiaeaeanue ee/iay caaeneiinoue e?anoueyi, ia/aeenue
i?ioeannu ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaeiieaiey eaieoaea, ?acaeoey iaiooaeoo?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e, eae neaaenoaea, iaino?yeenue nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey,
ia?a?anoaaoea a ao?aeoaciua ?aaiethoeee.

Eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeeee ia oieueei a yeiiiie/aneie, ii e a iieeoe/aneie
aeecie. A ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiue ia?eiae ainoaea?noai i?aaenoaaeyei niaie
e?oiiia, ii iai?i/iia iauaaeeiaiea (iai?eia?, eiia?ey Ea?ea Aaeeeiai). A
X—XII aa. i?aiaeaaeaee iaeeea iieeoe/aneea ia?aciaaiey — eiyaeanoaa,
aa?oeianoaa, a?aonoaa, ?aniieaaaaoea cia/eoaeueiie iieeoe/aneie
aeanoueth iaae naieie iiaeaeaiiuie. Eiiaaea iie auee iieiinoueth
naiinoiyoaeueiuie, eiiaaea iiieiaeueii iauaaeeiyeenue iiae aeanoueth
neaaiai ei?iey (oae iacuaaaiue ia?eiae oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe). A
XIII-XV aa. ai iiiaeo no?aiao oae i?ioeann .oeaio?aeecaoeee
ainoaea?noaa, caaa?oeaoeeny ioi?ieaieai nineiaiie iiia?oee. A yoeo
ainoaea?noaao ioiineoaeueii neeueiay ei?ieaaneay aeanoue ni/aoaeanue n
nouanoaiaaaoeie nineiaii-i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuie nia?aieyie. Eeoue a
Aecaioee a ia?eiae N?aaeiaaaeiauey nio?aiyeinue neeueiia
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia ainoaea?noai. Iaeiiaoe, a XVI—XVII aa. oaiaeaeueiia
ainoaea?noai i?eiyei naith iineaaeithth, iaeaieaa oeaio?aeeciaaiioth
oi?io — oi?io aaniethoiie iiia?oee.

Noaiiaeaiea oaiaeaeueiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia
o?aaeeoeeiiii ?anniao?eaatho ia i?eia?a Ei?ieaanoaa O?aieia, aicieeoaai
a Naaa?iie Aaeeee a 486 a. O?aiee — iaeia ec eiioaaea?aoeee iaiaoeeeo
ieaiai ia?yaeo n aiaeinaenaie, eaiaiaa?aeaie, aaiaeaeaie, inoaioaie e
ae?. A IV-V aa. aa?iaioeu caaiaaaee Caiaaeioth ?eineoth eiia?eth e
ia?aciaaee ianeieueei oae iacuaaaiuo aa?aa?neeo ei?ieaanoa. A V—VII aa.
o?aieaie i?aaeea aeeianoey Ia?iaeiaia, n eiioea VII aei na?aaeeiu IX a.
— aeeianoey Ea?ieeiaia.

Iniiaiua naaaeaiey i oicyenoaa o?aieia a yiioo ?aiiaai oaiaeaeecia
niaea?aeaony a Noaeaaieea «Naeee/aneay i?aaaea». Ec yoiai aeieoiaioa
neaaeoao, /oi o?aiee auee inaaeeuie caieaaeaeueoeaie, nayee ca?iiaua
eoeueoo?u, i?eiaiyee aeaoiieuea, eniieueciaaee ieoa n aeaeaciui eaiaoii,
ai?iio, a a ea/anoaa oyaeiaie neeu — aueia e eioaaeae. I?aai
?anii?yaeaiey caieae a aea?aaia i?eiaaeeaaeaei iaueia — ia?ea. Caieth
o?aiee ia?aaaouaaee eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, aieueoeie naiueyie. Iaueiiua
oaiaeuey iaoiaeeeenue a ia?acaeaeueiii iieueciaaiee e?anoueyi, oicyenoai
iineei iaoo?aeueiue oa?aeoa?. O o?aieia aua ia neiaeeeenue eeannu, ii
oaea ioia/aeinue eiouanoaaiiia ?anneiaiea.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo i?aaeiinueie ?acaeoey oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee yaeeny
aeoaeeci o?aieneie iaueiu. Aeoaeeci iaueiu — yoi ni/aoaiea iaueiiiai
caieaaeaaeaiey n /anoiui e?anoueyineei oicyenoaii. Oaea n V—VII aa.
iaueia noaea iicaiaeueiie, oa??eoi?eaeueiie, ninaaeneie, a caiey ana
/aua i?aa?auaeanue a aeeiae. Aeeiae – yoi naiaiaeii io/oaeaeaaiay
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-naiaeiay caiaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue, o.a. /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia iaaeae iaueiiie caiee. E?anoueyia i?enaaeaaee
iieo/aiiua io iaueiu iaaeaeu a /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue, eae oieueei aeey
yoiai iiyaeyeanue aiciiaeiinoue. ?an/enoee e caeiee eaniuo o/anoeia
eniieueciaaeenue /aua anaai.

Iiyaeaiea aeeiaea, oaeoaeyy eiouanoaaiioth e nioeeaeueioth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth o?aieia, noaei i?aaeiinueeie oi?ie?iaaiey e?oiiie
oaiaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

I?ioeanno eiioeaio?aoeee caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, nioeeaeueiiio
?anneiaieth niinianoaiaaei aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue caiaeueiue oiiae, ninoiyaoee ec nio?aieaoeony iiianoee
?eineeo ?aaiaeaaeaeueoeaa, ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiaeue, caiaeue
aoioiaueeia, eiioeneiaaiiuo ai a?aiy iiiai/eneaiiuo a?aaeaeaineeo aiei,
?acaeaaaeny ei?ieaaneie aeanoueth i?eaeeaeaiiui, ae?oaeeiieeai, oea?eae
a oi?ia aeeiaea. Ainoaea?noaaiiue caiaeueiue oiiae auno?i nie?auaeny,
iiyoiio i?eoeinue eciaieoue i?eioeeiu aeaeiaaiey caiee.

A ia/aea VIII a. e aeanoe i?eoea iiaay aeeianoey — Ea?ieeiae, niaieaoea
Ia?iaeiaia, eioi?uo ca ianiiniaiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoue ainoaea?noaii
i?icaaee «eaieauie». Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee iiaeuai, niaiaaoee ni
a?aiaiai i?aaeaiey Ea?ieeiaia, i?eiyoi iacuaaoue Ea?ieeianeei
aic?iaeaeaieai.

Ea?ieeiae i?iaiaeeee ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e
caieaaeaaeaiey, i?ecaaiiua iaania/eoue iinooieaiea n?aaenoa,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aaaeaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo aiei, ?anoe?aiey oa??eoi?ee e
oe?aieaiey eiia?ee.

I?e Ea?ea Ia?oaeea (715—741) a ?acoeueoaoa aiaiiie ?aoi?iu e?anoueyi
iono?aieee io aiaiiie neoaeau. Iniiaie aienea noaea ?uoea?neay eiiieoea.
Aii?oaeaiea eiiiiai ?uoea?y noieei aei?iai. ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea
aienea e nia?yaeaiea ?uoea?ae eaaee ia iea/e e?anoueyi. Aiaiiay ?aoi?ia
iio?aaiaaea eciaiaiee a caiaeueiuo iiaeaeiaaieyo. Auea aaaaeaia
aaiaoeoeeaeueiay nenoaia. Aaiaoeoeee — oi?ia caiaeueiiai aeaaeaiey
oaiaeaea, iaoneiaeaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaycaiiinoyie (ieaoaaee e aiaiiay
neoaeaa) e n?ieii (iau/ii iiaeeciaiiui). A ?acoeueoaoa noaee aicieeaoue
ioiioaiey aannaeeoaoa. Aannae caaenae io naiuei?a, iiaeaeiaaaoaai
aaiaoeoeee, i?eiinee aio eeyoao aa?iinoe e eniieiaiey neoaeau. Naiuei?,
nio?aiyy i?aai aa?oiaiiai nianoaaiieea ia iiaeaeiaaiioth caieth, iia aa
ioia?aoue, anee aannae ia?ooae aeiaiai?.

Aiaiiay neoaeaa noaiiaeeanue iiiiiieeae oaiaeaeia. I?e ?acaea/a
aaiaoeoeeaa a iiaeaeaiiuo aannaeia /anoi i?aa?auaeenue ?aiaa naiaiaeiua
ethaee, ianaeyaoea yoe caiee, o.a. iiaeaeaiiua ei?iey noaiiaeeenue
caaeneiuie io /anoiuo eeoe e?anoueyiaie.

Iaeaunoaai iiaeuaia O?aieneia Ei?ieaanoai aeinoeaei i?e Ea?ea Aaeeeii
(771—814), iauaaeeieaoai iiae naiae aeanoueth ii/oe anth oa??eoi?eth
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.

I?e Ea?ea Aaeeeii auei ainnoaiiaeaii aeaenoaea ?eineiai i?aaa,
io?aiiioe?iaaiu aei?iae, nieaeai o?iaaiue i?anooiiinoe. Iniiaie
oicyenoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee noaei ea?ieeianeia, eee oaiaeaeueiia,
iiianouea. I?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aaeeieoe
onoaiaaeeaaeenue niaoeeaeueiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeoaie-eaieooey?eyie:
aeaaeaeueoeu caiee ioaa/aee ca aa ?a/eoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea, eaaeaeia
oicyenoai aeieaeii auei auoue naiiaeinoaoi/iui a aiaiiii e oicyenoaaiiii
ioiioaieyo. Iiianoiia oicyenoai auei iaoo?aeueiui. Oi?aiaua nayce
iaaeaeo iiianoueyie iineee yieciaee/aneee oa?aeoa?, ia ianoiua ?uiee
iinooiaee oieueei eceeoee i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaaaeaiiie a iiianoueyo,
iaeioi?ua i?aaeiaou ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe (nieue, iaoaee), a oaeaea
i?iaeoeou, noaaoea ii/oe i?aaeiaoaie ?ineioe (aeii, ianei), e
aeaenoaeoaeueii aei?iaea oiaa?u (oeaie, i?yiinoe), aeinoaaeyaoeany a
Aa?iio ainoi/iuie eoioeaie.

Caiee iiianouey ia?aaaouaaeenue caaeneiuie e?anoueyiaie, aeaeeaoeieny ia
o?e iniiaiua eaoaai?ee:

• eieiiu — ee/ii-naiaiaeiua, ii iaoiaeeaoeany a iicaiaeueiie
caaeneiinoe;

• ?aau-na?au — iicaiaeueii e ee/ii caaeneiua;

• eeou — caieiaaoea i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo naiaiaeiuie e
?aaaie, iaoiaeeaoeany iiae iao?iiaoii eaeiai-eeai oaiaeaea e eiathuea
iaaeae a ianeaaeoaiii iieueciaaiee.

A na?aaeeia IX a. ana e?anoueyia i?aa?aoeeenue ec nianoaaiieeia a
aea?aeaoaeae caiaeueiuo o/anoeia. Ec naiaiaeiuo e?anoueyi-iaueiieeia iie
noaiiaeeenue oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiuie a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie
ainoaea?noaii i?eioeeiaie: iao caiee aac naiuei?a e eaaeaeue naiaiaeiue
o?aie aeieaeai iaeoe naaa naiuei?a.

Oe?aieaiea oaiaeaeueiiai iiianouey ?aoaei iiiaea i?iaeaiu. Oae, i?iaeaiu
aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aai/ae neeu, ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oaoieee ia?aiineeenue a noa?o e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa. ?anoiaeu ia
oi?aaeaiea oicyenoaii naiaeeeenue e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa eeoue
aeiaaai/iie i?iaeoeoeee. Ainoaea?noao i?iua auei niae?aoue iaeiae n
e?oiiuo oicyenoa.

Iiaeuai Ea?ieeianeie eiia?ee aue ia?ac?uaii naycai n anaiauae, eiiaaea
ianeeuenoaaiiie o?enoeaiecaoeeae, iniaaiii ia caaiaaaiiuo oa??eoi?eyo.
Ea?e Aaeeeee iaycae anao caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa ioaeaaaoue ‘/10 /anoue
aaeiaiai i?iaeoeoa a iieueco oea?eae. Iiianou?e i?aa?aoeeenue a e?oiiua
oea?eiaiua iiianouey, aaea o?oaeii caaeneiuo e?anoueyi aicaeaeuaaeanue
iaoiy, ?acaiaeeeny neio, ioeoea. Eaaeaeue iiianou?ue eiae ?aianeaiiua
ianoa?neea. *anoue i?iaeoeoeee, iieo/aiiie a ea/anoaa oea?eiaiie
aeanyoeiu, ?ac?aoaeinue i?iaeaaaoue. A ?aiiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea iiianou?e
noaiiayony oeaio?ii i?eoyaeaiey aeey ?aci?ythueony ?aianeaiieeia e
e?anoueyi, o?aieoaeae iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, i?aeoe/aneeo
ciaiee.

Aeeoioee?iaaa ia?iiiua aiaaonoaa (aei 50% anao naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
oaiaeee, 10% aaeiaiai aeioiaea anao iaiiianou?neeo e?anoueyi eiia?ee),
iiianou?e noaee e?oiiaeoeie ?inoiaueeaie.

Iie i?aaeinoaaeyee e?anoueyiai iaoo?aeueiua nnoaeu (naiaiaie, neioii,
i?oaeeyie o?oaea), a oaiaeaeai — aeaiaaeiua.

A IX a. aaiaoeoeee i?aa?auaeenue a eaiu eee oaiaeu, i?aaenoaaeyaoea
niaie oneiaiia iiaeaeiaaiea aannaeo, eioi?ia ia?aaeaaaeinue ii
ianeaaenoao. Aiaiiay neoaeaa inoaaaeanue aeaaiui oneiaeai aeaaeaiey
oaiaeii. Eaiiay nenoaia — yoi ?acaeoay oi?ia oaiaeaeueiiai
caieaaeaaeaiey, ia aa iniiaa neeaaeuaaeenue aannaeeoao, oaiaeaeueiay
ea?a?oey ciaoe.

Ana oneiaey, eioi?ua niinianoaiaaee ia?aciaaieth e?oiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey
(oaiaeaeueiua iaaeaeioniaeoeu e aieiu i?ioea ae?oaeo ieaiai) iaoneiaeee
oo?aoo naiaiaeu e?anoueyiaie-iaueiieeaie.

E?anoueyiei, ?aci?aiiue aieiie eee iao?iaeaai, ia iaeaey caueou ie o
iaueiu, ie o ei?ieaaneie aeanoe, auioaeaeai aue eneaoue iie?iaeoaeuenoaa
neeueiuo e aiaaouo ethaeae. Iieo/ay io ieo caiaeueiue o/anoie, ii oa?ye
naiaiaeo e i?aa?auaeny a caaeneiiai eee e?aiinoiiai /aeiaaea. A naith
i/a?aaeue, e?oiiue caieaaeaaeaeaoe iaania/eaae nianoaaiiia oicyenoai
?aai/eie ?oeaie caaeneiuo io iaai ethaeae, ieaoeaoeo ca caieth e iiiiuue
?aaioie (aa?ueia) e i?iaeoeoaie (ia?ie).

I?e ieceii o?iaia ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee oiai a?aiaie
o?aaiaaeinue iiiai caiee e ?aai/eo ?oe, /oiau iaania/eoue aeinoaoi/iia
eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoia naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Ainiiaenoaothuee eeann aue
caeioa?aniaai ia a caoaaoa caiee o e?anoueyi, a a aeinoaoi/iii
eiee/anoaa ?aai/eo ?oe. Caoaao caiee oaiaeaeii ninoiye a oii, /oi
aeeiaeeno oa?ye naia i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia yoo caieth e i?aa?auaeny a
aea?aeaoaey ia oaiaeaeueiii i?aaa, o.a. noaiiaeeny iaycaiiui ieaoeoue ca
iaa ?aioo e ianoe iiaeiiinoe, onoaiaaeeaaaoeany eeai ii iau/ath, eeai ii
niaeaoaieth. Yoa ia?aiaia a aai iieiaeaiee e ninoaaeyea niaea?aeaiea
iiiyoey aa?oiaiie nianoaaiiinoe oaiaeaea ia ii?aaeaeaiioth ie?oao.

Caoaaou oaiaeaeaie iaueiiie caiee e e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia i?eia?aee n
ia/aea IX a. ianniaue oa?aeoa?. Oaiaeaeu anaie aiciiaeiuie niiniaaie
aeiaiaeeee e?anoueyi aei ?aci?aiey, canoaaeyy eeai i?iaeaoue, eeai
ia?aaeaoue caieth e?oiiiio caieaaeaaeaeueoeo.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie onoaiiaeaiey caaeneiinoe aaaeiyea io
e?oiiiai caieaaeaaeaeueoea auea i?aeoeea aai ia?aaiaea a ?ac?yae oae
iacuaaaiuo i?aea?eaa. I?aea?ee — yoi oneiaiia caiaeueiia aea?aeaiea,
eioi?ia e?oiiue caiaeueiue nianoaaiiee ia?aaeaaae eeai ai a?aiaiiia,
eeai a iiaeeciaiiia aea?aeaiea aaccaiaeueiiio eee iaeicaiaeueiiio
e?anoueyieio n iaycaoaeuenoaii iineaaeiaai ianoe a iieueco nianoaaiieea
iiaeiiinoe e ia?iee. Nouanoaiaaei o?e aeaea i?aea?eaa:

1. • eiaaea aea?aeaoaeue iieo/ae anth caieth io nianoaaiieea;

2. • eiaaea e?anoueyiei ioaeaaae nianoaaiioth caieth e?oiiiio
caieaaeaaeaeueoeo e iieo/ae aa aea ia?aoii, ii oaea ia eae naith, a eae
onooieaiioth aio caieaaeaaeaeueoeai ca iaycaoaeuenoai ianaiey aa?ueiu e
ia?ieia, i?e yoii caieaaeaaeaeaoe iie?iaeoaeuenoaiaae e?anoueyieio e
ieacuaae aio iaiaoiaeeioth iiiiuue a neo/aa ioaeaeu;

3. • ioaeaaay caieth, aea?aeaoaeue iieo/ae aieueoa caiee.

Nenoaia i?aea?eaa i?aaeiieaaaea caaeneiinoue ioaeaeueiuo e?anoueyi io
oaiaeaeia, i?e/ai oi?ia e noaiaiue caaeneiinoe onoaiaaeeaaeenue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii.

E?anoueyineia iinaeaiea iiaei n?aco iiianoue a caaeneiinoue, anee
aea?aaiy aoiaeeea a ninoaa aaiaoeoeey. Ei?ieue, aeaeoy aaiaoeoeee e
o?aaoy ca iaai ianaiea aiaiiie neoaeau, ia?aaeaaae aaiaoeoeea?eth
aeioiaeu io aeeoaeae oa??eoi?ee, /oi i?e iaoo?aeueiii oicyenoaa auei
aaeeinoaaiiui niiniaii aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca neoaeao. AEeoaee noaiiaeeenue
ethaeueie, caaeneiuie io aaiaoeoeea?ey, anee ?aiueoa ia iiiaee a
caaeneiinoue. N i?aa?auaieai aaiaoeoeey a oaiae caaeneiinoue aeeoaeae io
caieaaeaaeaeueoea oe?aieeanue, noaea iinoiyiiie. A yoio ia?eiae
nouanoaiaaei iaoo?aeueiia oicyenoai, o.a. i?inoia aini?iecaiaenoai anao
oneiaee oicyenoaiaaiey, eiaaea ?aianeaiiue o?oae niaaeeiai e iiae/eiai
o?oaeo caieaaeaeue/aneiio, oaiaeaeueiay ?aioa aceiaaony a iaoo?aeueiie
oi?ia, yeiiiie/aneea nayce n oa??eoi?eyie ca i?aaeaeaie aio/eiu
inouanoaeythony ?aaeei.

?acoeueoaoii ?inoa e?oiiiai caieaaeaaeaiey auei iinoaiaiiia
nin?aaeioi/aiea a ?oeao e?oiiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa noaeaaiuo,
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, oeneaeueiuo ooieoeee e ooieoeee aiaiiiai
?oeiaiaenoaa. Yoe ooieoeee iieo/eee naia th?eaee/aneia ioi?ieaiea a
aeaea eiioieoaoia, eioi?ua iiaeoaa?aeaeaeenue a?aiioie.

Eiioieoao – i?eaeeaaey, caueuathuay naiuei?ia e eo caiee io
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ei?iey e aai i?aaenoaaeoaeae a aeaea oaiaea. Eiioieoaoiua
i?aaa caieaaeaaeaeueoea aeeth/aee a naay: noaeaaioth aeanoue iaae
iiaeaeanoiui ianaeaieai; eniieiaiea ooieoeee ainoaea?y ia naiae
oa??eoi?ee; i?aai ia nai? anao oeneaeueiuo noii (iaeiae, oo?aou e ae?.).

Iniiaie oicyenoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee o?aieneiai iauanoaa a VIII—IX aa.
noaea oaiaeaeueiay aio/eia — naiuei?ey, eioi?ay eiaea ?acee/iua ?acia?u.
Caiey naiuei?ee ninoiyea ec aeaoo /anoae: caiee, iaoiaeeaoaeny a
oicyenoaa naiiai oaiaeaea (aeiiaia), e e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia
(aea?aeaiee). Caiey aeiiaia ninoaaeyea, eae i?aaeei, ia aieaa 1/3 anao
e?anoueyineeo aea?aeaiee. A ninoaa aeiiaia aoiaeeee aeaaiui ia?acii ia
iaoioiua caiee, a eana, ionoioe, aieioa e i?. I?e ieceii o?iaia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee iaiaoiaeeiue o?oae, eee o?oae, cao?a/eaaaiue ia
aini?iecaiaenoai ?aai/ae neeu iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey e aai
naiuee e ae?oaeo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeiuae aieueooth /anoue
o?oaeiaiai a?aiaie e?anoueyieia e i?eaaai/iue o?oae ia iia auoue
aieueoei, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, noa?a aai i?eeiaeaiey, o.a. aa?neay
caiaoea, ia iiaea auoue aaeeea.

Oaiaeae ia iia iieo/eoue aeioiaea io naiae caiee eia/a, eae iooai
ia?aaea/e yoie caiee iaaieueoeie iaaeaeaie a ?oee e?anoueyi. Iinooieaiea
oaiaeaeueiie ?aiou caaenaei io aeaaininoiyiey e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa e
e?anoueyineie iaueiu. Neaaenoaeai yoiai auea ioiineoaeueiay
yeiiiie/aneay iacaaeneiinoue e ioaeaeueiiai e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa, e
e?anoueyineie iaueiu a oeaeii io oicyenoaa oaiaeaeueiie aio/eiu. Aieaa
oiai, aio/eia i?aaeiieaaaea nouanoaiaaiea iaueiu-ia?ee eae i?aaiecaoeee
(ei?ii?aoeee) i?iecaiaeeoaeae. I?iecaiaenoai a iaueia ninoaaeyei iniiao
i?iecaiaenoaa a aio/eia. Eaaeaaoea /a?aniieinii n e?anoueyineeie
iaaeaeaie aeiiaieaeueiua caiee i?e aeaoiieuea e o?aoiieuea aoiaeeee
niioaaonoaothueie eeeiueyie a caiee aea?aaie-iaueiu. Iie iiaeeaaeaee
i?eioaeeoaeueiiio naaiiai?ioo ia?aaia n e?anoueyineie caieae. Oaiaeae ia
aiaoeaaeny a oicyenoaaiiua ?aoaiey iaueiu.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann niaa?oaeny i?e iiiiue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
i?oaeee o?oaea, naii i?iecaiaenoai inoaaaeinue iaeeei iacaaeneii io
aaee/eiu aio/eiu. I?ia?ann a naeueneii oicyenoaa au?aaeaeny a oaaee/aiee
eoeueoo?iie ieiuaaee iooai iaeei?aoeee, ?an/enoee eaniuo ianneaia,
eioi?ua ia?aaaouaaeenue iaeciaiiuie i?oaeeyie o?oaea. A oneiaeyo
ainiiaenoaa iaeeiai, iaeiyooaeoeaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iieo/aiea
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa io yeiiiie/anee naiinoiyoaeueiiai oicyeia
aiciiaeii oieueei n iiiiuueth aiayeiiiie/aneiai i?eioaeaeaiey, e ee/iay
caaeneiinoue yaeyaony a yoii neo/aa n?aaenoaii oaeiai i?eioaeaeaiey.

A n?aaeiea aaea ?acee/aee o?e aeaea iiae/eiaiey e?anoueyieia naiuei?o —
1.ee/iia,

2.iicaiaeueiia e

3.noaeaaiia.

E?aiinoiie a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia — yoi /aeiaae, caaenyuee io iaeiiai e oiai
aea naiuei?a n?aco a o?ao ioiioaieyo. Naieie ei?iyie ee/iay caaeneiinoue
ooiaeeo a aioe/iia ?aanoai. ?aa, iinaaeaiiue ia caieth, inoaaaeny
na?aii. Ii ia eiae i?aaa ia?aaeaaaoue ii ianeaaenoao iaaeae, ia oieaoea
naiuei?o iniaiai aciina; auiea/eaae «iiaieiaiue iaeia»; ana i?i/ea
iiaeiiinoe ia auee oeene?iaaiiuie e aceiaeenue ii aiea naiuei?a.

Iicaiaeueiay caaeneiinoue auoaeaea ec oaeoa i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
e?anoueyineiai iaaeaea naiuei?o. Caiey iaaeaea ninoaaeyea /anoue
aio/eiu, a neeo /aai e?anoueyiei aeieaeai aue ianoe ?aciiia?aciua
iiaeiiinoe i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?acia?ai iaaeaea e niia?acii iau/ayi,
eioi?ua auee cae?aieaiu o?aaeeoeeae e ia?a/eneaiu a eaaeano?ao aio/eiu.

Noaeaaiay caaeneiinoue e?anoueyieia auoaeaea ec eiioieoaoiuo i?aa
naiuei?a. Oaia?ue ianaeaiea aeieaeii auei noaeeoueny a noaea eiioienoa,
a ana noaeaaiua oo?aou, ?aaii eae e oa iiaeiiinoe, eioi?ua ?aiueoa oee
ei?ieth, oaia?ue auiea/eaaeenue a aai iieueco.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey aannaeeoaoa no?oeoo?a ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna
oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ea?a?oe/aneoth eanoieoeo.
Eaaeaeue e?oiiue caieaaeaaeaeaoe n/eoaeny aannaeii ei?iey, e eaaeaeue
oaiaeae iia eiaoue aannaeia iooai onooiee oiio eee ae?oaiio eeoeo /anoe
naiae caiee n aa ianaeaieai a ea/anoaa oaiaea. E?oiiue oaiaeae,
ia?aaeaaay aaiaoeoeee eee oaiae aannaeo, ia?aaeaaae aio e oaiaeaeueioth
?aioo (eee /anoue aa) n ianaeaieai oaiaea, eioi?ia oaeei ia?acii
noaaeeinue a caaeneiinoue io iiaiai naiuei?a, ia oa?yy caaeneiinoe e io
auoanoiyuaai.

Onoaiiaeaiea aannaeeoaoa i?eia?aoaei oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey
oaiaeaeueiie ?aiou iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie neiyie oaiaeaeia, a n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, noaaeei iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo. i?iecaiaeeoaeae a caaeneiinoue io
iiiaeo naiuei?ia, i?e/ai caaeneiinoue io eaaeaeiai ec ieo au?aaeaeanue a
iaycaiiinoe oieaou ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea iiaeiiinoae e ieaoaaeae.
Iineieueeo oneiaey oicyenoaiaaiey ia eciaiyeenue a oa/aiea aeieaiai
a?aiaie, oaiaeaeueiue aea?aeaoaeue e aai iioiiee ianee a iieueco
naiuei?a iaeie e oa aea iiaeiiinoe eiiaaea ia i?ioyaeaiee noieaoee. Nai
?acia? e oa?aeoa? iiaeiiinoae noaiiaeeny iau/aai. Yoe iiaeiiinoe
?anniao?eaaeenue e e?anoueyiaie, e naiuei?aie eae caeiiiua, a
ionooieaiea io ieo — eae ia?ooaiea iau/ay. Iiaeiaiay iaeciaiiinoue
ii?iaeaeaea aua iaeii oa?aeoa?iia aeey oaiaeaeecia yaeaiea — i?aa?auaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie, a aeaiiii neo/aa ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo naiuei?ii e aai aea?aeaoaeai, a th?eaee/aneia ea/anoai naiiai
aea?aeaiey. Ca iaaeaeii, ioaeaiiui e?aiinoiiio, cae?aieyeenue ana
iiaeiiinoe, naienoaaiiua na?aneiio aea?aeaieth. Iie nio?aiyeenue oiaaea,
eiaaea caiey ia?aoiaeeea, iai?eia?, ee/ii naiaiaeiiio /aeiaaeo. E
iaiai?io, e?aiinoiie iia eiaoue naiaiaeiia aea?aeaiea. Yoe ioiioaiey aua
aieueoa oneiaeieeenue n ?acaeoeai oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, eiaaea
caiey e ioaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe oaiaeaeueii-caaeneiuo ethaeae noaee
iauaeoii eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

3. A 843 a. Ea?ieeianeay eiia?ey ?aniaeanue ia Caiaaeii-O?aieneia
ei?ieaanoai, i?aaeoanoaaiiee O?aioeee, Ainoi/ii-O?aieneia, iieiaeeaoaa
ia/aei Aa?iaiee, e N?aaeithth O?aioeeth, aeeth/aaooth Eoaeeth e iaeanoe
aaeieue ?aeia e ?iiu. ?aniaae ia?iiiiai e iiaouanoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa
yaeyeny naeaeaoaeuenoaii caaa?oaiey i?ioeanna oaiaeaeecaoeee o?aieneiai
iauanoaa. Ethaay no?aia a Aa?iia a n?aaeiea aaea i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
nenoaio aio/ei, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo auea, ii nooe, «noaa?aiiui»
ainoaea?noaii. Oaiaeaeueiay ?acae?iaeaiiinoue — aaaeiaeoee i?eciae
noi?ie?iaaaoaeny oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiu. Oaeei ia?acii, i?ienoiaeeea
oaiaeaeecaoeey — i?aa?auaiea aeeiaea a aea?aeaiea; en/aciiaaiea
naiaiaeiuo iaueiieeia e i?aa?auaiea eo a caaeneiuo eee e?aiinoiuo
aea?aeaoaeae; ia?aciaaiea oaiaeaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth e
aicieeiiaaiea ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna oaiaeaeia,
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa-aieiia.

2. ?acaeoea oaiaeaeueiie yeiiiieee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a XI – XV aa.

Aa?a?iay yeiiiieea. Ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii ?acaeoey yeiiiieee Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu a XI—XIII aa. auei ieii/aoaeueiia ooaa?aeaeaiea oaiaeaeueiiai
iiianouey a ea/anoaa aeaaiie i?aaiecothuae iniiau iauanoaa. A X a(.
aeaaeaeueoeu e?oiiuo iiianoee (aa?oeiae, a?aou) «inaee» ia naieo caieyo,
iineieueeo a yoii ?aaeiia onoaiiaeeny a?aiaiiue ie? (caaa?oeeenue
aaeeeea caaiaaaoaeueiua iioiaeu). Aieiu aeaaaee eeyoao caueuaoue Aiaeee
ie?: e?anoueyi, eoioeia, aeaoae, aeaiuei, aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo. Ia niaio
eo ?aoiui iiaeaeaai, i?eiineaoei aiaiioth aeiau/o, i?eoiaeeea
oicyenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia ecaea/aiea eae iiaeii
aieueoaai aeioiaea n caiaeueiuo aeaaeaiee. Iiyoiio e?oiiua
caieaaeaaeaeueoeu no?aieeenue nin?aaeioi/eoue a naieo ?oeao anth iieiioo
aeanoe ia i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei caieyo.

A XI—XIII aa. any oa??eoi?ey Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu i?aaenoaaeyea /a?aaeo
aaee/anoaaiiuo iai?enooiiuo caieia, aeaaeaeueoeu eioi?uo n iiiiuueth
n?aaeia- e iaeeiiiianoiuo aeai?yi (aa?iiia e ?uoea?ae) inouanoaeyee
i?aaiecaoeeth aeeceaaeauae ianoiinoe e aeeaouaai ia iae ianaeaiey,
ninoiyaoaai i?aeiouanoaaiii ec e?anoueyi. Aeaaeaeueoeu iiianoee
inouanoaeyee ia naieo oa??eoi?eyo ooieoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe:
noaeaaioth (neiaieii anaaeanoey naiuei?a auee oth?ueiu e aenaeeoeu,
«oe?aoaaoea» auacaeu a caiee), oeneaeueioth (nai? iiaeaoae),
iieeoe/aneoth (aiaiiua io?yaeu).

Oicyenoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea caeeth/aeinue a ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu, «/oi» e «aeey
eiai» i?iecaiaeeoue. Caieaaeaaeaeueoeu, enoiaey ec niia?aaeaiee
i?anoeaea, iieacaoaeyie eioi?iai a ie?iia a?aiy auee eaiaiiua caiee e
oea?eae, eo aiaoiaa oe?aoaiea, aioo?aiiaa oa?ainoai, aei?iaay e e?aneaay
iaeaaeaea, iinoaea, ea/anoaaiiay e ?aciiia?aciay ieua e i?., ii?aaeaeyee
aeaeu e ?acia?u ?acee/iuo iiaeiiinoae e ieaoaaeae, eioi?uie iaeaaaeenue
caaeneiua e?anoueyia. Aeaaiuie n?aaee ieo auee iicaiaeueiua iiaeiiinoe
(io?aaioee) e ieaoaaee (ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey o?iaeay), o.a. io?aaioi/iay
e iaoo?aeueiay ?aiou.

Eueaeiay /anoue aeioiaea, iieo/aaiay n iiianouey, iai?aaeyeanue ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea i?anoeaeiuo iio?aaiinoae. Eiaanoeoeee ninoaaeyee oieueei
6—10%. A iniiaiii yoe n?aaenoaa ?anoiaeiaaeenue ia i?eia?aoaiea oyaeaeuo
eieaniuo ieoaia, i?annia aeey ecaioiaeaiey aeia, ianea, ia/ae aeey oeaaa
e o.i.; ia no?ieoaeuenoai iaeueieoe, aei?ia, iinoia, ?uieia, y?ia?ie.
E?anoueyia iaycaiu auee iieueciaaoueny yoeie iauaeoaie ca ii?aaeaeaiioth
ieaoo. Aeaaea a naeueneie oaaa?ia iiaeaaaeenue aeii e ieai, n eioi?uo
aceiaeny nai? a iieueco aeaaeaeueoeaa caiee. Yoa nenoaia, iicaieyaoay
oaiaeaeai ecaeaeaoue aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae, iacuaaeanue aaiaeeoaoiie
nenoaiie.

Oaeei ia?acii, iie niaeaenoaiaaee i?ia?anno, aiaae?yy oaoie/aneea
iiaoanoaa, nicaeaaay iauaeou ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u, e oi?iiceee
?acaeoea, ecuiay aieueooth /anoue i?iecaiaeeiie e?anoueyiaie i?iaeoeoeee
a aeaea ?acee/iuo ieaoaaeae e iiai?ia. Yoe i?eioaeeoaeueiua «ecuyoey»
aei i?aaeaea noaeaee oeiainiaoth aaco oicyenoaa e?anoueyi, ia iea/e
eioi?uo ia?aeeaaeuaaeinue ?aoaiea naiie neiaeiie i?iaeaiu ethaie
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu — «eae i?iecaiaeeoue».

Iineieueeo oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu auee e?aeia
ia?aie/aiiu, ?acaeoea aa?a?iie yeiiiieee i?ienoiaeeei i?aeiouanoaaiii
yenoaineaiuie iooyie. I?e?ino naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
iaania/eaaeny a iniiaiii ca n/ao oaaee/aiey ieiuaaee ia?aaaouaaaiie
caiee (inaiaiea oeaeeiu, ?an/enoea ionoioae, inooaiea aieio e o.i.;
ia?aoiae io aeaooiieueiiai naaiiai?ioa e o?aoiieueiiio), iiiaie?aoiie
aniaoee.

Oaoie/aneia iniauaiea aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa auei e?aeia i?eieoeaiui. A
e?anoueyineeo oicyenoaao eniieueciaaeenue nioe, na?iu, einu, eiiaou,
iiouae e o.i. I?eiaiaiea oyaeaeiai eieaniiai ieoaa aeey aieueoeinoaa
e?anoueyi auei iaaeinooiii, oae eae,

ai-ia?auo, yoi o?aaiaaei eae ieieioi aeaoo aieia,

ai-aoi?uo, ca iieueciaaiea aceiaeny aeiaieueii aieueoie iiai?.

A iaeioi?uo ianoiinoyo iieo/ee ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaaeee ieoa, aeey
eioi?iai a ea/anoaa oyaeiaie neeu eniieueciaaeenue ineu eee eioaaee.

Oiio?aaeaiea ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee, ecaanoiuo a yoi a?aiy — ecaanoe e
ia?aaey (inaaei/iay ai?iay ii?iaea), — ia?aie/eaaeinue ?aeiiaie eo
aeiau/e. I?aaie/aneeo oaeia?aiee auei iaaeinoaoi/ii, iineieueeo
i?aiaeaaeaei ianoaeuiia neioiaiaenoai. Ia eo aeaoeoeeoa
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae oio oaeo, /oi ethaeiua neoae oaiaeaea iieo/aee a
ea/anoaa aiciaa?aaeaeaiey «iaaic io iaeiie ei?iau e aa oaeaiea». Naiui
oyaeeei aeaeii iiai?a n/eoaeny ai?oie aieoaeiiai iiiaoa. A Aiaeee
e?anoueyia aeey oaeia?aiey iieae eniieueciaaee oae iacuaaaiua ii/iua
caaiiu — ia?aae aniaoeie ia?aaiiyee iaaoe a yoi a?aiy nooie ii iieyi.

Aeaaiie io?aneueth naeueneiai oicyenoaa auei caieaaeaeea, a eioi?ii
auaeaeyeinue ca?iiaia oicyenoai. A X a. e o?aaeeoeeiiiui ca?iiaui
eoeueoo?ai (ioaieoea, i?ino, y/iaith) i?eaaaeeenue aiaiaua, aiaaoua
i?ioaeiii. Eo eniieueciaaiea iiauneei ea/anoai ieoaiey, niinianoaiaaei
?inoo oece/aneie aeoeaiinoe ianaeaiey. Iineieueeo aeeaay neea /aeiaaea
ia i?ioyaeaiee aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie inoaaaeanue aeaaiui aeaeii yia?aee,
aaaaeaiea a ?aoeeii ieoaiey aiaiauo auei aaaeiaeoei iieacaoaeai
i?ia?anna.

Ia?yaeo n ca?iiauie e aiaiauie a eaaeaeii iiianouea au?aueaaeenue
oaoie/aneea eoeueoo?u, i?aaeaea anaai eai. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
naaeai, iai?iaeai, aeiia?aaeieeai, oeaaoieeai, eioi?ua i/aiue ouaoaeueii
ia?aaaouaaeenue, i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ianoiyuea iacenu. Iie auee
i?aaeiaoii iniaie caaiou aeaaeaeueoeaa iiianoee, oae eae aeaaaee
i?iaeoeoeeth, ioee/ioth io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iaai?a, i?iecaiaeeiiai a
ethaii oaiaeaeueiii oicyenoaa.

A neioiaiaenoaa i?ei?eoaoiuie io?aneyie auee iaoeaaiaenoai e ?acaaaeaiea
eioaaeae.

Ianiio?y ia iaaeinoaoi/iua enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey, i?aiaeaaeaiea
yenoaineaiuo niiniaia ia?aaioee caiee, ?acaeoea aa?a?iie yeiiiieee
oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue ii?aaeaeaiiui i?ia?annii. Aai eiee/anoaaiiuie
iieacaoaeyie yaeyeenue oaaee/aiea ieiuaaee ia?aaaouaaaiuo caiaeue,
iiauoaiea o?iaeaeiinoe ca?iiauo, ?ino oeai ia ieo, i?e?ino ianaeaiey.
Ii?iaeueiay o?iaeaeiinoue ioaieoeu, niaeanii aeaiiui aiaeeeneeo
aa?iiiiia XIII a., ninoaaeyea 1: 5 (ea?ieeianeee ia?eiae 1 : 3), y/iaiy
—1:8, ?aee —1:7, aiaiauo —1:6, iana — 1 : 4. A ioaeaeueiuo ieiaei?iaeiuo
?aeiiao O?aioeee ioaieoea aeaaaea o?iaeae 1:11,6 (1321).
?acoeueoe?othuei iieacaoaeai iiaeuaia aa?a?iie yeiiiieee aue
aeaiia?aoe/aneee ?ino. Ianaeaiea Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu n 950 ii 1348 a.
aic?inei aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca (n 22,5 iei. aei 55,4 iei. /aeiaae).

Ea/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee i?ia?anna au?aaeaeenue a iaaeeaiiii, ii
iaoeeiiiii aeaeaeaiee io iaoo?aeueiiai e oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiiio oicyenoao,
io io?aaioi/iie e iaoo?aeueiie, a caoai e e aeaiaaeiie ?aioa.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey aa?a?iiai naeoi?a i?iecaiaenoai i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa noaiiaeeinue noaaeeueiui (eneeth/ay ia?eiaeu noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaee, yieaeaiee, iionoioeoaeueiuo aiei). Iiyoiio aicieeaee
aiciiaeiinoe ?aaoey?iiai iaiaia naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee ia
?aianeaiiua ecaeaeey, ioaeaeaiey ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa io
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeiai ioaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyeanue
iiauoaieai ni?ina ia ?aianeaiiua ecaeaeey ni noi?iiu e?anoueyi e
oaiaeaeia, iinoiyiii ?anoouae iio?aaiinoueth oaiaeaeia a aeaiueaao.

Aeiiaoiaa e?anoueyineia ?aianei a ?aieao iiianouey oaea ia iiaei
oaeiaeaoai?eoue aic?anoaaoea iio?aaiinoe. Ia?yaeo n oaaee/aieai
eiee/anoaa ?aianeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee o?aaiaaeinue ?anoe?aiea anni?oeiaioa,
iiauoaiea ea/anoaa. Iiyoiio iiyaeyeenue iiaua ?aianeaiiua
niaoeeaeueiinoe, oaoiieiaee, o?aaiaaaoea ioaeaeueiuo iiiauaiee,
iai?oaeiaaiey, i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia, iao/aiey. Ia?yaeo n yoei
ianooaau i?iecaiaenoaa noaee ia?ae?uaaoue aioo?aiiee ni?in iiianouey.
Yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa iaoneiaeee no?aieaiea ?aianeaiieeia e auoiaeo ec
caieiooiai e?oaa naeueneie ianoiinoe. «Auoiaeo» ?aianeaiieeia ca
i?aaeaeu iiianouey niinianoaiaae iinoiyiii ?anoouee ni?in oaiaeaeia ia
aeaiueae, iaoneiaeaiiue i?aaeaea anaai e?anoiauie iioiaeaie,
aiciaiiaeaieai oi?aiaee n Ainoieii. ?anoe?aiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina
(aei?iaia i?oaeea, ecuneaiiua oe?aoaiey, ?ineioiay iaeaaeaea, iaoaue,
iinoaea e o.i.), o/anoea a aiaiiuo yeniaaeeoeeyo aucuaaee «aeaiaaeiue
aieiae» oaiaeaeueiiai neiy. Iiyoiio ?aianeaiieeia noaee ia?aaiaeeoue
nia/aea ia iaoo?aeueiue, a caoai ia aeaiaaeiue ia?ie.

Iineieueeo «aeaiaaeiua iio?aaiinoe» oaiaeaeia iinoiyiii aic?anoaee,
e?anoueyi-caieaaeaeueoeaa oaeaea noaee ia?aaiaeeoue ia iaoo?aeueioth, a
caoai ia aeaiaaeioth ?aioo. Yoi nii?iaiaeaeaeinue nie?auaieai nianoaaiii
iiiaue/ueae caiaoee, oaaee/aieai caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, ia?aaeaaaaiuo a
iaaeaeu e?anoueyiai. Oeacaiiua i?ioeannu iieo/eee iacaaiea eiiiooaoeee
?aiou.

E?iia oiai, ana aieueoaa /enei e?anoueyi iieo/aei ee/ioth naiaiaeo. Yoi
auee o/anoieee e?anoiauo iioiaeia, e?anoueyia, inaaeaaaoea oeaeeiiua
caiee. O?aioeocneea ei?iee, eioi?ui iinoiyiii ia oaaoaei aeaiaa ia
aaaeaiea aiei, noaee canoaaeyoue e?anoueyi ec naieo aeaaeaiee
inaiaiaeaeaoueny ioee/iie caaeneiinoe ca aueoi. Eo i?eia?o neaaeiaaee
iiiaea oaiaeaeu. A XIII a. ia anao caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneeo caieyo
?ani?ino?aiyeinue aeaeaeaiea ii inaiaiaeaeaieth e?anoueyi.

A neeo yoeo i?e/ei aicieeea iiaay oi?ia e?anoueyineiai caieaiieueciaaiey
— oeaiceaa. Ia?aaaouaaaoee oeaiceao e?anoueyiei n/eoaeny naiaiaeiui, iia
ii naiae aiea ia?aoiaeeoue n ianoa ia ianoi, ia?aaeaaaoue naie iaaeae ii
ianeaaenoao, i?iaeaoue aai. Ca i?aai ?anii?yaeaiey caieae oiea/eaaeny
oaa?aeue aaeaaiaeiue aeaiaaeiue aciin. Ai O?aioeee a XIV—XV aa. oeaiceaa
yaeyeanue iniiaiie oi?iie e?anoueyineiai caieaiieueciaaiey. A XIV a.
ee/ii-naiaiaeiua e?anoueyia ninoaaeyee aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey naaa?iie
/anoe no?aiu, A Aiaeee ia?aoiae io iaoo?aeueiuo e aeaiaaeiui iiaeiiinoyi
i?ienoiaeee aua aieaa aeoeaii. A XIV a. iniiaiay ianna aiaeeeneeo
e?anoueyi ia?aoea a ?ac?yae ee/ii-naiaiaeiuo.

Caiaia aa?ueiu e o?oaeiauo iiaeiiinoae oeene?iaaiiie iiaeaoueth,
oeaicii, iaoneiaeee aunieoth noaiaiue yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu e?anoueyi.
Iie, oiea/eaay aeaiaaeioth ?aioo, iieo/aee aiciiaeiinoue naiinoiyoaeueii
?aoaoue i?iaeaiu «/oi i?iecaiaeeoue» e aii?inu, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae
i?iaeoeoeee. Yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa iiauoaee nioeeaeueiue noaoon
e?anoueyinoaa, /oi iaoei io?aaeaiea a e?anoueyineeo aeaeaeaieyo XIII—XIV
aa., aeaaiuie o?aaiaaieyie eioi?uo auea oeenaoeey ?acia?ia iniiaiuo
iiaeiiinoae.

Eiiiooaoeey e aueoi oaiaeaeueiuo iiaeiiinoae i?eaaee e ?aneieo
e?anoueyineiai ie?a. Iaiueoeinoai, niiniaiia ecaea/ue aeioiae ec
i?iaeaaee naieo eceeoeia, aiaaoaei e ia?aciauaaei i?eaeeaae?iaaiioth
eaoaai?eth — oae iacuaaaioth yeeoo, i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?ie («iaoa?e»,
iaeaaeaoaee nianoaaiiiai ?aai/aai neioa e i?oaeee o?oaea) noaiiaeeenue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie. Aieueoay /anoue e?anoueyinoaa noaiiaeeanue aao?aeaie
e iiaeaiueeaie.

Yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay yaiethoeey cao?iioea e oaiaeaeueiua neie. A
oneiaeyo ?acaeoey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiiai oicyenoaa aneaaenoaea ii?/e iiiao
iie noaee oa?youe /anoue naieo aeioiaeia io iiianoee, oae eae ?aaeueiia
niaea?aeaiea ?aiou iaaeaei, iineieueeo aa ?acia?u auee oeene?iaaiu.

Iiyoiio oaiaeaeu auioaeaeaiu auee eneaoue iiaua enoi/ieee aeioiaeia,
i?eniinaaeeaaynue e iaiyaoeiny oneiaeyi. N?aaeia- e iaeeiiiianoiia
aeai?yinoai auioaeaeaii auei i?iaeaaaoue /anoue caiee. Ai O?aioeee
iniiaiay ianna aeai?yi, eeeaeaee?iaaa nianoaaiiia oicyenoai,
noaiiaeeanue ?aiouea, a aeiiieieoaeueiua enoi/ieee aeioiaeia iaoiaeeea a
o?aaeeoeeiiiie neoaeaa ei?ieth (aiaiiie, a?aaeaeaineie eee aeooiaiie). A
Aiaeee a nayce n aeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie aeey ?acaeoey iaoeaaiaenoaa
e?oiiua oaiaeaeu noaee naeaaaoue naie caiee a a?aiaeo iiae ianoaeua.
N?aaeiea e iaeeea aeai?yia noaee caieiaoueny aecianii, naycaiiui n
i?iecaiaenoaii e oi?aiaeae oa?noueth. A Aa?iaiee, aeaaiui ia?acii a aa
ainoi/iie /anoe, iiiaueee aeoeaii i?eiyeenue ca i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a
iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee ca?ia.

Oeacaiiua i?ioeannu naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee i ia/aea e?ecena o?aaeeoeeiiiie
oaiaeaeueiie nenoaiu.

Ai-ia?auo, i?ienoiaeee iiae?ua iiiiiieee oaiaeaeia ia aeaaeaiea caieae.
I?iaeaaea /anoe caiaeue n?aaeieie e iaeeeie oaiaeaeaie i?eaiaeeea e
oiio, /oi aa nianoaaiieeaie noaiiaeeenue ai?iaeneea neie, ?acaiaaoaaoea
e?anoueyia.

Ai-aoi?uo, oaiaeaeu oa?yee aeanoue iaae ee/iinoueth i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

A-o?aoueeo, ?anoaouaaeenue iniiau iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa. Aeaaiui
iieacaoaeai yoiai e?ecena yaeyeinue noaiiaeaiea e ?acaeoea ai?iaeneie
yeiiiieee.

Ai?iaeneay yeiiiieea N?aaee iiiaiia?aciuo i?e/ei aicieeiiaaiey
caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneeo ai?iaeia iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue aeaaiua: i?ia?ann
aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aiciaiiaeaiea oi?aiaee n Ainoieii,
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue oaiaeaeia a aeiiieieoaeueiuo enoi/ieeao aeioiaea.

Iaeaieaa o?aaiece?iaaiiuie ?aaeiiaie Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu noaiiaeeenue
ianoiinoe, aaea, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaaethaeaeny onoie/eaue i?ia?ann
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, n ae?oaie — caaa?oaeenue eee ia?anaeaeenue e?oiiua
oi?aiaua iooe. Iiaeuai aa?a?iie yeiiiieee, iicaieeaoee i?iecaiaeeoue
i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo, aieaa ?aciiia?aciua ieuaaua e nu?ueaaua i?iaeoeou,
iaania/ee aiciiaeiinoe eo ?aaoey?iiai iaiaia ia ?aianeaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iainiaeaiey ?aianeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

?aianeaiieee, iinoaiaiii auaeaeyaoeany ec iannu caaeneiiai
e?anoueyinoaa, no?aieeenue oeoe ec aea?aaie, ec-iiae aeanoe oaiaeaeia e
iinaeeoueny a oao ianoao, aaea nouanoaiaaee aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
iaeaaeeaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. Iie naeeeenue, eae
i?aaeei, ia oa??eoi?eyo, eioi?ua a ia?eiae ?aiiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey
ea?aee ?ieue aaeieieno?aoeaiuo, aiaiiuo, ?aeeaeiciuo oeaio?ia. Iiiaea ec
ieo auee oe?aieaiu, /oi iaania/eaaei iaiaoiaeeioth aaciianiinoue.
Nin?aaeioi/aiea oai cia/eoaeueiiai ianaeaiey – oaiaeaeia (naaoneeo e
aeooiaiuo) n iiiai/eneaiiuie neoaaie e naeoie, i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ei?ieaaneie e ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeee – nicaeaaaei aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey
aeey nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. Ia?yaeo n yoei ?aianeaiieeia i?eaeaeaee
ianoiinoe, ?aniieiaeaiiua aaeece e?oiiuo oaiaeaeueiuo aeaaeaiee,
iiianou?ae, eoaea noaeaeinue iiiai ia?iaea ia aiaiiieuea; ioieou,
iaoiaeeaoeany ia ia?ana/aiee aaaeiuo aei?ia, ?a/iuo ia?ai?aa, iinoia, a
onoueyo ?ae, ia aa?aaao, oaeiaiuo aeey noiyiee ei?aaeae, e o.i.

I?e anai ?acee/ee iano iinaeaiee ?aianeaiieeia iie noaiiaeeenue
oeaio?aie nin?aaeioi/aiey ianaeaiey, caiyoiai i?iecaiaenoaii ecaeaeee ia
i?iaeaaeo, oeaio?aie oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iaiaia.

*anoue ?aianeaiieeia, niaiauaaoeo a iaeiii eeoea i?iecaiaeeoaey e
i?iaeaaoea, noaiiaeeanue eoioeaie, ae?oaay i?aaeii/eoaea
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue, /oi yaeeinue iniiaie noaiiaeaiey
ai?iaeneiai ?aianea.

Ioaeaeaiea eoia/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe io ?aianeaiiie yaeyeinue iiaui
oaaii a iauanoaaiiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. A ioee/ea io no?ainoaiaaaoeo
oi?aiaoeaa i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo ia?eiaeia (a Aiaeee eo iacuaaee
«iueueiiiiaeie», iie?uouie iueueth aei?ia), inouanoaeyaoeo
i?aeiouanoaaiii aiaoiaoi?aiaua iia?aoeee, eoioeu, iiyaeaoeany a
caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneeo ai?iaeao a XI-XII aa., caieiaeenue oaeaea e
aioo?aiiae oi?aiaeae. Iie noaiiaeeenue iaeaieaa aeoeaiie e
iiaouanoaaiiie a?oiiie ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey.

Ei?iee, naaoneea e aeooiaiua oaiaeaeu, ia caieyo eioi?uo au?anoaee
ai?iaea, auee caeioa?aniaaiu a eo ia?aciaaiee. Ai?iaea aeey ieo
yaeyeenue iiaui ia?niaeoeaiui enoi/ieeii aeioiaeia. Iie ieacuaaee
oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo ii?aaeaeaiiui a?oiiai ianaeaiey, i?eieiaaoei
aeoeaiia o/anoea a nicaeaiee ai?iaeia. Yoi auee ?aciiai ?iaea
«aunei/ee», ii?aaaoea n e?anoueyineie iaueiie, oea?eiaueth; ethaee,
eeoaiiua i?aae?annoaeeia, aani?eioeeiiua, i?aaei?eei/eaua e
ei?unoiethaeaua. Aaaeioth ?ieue a iiaeuaia ai?iaeia nua?aee oae
iacuaaaiua ieianoa?eaeu — neoaeauea oaiaeaeia, eae i?aaeei, auoiaeoeu ec
?aaia eee e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi, auno?i i?iaeaeaaaoeany a oaiaeaeueiie
ea?a?oee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ai?iaea i?eaeaeaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aciuo neiaa
ianaeaiey. Eo iauaaeeiyei no?aieaiea au?aaoueny ec oaniiai ie?a
iiianouey (naaoneiai eee oea?eiaiiai), iaiaaoeoueny iooai nicaeaiey
nianoaaiiiai aeciana. Iea?aoeey ec naeueneie ianoiinoe a ai?iaea a
ia?eiae N?aaeiaaaeiauey auea iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia ?acaeoey
Caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneiai ?aaeiia.

Ec yoeo a?oii ai?iae oi?ie?iaae iiaia iauanoai — ee/ii naiaiaeiuo
ethaeae, aeaaiiieo/ea eioi?uo iieieeinue ia nianoaaiiii o?oaea e
i?aaei?eei/eainoe. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai i?ioeaiiinoaaeyei ai?iaeneia
iauanoai oaiaeaeueiiio, iniiaaiiiio ia ianaiaiaea, nineiaiuo i?eioeeiao,
yenieoaoaoeee /oaeiai o?oaea.

Iaeiaei ia?aiia/aeueii e?oiiua oaiaeaeu, ia caieyo eioi?uo iaoiaeeeanue
aieueoay /anoue ai?iaeia, nin?aaeioi/eee a naieo ?oeao anth iieiioo
aeanoe iaae ieie. Ai?iaeneea aeeoaee iaeaaaeenue iinoiyiii ?anooueie
iaeiaaie, iioeeiaie, aieueoae /anoueth i?iecaieueiuie. Iiyoiio ai?iaea
aaee aeeeoaeueioth e oii?ioth ai?ueao i?ioea i?iecaiea oaiaeaeia.

Ai?iaeneea ainnoaiey, i?ieaoeaoeany ii oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a
XI—XIII aa., iieo/eee iacaaiea eiiioiaeueiuo ?aaiethoeee. Eo
?acoeueoaoii auei ia?aciaaiea ai?iaeia-eiiioi ai O?aioeee e Oeaiae?ee,
ai?iaeia-?anioaeee a Eoaeee, eiia?neeo ai?iaeia a Aa?iaiee. Yoe ai?iaea
inaiaiaeaeaeenue io aieueoae /anoe oaiaeaeueiuo iiai?ia,
ooieoeeiie?iaaee ia iniiaao i?eioeeiia naiioi?aaeaiey (auai?iua i?aaiu
oi?aaeaiey ec /enea ai?iaeai), naiinoiyoaeueiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
ai?iaeneiai i?aaa, io?aiyaoaai /anoioth nianoaaiiinoue, ?aaoee?iaaaoaai
oi?aiaeth, aeayoaeueiinoue ?aianeaiiuo ei?ii?aoeee, ii?yaeie
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, eiaee nianoaaiiua oeiainu e aienei. A Aiaeee ei?ieue
?e/a?ae Eueaeiia Na?aeoea, ecaanoiue naieie aiaiiuie aaaioth?aie,
«ca?aaaouaae» ia ieo n?aaenoaa, i?iaeaaay inaiaiaeeoaeueiua oa?oee
ai?iaeai. E eiioeo XIII a. aieueoay /anoue ai?iaeia a yoii ainoaea?noaa
ia?aoea ia naiioi?aaeaiea.

Ianiio?y ia oi /oi iaeioi?ui ai?iaeai, iniaaiii iaeeei, ia oaeaeinue
aeiaeoueny iieiie iacaaeneiinoe io oaiaeaeia, ana ai?iaeneea aeeoaee
i?eciaaaeenue ee/ii-naiaiaeiuie. A ai?iaeneeo a?aiioao aiai?eeinue:
«Anee e?aiinoiie i?iaeeaao aiae e iaeei aeaiue a noaiao ai?iaea e anee
ca yoi a?aiy ainiiaeei ia i?aaeuyaeo ia iaai i?aaa, oi ii iieo/aao
iaanaaaea iieioth naiaiaeo». A ia?eiae N?aaeiaaaeiauey auea iiioey?ia
iiaiai?ea: «Aicaeoo ai?iaea aeaeaao /aeiaaea naiaiaeiui».

Ai O?aioeee aieueiua ai?iaea iieo/eee iacaaiea «ao?aeoaciuo» – io neiaa
«ao?a», icia/aaoaai oe?aieaiiue ai?iae (i?aai aicaiaeeoue oe?aieaiey
auei caeanue iai?aiaiiui i?eciaeii naiaiaeu, oi/ii oae aea, eae
aenaeeoeu, aa?au e ia/aoe).

N?aaeiaaaeiaua ai?iaea, ii nia?aiaiiui ia?eai, auee iaaieueoeie. Naiue
e?oiiue — Aaiaoeey — ian/eouaae 100 oun. aeeoaeae. Ae?oaea ai?iaea
ia?aiai ?aiaa (Ia?eae, Eiiaeii, Eaeuei e i?.) ian/eouaaee io 20 oun. aei
80 oun. aeeoaeae.

Eiiioiaeueiua ?aaiethoeee i?eaaee e ooaa?aeaeaieth ainiiaenoaa ai?iaea,
onoaiaaeeaaaoaiony iin?aaenoaii ?uieia, auoaaeoeo ec-iiae eiio?iey
oaiaeaeia, e iiauoaieth yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai noaoona
ai?iaeneeo neiaa, iniaaiii eoia/anoaa.

Ai?iaea Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu X—XV aa. auiieiyee i?aeiouanoaaiii
yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee. Oaiaeaeueiia iiianouea iinoaiaiii onooiaei ei
?ieue i?aaiecaoeeiiiie iniiau yeiiiieee aeeceaaeaueo oa??eoi?ee e
ianaeaiey, i?iaeeaathuaai ia ieo. Ooieoeee yenieoaoaoeee e?anoueyineiai
ianaeaiey ia?aoee e ai?iaeo, i?e yoii eciaieeenue iaoiaeu: iie noaee
i?aeiouanoaaiii yeiiiie/aneeie.

Ai?iaea iaaycuaaee naeueneie ie?oaa naie i?aaeea ea?u: aunieea oeaiu ia
ecaeaeey ai?iaeneeo ?aianeaiieeia, aeaoeoeeoiua, /aua anaai eiii?oiua
oiaa?u (nieue, ia?aoe, i?yiinoe), ieceea oeaiu ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiia
nu?uea e i?iaeoeou ieoaiey. Eiaiii ai?iae ?ac?uaae caieiooinoue
iaoo?aeueiiai oicyenoaa, nicaeaaay ioe?uooth yeiiiieeo, aoyaeaay
i?iecaiaeeoaeae aa?a?iiai naeoi?a a oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey. Ii
noaiiaeeny aeaeaeouae neeie ?acaeoey yeiiiieee.

Yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee ai?iaea iinoaiaiii ?anoe?yeenue, ia ia?aue ieai
auaeaeaaeanue aai ?ieue eae i?iiuoeaiiiai oeaio?a. Ai?iae noaiiaeeny
ianoa?neie, aaea aeoeaii ?acaeaaeinue ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, au?aaeaaoaany
a ?inoa /enea ?acee/iuo ?aianae. A ia/aea XIV a. a e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao
ian/eouaaeinue o?enoa aeaeia ?aianae.

Yoio iieacaoaeue naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeiaieueii oe?ieie io?aneaaie
no?oeoo?a ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iineieueeo ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a
ianoa?neie ionoonoaiaaei, i?ienoiaeee i?ioeann aeeooa?aioeeaoeee
?aianea, au?aaeaaoeeny a oceie niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
oaaee/aiee /enea ?aianeaiiuo niaoeeaeueiinoae. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIII
a. a Ia?eaea nouanoaiaaei 22 aeaea aeaeaciia?aaaouaathueo ?aianae. A
eocia/iii aeaea, iai?eia?, auaeaeyeenue i?iecaiaenoaa i?oaeey, eieue/oa,
oiaa, iiaeeia, aaicaeae, iaoaeee/aneie iinoaeu, iiaeae e o.i.

O?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeaeaie i?iaeoeoeee ai?iaeneiai ?aianea, ?aaioaaoaai ia
ianoiue ?uiie, auee oiaa?u iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina (nuanoiua i?eianu,
oeaie, iaeaaeaea, eiaea, iaoaue, iinoaea, iaaaeue, oe?aoaiey e o.i.),
i?aaeiaou aii?oaeaiey, i?oaeey o?oaea – caieaaeaeue/aneea e ?aianeaiiua,
oaeiaeaoai?yaoea iio?aaiinoe naeueneeo e ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae. Oaeie
iaai? ?aianae aue oa?aeoa?ai aeey ethaiai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ai?iaea.
Aeaaea a naiuo iaeeeo ec ieo nouanoaiaaei ia iaiaa 15 ?aianeaiiuo
niaoeeaeueiinoae.

Ia?yaeo n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aicieeaee iiaua aeaeu ai?iaeneiai ?aianea.
?anoe?aiea aai io?aneaaie no?oeoo?u aucuaaeinue oaeaea ?inoii ni?ina ia
aai i?iaeoeoeeth ni noi?iiu ai?iaeneeo neiaa. Eiaiii ai?iaeaia ecia?aee
oaeia iiiyoea, eae eiioi?o. A ai?iaeneie n?aaea aic?anoaee iio?aaiinoe a
ecuneaiiie ieua (ia?aua aano?iiiie/aneea o?aeoaou iiyaeeenue a no?aiao
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a XIII a.), ?ineioiie iaeaaeaea, iaoae, thaaee?iuo
ecaeaeeyo, aei?iaii e i?anoeaeiii i?oaeee, iaoaeee/aneeo aeiniaoao,
eiioi?oiuo aeeeeuao e o.i. «Ia?aaith» («aunei/ee») no?aieeenue e?eeeeaie
?ineioueth caoieoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae noa?uo a?enoie?aoe/aneeo oaieeee.
Iaeaaeaea yoeo a?oii ai O?aioeee noaea noieue ?ineioiie, /oi a ia?aie
iieiaeia XIII a. aue ecaeai niaoeeaeueiue ei?ieaaneee caeii, no?iai
ia?aie/eaaaoee uaaieuenoai. Yoiio i?eia?o iineaaeiaaee iiia?oe ae?oaeo
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. Iaeiaei no?iaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia
aicuiaei aeieaeiiai aeaenoaey: oo?aou ieaoeeenue, cai?auaiey ia
niaethaeaeenue. Neeiiiinoue aunoeo nineiaee aeai?yinoaa, aeooiaainoaa e
aiaaouo ai?iaeai e ?ineioe e uaaieuenoao aua aieaa oneeeaaeanue, /oi
niaeaenoaiaaei i?ia?anno ?aianea.

Oaenoeeueiia i?iecaiaenoai a ai?iaeao naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe Aa?iiu,
iniaaiii ai Oeaiae?ee, e a Naaa?iie Eoaeee aeaaiaea?y auioneo aei?iaeo
oeaiae, oiieiai noeia, oaeea, aa?oaoa aeinoeaei ii/oe eiaeono?eaeueiuo
ianooaaia, noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea niaaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa: ecaioiaeaiea
?anoeoaeueiuo e?aneoaeae (ia?aiu, aaeaeu, io?io?a). Aieueoay /anoue yoeo
oiaa?ia yenii?oe?iaaeanue.

A Aiaeee noeiiiia e e?aneeueiia i?iecaiaenoaa noaee auno?i ?acaeaaoueny
oieueei n ia/aea XIV a. aeaaiaea?y ia?anaeeaoeiny nthaea ieaea?eaiaeneei
?aianeaiieeai.

A ai?iaeao O?aioeee oaenoeeueiia ?aianei auei i?aaenoaaeaii
i?iecaiaenoaii oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo e eueiyiuo oeaiae, oaiiuo e
y?ei-e?aniuo noeii, yenii?oe?iaaaoeony ia Ainoie. I?iecaiaenoai oaeea
noaei caiaoii i?ia?anne?iaaoue oieueei iinea auienee Ethaeiaeeii XI
a?a/aneeo e eoaeueyineeo oea/ae a eiioea XV a.

N ?acaeoeai iaoeeiiaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe yoe aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee
noaiiaeeenue aeinooiiuie aeey iaaiaaouo neiaa ianaeaiey, iio?aaeaiea
eiino?aiiie i?iaeoeoeee oiaiueoaeinue.

Aaaeiaeoeie io?aneyie ai?iaeneiai ?aianea auee oaeaea iaoaeeo?aey e
iaoaeeiia?aaioea. Iie auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu ai anao no?aiao.
Eiaeono?eaeueiiai ianooaaa iaoaeeiia?aaioea aeinoeaea a iaiaoeeeo
ai?iaeao.

Aieueoay /anoue iaoaeea i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
aii?oaeaiey. Ia «a?aaeaeaineea ioaeaeu» — ecaioiaeaiea na?iia, ein,
eiiao, nioieeia, aaicaeae, iinoaeu e ae?oaie i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeea
iinoiyiii ia oaaoaei.

Oaeanoi/aiea aiei iio?aaiaaei iiauo aeaeia i?oaeey e aiaiiie aioieoeee.
?acaeoea n XIV a. a?oeeea?ee, oiio?aaeaiea oeaeueiuo iaoaeee/aneeo
aeiniaoia aianoi eieue/oa iaoneiaeee iiauoaiiue ni?in ia iaoaee, /oi
aucaaei iiaeuai iaoaeeo?aee. A iae noaea i?eiaiyoueny iiaay oaoieea —
ieaaeeueiua ia/e n iaoaie, eioi?ua i?eaiaeeeenue a aeaenoaea yia?aeae
aiaeu.

Ecia?aoaiea ii?ioa e iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey auee iaeaieaa cia/eiuie
oaoie/aneeie aeinoeaeaieyie a eiaeono?eaeueiie noa?a. Ia?aua iooee
iiyaeeenue a ia/aea XIV a., /ooue iicaea — ?o/iia iaiano?aeueiia
i?oaeea. A eiioea XV a. a eoaeueyineii ai?iaea Ienoiea aue ecia?aoai
eo?ie. Iiyoiio neiaeeeinue iiaiea, /oi eiaiii yoiio ai?iaeo ienoieao
iaycai naiei iacaaieai.

Aaaeiaeoei oaiiiaiii yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu a n?aaeiea
aaea yaeeny a?aiaeeiciue ?aciao no?ieoaeuenoaa eaiaiiuo nii?oaeaiee
(oea?eaae, caieia, ai?iaeneeo noai, aeiiia, iinoia). Yoi niinianoaiaaei
noaiiaeaieth iiauo e ?anoe?aieth o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?aianae, i?iecaiaeeaoeo
eino?oiaiou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa, e aniiiiaaoaeueiua
iaoa?eaeu (aaicaee, caiee, noaeea). Eneonnoai no?ieoue i?aa?auaeinue a
iaoeo. A?oeoaeoi?u, aicaiaeeaoea ciaiaieoua eaoaae?aeueiua niai?u,
enoiaey ec neiaeiuo ?an/aoia, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyee naay eaiaiueeai, eo
aaee/aee «iyo?aie». Iie iuoaeenue aeiaeoueny i?enaiaiey o/aiuo caaiee —
«iaaeno?ia eaiaiiiai no?iaiey».

A n?aaeiaaaeiauo ii?oiauo ai?iaeao cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea iieo/eei
noaeino?iaiea. Ia naaa?a Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu nii?oaeaeenue ei?aaee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ia?aaicee iauaiiuo a?ocia — ca?ia, eana. A
XII-XIII aa. iiyaeeenue noaea iiauoaiiie a?ociiiaeuaiiinoe — aaicaeneea
eieee. A Aaiaoeee no?ieee oae iacuaaaiua aaeaanu – oi?aiaua ei?aaee
aieaa e?oiiuo ?acia?ia. Eo iaeneiaeueiia aiaeieciauaiea ninoaaeyei 200
o.

Aunoei aeinoeaeaieai oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a ia?eiae N?aaeiaaaeiauey
yaeeinue i?eiaiaiea aiaeyiuo iaeueieoe ai iiiaeo aeaeao i?iecaiaenoa –
noeiiaeaeee, aeoaeaiee eiae, ieaiaa?aiee, auieaaea iaoaeeia,
ioeiiieueiii aeaea e o.ae.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iie ai?iaeneiai ?aianea aue oeao, i?aaenoaaeyaoee
niaie iauaaeeiaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae iaeiie e oie aea i?ioannee. A ai?iaea
/aeiaae nouanoaiaae eae /eai oie eee eiie ei?ii?aoeee — nineiaiie,
i?ioanneiiaeueiie, aicieeoae ii eioa?anai. Iiieii ?aianeaiiuo
iauaaeeiaiee a ai?iaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaee nithcu eoioeia, i?aiiaeaaaoaeae
oieaa?neoaoia, ia?eeiaoa?ia, ieueo, i?inoeoooie, a?a/ae (iai?eia?,
a?aonoai oe?o?aia Nayoiai a?iaa). A eoaeueyineeo ai?iaeao ciaoiua
iieiaeua ethaee iauaaeeiyeenue n oeaeueth i?iaaaeaiey eiioea?oia,
oaao?aeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, ianea?aaeia e o.ae.

Ei?ii?aoeaiia ono?ienoai ai?iaeneiai ?aianea auei aucaaii
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth caueou io i?iecaiea oaiaeaeia, eiieo?aioeee a naiae
n?aaea e ni noi?iiu aea?aaaineeo ?aianeaiieeia.

Oeaoiaua i?aaiecaoeee aicieeee a X a. a Eoaeee. Ai O?aioeee ia?aui
oeaoii auei iauaaeeiaiea ia?eaeneeo naa/ieeia, nicaeaiiia ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XI a. Ieii/aoaeueiia eo ioi?ieaiea – iieo/aiea niaoeeaeueiuo
oa?oee io ei?ieae, caienue oeaoiauo onoaaia e o.ae. – i?ienoiaeeei a
aieaa iicaeiea a?aiaia.

Ai aeaaa oeaoa noiye auai?iue iaaeno? (eee noa?inoa), auiieiyaoee
ooieoeee iaiaaeaea?a. Aaeeieoeae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u oeaoa auea
ianoa?neay, aicaeaaeyaiay iieiii?aaiui /eaiii oeaoa — ianoa?ii, aianoa n
eioi?ui ?aaioaee iaeei eee aeaa iiaeianoa?uey, a oaeaea ianeieueei
o/aieeia.

Oeao ooieoeeiie?iaae ia iniiaa onoaaa, eniieiaiea eioi?iai eiio?iee?iaae
iaaeno?. Niaeanii onoaao aeanoei ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeny aanue oeeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. Nu?uea caeoiaeinue
oeaio?aeeciaaiii, o?aaieoaeueii ?ani?aaeaeyeinue iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. No?iai niaethaeaeinue aaeeiiia?acea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna — eiee/anoai iiaeianoa?ueaa, o/aieeia, a?aiy ?aaiou — naaoiaie
aeaiue, iaai? eino?oiaioia, i?oaeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o.i. Ia?aie/eaaeny
iauai auionea i?iaeoeoeee, ii?aaeaeyeenue aaeeiua o?aaiaaiey e aa
ea/anoao, onoaiaaeeaaeenue i?iaeaaeiua oeaiu, aaeeiiia?aciua oneiaey
nauoa (iaeeiaeiaay aeeeia e oe?eia i?eeaaeia, cai?ao any/aneie ?aeeaiu e
o.i.). Oeaeueth aeanoeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee yaeyeinue ono?aiaiea
eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iaeii?iaeiie i?iaeoeoeee. A
oneiaeyo ocinoe ?uiea oieueei oaeei iooai iiaeii auei iaania/eoue
nouanoaiaaiea iaeeiai oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oeaoiaay i?aaiecaoeey ioaaouaaea ana noi?iiu aeecie n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
?aianeaiieea. Oeao i?aaenoaaeye e aiaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth, o/anoaiaaaooth
a noi?iaeaaie neoaeaa e aiaiiuo aeaenoaeyo. Eaaeaeue aai /eai aeieaeai
aue eiaoue i?oaeea aeey caueou ai?iaea. Eiaiii a ai?iaeao ?aiueoa anaai
noaea neeaaeuaaoueny ?aaoey?iay a?iey, ninoiyaoay ec iaaiieeia. Eie
noaiiaeeenue i?aaeaea anaai ieaaeoea nuiiauey a e?anoueyineeo naiueyo,
ieacaaoeany «eeoieie» i?e ?acaeaea eiouanoaa, ?aci?eaoeany ?aianeaiieee
e ae?. Iaaiieee neoaeeee ca aeaiueae. *eaiu oeaoiaie i?aaiecaoeee, eae
i?aaeei,’ naeeeenue ia iaeiie oeeoea, oiaeeee a iaeio oea?eiaue (e
aeaaea a aaith), eiaee naia caeaiea, aaea i?iaiaeeeenue annaiaeae
(nia?aiey). E?iia oiai, oeao yaeyeny i?aaiecaoeeae acaeiiie iiiiue
?aianeaiieeia. A neo/aa aieacie eee nia?oe /eaia oeaoa aai naiuea
ieacuaaeanue iaoa?eaeueiay iiiiuue ec n?aaenoa io anooieoaeueiuo
aciinia, oo?aoia e i?i/eo ieaoaaeae.

Ia?aiia/aeueii oeaoiaay i?aaiecaoeey ai?iaeneeo ?aianeaiieeia ea?aea
i?ia?anneaioth ?ieue, niinianoaiaaea iiauoaieth ea/anoaa auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, aa noaiaea?oecaoeee, noaaeeecaoeee oeai ainieouaaea
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eiia/iue ?acoeueoao, iiaeaioaaeeaay
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, i?eo/aea e i?aaieciaaiiinoe e
aeenoeeieeia. Iineieueeo ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a ianoa?neie ionoonoaiaaei,
eaaeaeue ?aaioiee i?iecaiaeee eiia/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth, iiyoiio auee
auniee o?aaiaaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueiiio ianoa?noao. Iai?eia?, i?e
anooieaiee a eocia/iue oeao a Aa?iaiee iaiaoiaeeii auei ecaioiaeoue
iiaeeiao aeey eioaaee aac niyoey ia?ee. Aeey auiieiaiey iiaeiaiie ?aaiou
iaiaoiaeeia auea aeeeoaeueiay iiaeaioiaea.

Ni a?aiaiai aeanoeay oeaoiaay ?aaeaiaioaoeey, iai?aaeaiiay ia nio?aiaiea
iaeeiai i?iecaiaenoaa, noaiiaeeanue na?ueaciui oi?iicii aeey ?acaeoey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe,
i?aaiecaoeee e?oiiuo i?iecaiaenoa.

Cai?auaeinue i?eiaiaiea oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa (naiii?yeee, noeiiaaeueiuo
iaeueieoe e o.i.), iaeuecy auei aaiaeeoue aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiua iaoiaeu
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa (iiiia?aoeeiiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea), aai
oe?oiiyoue e o.i. Ecia?aoaoaee no?iai i?aneaaeiaaeenue, aieioue aei
auianaiey ei nia?oiuo i?eaiai?ia.

Ia?yaeo n yoei oneiaeiyeenue oneiaey anooieaiey a oeao, oaaee/eaaeny
aeaiaaeiue aciin, oaeeeiyeny n?ie o/aie/anoaa, iaiiia?ii iiauoaeenue
o?aaiaaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueiiio ianoa?noao.

?acaeoea oi?aiaee, aeaiaaeiie, e?aaeeoiie, iaeiaiaie nenoai. I?ia?ann
naeueneiai oicyenoaa, oniaoe a ?acaeoee ai?iaeneiai ?aianea iaoneiaeee
noaiiaeaiea onoie/eauo ?uii/iuo naycae iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie oa??eoi?eyie
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa. Yoio i?ioeann au?aaeaeny a ?acaeoee
oi?aiaee iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e ie?oaeaaoeie aai aea?aaiyie, oi?iie
i?aaiecaoeee eioi?ie auee ai?iaeneea ?uiee, naeueneea y?ia?ee, a oaeaea
oi?aiaee iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ianoiinoyie, i?ienoiaeeaoae ia iaeanoiuo
y?ia?eao.

E oaeoi?ai, naea?aeeaaaoei aioo?aiithth oi?aiaeth, neaaeoao ioianoe
neaaoth iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue iniiaiie iannu ianaeaiey,
ninoiyaoaai i?aeiouanoaaiii ec e?anoueyi; oaiaeaeueioth
?acae?iaeaiiinoue, a neeo eioi?ie ia oa??eoi?ee eaaeaeie naiuei?ee
niae?aee iioeeiu; ionoonoaea aei?ia e aaciianiinoe. I?e i?iaica oiaa?ia
ii ?aea Eoa?a (O?aioeey) iioeeia aceiaeanue 70 ?ac. Aeaaeaeueoeu caiaeue
n oeaeueth aceiaiey iiai?ia no?ieee iinou, ia?ai?aau, aei?iae, aaaeouea
a «ieeoaea», caieiaeenue i?yiui a?aaaaeii eoia/aneeo iiaicie.

Aeey acaeiiie caueou a iooe e ia ?uieao, a oeaeyo ono?aiaiey acaeiiie
eiieo?aioeee iin?aaenoaii niaeaoaiee ii iiaiaeo oneiaee nauoa (oeai, ia?
aana, aeeeiu e o.i.) eoioeu iauaaeeiyeenue a aeeueaeee. Iaeaieaa
iiaouanoaaiiuie ec ieo auee iauaaeeiaiey, iiiiiieece?iaaaoea oi?aiaeth
noeiii. Nouanoaiaaee aeeueaeee iaei/iuo oi?aiaoeaa, caieiaaoeony
i?iaeaaeae nuanoiuo i?eiania, i?aaeiaoia iianaaeiaaiiai ni?ina.

A ia?eiae n XI ii XV a. iaeaieueoaai ?aciaoa aeinoeaea aiaoiyy oi?aiaey,
i?ioiaeeaoay ii o?ai iniiaiui iai?aaeaieyi. Ia?aia — oi?aiaey n
Ainoieii, eioi?oth inouanoaeyee eoaeueyineea ai?iaea, i?aaeaea anaai
Aaioy e Aaiaoeey. Eoioeu yoeo ai?iaeia i?aaeinoaaeyee e?anoiiinoeai
ei?aaee, /oi aeaaaei ei aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiiai caoiaea a ainoi/iua
ii?ou. Iie iniiauaaee a ai?iaeao yoiai ?aaeiia naie oaeoi?ee, iieo/aee
?acee/iua i?eaeeaaee, Aaiaoeey, iai?eia?, eiaea i?aai aaniioeeiiie
oi?aiaee ni anaie a?a/aneeie ai?iaeaie. Eoioeu yoeo ai?iaeia,
iiiiiieece?iaaa oi?aiaeth n Ainoieii, iieo/aee aeiaieueii aunieea
aeioiaeu. Ii?ia oi?aiaie i?eauee caeanue ninoaaeyea 25—40%. A Caiaaeioth
Aa?iio aaiceeenue i?aaeiaou ?ineioe, i?yiinoe, iniiaiuie iio?aaeoaeyie
eioi?uo auee aunoea neie aeai?yinoaa, aeooiaainoaa, ai?iaeia. Iineieueeo
auaiceoue ec Aa?iiu ean, iaoaee, i?oaeea, ca?ii, niieo, aeaaioue,
ei?aaee cai?auae Aaoeeai, n/eoay eo no?aoaae/aneeie oiaa?aie, ec Aa?iiu
ia Ainoie ia?ai?aaeyeinue cieioi e na?aa?i.

Aoi?ui iai?aaeaieai ii?neie oi?aiaee yaeyeny Naaa?iue iooue,
niaaeeiyaoee /a?ac Naaa?iia e Aaeoeeneia ii?y Ainoi/ioth e Caiaaeioth
Aa?iio. Yoa oi?aiaey auea iiiiiieece?iaaia iaa?aaoei neeo a XIII a.
nithcii eoioeia naaa?i-iaiaoeeeo ai?iaeia, ecaanoiui iiae iacaaieai
Aaica. A iaai aoiaeeei io 60 aei 170 aa?iiaeneeo ai?iaeia. No?oeoo?a
oiaa?iiai?ioa (ca?ii, neio, ean, eiaee, iaiueea, eai, aine, iaoa,
iaoaeee/aneea ecaeaeey, oa?noyiua oeaie) naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
yoa oi?aiaey «ianeoaeeaaea» iio?aaiinoe ianoiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e
iio?aaeoaeae, iiyoiio eiaea aieueoia cia/aiea aeey yeiiiieee no?ai
Aa?iiu, oioy oi?aiaay i?eaueue caeanue ninoaaeyea anaai 5—8%.
N?aaieoaeueii ieceay i?eaueue eiiiaine?iaaeanue iauaiaie oiaa?iiai?ioa e
nouanoaaiii iaiueoei ?eneii.

Ia ia?ana/aiee naaa?iiai e thaeiiai oi?aiauo iooae i?aaieciauaaeenue
y?ia?ee, ia eioi?uo ano?a/aeenue ainoi/iua e aa?iiaeneea oiaa?u.
Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie e cia/eoaeueiuie auee y?ia?ee ai O?aioeee e
Oeaiae?ee. Eoaeueyineea eoioeu oi?aiaaee caeanue ainoi/iuie oiaa?aie,
o?aioeocneea — aeiii e noeiii, iaiaoeeea — iaoaie, eueiyiuie oeaiyie,
iaoaeeii, aiaeeeneea — ieiaii, naeioeii, oa?noueth. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
y?ia?ee iiaeiaiiai oeia noaee iniiaie iiyaeaiey oiaa?iuo ae?ae.
Cia/eoaeueiua ianooaau i?iecaiaenoaa ianniauo caiaieiuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua
iiaee i?iaeaaaoueny ii noaiaea?oai e ia?acoeai, ?anoouay ?aaoey?iinoue
iaiaiia aioo?e iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?uieia e iaaeaeo no?aiaie i?eaaee e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey iioiaiai ?uiea oaeeo oiaa?ia, o.a. ae?ae.

?anoe?aiea oi?aiaee, iniaaiii aiaoiae, o?aaiaaei ana aieueoaai
eiee/anoaa n?aaenoa ia?auaiey. Aeaaiuie i?iaeaiaie ?acaeoey aeaiaaeiie
nenoaiu a ia?eiae N?aaeiaaaeiauey auee iaoaaoea ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia
(cieioa e na?aa?a) aeey /aeaiee o?aaiaaaoaeny iannu iiiao, eo ii?/a,
iiiaeanoai iiiaoiuo nenoai, ooa/ea cieioa e na?aa?a ia Ainoie.

A oeaeyo iaania/aiey i?aaeeueiinoe oi?aiauo naeaeie a Eoaeee n XII a.
ia/aee /aeaieoue oyaeaeoth (aanii aieaa 20 a) na?aa?yioth iiiaoo —
a?inni. Iiea /aeaiea yoeo iiiao iaoiaeeeanue a ?oeao eoaeueyineeo
iiiao/eeia, iie auee iieiioeaiiuie. Ii ia?a oiai eae /aeaiea iiaeiaiiai
?iaea iiiao ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ca i?aaeaeaie Eoaeee, i?ienoiaeeei eo
oe?ieia iaanoeaiaiea.

Iio?aaiinoue a iieiioeaiiuo n?aaenoaao ia?auaiey i?eaaea e iiyaeaieth a
XIII a. cieioie iiiaou aanii 3,25 a, ecaanoiie iiae iauei iacaaieai
«aiaeaeai». A Aieeaiaeee iiaeiaiua iiiaou iacuaaeenue aoeueaeaiaie, ai
Oei?aioeee — oei?eiaie, ai O?aioeee — yeth, a Aiaeee — niaa?aiaie, a
Aaiaoeee — aeoeaoaie e o.ae. Iaeiaei «aaeeeee cieioie ?aiannain»
caaa?oeeny «iiooaeaieai» iiiaou aei 2,5 a.

N XV a. aeaaiaea?y ioe?uoeth iiaiai na?aa?yiiai ?oaeieea a Aa?iaiee —
Eioeiooaey — ia/aeanue /aeaiea ciaiaieoiai iaiaoeeiai oaea?a, aan
eioi?iai aeinoeaae 30 a. Yoo iiiaoo iaeeaeaea oa aea noaeueaa — auno?ia
iaanoeaiaiea.

Noaiiaeaiea e?aaeeoiie nenoaiu au?aaeaeinue a oii, /oi a oneiaeyo ?inoa
oiaa?iiaiaia ia aiaoieo ?uieao, iiiaiia?acey iiiaoiuo nenoai iaiyeueiui
aeaeii iiaee caieiaoueny oieueei i?ioanneiiaeu. Iie iieo/eee iacaaiea
aaiee?ia (io neiaa «aaiei» — «neaiuey», «noie», aaea neaeae a Eiiaa?aeee
iaiyea).

Ia?aiia/aeueii aaiee?u iiyaeeenue a XII a. a Eoaeee. Oaoieea iaiyeueiiai
aeaea auea i?inoa – iaiai iiiao, a caoai iaiai iaee/iuo iiiao ia
aaciaee/iua (?aciaiiia ienueii eee aaenaeue). Aaenaeue noae oiaa?ii,
oeaia eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyeanue oaie iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie, ia eioi?ua ii
iaiaieaaeny. Naeaeee iaeaeaeenue a ienueiaiioth oi?io: aaenaeue
i?aa?auaeny a ?anieneo, oaeinoiaa?yaioth niaoeeaeueiui eeoeii —
iioa?eonii. A n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia iia?aoeee oaeiai ?iaea auiieiyee
eoaeueyioeu. Ai anao oi?aiauo oeaio?ao ie?a (a oaeaea a aanueia
ioaeaeaiiuo ianoao) nouanoaiaaee eieiiee eoaeueyineeo oi?aiaoeaa, /anoue
eioi?uo auea i?aaenoaaeaia aaiee?aie. E?oiiua aaiee?u iianaianoii eiaee
ioaeaeaiey naieo eiioi?.

Eoaeueyineea aaiee?u, aoaeo/e aeoeaiuie o/anoieeaie oaiiaineeo y?ia?ie,
niaa?oainoaiaaee aaenaeueiia aeaei, noaee i?aeoeeiaaoue iaoiae aeaieiie
aooaaeoa?ee (n XIV a.), aaciaee/iue ia?aaiae aeaiaaeiuo noii ii eieaai —
ni no?aieoeu ieaoaeueueea ia no?aieoeo iieo/aoaey; a eiioea y?ia?i/iie
oi?aiaee iiaeaiaeeeenue eoiae oi?aiauo iia?aoeee, eoiaoe iaee/iuie
auiea/eaae oieueei ?acieoeo.

Iinoaiaiii iia?aoeee aaiee?ia ?anoe?yeenue: iie a?aee aeaiueae ia
o?aiaiea, auiea/eaaee ca yoi i?ioeaiou, i?aaeinoaaeyee nnoaeu.

E?oiiua oi?aiaua aeiia Eoaeee, Aa?iaiee (Iaaee/e, Ooaaa?u e ae?.) oaeaea
noaee ?anoe?youe naith aeayoaeueiinoue: iiieii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a
oa?noyiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iie caieiaeenue oi?aiauie e aaieianeeie
iia?aoeeyie.

A yoio ia?eiae oneeeeenue iaaeaeioniaiua noieeiiaaiey ai anao no?aiao
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ia aaaeaiea aiei o?aaiaaeenue aeaiueae, iiyoiio ei?iee
i?eaaaaee e e?oiiui caeiai. Eo i?aaeinoaaeyee oi?aiaua aeiia Oei?aioeee,
Aaiaoeee, Aaioe.

A nayce n i?e/eiaie iauaeoeaiiai ii?yaeea — ?inoii aioo?aiiaai ?uiea,
oe?aieaieai yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ?aeiiaie aioo?e
no?ai, aicieeiiaaieai e ?acaeoeai ai?iaeia, iiyaeaieai iiauo
nioeeaeueiuo neiaa — e noauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie — no?aieaieai ei?ieae
nia?aoue ii y/aeeai ?acae?iaeaiiia iauanoai — a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia
i?ienoiaeee i?ioeann iieeoe/aneie oeaio?aeecaoeee.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Yeiiiie/aneay enoi?ey ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. Eo?n eaeoeee / Iiae ?aae. A.
E. Aieoaiae/a. Ieine, 1997.

2. Aiuaiiaa A. I., Aiaeceia A. N. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee: O/aa. iiniaea. I.,
2003.

3. Eieaa?a I.ss. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee: O/aa. iiniaea. I., 2003.

4. Ia?iaiy O.I. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee a aii?inao e ioaaoao: O/aa. iiniaea.
?inoia i/ Ae.: 1999.

5. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee e yeiiiie/aneeo o/aiee. O/aa. iiniaea. ?inoia i/
Ae.: 2000.

6. Eoeeeia A.E. Enoi?ey yeiiiieee a aii?inao e ioaaoao: O/aa. iiniaea.
I.: OE Aaeae, 2005.

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