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Сталинградский фронт

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Aiaeu Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu ia caaoaeoony ieeiaaea.

*ai aeaeaa, oai ana aeeaae e aaee/anoaaiiae ?acaa?ioou iie a iaoae
iaiyoe, e ia ?ac na?aeoea iaoa caoi/ao aiiaue ia?aaeeoue nayuaiiue,
oyaeeee e aa?ie/aneee yiin aeiae, eiaaea ana a iaoae aeecie auei
aeanoieie aieiie, eiaaea e ai nia iai nieeenue aie e n?aaeaiey, e
aoaeouay iiaaaea iac?eii iaeaieeaaeanue a iaoeo iuooeao, iao?oaeaiiuo
oeoaie/aneei o?oaeii.

I. Iaaeaiei.

A ethea 1942 aiaea, eiaaea oaea?iay a?oiie?iaea a?aaa i?i?aaeanue a
aieueooth eceo/eio Aeiia, ia/aeanue aaee/aeoay aeoaa aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu. Ianeieueei ianyoeaa a iaoe?iii ?aeiia, aaea Aeii ii/oe aieioioth
i?eaeeaeaaony e Aieaa, aooaaaei ieaiy iai?a?uaiuo iaeanoi/aiiuo
n?aaeaiee. Iaiaoeei-oaoenoneea aaia?aeu ia aeaeaee ie/aai aeey oiai,
/oiau aueoe e aa?aaai Aieae e cae?aieoueny oai.

Aua a aaaonoa 1942 a. aiaee/aia iieaaaee, /oi aienea Aeoea?a iiaoo
i?aiaeieaoue Eaaeac e iiaanoe aieueoia ianooieaiea ia N?aaeiee Ainoie.
Iie n/eoaee iaioeaa e eoaeueyioeaa niiniaiuie i?iaeaeiooueny a Ao?eea
naieie oaieaie /a?ac Iee e Noyoeeee eaiae a Iaeanoeio, aoi?aiooueny a
Ne?eth n Aeiaeaeaiana e E?eoa, a ia Ainoi/iii o?iioa—aueoe /a?ac Eaaeac
a E?ai. Iianaiea aiaee/ai nouanoaaiii oneeeaaeinue ianoie/eauie
o?aaiaaieyie Iineau ia ioe?uoee aoi?iai o?iioa. ?onneea, ianiiiaiii,
i?aaenoaaeyee niauoey ia ?onnei-aa?iaineii o?iioa a neeoeii i?a/iii
naaoa, enoiaey i?e yoii ia ec aeaenoaeoaeueii io/ayiiiai iieiaeaiey, a
ec no?aieaiey iaeaa/eoue E?aniie A?iee aaaeaiea aieiu.

Aeoea? n/eoae, /oi a aaaonoa ii iaian ?onneei nie?ooeoaeueiua oaea?u.
Iiae aia/aoeaieai auno?uo oniaoia a ethea ii ii-i?aaeiaio i?aneaaeiaae
aeaieioth oeaeue – caoaao Noaeeia?aaea e Eaaeaca. A eiioea aaaonoa a
noaaea Aeoea?a iiaeii auei neuoaoue i oii, /oi iiaaaea iaae Niaaoneei
Nithcii aeey iaai noaea aoi?inoaiaiiui aeaeii, eioi?iio ii oaea ii/oe ia
oaeaeyao aieiaiey, e /oi nae/an aai aieueoa anaai eioa?anotho oe?ieea
ieaiu caoaaoa N?aaeiaai Ainoiea, Iaeiaei aei iicaeiae inaie ie iaeii ec
iaycaoaeueiuo oneiaee aeey inouanoaeaiey yoeo ieaiia ia auei nicaeaii.

Oaea e na?aaeeia ethey niaaoneiio eiiaiaeiaaieth noaei ynii, /oi
i?ioeaiee no?aieony i?i?aaoueny e Aieaa a ?aeiia Noaeeia?aaea,
caoaaoeoue yoio aaaeiue no?aoaae/aneee ioieo e e?oiiaeoee i?iiuoeaiiue
?aeii. Aeaaii eiiioe ieai Aeoea?a iieieaiinii caoaaoeoue Niaaoneee
Nithc. Oaoenou ia?aaeeee no?aoioth ceio. Ii e eaoo, iieuecoynue
ionoonoaeai aoi?iai o?iioa , iie niiaee ia?aa?ineoue n Caiaaea ia
Ainoie aeiiieieoaeueii nauoa 50 aeeaecee, iiaeeeciaaoue neeu nithcieeia
e ana ?aca?au e nicaeaoue ia THai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee cia/eoaeueiue
ia?aaan nee. Aeoea? e aai aaia?aeu aeaeaee ?aoathuoth noaaeo ia yoi
eaoiaa ianooieaiea, iieaaay, /oi oaia?ue iie iaycaoaeueii aeiauethony
ioaeiiai ia?aeiia aieiu.

Ia?aae thaeiie a?oiiie iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo a?iee auea iinoaaeaia caaea/a
– ai /oi au oi ie noaei aueoe e Aieaa e caoaaoeoue Noaeeia?aae. Caoaao
Noaeeia?aaea aeey oaoenoia eiae aieueoia cia/aiea, ii oa?iaeae n oeaiaa
aeoea?ianeei a?ieyi, ianooiathuei ia Eaaeac. A ethea, i?i?aaa iai?iio
iaoaai thai-caiaaeiiai o?iioa, oaoenoneea aienea auoee e eceo/eia Aeiia.
Nicaeaeanue oyae?eay ianoaiiaea. Noaeeia?aaeneia iai?aaeaiea auei neaai
i?ee?uoi. An? ?aoaei a?aiy. No?aieoaeueiue ?uaie oaoenoneeo a?iee e
ai?iae noaiao eo aeiau/ae. Ii niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea n?i/ii auaeaeeei
aeaa ?aca?aiua a?iee. Iaaeaeo Aeiiii e Aieaie aue nicaeai
iai?iieoaeueiue ?oaaae – aiciee Noaeeia?aaeneee o?iio.

Noaeei ni ceiaiie ?aaeinoueth neaaeee ca ianooieaieai iaiaoeeeo aiene ia
Noaeeia?aae e Eaaeac. Ii ?anoiaeiaae naie ?aca?au i/aiue yeiiiiii e
oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea auei aeaenoaeoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii iiii/ue
iai?iiythueiny a eo e?aeia oyaeaeii iieiaeaiee. Aiiaue noi?ie?iaaiiua, a
oaeaea ioaeioioaoea e iiiieiaiiua aeeaecee iiea ia aaiaeeeenue a aie:
iie i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey oiai, /oiau eae ea?athuei ia/ii Iaiaceaeu
?ac?oaeoue neeoeii ?anoyiooue o?iio iaiaoeeeo a?iee e eo nithcieeia e
iaeiei oaea?ii aianoe ei?aiiie ia?aeii a iieiaeaiea ia thaa. Noaeei niia
inianoeoue naie iiaua a?iee ai?acaei eo/oa, /ai iniauaeenue aei oiai
a?aiaie ?onneea aienea. Aiiaue nicaeaiiay ii oo noi?iio O?aea eee
ia?aaace?iaaiiay ooaea aiaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?aaioaea oaia?ue ia
iieioth iiuiinoue e iicaieyea iaania/eoue a?ieth aeinoaoi/iui
eiee/anoaii a?oeeea?ee, oaieia e aiai?eiania. Aia?eeaineay iiiiuue
Niaaoneiio Nithco ii eaiae-eeco oaeaea cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeanue. Aei
ieoya?y 1942 a. aia?eeaioeu i?eneaee 85 oun. a?ociauo aaoiiaoei, /oi
caiaoii iiauneei iia?aoeaioth iiaeaeaeiinoue niaaeeiaiee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ianooieaiey. Iinoaaee naiieaoia e oaieia
iai?a?uaii aic?anoaee, a ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iaoae e iaioiaee?iaaiey
iiiiaei i?aiaeieaoue iniaaiii oceia ianoi ?onneiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

A nai ai?iae n?aco i?aa?aoeeny a aiaiiue eaaa?ue. Auei naeaeaii an?,
/oiau auaanoe ec iaai eae iiaeii aieueoa aeaiuei, aeaoae, noa?eeia.
Aaeaaeiaaii 180 oun. noaeeia?aaeoeaa auoiaeeee no?ieoue iai?iieoaeueiua
?oaaaee ia aeaeueieo e aeeaeieo iiaenooiao e ai?iaeo. Iyoueaeanyo ouny/
noaeeia?aaeoeaa acyee a ?oee aeioiaee.

Anth aoi?oth iieiaeio ethey e aaaono ia Noaeeia?aaeneii iai?aaeaiee oee
iaeanoi/?iiua, e?iaii?ieeoiua aie. E enoiaeo 23 aaaonoa oaoenoai oeaiie
ia?iiiuo iioa?ue oaeaeinue i?i?aaoueny e Aieaa, naaa?iaa Noaeeia?aaea.
Aieia ca aieiie oee ia Noaeeia?aae “THIEA?NU” e “OAIEAEE”, n aa?aa?neie
aaniiuaaeiinoueth, na?anuaay ia aeeeua eaa?oaeu ai?iaea nioie oiii aiia.
?ooeeenue caeaiey, e iaio acaeuiaeenue a?iiaaeiua iaiaiiua noieau,
ai?iae aanue ieooaeny aeuiii – ca?aai ai?yuaai Noaeeia?aaea auei aeaeii
ca aeanyoee eeeiiao?ia.

N yoiai aeiy oaoenou noaee nenoaiaoe/anee aiiaeoue ai?iae. A ia caiea
iai?a?uaii e iaeanoi/?iii aoaeiaaee aeoea?ianeea oaiee e iaoioa, ia
oiieeaea a?oeeea?ey. Iaae ai?iaeii iaaenea nia?oaeueiay iianiinoue.
I?inoi aeeoue a oaeii ai?iaea iaeuecy auei, ii aeeoue e ai?ioueny,
aeeoue, /oiau iiaaaeeoue – ioaeii auei. E noaeeia?aaeoeu aeieacaee yoi.
Au? 75 ouny/ aeia?iaieueoeaa ooei ia ia?aaeiee e?ae, /oiau n aa?ie/aneei
oii?noaii ionoaeaaoue eaaeaeue iao? ?iaeiie caiee. A a naiii ai?iaea ana
?aaioaee, ia ciay ioaeuoa, iiae aiiaaie e nia?yaeaie aei?i e ii/ueth.
Iai?a?uaii ?aiiioe?iaaeenue i?oaeey, oaiee, ieiii?ou.

A na?aaeeia naioya?y a?aa i?i?aaeny e Aieaa a oeaio?a ai?iaea e ii
aa?aaai ?aee Oea?eoeu. Aie oee oaea ia oeeoeao. Aeoea?iaoeu an?
oneeeaaee iaoene. A ooo?ia Noaeeia?aaea o/anoaiaaei ii/oe 500 oaieia,
a?aaeaneay aaeaoeey na?ineea ia ai?iae ii/oe ieeeeii aiia.

Iai?aaeaiey oaea?ia ?onneeo ii?aaeaeyeenue naiei ia/a?oaieai eeiee
o?iioa: eaaue oeaia iaiaoeeie a?oiie?iaee oyioeny ii/oe ia 300 ei io
Noaeeia?aaea aei eceo/eiu Aeiia a ?aeiia Iiaie Eaeeoau, a ei?ioeee
i?aaue oeaia, aaea ?aniieaaaeenue iniaaiii neaaua neeu, ia/eiaeny o
Noaeeia?aaea e oa?yeny a Eaeiuoeeie noaie. A oiaea ia?aiai yoaia
ianooieaiey, ia eioi?ii aaiaeeeanue eeoue /anoue nee, iaoiaeyueony a
aiaaie aioiaiinoe, ?onneea aienea aeieaeiu auee auiieieoue neaaeothuoth
oceoth, ii aaaeioth caaea/o: inaiaiaeeoue Noaeeia?aae e ie?oaeeoue 6-th
a?ieth. Oeaee iineaaeothueo yoaiia auee ai?acaei oe?a.

O?iio ia Aeiio io iiceoeee 6-e a?iee iaaeaeo Aieaie e Aeiiii aei ?aeiia
thaeiaa Ai?iiaaea oaea?aeeaaee a?iee o?ao nithcieeia. Ni?aaa
?aniieaaaeanue 3-y ?oiuineay a?iey; ie ae, ie iaiaoeeei niaaeeiaieyi,
noiyaoei eaoii ia Aeiio, ia oaeaeinue eeeaeaee?iaaoue iiuiue ieaoeaea?i
?onneeo thaeiaa E?aiaineie. Caiaaeiaa Aaoaineie e ?oiuiai i?eiueaea 8-y
eoaeueyineay a?iey a ninoaaa oanoe iaoioiuo, iaeiie iioi?eciaaiiie
aeeaecee e o?ao aeeaecee aeueieeneeo ai?iuo no?aeeia. Aa aeueieeneee
ei?ion iaoiaeeeny a eceo/eia Aeiia a ?aeiia Iiaie Eaeeoau.
Naaa?i-ainoi/iaa ?innioe ia/eiaeny i?aaue oeaia 2-e aaiaa?neie a?iee,
eiaaoae aeanyoue aeeaecee.

Eiiaiaeiaaiea a?oiiu a?iee «A», eioi?iio iiae/eiyeenue yoe a?iee, oaea
aeaaii ia niiiaaaeinue a oii, /oi aienea nithcieeia Aa?iaiee iiaoo aua
eae-oi oaea?aeeaaoue 400-eeeiiao?iaue o?iio, iiea ?onneea
ia?aie/eaathony ioaeaeueiuie aoaeaie, ii /oi ia?aae e?oiiui ianooieaieai
?onneeo ei ia onoiyoue. Iii iaiaeiie?aoii e ianoie/eai auneacuaaei yoi
iianaiea. Aeeaecee nithcieeia auee iniauaiu neaaaa iaiaoeeeo, iniaaiii
ei iaaeinoaaaei i?ioeaioaieiaiai i?oaeey. Eo a?oeeea?ey ia eiaea
nia?aiaiiuo oyaeaeuo nenoai, eae iaiaoeeay eee ?onneay, a iaaeinoaoi/iia
eiee/anoai n?aaenoa nayce e ieioay iiaeaioiaea ia iicaieyee ei
inouanoaeyoue aiacaiiia ianne?iaaiea iaiy, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai iaiaoeeay
a?oeeea?ey /anoi inoaiaaeeaaea e?oiiua aoaee ?onneeo aua ia enoiaeiuo
iiceoeeyo eee aei iiaeoiaea e ia?aaeiaio e?ath. E?iia oiai,
ianne?iaaiiue a?oeeea?eeneee iaiiue ia ?ac iiiiaae iaiaoeeie iaoioa
auoiaeeoue iiaaaeeoaeueieoeae a o?oaeiuo iiiaiaeiaaiuo aiyo n
i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie i?ioeaieea. ?oiuiu, eoaeueyioeu e aaia?u aaee aie
aeaaiui ia?acii aeeaie neeie, e a ai?ueaa i?ioea ?onneeo eo ethaeneea
?ano?nu auno?i oayee. Iie ia?aaeei aiaaaee naiiioaa?aeaiii, ii aaeaeo
iaaeinoaoea a oaoieea, iaaieueoiai aiaaiai iiuoa e iaaunieie aiaaie
auo/ee onooiaee a oaeoeea ?onneei, eioi?ua oiaee uaaeeoue nianoaaiiua
neeu. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa a ia?aue aea aeaiue ianooieaiey i?ioeaieea
?aca?au ennyeaee, iioiio /oi ?onneei anaaaea oaeaaaeinue n?aco
aeeeieoueny a iai?iio, e eiiaiaeiaaiea, inoaaoenue n ionouie ?oeaie,
oaea ia iiaei aeeyoue ia aeaeueiaeoee oiae ai?ueau. Iaiiiai/eneaiiua
iaiaoeeea ?aca?au, ?aniieaaaaoeany iicaaee ?oiuineeo, eoaeueyineeo e
aaiaa?neeo aiene, auee aieueoae /anoueth iooyioou e Noaeeia?aaeo. Iaeia
eeoue iaiaaeaaeiinoue yoiai o?iioa nithcieeia, iinea oiai eae oeaee
iaiaoeeiai ianooieaiey, ii-aeaeeiiio, oaea ia iiaee auoue aeinoeaioou,
aeieaeia auea au i?eaanoe e nie?auaieth eeiee o?iioa e ioeaco io Eaaeaca
e Aieae. Iineieueeo oaeia ?aoaiea auei iai?eaieaiui aeey Aeoea?a,
aaeeinoaaiiie, oioy e neaaie ia?ie inoaaaeinue cia/eoaeueiaa oneeaiea
iai?iiu nithcieeia iaiaoeeeie i?ioeaioaieiauie /anoyie e 88-ii caieoiuie
iooeaie (iie eniieueciaaeenue aeey no?aeueau ii iacaiiui oeaeyi); ii e
yoi ia iiaei nianoe eieaaethueeny o?iio.

Ca aiae aieiu oaoenou oaea oi?ioi ociaee ioaeanoai niaaoneeo ethaeae. Ii
oi, n /ai iie noieeioeenue a Noaeeia?aaea, auei aani?eia?iui. Iaiaei
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai caaiaaaee oaoenou. Eiiaaea ei aeinoaoi/ii auei 2-3
iaaeaee, /oiau caoaaoeoue anth no?aio. Caeanue aea o?aaiaaeenue ianyoeu,
/oiau ia?ana/ue iaeio oeeoeo, iaaeaee, /oiau acyoue iaeei aeii. Aie
i?iaeieaeaeenue ca eaaeaeue yoaae, ca eaaeaeoth eiiiaoo. AEa?eea
?oeiiaoiua noaaoee aniuoeaaee ia eanoieoeao, ia /a?aeaeao, a iiaeaaeao.
Aeiia, oi/iaa ?acaaeeiu aeiiia, ia ?ac ia?aoiaeeee ec ?oe a ?oee.

A iai?a?uaiuo aiyo i?io?e naioya?ue, ieoya?ue, iieiaeia iiya?y.
Icaa?aaoea aeoea?iaoeu an? au? iaaeayeenue e ceia acyoue Noaeeia?aae.
Iie e ia iiaeic?aaaee, /oi a yoi a?aiy Niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea oaea
?ac?aaioaei ieai ?aca?iia oaoenoneeo aiene iiae Noaeeia?aaeii.

Eiio?ianooieaiea niaaoneeo aiene iiae Noaeeia?aaeii

Aaia?ae Aaneeaaneee i?aaei?eiye oaea?u ii noiaeyueiny iai?aaeaieyi n
caiaaea e thaa n oeaeueth ie?oaeeoue 6-th a?ieth, 19 iiya?y ?onneea
aienea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai ?ieinnianeiai (o?e oaieiauo e aeaa
eaaaea?eeneeo ei?iona, ca eioi?uie noiyee a aiaaie aioiaiinoe
aeaaaeoeaoue iaeia no?aeeiaay aeeaecey) aiacaiii ia/aee ianooieaiea n
ieaoeaea?ia a ?aeiia E?aiaineie e n?aco aea i?i?aaee iai?iio ?oiuineeo
aiene ia o?iioa 30 ei. Oaieiaue ei?ion, caieiaaoee enoiaeiua iiceoeee ca
3-e ?oiuineie a?ieae, a?ineeny iaano?a/o i?i?aaaoeiny ?onneei, ii ii aue
iaaeinoaoi/ii neeueiui, /oiau ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieoue iieiaeaiea.
Iniaaiii yia?ae/iue e iniio?eoaeueiue eiiaiaee? ei?iona noae eiceii
ioiouaiey; ii aue iono?aiai io aeieaeiinoe yeiau ca iaaeinoaoi/ioth
?aoeoaeueiinoue, i?eaea/ai e noaeaaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e ai a?aiy
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey ianeieueei ianyoeaa iaoiaeeeny iiae
a?anoii a iaaeinoieiuo oneiaeyo.

Acaeiiaeaenoaoy n ianooiathueie /a?ac Aeii ?onneeie aieneaie, aeaa
oaieiauo ei?iona e aeaayoue no?aeeiauo aeeaecee iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
aaia?aea A?aiaiei oiaea ia?aoee a ianooieaiea e i?i?aaee iai?iio 4-e
?oiuineie a?iee thaeiaa Noaeeia?aaea. Oioy ?onneea i?aaei?eiyee oaea? e
naaa?iaa Noaeeia?aaea iaaeaeo Aieaie e Aeiiii neeaie aeaaaeoeaoe
no?aeeiauo aeeaecee, oanoe oaieiauo e aeaoo iioi?eciaaiiuo a?eaaae, 6-y
a?iey, eioi?ie oa?iaeaei ie?oaeaiea, a?ineea n?aco ana naie ?aca?au
i?ioea aioo?aiieo e?ueueaa ?onneeo, i?i?aaaoeo o?iio aa ninaaeae.
Iaeiaei ana auei aaniieacii. 22- iiya?y eeaue niieioeenue, e 6-y a?iey
iieiinoueth ieacaeanue a ie?oaeaiee.

Ianiio?y ia iieo/aiiue 20 iiya?y i?eeac, eioi?ue canoaaeye yoo a?ieth
oaea?aeeaaoue Noaeeia?aae e iaeeaeaoue iiiiue ecaia, iia naeaeaea ana
i?eaioiaeaiey aeey i?i?uaa eieueoea ie?oaeaiey a thai-caiaaeiii
iai?aaeaiee. Ie Iaoethn, ie aai eiiaiaee?u ei?ionia ia aa?eee a
naiaa?aiaiioth iiiiuue. I?i?ua i?aaeiieaaaeinue i?aaei?eiyoue 25 iiya?y
iinea ia?aa?oiie?iaee. iaiaoiaeeiie aeey nin?aaeioi/aiey e?oiiuo nee ia
thai-caiaaea. A ii/ue n.23 ia 24 iiya?y Iaoethn iineae Aeoea?o n?i/ioth
?aaeeia?aiio, a eioi?ie o?aaiaae ?ac?aoaiey ia i?i?ua, oeacuaay, /oi 6-y
a?iey neeoeii neaaa, e ia a ninoiyiee aeieai oaea?aeeaaoue o?iio,
oaaee/eaoeeny a ?acoeueoaoa ie?oaeaiey aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca; e?iia
oiai, ca iineaaeiea aeaa aeiy iia iiianea i/aiue oyaeaeua iioa?e.
Ia/aeueiee aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa nooiiooiuo nee oaeaea n naiiai ia/aea aue
oaaaeaeai a oii, /oi iauay ianoaiiaea ia iicaieyao aeaaeiee?iaaoue
ie?oaeaiioth a?ieth, e iaiaeiie?aoii ianoie/eai o?aaiaae ?ac?aoaiey ia
i?i?ua.

Aeoea? aia/aea eieaaaeny. A?aoiaiou Oeaeooeea?a i?iecaaee ia iaai
aia/aoeaiea. Iaaeaeo oai ii i?eeacae aeaoue aio naaaeaiey i iio?aaiinoyo
a?iee a neo/aa niaaaeaiey aa ii aicaeooo. A?iey o?aaiaaea 750 o a
aeaiue, yenia?ou aiaiii-aicaeooiuo nee ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi aaeaoeey
niiaeao aeinoaaeoue oieueei iieiaeio yoiai eiee/anoaa, anee o?iio aoaeao
aea?aeaoueny aieioioth e Noaeeia?aaeo. Aa?eia iinooiee ii iaiueoae ia?a
aeiaieueii eaaeiiuneaiii, eiaaea ia iineaaeiai niaauaiee oo?ii 24 iiya?y
iiiaauae iaania/eoue aeinoaaeo 500 o a?ocia aaeaaeiaaii. Iinea yoiai
aeey Aeoea?a aii?in aue ?aoai, ianiio?y ia ?aceea aic?aaeaiey
Oeaeooeea?a, eioi?ue neeueii niiiaaaeny a ?aaeueiinoe iaauaiey Aa?eiaa,
6-e a?iee auei i?eeacaii inoaaaoueny ia ianoa, e Aeoea? caaa?ee, /oi «ii
naeaeaao ana, /oiau niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii iaania/eoue aa niaaaeaiea e
naiaa?aiaiii inaiaiaeeoue ec ie?oaeaiey».

Yoio i?eeac aua iiaeii auei au ii?aaaeaoue, anee au iauay ianoaiiaea
aeaaaea oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie
oaeanony nia?aoue iaiaoiaeeiua aeey eiio?ianooieaiey neeu. Niiniaiinoue
6-e a?iee e iaiaa?o auea aanueia ia?aie/aiiie, aieueoay /anoue aa
eiineiai ninoaaa inoaeanue ia ioaeaeaiiuo ceiieo ianoaeuao. I?i?ua
o?iioa ie?oaeaiey, oaea?aeeaaaiiai cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie
i?ioeaieea, ii/oe ia neiaaiiuie aeaenoaeyie i?ioea ninaaeieo ?acaeouo
a?iee, aeieaeai aue i?eaanoe e i/aiue oyaeaeui iioa?yi a ethaeyo e
oaoieea, ii anee ia auei oaa?aiiinoe a naiaa?aiaiiii inaiaiaeaeaiee ec
ie?oaeaiey, a aa aeaenoaeoaeueii ia auei, oae eae eiiaiaeiaaiea ia
?aniieaaaei a aeaiiia a?aiy ieeaeeie cia/eoaeueiuie ?aca?aaie – oi
aaeeinoaaiiui auoiaeii ec nicaeaaoaainy io/ayiiiai iieiaeaiey iia auoue
oieueei iaiaaeeaiiue i?i?ua. Eaaeaeue oiouaiiue aeaiue, aeaaea eaaeaeue
/an icia/ae iaiii?aaeioth iioa?th. A iaaeaaeaea ia oi, /oi iaauaiiia
niaaaeaiea n aicaeooa aoaeao aeinoaoi/iui e /oi a?iey anei?a aoaeao
aeaaeiee?iaaia, Iaoethn iiae/eieeny i?eeaco, oioy eiiaiaee?u ei?ionia
?acei ianoaeaaee ia iaiaaeeaiiii i?i?uaa aeaaea aac niaeaney Aeoea?a.

Eiaaea noaei iaia/aoueny ie?oaeaiea, oi aeey iai?iiu a?iee n ouea ia tha
e caiaae auee a?ioaiu ana /anoe e iiae?acaeaeaiey oueiauo neoaea;
aiineaaenoaee eiiaiaeiaaiea a?iee i?iecaaei ia?aa?oiie?iaeo aioo?e eioea
e caiaieei eo aiaauie /anoyie. Iinea oiai eae eieueoei aie?oa a?iee
caieioeinue, ie?oaeaiiua aienea ieacaeenue a ?aeiia, eioi?ue n ainoiea
ia caiaae eiae 40 ei, a n naaa?a ia tha—20 ei. Ii aue aeiaieueii
aieueoei e iia iaania/eoue aeinoaoi/ioth naiaiaeo iaiaa?a a iai?iia, a
oaeaea iicaieye aani?aiyonoaaiii iieueciaaoueny ?aniieiaeaiiui a oeaio?a
eioea ay?iae?iiii Ieoiiiee.

Eiaaea ?onneea ociaee, /oi 6-y a?iey ia niae?aaony iooiaeeoue io
Noaeeia?aaea, iie naeaeaee ana aeey oiai, /oiau eae iiaeii nei?aa e
aieueoa ?anoe?eoue a?aoe thai-caiaaeiaa e thaeiaa Noaeeia?aaea e ia
aeiionoeoue nicaeaiey iiaiai o?iioa aaeece ie?oaeaiiie a?iee. Ii
ana-oaee oaeaeinue noyiooue neaaua ?aca?au, eniieueciaaoue ee/iue ninoaa
oueiauo neoaea e iauaaeeieoue ?ac?iciaiiua /anoe iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
iniaaiii yia?ae/iuo ioeoea?ia. Yoe e ?yae ae?oaeo ia? iicaieeee
nicaeaoue a eceo/eia Aeiia iaaeaeo onoueai ?aee *e? e ?aeiiii Aaoaineie,
oi anoue a iniiaiii aaeieue ?aee *e?, iai?i/ioth iai?iio, eioi?ay,
iaeiaei, aeaea aiciiaeiinoue caaea?aeaoue aei oao ii? aani?aiyonoaaiii
i?iaeaeaaaoaainy i?ioeaieea. Naaa?iaa onouey *e?a iaiaoeeea aienea
noiaee aeaaea oaea?aeaoue iaaieueoie ieaoeaea?i ia ainoi/iii aa?aao
Aeiia. A oi a?aiy eae ia ?aea *e? ?onneeo oaeaeinue inoaiiaeoue
n?aaieoaeueii aeecei io Noaeeia?aaea, ainoi/iaa Aeiia iie oaea
i?iaeaeioeenue a thaeiii iai?aaeaiee aieueoa /ai ia 100 ei. E ana aea
ie?oaeaiiua aienea iiaeii auei inaiaiaeeoue oieueei oaea?ii n thaa
ainoi/iaa Aeiia, iioiio /oi eia/a i?eoeinue au oi?ne?iaaoue Aeii, a yoi
yaeyeinue ii/oe iainouanoaeiie caaea/ae. Iiaeaioiaea oaeiai ianooieaiey
e iaeiia?aiaiii eiiaiaeiaaiea aieneaie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie io Yeenou aei
i?aaiai oeaiaa eoaeueyineie a?iee ia Aeiio, auea aiceiaeaia 27 iiya?y ia
oaeueaeia?oaea oii Iaiooaeia. Iiae/eiaiiua aio neeu auee iauaaeeiaiu a
a?oiio a?iee «Aeii». Ia thaa iaoiaeeeinue i/aiue neaaia i?ee?uoea ec
inoaoeia 4-e ?oiuineie a?iee e ianeieueeeo ianiao nicaeaiiuo iaiaoeeeo
aiaauo a?oii, caieiaaoeo iiceoeee io ?aeiia naaa?iaa Yeenou aei ?aeiia
naaa?iaa Eioaeueieeiai. N Eaaeaca iiaeoiaeeee ia?aua iiaee?aieaiey aeey
aiene Iaiooaeia. I?ioeaiee a ?aeiia ainoi/iaa Aeiia eacaeny ia i/aiue
neeueiui, aai iniiaiua neeu noiyee ia?aae thaeiui o/anoeii o?iioa
ie?oaeaiiie iiae Noaeeia?aaeii a?oiie?iaee. Iai?iia ia ?aea *e? auea
iiea aua neaaie, ii ana aea inoaiiaeea ianooieaiea ?onneeo. Ec nee,
i?eauaoeo n Eaaeaca, ec-iiae Ai?iiaaea e I?ea, Iaiooaei nia?ae a ?aeiia
Eioaeueieeiai oaea?ioth a?oiie?iaeo iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea Aioa.
Yoa a?oiie?iaea, a eioi?oth aoiaeeee /aou?a oaieiaua, iaeia iaoioiay e
o?e aaeaiieaaua aeeaecee, ia/aea 10 aeaeaa?y n iaoa?iaieai iaeeaeaaiia
6-e a?ieae ianooieaiea ii iaa noi?iiu aeaeaciie aei?iae
Naeuene—Noaeeia?aae. Oai a?aiaiai noaei ynii, /oi aaeaoeey aeaaea
i?eaeeceoaeueii ia iiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue ieieiaeueioth nooi/ioth
iio?aaiinoue ie?oaeaiiuo aiene a ?acee/iuo aeaeao niaaaeaiey,
ninoaaeyaooth ieiei 500 o. Oae eae naiieaoia TH-52 ia oaaoaei, i?eoeinue
iinueaoue aiiaa?aee?iaueee Oa- 111, eioi?ua aeinoaaeyee oieueei 1,2 o
iieaciiai a?oca e iiaee eniieueciaaoueny eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iie
n?i/ii ia o?aaiaaeenue aeey aaaeaiey aiaauo aeaenoaee. A n?aaeiai
aaeaoeey a nooee aeinoaaeyea ia aieaa 100 o a?ocia, /oi iie?uaaei
iio?aaiinoe 6-e a?iee anaai ia iaeio iyooth /anoue. Oaeia iieiaeaiea,
oioy aeiaaioth ii?io auaea/e oeaaa e i?eoeinue o?acaoue aei 200 a, aua
iiaeii auei oa?iaoue, iiea o ie?oaeaiiuo aiene auee nianoaaiiua caianu
i?iaeiaieuenoaey, e /oi aua aaaeiaa, iiea iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue iaaeaaeaea
ia nianaiea. N auno?ioie iieiee anth 6-th a?ieth iaeaoaea aanoue i
ianooieaiee a?oiie?iaee Aioa e aucaaea anaiauee iiaeuai. I?iaiaeeeenue
ana i?eaioiaeaiey e oaea?o n oeaeueth i?i?aaoue ecioo?e eieueoei
ie?oaeaiey ?onneeo, eiaaea inaiaiaeeoaee i?eaeecyony e iaio ia 30 ei.

Oaea?iay a?oiie?iaea Aioa aia/aea ianooiaea aeiaieueii oaea/ii. Ai?y
aeaeaieai, ai /oi au oi ie noaei inaiaiaeeoue ec ie?oaeaiey oiaa?euae,
iia i?iaeaaeanue e iei n oaeei oii?noaii e iaeanoi/aieai, /oi 21
aeaeaa?y aa ia?aaeiaua /anoe i?eaeeceeenue ia 50 ei e aiaoiaio o?iioo
ie?oaeaiey. 6-y a?iey oaea auea aioiaa aunooieoue iaano?a/o aieneai
Aioa. Ii caoai iiaia ?onneia ianooieaiea iieiaeeei eiiaoe i?iaeaeaeaieth
eioaeueieeianeie a?oiie?iaee. Eiiaiaeiaaiea a?oiiu a?iee «Aeii» e
Oeaeooeea? niiaa noaee ianoaeaaoue ia?aae Aeoea?ii ia i?i?uaa 6-e a?iee.
Aeaei aeioei aei na?ueaciiai ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo Aeoea?ii e
Oeaeooeea?ii, iaeiaei Aeoea? ana-oaee ia ioaeae ioaeiiai i?eeaca.
Aaia?ae-iieeiaiee Iaoethn ia ?aoaeny aeaoue i?eeac ia i?i?ua aii?aee
aee?aeoeaa Aeoea?a, i?aaeienuaathuae «inoaaaoueny ia ianoa». Ii
niiiaaaeny aiiaua a aiciiaeiinoe ?aci?aaoue eieueoei ie?oaeaiey e nianoe
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue a?iee, iioiio /oi ?annoiyiea, eioi?ia neaaeiaaei
i?aiaeieaoue, auei aeiaieueii aieueoei. Iineieueeo Iaoethn ia eiae
naaaeaiee ia iauae ianoaiiaea, ii ia ciae oiai, /oi oaia?ue aio
i?aaeinoaaeyeanue iineaaeiyy aiciiaeiinoue nio?aieoue oioy au eaeoth-oi
/anoue a?iee io aeaaee. Ii naiae iaoo?a ii ia iia ia?ooeoue i?eeaca, e a
yoii aai iiaeaea?aeeaae oaeaea ia/aeueiee ooaaa. Eae auynieeinue iicaea,
anee au a oio iiiaio i?iyaeee aeieaeioth ?aoeoaeueiinoue, iniiaiay ianna
a?iee, aac anyeiai niiiaiey, aua iiaea au auoue nianaia—aienea naeaeaee
au iaaiciiaeiia, ianiio?y ia ineaaeaiiia oece/aneia ninoiyiea ethaeae. E
?onneea eiiaiaee?u ieacaeenue au aaniiiiuiuie, eae ieeiaaea, ia?aae
oaeie aiacaiiie aoaeie aioiauo ia ana e yia?ae/ii ?oeiaiaeeiuo iaiaoeeeo
nieaeao. A aeieacaoaeuenoai iiaeii i?eaanoe oio oaeo, /oi aoeaaeueii
/a?ac ianeieueei iaaeaeue, a na?aaeeia ceiu, 4 oun. iaioeaa e 12 oun.
oaea/aiiuo eie eoaeueyioeaa auoee ec ie?oaeaiey a ?aeiia naaa?iaa
Ieeea?iai. Aienea aeaeaaeenue ca naiioiaeiuie onoaiiaeaie,
i?ieeaaeuaathueie iooue a aeoaieii niaao; ca iaeio ii/ue iie i?aiaeieaee
20 ei. eioi?ua ioaeaeyee eo io aeaaiuo nee, e iioa?yee anaai 10% ee/iiai
ninoaaa. E?oiiua neeu aaeaoeee n ianooieaieai aeiy iiaeaaeee aienea
i?ioeaieea, oaea?aeeaaaoea aiaoiee o?iio ie?oaeaiey, e iniaaiii ?onneoth
a?oeeea?eth; yoiai ieacaeinue aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau i?i?uaaaoayny eieiiia
iiaea i?aiaeieaoue iineaaeithth, naioth o?oaeioth /anoue iooe.

Anee eiiaiaeothuee 6-e a?ieae ia ciae iauae ianoaiiaee, oi aeey aunoaai
eiiaiaeiaaiey iia auea niaa?oaiii ynia. Aua ai a?aiy iaiaoeeiai
ianooieaiey n oeaeueth aeaaeiee?iaaoue ie?oaeaiiua iiae Noaeeia?aaeii
aienea ?onneea i?aaei?eiyee neeueiua eiio?aoaee i?ioea ainoi/iiai oeaiaa
a?oiie?iaee Aioa, io?aaeaiea eioi?uo neeueii ineaaeei oaea?ioth neeo
yoie a?oiie?iaee, Iaeiaei ?aoathuae i?e/eiie, eioi?ay canoaaeea
i?ae?aoeoue aeaeueiaeoaa i?iaeaeaeaiea, aue iiaue oaea? ?onneeo 16
aeaeaa?y ia Aeiio e i?aaei?eiyoia iaeiia?aiaiii n iei ianooieaiea ia
neaaua iiceoeee o ?aee *e?. Ianooiaaoea /a?ac Aeii ?onneea aienea anae
neeie naiaai oaea?a ia?ooeeenue ia 8-th eoaeueyineoth a?ieth, eioi?oth
iinoeaea oa aea o/anoue, /oi e ?oiui o?aiy iaaeaeyie ?aiueoa. *a?ac aeaa
aeiy aanue o?iio eoaeueyineie a?iee, eioi?ue oaea?aeeaaee naiue
eoaeueyineeo e iaeia iaiaoeeay aeeaecey, aue i?i?aai aei naiie Iiaie
Eaeeoau. Ia/aeinue aacinoaiiai/iia ionooieaiea. ?onneea oaiee a
ianeieueeeo ianoao aeeeieeenue a iai?iio 8-e a?iee, oae /oi
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea aieneaie auei iioa?yii. ?aca?au auee
ec?anoiaeiaaiu a ia?aue aea aeaiue. Nicaeaoue eii?iaece?iaaiioth iai?iio
ia iiaii ?oaaaea, eniieueciaaa aeey yoie oeaee aanue ninoaa oueiauo
neoaea, /oiau caaea?aeaoue ionoaaoea e ?annayiiua i?ioeaieeii /anoe,
eioi?ua iooiaeeee a thaeiii iai?aaeaiee, eoaeueyioeu i?e eo acaeyaeao e
aiaauo ea/anoaao aiene e eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa ia iiaee. Anee a
ioaeaeueiuo ianoao ie?oaeaiiua eoaeueyineea /anoe iiae aeeyieai iaioeaa
ia?aaeei ieacuaaee iaeanoi/aiiia nii?ioeaeaiea e aiineaaenoaee aeaaea
i?iaeaaeenue e naiei aeaaiui neeai, oi ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo ianoao aienea
oa?yee anyeoth auaea?aeeo e aaaeaee a iaieea. Anei?a ai o?iioa ceyea
a?aoue oe?eiie 100 ei, eioi?ay ieacaea ?aoathuaa aeeyiea e ia iieiaeaiea
a?oiiu a?iee «Aeii».

I?ioea yoie a?oiiu a?iee ?onneea oaeaea i?aaei?eiyee ianooieaiea
e?oiiuie neeaie, ii ia niiaee ?aci?aaoue aa o?iio. A iauai, iie oioaee
aeaoiy iaeiia?aiaiiuie oaea?aie aeinoeaiooue oe?ieie oeaee, eioi?ay
caeeth/aeanue ia oieueei a oii, /oiau aini?aiyonoaiaaoue inaiaiaeaeaieth
6-e a?iee ec ie?oaeaiey. I?i?ua o?iioa 8-e eoaeueyineie a?iee eiae
oeaeueth caoaao Aeiiaoeeiai aannaeia, a a ?acoeueoaoa ianooieaiey i?ioea
a?oiiu a?iee «Aeii» ?onneea aeieaeiu auee aeieoe aei ?inoiaa e io?acaoue
iaiaoeeea a?iee ia Eaaeaca. *oiau iiaeaea?aeaoue iaoiaeeaoeany a i/aiue
oyaeaeii iieiaeaiee aienea ia ?aea *e? e io?aceoue iaoene n ainoiea,
Iaiooaeio ia inoaaaeinue ie/aai ae?oaiai, eae i?ae?aoeoue ianooieaiea
a?oiiu Aioa e eniieueciaaoue aunaiaiaeaeaiiua oaeei ia?acii neeu aeey
oneeaiey oa?iaeaaiuo oeaiaia. Ii aeaaea n iiiiuueth yoeo nee e aiiaue
iiaeoyioouo niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua ia?aiia/aeueii ieaie?iaaeinue
eniieueciaaoue aeey oneeaiey a?oiiu Aioa, iaeuecy auei inoaiiaeoue
?onneia ianooieaiea, ?acaa?ioaoaany ia 400-eeeiiao?iaii o?iioa io
Eioaeueieeiai aei Iiaie Eaeeoau. Ana aea i?e ionooieaiee oaeaeinue
iiyoue nicaeaoue nieioiie, oioy e iai?i/iue o?iio, eioi?ue a eiioea
aeaeaa?y eiae neaaeothuaa ia/a?oaiea. Ia thaa 4-y oaieiaay a?iey
aaia?ae-iieeiaieea Aioa iaaeaeo ?aeaie Iaiu/ e Nae naea?aeeaaea
ianooieaiea o?ao ?onneeo iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?ionia. O?e ?onneea a?iee
aeinoeaee ?aee Oeeiey, ia eioi?ie iai?iiyeanue aiiaue noi?ie?iaaiiay
iia?aoeaiay a?oiia Oieeeaeoa. Io enoiea Oeeiee eeiey o?iioa ?acei
iiai?a/eaaea ia caiaae; caeanue iaiaoeeea aienea eniuouaaee neeueiia
aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu ?onneie aaa?aeaeneie a?iee a ninoaaa /aou?ao
oaieiauo e iaeiiai no?aeeiaiai ei?iona. Aeaeueoa e caiaaeo
?aniieaaaeanue aua iaeia iia?aoeaiay a?oiia iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea
O?aooa?-Ieei, ia?aciaaiiay a?oiiie a?iee «A» iooai iiaeeecaoeee anao
ethaeneeo ?ano?nia, aeeth/ay ee/iue ninoaa oueiauo neoaea. Iia iai?iiyea
Aeiiaoeeee aannaei, oaea?aeeaay ia eaaii aa?aao Naaa?iiai Aeiioea
oe?ieee ieaoeaea?i. Ainoi/iaa Noa?iaaeuenea oneeaiiay 19-y iaiaoeeay
oaieiaay aeeaecey niaeuie iaiaa?aiiuie aeaenoaeyie iinoaiaiii inoaiiaeea
i?iaeaeaeaiea ?onneeo e cae?uea a?aoue, ia?aciaaaoothny a ?acoeueoaoa
?aca?iia eoaeueyioeaa. Iaaeaeo yoie aeeaeceae e eceo/eiie Aeiia
iaoiaeeeenue ianeieueei ianiao neiei/aiiuo niaaeeiaiee e aeaa iaiaoeeea
aeeaecee, auaeaeaiiua 2-e iieaaie a?ieae. Iie onoaiiaeee
iaiin?aaenoaaiioth naycue n eoaeueyineei aeueieeneei ei?ionii, a iieina
eioi?iai ?onneea aua ia ianooiaee, e i?ee?uee aai i?aaue oeaia.

A oi a?aiy eae a ia?aie iieiaeia yiaa?y ia o?iioa iaaeaeo Naaa?iui
Aeiioeii e Aeiiii a ?aeiia Iiaie Eaeeoau ianooieei ioiineoaeueiia
caoeouea, ?onneea, /oiau aeinoeaiooue naieo oeaeae ia thaa, i?iaeieaeaee
naie iaoene ia iia?aoeaioth a?oiio O?aooa?-Ieei e a?oiio a?iee «Aeii»
aeaaea a yiaa?a n iaineaaaaathuae neeie. Aienea Oieeeaeoa e O?aooa?-Ieei
e 18 yiaa?y auee iooaniaiu ca Naaa?iue Aeiiaoe io ianoa aai aiaaeaiey a
Aeii aei ?aeiia naaa?iaa Ai?ioeeiaa?aaea. 4-y oaieiaay a?iey, ianiio?y
ia i/aiue neeueiua aoaee ?onneeo thaeiaa Aeiia, niiaea inoaiiaeoue
ianooiathueo e ainoieo io ?inoiaa. Oaia?ue iaiaoeeea aienea iaoiaeeeenue
ia aeeaea 200 ei. io Noaeeia?aaea.

A nayce n yoeie oniaoaie ?onneeo aiene iieiaeaiea 6-e a?iee noaei
aaciaaeaaeiui. I i?i?uaa eieueoea ie?oaeaiey, eae e ia inaiaiaeaeaiee
ecaia, ia i?eoiaeeeinue e aeoiaoue. Eiiaiaeiaaiea iaauaei
aeaaeiee?iaaoue ie?oaeaiioth a?oiie?iaeo oieueei aoaeouae aaniie. E aac
oiai iaaeinoaoi/iia niaaaeaiea aicaeooiui iooai aua aieaa nie?aoeeinue,
ianiio?y ia naiiioaa?aeaiioth ?aaioo eao/eeia. Anee ia?aae aeaeaa?ueneei
ianooieaieai iaiaoeeea naiieaou n aeeaeieo ay?iae?iiia iiaee niaa?oaoue
i?e aeaaii?eyoiie iiaiaea aei o?ao iieaoia a aeaiue, oi aaeaeo
oaaee/aiey ?annoiyiee ii/oe aaeaia yoi noaei iaaiciiaeiui. Eno?aaeoaee
oaeaea ia iiaee oaia?ue nii?iaiaeaeaoue o?ainii?oiua naiieaou ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai iooe. ?onneea noyioee iiiai/eneaiioth caieoioth
a?oeeea?eth, /oiau ni?aaoue niaaaeaiea 6-e a?iee ii aicaeooo.

Oaea a aeaeaa?a auei iioa?yii 246 naiieaoia. 200—300
naiieaoia—eiee/anoai, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai niaaaeaiey
aiene iiae Noaeeia?aaeii,—i?aainoiaeeee aiciiaeiinoe iaiaoeeie aaeaoeee,
oai aieaa /oi a yoi aea a?aiy iiiai o?ainii?oiuo naiieaoia o?aaiaaeinue
e aeey o?iioa a Ooiena. N oi/ee c?aiey aieiu a oeaeii niaaaeaiea 6-e
a?iee yaeyeinue iaauiineiui a?aiaiai—aunoaa eiiaiaeiaaiea aeaaii oaea n
oieiaeiui aanna?aea/eai iinoaaeei e?ano ia 6-e a?iee e eeoue aeaaaei ae
ionoua iaauaiey e oaa?aiey, iaauiieieiinoue eioi?uo aeey i?ici?eeauo
ethaeae auea niaa?oaiii yniie, i?ecuaay ie?oaeaiiua aienea o?aa?i
aea?aeaoueny.

Aieioue aei yiaa?y oi?ia eioea ia eciaieeanue, oae eae ?onneea
oaeiaeaoai?eeenue ie?oaeaieai a?iee. Oai ia iaiaa iieiaeaiea ie?oaeaiiuo
aiene aneaaenoaea anaaiciiaeiuo eeoaiee noaiiaeeinue ana oaeaniaa.
Ethaee oece/anee ana aieueoa neaaaee io iinoiyiiiai iaaeiaaeaiey, aeaee
io aieaciae e aeanoieeo ii?icia. *aniauo a o?aioayo i?eoiaeeeinue
niaiyoue /a?ac eaaeaeua iie/ana. Eiee/anoai ?aiaiuo e oia?oeo io
oyaeaeuo iaii?aaeeaaiee aic?anoaei a oaeie noaiaie, /oi o?ainii?oiua
naiieaou ia oniaaaee eo auaiceoue. ?aciauaiea ?aiaiuo e ooiae ca ieie
noaee ia?ac?aoeiie i?iaeaiie a aeeaeceiiiuo iaaeeoeeineeo ioieoao e a
ainieoaeyo aaeaeo ionoonoaey ioaieeaaaiuo iiiauaiee. Ii iaaeaaeaea a
eiioea eiioeia ana-oaee au?aaoueny ec ie?oaeaiey e iaiieieaaeiay aa?a a
aunoaa eiiaiaeiaaiea iiaeaea?aeeaaee aienea. Iuneue, /oi iiaeii
inoaaeoue ia i?iecaie noaeueau oeaeoth a?ieth, eacaeanue iaaa?iyoiie.
Eiaaea 10 yiaa?y ?onneea, eniieuecoy iiuioth a?oeeea?eth, ia/aee
naeeiaoue eieueoei ie?oaeaiey n caiaaea, iaiaoeeea aienea,
aeaenoaiaaaoea ia ae?oaeo o/anoeao, auee oaa?aei oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi
iie neuoao a?ii i?oaeee i?eaeeaeathueony inaiaiaeeoaeae.

8 yiaa?y ?onneea ia?aaeaee eiiaiaeothuaio 6-e a?iee i?aaeeiaeaiea «i
ii/aoiie eaieooeyoeee», eioi?ia oio ioeeiiee. Iinea yoiai iie i?enooieee
e oie/oiaeaieth ie?oaeaiiie a?oiie?iaee, no?aiynue i?aaeaea anaai
caoaaoeoue ay?iae?ii Ieoiiiee, /oiau ia?aeeciaaoue niaaaeaiea aicaeooiui
iooai. 14 yiaa?y ay?iae?ii aue a ?oeao ?onneeo. Anee aei neo ii?
niaaaeaiea, oioy e inouanoaeyaoaany ia?aaiiia?ii e a iaaeinoaoi/iuo
?acia?ao, a oaeaea yaaeoaoeey ?aiaiuo aua icia/aee naycue n aiaoiei
ie?ii, oi oaia?ue i?iiaea iineaaeiyy iaaeaaeaea, ?aci/a?iaaiea
iaiaoeeeie nieaeaoaie-eaeaaeenoaie, aeaeaeeiuie aa?iinoueth naiaio
aeieao, naiiioaa?aeaiiinoueth e /oanoaii oiaa?euanoaa ia iiaeaeaaony
ieeaeiio iienaieth; ioaeaeueiua neo/ae, eiaaea a neeo aiieia iiiyoiie
/aeiaa/aneie neaainoe ethaee ia auaea?aeeaaee, ieneieueei ia oiaeyao
yoiai aaeeeiai iiaeaeaa. Oai aieaa ioa?aoeoaeueiui aeieaeii auei
eacaoueny oaea oiaaea anai inaaaeiieaiiui i ianoiyuai iieiaeaiee aeae
no?aieaiea iaiaoeeie i?iiaaaiaeu eniieueciaaoue aa?ie/aneoth noieeinoue
6-e a?iee aeey aiiaeooaaeaiey iaiaoeeiai ia?iaea, a iai?inoeoaeueioth
ioeaeo aunoaai eiiaiaeiaaiey i?aaenoaaeoue eae ?acoiioth e iaecaaaeioth
aea?oao.

A iineaaeiea aeie yiaa?y inoaoee a?iee, eioi?ua aua aaee oii?iua aie e a
ioaeaeueiuo ianoao aeaaea ia?aoiaeeee a eiio?aoaee, auee iooaniaiu a
iaaieueoie ?aeii ?ac?ooaiiiai ai?iaea e, iaeiiaoe, ?an/eaiaiu ia
ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu. 30 yiaa?y Iaoethn, eioi?ue anaai ianeieueei aeiae
oiio iacaae aue i?iecaaaeai a oaeueaeia?oaeu, iiaeienae aeo i
eaieooeyoeee. Eaieooee?iaaee oanoue iaoioiuo (44-y, 71-y, 76-y, 79-y,
94-y e 100-y aaa?neay aeeaecee), o?e iioi?eciaaiiua (3-y, 29-y, 60-y),
o?e oaieiaua aeeaecee (14-y, 16-y e 24-y), 9-y caieoiay a?oeeea?eeneay
aeeaecey, 1-y eaaaea?eeneay e 20-y iaoioiay ?oiuineea aeeaecee,
iaeiiaoe, oi?aaoneee iiee, eioi?ua a aeaiue ie?oaeaiey ian/eouaaee a
iauae neiaeiinoe 265 oun. /aeiaae. Ec ieo 90 oun. iiiaee a ieai, 34 oun.
?aiaiuo auei auaacaii ia naiieaoao, eeoue iaiiiaea iieeioee eioae ii
neoaeaaiui i?e/eiai. Nauoa 100 oun. /aeiaae iiaeaee a aith eee iaee
aea?oaie iaauiineiuo eeoaiee. Iiiaea a io/ayiee naie iieii/eee n niaie,
ae?oaia eneaee e ia?aee nia?oue ia iiea n?aaeaiey n i?oaeeai a ?oeao.
Neieueei ec 90 oun. ieaiiuo noaee aea?oaaie ianoe ?onneeo eee oia?ee
aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi ?onneea ia iiaee iaania/eoue eo i?iaeiaieuenoaeai,
inoaaony iaecaanoiui.

Anaai a oiaea Noaeeia?aaeneie aeoau auei iaianaii ii?aaeaiea 48
aeeaeceyi e 3 a?eaaaeai a?aaa, /oi ninoaaeyei 20% anao aai nee,
aeaenoaiaaaoeo ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa. Iiaaaea Niaaoneie A?iee
iiae Noaeeia?aaeii iieiaeeea ia/aei ei?aiiiio ia?aeiio a oiaea Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie e 2-e ie?iaie aiei.

A ?acoeueoaoa oniaoiiai eiio?ianooieaiey iiae Noaeeia?aaeii Niaaoneay
A?iey caoaaoeea no?aoaae/aneoth eieoeeaoeao e oaea n yiaa?y 1943 aiaea
?acaa?ioea iauaa ianooieaiea ia ia?iiiii o?iioa, ia/aa ianniaia ecaiaiea
a?aaa ec i?aaeaeia NNN?.

Oaoenoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ia iiaei naaa i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi eo oae
ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiue ieai iioa?iae iieiia ii?aaeaiea, a aienea,
iiiaaoea a ie?oaeaiea, au? ia aa?eee, /oi iie ia?a/aiu. Iiyoiio, eiaaea
iaoa eiiaiaeiaaiea, /oiau ecaaaeaoue iai?aniiai e?iaii?ieeoey
i?aaeuyaeea aeoea?iaoeai 8 yiaa?y 1943 aiaea oeueoeiaooi i naea/a, iie
ioeacaeenue. Iaeiaei oaea aoi?iai oaa?aey oaoenou auioaeaeaiu auee
iieiinoueth eaieooee?iaaoue.

Cia/aiea iaoae iiaaaeu.

?aca?ii a?aaa ia Aieaa – e?oiiaeoaa aiaiii-iieeoe/aneia niauoea aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu. Aaeeeay aeoaa, caeii/eaoayny ie?oaeaieai, ?aca?iiii e
ieaiaieai ioai?iie a?aaeaneie a?oiie?iaee, iieiaeeei ia/aei ei?aiiiio
ia?aeiio eae a oiaea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie, oae e anae aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu. E?aniay A?iey i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea naith ianie?ooeiith neeo,
i?aainoiaenoai iaae iaiaoeei-oaoenoneie aiaiiie iaoeiie. Yoa iiaaaea
icia/aao iieiue i?iaae aiaiiie aeieo?eiu iaiaoeei-oaoenoneie a?iee. Iaoe
no?aoaaee, iia?aoeaiia eneonnoai e oaeoeea auaea?aeaee no?iaoth
i?iaa?eo. Niaaoneea Aii?oae?iiua neeu i?iaaee iia?aoeeth, eioi?ay ii
naiei ?acoeueoaoai e iineaaenoaeyi ia eiaea naaa ?aaiuo a enoi?ee aiei.

Ii ia oieueei a yoii cia/aiea Noaeeia?aaeneie aeoau. Iia iiaei?aaea aa?o
aeoea?ianeeo nieaeao a iiaaaeo, iia iaioaaea nithcieeia Aeoea?a –
oaoenoneeo i?aaeoaeae Eoaeee, Aaia?ee, ?oiuiee ianoieueei, /oi iie noaee
eneaoue aiciiaeiinoe ioieoe io Oth?a?a. Iiaaaea oaoenoneeo aiene ii
Noaeeia?aaeii aeieaeia auea auoue neaiaeii aeey ioe?uoiai aunooieaiey
i?ioea Niaaoneiai Nithca ssiiiee e Oo?oeee. Ii?aaeaiea aeoea?iaoeaa
canoaaeei ssiiieth e Oo?oeeth ioeacaoueny io naieo ieaiia.

Iiaaaea Niaaoneeo aiene iiae Noaeeia?aaeii aeoeaece?iaaea ai?ueao
aioeoaoenoia ai anao no?aiao Aa?iiu: caai?aeanue caiey iiae iiaaie
ieeoiaioia ai O?aioeee e Iieueoa, a Aieaa?ee e Aieeaiaeee, a Aaeueaee,
Ii?aaaee….

Ii?aaeaiea aeoea?iaoeaa iiae Noaeeia?aaeii noaei ia/aeii eo ii?aaeaiey
ai anae Aa?iia. E ia neo/aeii oeeoeu e ieiuaaee iiiaeo aa?iiaeneeo
ai?iaeia iinea aieiu auee iacaaiu a /anoue ai?iaea ia Aieaa.

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