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Сталин И. В.

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Ieai:

1.Aaaaeaiea. Aeaienoaaiiinoue ioeaiie

2.Aeia?aoey: aeaonoai, thiinoue, io?i/anoai.

3.Iooue ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth.

4.Nicaeaiea iiaiai iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia.

5.?ani?ino?aiaiea noaeeineie aeaniioe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u.

6.Ee/iinoue, oa?aeoa? Noaeeia.

7.Iiaeaioiaeaiiinoue e aieia.

8.Aieia.

9.Iineaaenoaey aieiu e oeaia iiaaaeu.

10. Aa?aeeeo enoi?ee.

Aaaaeaiea.

1. I Noaeeia nae/an aiai?yo e ieooo i/aiue iiiai. Noaeei, Noaeei…
A caiaeii e “noaeeiueia” e “noaeeieci”: au? oae iaaeaaii
niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeiua a iaoae i?anna, iineaoea ia naaa ia/aoue
ethoie eaeaieiae/aneie e?aiieu, neiaa yoe oi e aeaei cao/ao
naaiaeiy , i?e/?i auaiaa?eaathony aac anyeie ae?iaee a aieina, eae
ethaua iau/iua iauaoiio?aaeoaeueiua neiaa

*oi aea iu iaaethaeaai naaiaeiy? Ia i?inoi ioeac io oiiiyiooie
?aaaeeeoaoeee e ia i?inoi iiaoth aieio e?eoeee Noaeeia. Neieue ie
ino?a auea oaeay e?eoeea a nai? a?aiy, iia an? aea auea
iai?aaeaia ia ia iauee niune aeayoaeueiinoe Noaeeia, a eeoue ia
ioaeaeueiua a? noi?iiu e iiiaiou, ionoue aeaaea aaaeiua e
aeinoaoi/ii iiiai/eneaiiua.

A naaiaeiy an? /aua, an? ii?aaeae?iiaa ioaa?aaaony eiaiii a?
iauee niune. Ia neiaiee/ii ee ? – a 1961 aiaeo ii ?aoaieth 22 –
iai nuacaea ia?oee Noaeei aue auianai ec eaieineiai Iaacieay, ii
an? aea iioi?iiai a ii/?oiii ?yaeo o E?aie?aneie noaiu. A iui/a
oaea ?acaeathony aieina, /oi e oai aio ia ianoi, e i?a/iue
ia?ac ceiaeay, eioi?iai enoi?aaao naia caiey, iaaieueii anoa?o
ia?aae iaie, eiaaea iu ia yoii aeoiaai e aiai?ei.

*ai iauyniyaony noieue ?aceia eciaiaiea ioeaiie? Ioe?ueenue eaeea-oi
?aiaa iaecaanoiua oaeou? Iao ii/oe an? aeaaiia, /oi neoaeeo iniiaaieai
aiai?eoue i i?anooieaieyo Noaeeia, auei i?aaeaii aeaniinoe aua aieaa
/aoaa?oe aaea iacaae. A i /ai oiaaea oiie/aee — iai?eia?, i /eneaiiinoe
aea?oa “YIIOE EIEEAEOEAECAOeEE”, 1937—1938 e iineaaeothueo aiaeia,— oi e
aei neo ii? inoaaony IIAe iie?iaii oaeiu. Oiaaea a /ai aea i?e/eia?

ss aeaeo aa a oii, /oi ia XX nuacaea e iinea iaai, aieioue aei iaoeo
aeiae, a iniiaa e?eoe/aneiai iniuneaiey Noaeeia eae enoi?e/aneie oeao?u
eaaeaea i?aeiouanoaaiii oa?aeoa?enoeea aai ee/iinoe: ia
Noaeeia-iieeoeea (e ia noaeeineia a iieeoeea) niio?aee a iniiaiii /a?ac
i?ecio aai ee/iuo ea/anoa, oae eee eia/a iiieiaaiuo e ioeaieaaaiuo. A
naaiaeiy acaeyioee (aa?iaa, iuoathony acaeyiooue) nianai ii-ae?oaiio.

Ao?oei TH?ee A?eai?ueaae/ — ioaeeoeeno, /eai Nithca ienaoaeae NNN?.
Noaouey iaienaia aeey ianoiyuae eieae.

Anee enoiaeeoue a ioeaiea enoi?e/aneie ?iee Noaeeia oieueei ec naienoa
aai oa?aeoa?a e iiaaaeaiey, oi ia ecaaaeaoue ie iaaycoae a coaao
aaniiiiuiie yeeaeoeee e aeaienoaaiiinoe (“n iaeiie noi?iiu”—n ae?oaie
noi?iiu”), ie oie iai?eie?eiie ?aciiaieineoeu. au?aceoaeueiue i?eia?
eioi?ie aue i?iaeaiiino?e?iaai ca iaeiei ec “e?oaeuo noieia”: “Ianooaau
yoie ee/iinoe ia?iiiu.— Ianooaau ee/iinoe ie/oiaeiu!.. – Iao, ia?iiiu. E
?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe ia?iiiu.— Ainiiaee, aea ?acoeueoaou oaeaniu!”

A naiii aeaea. Au aiai?eoa, /oi ii i?anooiiee, ia niaanoe eioi?iai
no?aaeaiey e nia?oue ieeeeiiia ethaeae, aeiaiai? i ae?oaeaa e a?aieoea n
Aeoea?ii, ?aci?aiea aea?aaie i i?., e i?., ii ?acaa ii oieueei e aeaeae,
/oi ioeaaeny e, oai aieaa, iiaeienuaae nienee ia ?anno?ae? A eoi ia
i?ioyaeaiee o?ao aeanyoeeaoee ?oeiaiaeee no?aiie? I?e eii iia
eiaeono?eaeece?iaaeanue, auea?aea aaee/aeooth ec aiei, i?aa?aoeeanue a
ie?iaoth naa?oaea?aeaao ? Eoi eci aeiy a aeaiue ?aoae ianno i?aeoe/aneeo
aii?inia ii no?ieoaeuenoao aeiiai e yeaeo?inoaioeee, aaoicaaiaeia e
oeaoeeeo oaa?ee, aeaeaciuo aei?ia e ii?neeo ii?oia, ii ?ac?aaioea e
i?iecaiaenoao iiauo ia?ie o?aeoi?ia e eiiaaeiia, naiieaoia e oaieia, ii
inaiaieth Naaa?a e i?ioaieth Ea?aeoiia. ii nicaeaieth oaao?ia e
eeiinooaeee, oieaa?neoaoia e iocaaa, ii ?acaeoeth naoe oeie e eeoaia,
aieueieoe e aeaoneeo naaeia, ii onoaiiaeaieth eueaio aeey naeueneeo
o/eoaeae, iiiaiaeaoiuo e iaeeiieeo iaoa?ae i i?., e i?., e i?.? ?acaa ia
noieo iiaeienue Noaeeia e iiae iiiaeie, aa?iyoii. ouny/aie aeieoiaioia
oaeiai ?iaea? E eoi iiaeao neacaoue, /oi a aieueoeinoaa naiai iia
ne?aieyea ?aoaiey iai?iaeoiaiiua, ioeai/iua, neo/aeiua?

Eiia/ii, aeey iniiaaoaeueiiai e iieiiai noaeaeaiey ia nae n/ao iiea iao
iaoa?eaea, iineieueeo iiiaea aeieoiaiou ii-i?aaeiaio cae?uou aeaaea aeey
iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, iaeiaei ii aiaoiaio aia/aoeaieth noaeeineei
?aoaieyi, eae i?aaeei, iaeuecy ioeacaoue ie a oeaeaono?aieaiiinoe, ie a
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, ie a eiaeea. Oae ii/aio au eiaiii yoe /a?ou ia
“i?eieiaoue ca iniiao” a iiieiaiee e ioeaiea eae ee/iinoe Noaeeia, oae e
aai iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe? A aeaniioeci e aeanoieinoue ii/aio au
ia n/anoue anaai eeoue ecaea?aeeaie ia/aeueiie. ii aaeaa ee ia
iaecaaaeiie iai?ioiie noi?iiie yoie iai?aeeiiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
no?ieoaey aaeeeie eiaeono?eaeueii-aiaiiie aea?aeaau? Aacaeaeinoii
niaoathuaai n aei?iae ana, /oi iaoaao, e anao, eoi niiniaai iiiaoaoue
inouanoaeaieth iacaaiiie oeaee…

Au neaaeaoa: ie/aai naaa “ecaea?aeee” — ieeeeiiu oaeouo, caio/aiiuo,
?anoiioaiiuo /aeiaa/aneeo aeeciae! Au neaaeaoa, /oi e iaeay aeiey eo
ia?aaaneo ana, /oi iiaeii ca/eneeoue a caneoao aeiiaieeo eo io/aiee e
aeaaee. Aieaa oiai, au oeaaeaoa ia aacaeooea e aii?aeueiinoue aeaaea
naiiai oaeiai acaaoeaaiey: caaoaeaiiay aeeciue, ionoue
iaeia-aaeeinoaaiiay, eee, neaaeai, iino?iaiiue caaiae. Ii aeaaea anee
aao iiiiiaio niaeaneony n yoei, i?eciaao, /oi aaoe eicu?e noa?oa, oai ia
iaiaa e io nianoaaiiuo a?aoiaioia ii aaeaa ee niiaeao ioeacaoueny —
eoaea aea eo aeaiaoue! E a eoiaa auaeano aai i?eia?ii oaeoth
oi?ioee?iaeo: aea, eiia/ii, i?anooieaiey Noaeeia iai?inoeoaeueiu, ii eae
iieeoee (a iieeoeea aiiaua, eae aiai?yo, a?yciia aeaei) ii aeaenoaiaae a
iniiaiii i?aaeeueii, a oe?ieii enoi?e/aneii ieaia aai aeayoaeueiinoue
(oioy e iiea/aiiay no?aoiie oeaiie) ana-oaee auea i?ia?anneaiie.

Oaeie acaeyae aanueia ?ani?ino?aiai — ia oieueei a i?ioeii, ii e a iaoe
aeie. Iaoiaeeo ii au?aaeaiea e a ia/aoe — a aunooieaieyo ?yaea aaoi?ia,
eioi?ua i?e cia/eoaeueiuo ?acee/eyo iaaeaeo niaith ana enoiaeyo ec oiai,
/oi a oao oneiaeyo (ianoa e a?aiaie) ia auei i?eaieaiie
nioeeaeenoe/aneie aeueoa?iaoeau ie Noaeeio eae eeaea?o, ie i?iaiaeeiie
ei iieeoeea.

o- A ?acoeueoaoa ia?ac Noaeeia aua e aei neo ii? eae au aeaieony a
(iauanoaaiiii niciaiee — oaeo, aeinoaoi/ii io/aoeeai caoeene?iaaiiue e
iaoae ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?ie.

Aio aeey n?aaiaiey aeaa i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaaaaoeany ii/oe
iaeiia?aiaiii, a 70-a aiaeu, iaa — aac iaaeaaeaeu ia nei?oth
ioaeeeaoeeth, ethaeueie i?eia?ii iaeiiai aic?anoa: “Aeaoe A?aaoa” A.
?uaaeiaa e “Aeacaie /aeiaaea iiaai iieieaiey” E. Neiiiiaa. Oai e ooo
Noaeei. Ii i?e iaeioi?uo oi/eao nii?eeiniiaaiey (a noeea iiaaaeaiey, a
?a/aaie iaia?a) yoi, a nouiinoe, aeaa ?aciuo /aeiaaea. O ?uaaeiaa —
oco?iaoi?, eioi?ue n iaieaeaeueiie iaooiieiinoueth e iienoeia
aeueyaieueneie ecia?aoaoaeueiinoueth, ?an/aoeeainoueth, eiaa?noaii
ieaoao naoue eio?ea, eiathueo oeaeueth nicaeaiea e oe?aieaiea ?aaeeia
naiae ee/iie aeanoe, e aac oiai oaea e 1934 aiaeo oaeoe/anee
aac?acaeaeueiie. Yoaeee ceiaauee iaoe, eioi?ue, ieeiai ia ethay, ieeiio
ia aa?y, oeao naith iaooeio, /oiau caoai iaoiaee/anee aeooeoue a iae
anao. eoi i?yii eee einaaiii noae nae/an eee a aoaeouai eiaaea-ieaoaeue
iiaeao noaoue aeey iaai iianai. Aeeaeieo e aeaeueieo, aieia ca aieiie,
ana ?anoe?ythueieny aacaeaeinoiuie e?oaaie… A o Neiiiiaa (oioy e aai
ioiioaiea e Noaeeio iaeuecy iacaaoue iae?eoe/aneei) — oiiue e oaa?aeue
aeanoaeei, aieiaoaeueiue e iaei/ai, ii a oi aea a?aiy iuneyuee e
aeaenoaothuee ii ainoaea?noaaiiiio ianooaaii, nei?aa aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiue
e onooi/eaue (io niieieiiai niciaiey naiae neeu), /ai a?oaue e
eai?eciue; iiae/an neaaea ea?athuee ia?aae niaanaaeieeii, caaioyueeny i
nicaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai naiaai “ia?aca”, ii a oeaeii aeinoaoi/ii
anoanoaaiiue; eioa?anothueeny eeoa?aoo?ie…

E a iaieo neo/ayo Noaeei — aeeaie. Ia oieueei o Neiiiiaa, eioi?ue
iienuaaao nianoaaiiua ano?a/e n iei, oeaiei ai anao aeaoaeyo caiiiiaiiua
e oio/an, ii naaaeae iaiyoe iiae?iaii e c?eii aini?iecaaaeaiiua, ii e o
?uaaeiaa, ia eiaaoaai oaeeo ano?a/: a aai ?iiaia, eioi?iio ii ?yaeo
ae?oaeo iiceoeee i?aaeuyaeaii iaiaei ni?aaaaeeeauo i?aoaicee, ia?ac
Noaeeia ia?eniaai n oaeie noaiaiueth ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oaaaeeoaeueiinoe,
eioi?ay, eaaeaony, i?inoi ia inoaaeyao ianoa aeey eaeeo-oi eiuo
eeoa?aoo?iuo eioa?i?aoaoeee. Aaea aea i?aaaea: oai eee caeanue?

A anee caeanue e oai, oi eae niaianoeoue yoe aeaa i?aaaeu iaaeaeo
niaith, eae i?eaanoe eo e eaeiio-oi iauaio ciaiaiaoaeth?

A ?aieao “ee/iinoiiai” iiaeoiaea caaea/a, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia eiaao
?aoaiey. Iaeiaei iui/a oaea noae aiciiaeiui niaa?oaiii ae?oaie acaeyae
ia i?aaeiao caoyioaoaainy nii?a — ioeaiea enoi?e/aneie ?iee Noaeeia ia
iniiaa oaeiai ?aoathuaai e aiieia iauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey, eae oa?aeoa?
nicaeaiiie iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee.

Ii-?aciiio eiaioaony naaiaeiy yoa nenoaia, iiea ia iieo/eaoay a iaoae
oai?ee (aea e aaea iia? aua oieueei i?iaoaeaeaaony io oyaeeiai,
i?ioyaeaiiinoueth a ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee, eaoa?ae/aneiai nia)
aaeaeaaoiiai e iauai?eciaiiiai iaicia/aiey: “eaca?iaiiue eiiioieci”,
“eaca?iaiiue nioeeaeeci”, “Aaeieieno?aoeaiay Nenoaia”,
“aiaiii-ath?ie?aoe/aneee ?ai?anneaiue ?aaeei” e o. i. Ii, eaaeaony, ana
oae eee eia/a noiaeyony ia oii, /oi aa ii?aaeaeythueie i?eciaeaie
yaeyeenue iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aioeaeaiie?aoeci; iiae/eiaiea iauanoaa
ainoaea?noao, a ainoaea?noaa — ?aaeeio ee/iie aeanoe; eneeth/eoaeueii
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiua iaoiaeu ?oeiaiaenoaa: iaei yooaeoeaiinoue
yeiiiieee, iniiaaiiie — eae a aanianii?oiie aea?aaia, oae e a ai?iaea —
ia oaeoe/anee i?eioaeeoaeueiii o?oaea; o?iie/anee ieceee o?iaaiue aeecie
iann a ?aceii eiio?anoa n i?eaeeaae?iaaiiie ath?ie?aoe/aneie aa?oooeie;
aani?aaea e i?iecaie; nieioiay ioeoeeaeecaoeey anao oi?i aeooiaiie
aeecie iauanoaa n eoeueoii Aiaeaey a oeaio?a ioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaee e
nicaeaiiie ath ieoieiaece?iaaiiie ea?oeiie ie?a; aeanoeee ecieyoeeiieci
ai aiaoiae iieeoeea. ssnii, /oi yoa nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ceoth
ea?eeaoo?o ia oi iauanoai anaiauaai ?aaainoaa, naiaiaeu e n/anouey,
eioi?ia iiae eiaiai nioeeaeecia auei iiiaiaaeiaie ia/oie oaiaoaiiuo,
?aaee eioi?iai niaa?oaeanue iaoa ?aaiethoeey, no?ieeanue oa aea
i?iiuoeaiiinoue e i?. ssnii, /oi nicaeaiea, a oai aieaa oe?aieaiea
iiaeiaiie nenoaiu, eiaaea aioeia?iaeiue oa?aeoa? aa oaea aiieia
ii?aaeaeeeny, iiaeaea?aeaiea aa iaeciaiiinoe anae iiuueth oioaeeoa?iiai
ainoaea?noaa iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eia/a, eae i?yioth eciaio
?aaiethoeee, niciaoaeueiue iaiai o?oaeyueony iann, a?oaia ianeeea iaae
ieie, oeeie/iia iaae?oaaoaeuenoai iaae eo yiooceaciii e aa?ie.

E aio anee n oaeie oi/ee c?aiey iu iiniio?ei ia Noaeeia, oi i?e naiie
iieiie iauaeoeaiinoe ia inoaiaony ianoa ieeaeie aeaienoaaiiinoe a
ioeaieao.

Ii aue ioae?, a ii?ith e aeia?? Aeiionoei. Ii yoi auea iienoeia
ioae?inoue ciae, a aeia?ioa — nuoiai oea?a. Aaieaeai? Aea, anee oioeoa,
yoi aue iiaeeeiiue aaiee cea. Ii iaeaaeae ainoaea?noaaiiui oiii e
aeaeaciie aieae, ii oiae aeiaeaaoueny iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae? Oai ooaea,
eai ?aaeueiie oeaeueth aai auea ainoaea?noai-oth?ueia. Ii nicaeae
aaeeeoth aea?aeaao, ii ia aeey /aeiaaea, eioi?iai a iae aeaaeee, eae
io?aauey, a aaeeinoaaiii aeey naay, aeey naiae aac?acaeaeueiie aeanoe e
ouny/aeaoiae neaau. E ii iaoiieeiie eiaeea aauae neaaa yoa aeiaieueii
auno?i iaa?ioeanue aeey iaoae no?aiu aanneaaeai — anaiauaiethuae
ionoaeinoueth, ooieeii e canoiai. Ni anaie naieie neeueiuie noi?iiaie (e
a iaiaeie ia?a aeaaiaea?y eiaiii ei) ii— i?a/iay, aaconeiaii
io?eoeaoaeueiay oeao?a iaoae enoi?ee, e iao a aai aeayoaeueiinoe
?aoeoaeueii ie/aai, /oi i?ioeai?a/eei au oaeiio auaiaeo.

Ii iia i?eieiaoue i?aaeeueiua, aeaaea aoiaiiua ?aoaiey ii oai eee eiui
eiie?aoiui aii?inai oicyenoaa, nioeeaeueiiai iaania/aiey, eoeueoo?u, ii
eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo yoi ioaa/aei aeieaia?aiaiiui eioa?anai
iino?iaiiie ei a oeaeii aioeaoiaiiie nenoaiu e a caaeaiiuo ath
ianooaaao, ?aieao e oi?iao. A eaeie oe?ai, eaeie aeaniio, anee ii ia
aeoi e caeioa?aniaai a i?i/iinoe naiae oe?aiee, ia i?eieiaao ii a?aiaiai
iiaeiaiuo ?aoaiee?

Noaeei aicaeaaee iienoeia aaeeeoth, iienoeia Ioa/anoaaiioth, aieio
i?ioea aa?iaineiai oaoecia — no?aoiie oa?icu aeey anaai /aeiaa/aneiai
?iaea- Oae. E aai ?ieue a yoie aieia ia neaaeoao i?aoiaiueoaoue: iia
auea aaconeiaii aaeeea (ionoue e ia a ia?o iau/iie iieiiou aai aeanoe, a
oio iiiaio ?acei ia?aie/aiiie ?yaeii ia caaenaaoeo io iaai
ianoiyoaeuenoa, aieath i?ioeaieea, ?aaeueiui niioiioaieai nee ia o?iioa,
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth n/eoaoueny n aeiaiaeaie niaoeeaeenoia aiaiiiai aeaea e
i?.). Ii aeaaea anee iu inoaaei ca ?aieaie ?acaiai?a anth
iaiaeiicia/iinoue, anth aeaienoaaiiinoue yoie ?iee: e oie/oiaeaiea

ia?aae aieiie i?aiaeaaeathuae e eo/oae /anoe iaoaai aaia?aeeoaoa, e
naiiineaieaiea “ae?oaeaie” n Aeoea?ii, e aucaaiiua yoei oyaeeea
ii?aaeaiey 1941—1942 aiaeia, e iiiaia ae?oaia, i /ai nae/an ana aieueoa
ieooo; anee ia iaiiiiei naaa e i oii, eaeie e?iaueth aeinoaeanue iaoaio
ia?iaeo icaaeaaeaiiay eiaiai Noaeeia iiaaaea,— aeaaea e iia, yoa aaeeeay
iiaaaea, ia iiaeao iineoaeeoue aai ii?aaaeaieth a aeacao iieieaiee.

Ii/aio? Aea iioiio, /oi e niune aieiu, oeaiiinoue iiaaaeu aeey ia?iaea e
aai Aiaeaey, aeey a?iee e aa Aaia?aeenneiona niaiaee a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eeoue io/anoe. A?aa aue iaeei, oeaeue aai ecaiaiey n
?iaeiie caiee, eae e oeaeue oie/oiaeaiey oaoecia, auea iauae. Iaeiaei
anee ia?iae, eae neacaii a “Aaneeee O??eeia”, aae n a?aaii “aie…
nayoie e i?aaue, nia?oiue aie ia ?aaee neaau, ?aaee aeecie ia caiea”, oi
e Noaeeio yoeo neia ia ioianaoue. Anee nieaeao, “aeoue, oa?oue,
aeaeaiue”, ii aianoa n oai e aioo?aiia inaiaiaeaeaiiue aaeeeie aieiie,
iiaeiyoue ath a naiai /aeiaa/aneii aeinoieinoaa, naycuaae n iiaaaeie
ia/oo i aeecie ni?aaaaeeeaie e n/anoeeaie, a eioi?ie ii aoaeao oicyeiii
naiae noaeueau, oi e?aieaaneee Oicyei — ainnoaiiaeaiea naiae /ooue auei
ia oo?a/aiiie aeanoe, aa ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia eiua caiee, ia?ooeioth
i?i/iinoue e aeeeoaoi?neoth iieiioo. A yoii niunea iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
nieaeao e aai Aaia?aeenneion aiaaaee eae au ia aeaoo ?aciuo aieiao,
eeoue /anoe/ii niaiaaoeo iaaeaeo niaith. E iaaea?ii ia oniae niieeiooue
a?ii iiaaaeiiai naethoa, eae ia?oae AEoeia ieacaeny a iiaea, a ec
ia?iaea-iiaaaeeoaey noaee auaeaaoue aeoo o?iioiaie ; iacaaeneiinoe e
naiaiaeu — aeaeaiianeeie iinoaiiaeaieyie i eeoa?aoo?a e eneonnoaa,
25-eaoieie n?ieaie ca “auneacuaaiey” e i?. Yoi iayaiia, ii nouanoaaiiia
e n oa/aieai a?aiaie ia?anoaaoaa ianiaiaaeaiea ia?iaeiiai e
noaeeinee-ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu n aeoaieie
i?iieoeaoaeueiinoueth iaia?oaeaii ?iiaiii A. A?inniaia “AEeciue e
noaeueaa”.

Enoi?ey uaae?a ia ia?aaeienu. Aeaniio, caeeaoee e?iaueth naith no?aio e
a yoii niunea, iiaeao auoue, aaeeinoaaiiue a iae ianoiyuee “a?aa
ia?iaea”, auioaeaeai ?aaee nio?aiaiey naiae aeecie e aeanoe ianoe ciaiy
ni?aaaaeeeaie ia?iaeiie aieiu i?ioea aua aieaa nae?aiiai e
aacaeaeinoiiai a?aaa; aeaniio, eioi?iai oniao a yoie aieia (aeiauoie aua
aieueoae, aac n/aoa e aac aeaeinoe i?ieeoie ia?iaeiie e?iaueth) ia?aeaao
/ooue ee ia nianeoaeai /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea,— yoi ee ia aeueyaieueneay
a?eiana enoi?ee, neiaii niaoeeaeueii i?eaeoiaiiay aeey oiai, /oiau
ieii/aoaeueii niooaoue a iaoai e aac oiai caaeoaeeaoainy niciaiee ana
iiiyoey i aeia?a e cea! Iiaeii iiiyoue aeia?iniaanoiuo noaeeienoia, oao,
/uea ioiioaiea e Noaeeio ia caiaoaii ia ei?unoiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a
nio?aiaiee nioeeaeueii-aeieaeiinoiie ie?aieaeu e eiiaiaeiuo iaoiaeia
?oeiaiaenoaa: ai anai yoii, aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia oae-oi i?inoi
?acia?aoueny. Aei neo ii? iai?inoi, ia aiai?y oaea i aueuo a?aiaiao. E
ana aea naaiaeiy, a ioee/ea io oao a?aiai, iu, iiaoi?ei aua iiuoa,
eioi?ui iu oiaaea ?aniieaaaee.

Iiea a iaoai ?anii?yaeaiee aue oieueei iiuo “ia?eiaea eoeueoa
yoe/iinoe”, anoanoaaiii auei ia ia?auo ii?ao iieaaaoue, /oi ana cei — a
yoii eoeueoa e a naiie ee/iinoe oe?aia. E noieo aai ?acaai/aoue, noieo
ioiaieoue iaeaieaa ae?aeiiianeea aai oeacu, ioe?uoue ai?ioa eaaa?ae,
i?iaicaeaneoue “ainnoaiiaeaiea eaieineeo ii?i”, eae, ana aeaenoaeoaeueii
e i?eaeao a ii?io. I?aaaea, oaea oiaaea — e /ai aeaeueoa, oai
oaa?aea—?acaeaaaeenue aieina i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeoaeyoue e?eoe/aneia
iniuneaiea i?iaeaiu. Ia?aaeiaay iauanoaaiiay iuneue aeiiuouaaeanue, eae
aea noaei aiciiaeiui ana oi, /oi oaia?ue caeiiii noaaeeinue a aeio
noaeeineiio ?oeiaiaenoao, e /oi aea a oaeii neo/aa noaeinue n ia?oeae,
Niaaoaie, ia?eneciii-eaieieciii, n naiei nioeeaeeciii. iaeiiaoe. Ii,
ai-ia?auo, oiaaeaoiea “neeu oi?iiaeaiey” eeaeee y?eue “?aaeceiiecia”
oaea ia iaeio iinoaiiaeo iiaeiaiuo aii?inia, a ai-aoi?uo, ioaeii
i?eciaoue, /oi a oeaeii, eae iauanoai, e iiaeeeiiiio eo ?ac?aoaieth iu a
oio iiiaio aua ia auee aioiau. Ioaeii auei oaeaeaoue noaeeineia a naiii’
O?ouaaa, a aai iaoiaeao ?oeiaiaenoaa oiaaeaoiae oicyenoaaiiie e
iieeoe/aneie ia?ano?ieeie, a aeaaiia — ioaeii auei ia?aaeeoue ana, /oi
aoaeao iioii, i?e A?aaeiaaa e aai i?aaiieeao, eiaaea aeaaea oaeay
ia?aie/aiiay ia?ano?ieea ieaaeaony caoiioaia e ianooieo aeieaay, aeooay
“yiioa canoiy”, /oiau ieii/aoaeueii ioaeaoue naaa io/ao: nooue ia a
eeoeao e aeaaea ia a oao eiie?aoiuo oi?iao, eioi?ua iiaeao i?eieiaoue
aueiaaiiay Noaeeiui nenoaia ath?ie?aoe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u,— nooue a naiie
yoie nenoaia. Iia iiaeao auoue ii-noaeeinee aeanoeie eee ii-a?aaeiaanee
“eeaa?aeueiie”, ii a ethaii naiai aa?eaioa iia aioe/aeiaa/ia, a ethauo
naieo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo icia/aao aeey iauanoaa ia?aee/ e ooiee.

Eiia/ii, iiaeii iacaaoue aeinoaoi/ii iiiai nouanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia, ii
eioi?ui “yiioa A?aaeiaaa” ioee/aeanue io “yiioe Noaeeia”. Ii noieue aea
?aaeueii e aioo?aiiaa eo ?iaenoai e i?aainoaaiiinoue aaeaa ee ia ii anai
iniiaiui, nenoaiiia?acothuei iieacaoaeyi. I?aaaea, a 70-a aiaeu aue
canoie e ia auei ianniauo ?ai?annee. Iaeiaei “iaianniaua” ana aea auee,
e eo i?inoi-iai?inoi ieacaeinue aeinoaoi/ii aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e,
oeiieiae/anee noiaeiie n oie, aeey eioi?ie Noaeeio a 30-a aiaeu
iio?aaiaaeanue aaeiaueia, a a iineaaiaiiua — aa?eaaueia. *oi aea
eanaaony canoiy, oi ana aai aeaaiua i?aaeiinueee neiaeeeenue eae ?ac i?e
Noaeeia. Eiaiii oiaaea, “a aoaeiyo aaeeeeo no?iae, a aanaeii a?ioioa,
iaiyo e caiia”, iaeiia?aiaiii n Iaaieoeie, Aeiai?iaynii, Oo?eneaii e eae
au a oaie yoiai anaie ?ac, oaea eiaai a ?oeao iaeoth a?eaaeieio ieoue,
iicaieythuoth auiooaoueny ec yoeo i?ioeai?a/ee e eiae/aneeo eiaooae.
Aaneiii?iienniia ioaa?aeaiea noaeeineie nenoaiu anoanoaaiii i?eaiaeeo e
noieue aea oaa?aeiio acaeyaeo e ia aaoi?a aeaiiie nenoaiu, e aiieia
iaeiicia/iie i?aanoaaiiie e iieeoe/aneie ioeaiea aai ee/iinoe,
aeayoaeueiinoe e enoi?e/aneie ?iee.

Eoae, iiaue acaeyae ia Noaeeia, iaoneiaeaiiue iiaui iiieiaieai
nicaeaiiie iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii nenoaiu iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Ii
oiaaea neaaeothuee aii?in: a iii-oi ii/aio noaei aiciiaeiui oieueei
oaia?ue? Ii/aio ia noi?ie?iaaeinue aua /aoaa?oue aaea iacaae, a ?aieao
ia?aie e?eoe/aneie aieiu, oie. /oi auea iiaeiyoa XX nuacaeii ia?oee?

Io/anoe, auoue iiaeao, ii e?aoeinoe n?iea iaaeaeo 1956 aiaeii e
a?aaeiaanei-noneianeie iiaaaeie a ieoya?a 1964 aiaea, iinea eioi?ie
e?eoe/aneia iniuneaiea noaeeineie yiioe noaei oeaeaiai?aaeaiii

A yoii ioiioaiee /?acau/aeii ciaiaiaoaeueiui i?aaenoaaeyaony iia
?acaeoea noaeeineie oaiu o Oaa?aeianeiai —-Iaeaieaa aeoaieiai
enoi?e/aneiai iuneeoaey a iaoae iiycee. Anee a eiioea 50-o aiaeia,
eiaaea ienaeanue aeaaa i Noaeeia ec iiyiu “Ca aeaeueth — aeaeue”, aa
aaoi? eae au acaaoeaae ia aanao naiae aeooe oi ceia e aeia?ia, /oi aeey
iaai caeeth/aei a naaa yoi eiy a io/eoaeueiii aeey iunee e niaanoe
aaeeinoaa:

Naiae e?ooie, naiae aeanoieie

Iai?aaiou

E i?aaiou,–

oi a iaienaiiie anaai ianeieueeeie aiaeaie iicaea iiyia “Ii i?aao
iaiyoe” (1966—1969) iao oaea e neaaea iiaeiaiie aeaienoaaiiinoe /oanoaa.
Eoeaaua ooeu?aiey yiioe, eiaaea

Caauoue, caauoue aaeyo aaciieaii.

Oioyo a caaaaiuea ooiieoue

AEeaoth aieue.—

i?iecaaee ia iiyoa aeaenoaea, i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiia oiio, ia eaeia
?ann/eouaaee eieoeeaoi?u e i?iaiaeieee iiaiai eaeaieiae/aneiai eo?na:
iie iiiiaee aio i?eeoe e iaeiicia/iiio e aaneiii?iienniiio ioaa?aeaieth
noaeeiueiu. A aaaeue Oaa?aeianeee canoae eeoue naiua ia?aua aiaeu
“a?aaeiaaneie yiioe”. Oai, o eiai iia ia?aae aeacaie any oeaeeeii,—
eoaea i?iua. Aio ii/aio ana aieaa oaa?aeu e “iaaeeaeaeoe/iu” iaoe
naaiaeiyoiea ioeaiee iauaai niunea aeayoaeueiinoe Noaeeia, e aio ii/aio
enoi?e/aneay iauaeoeaiinoue caeeth/aia eiaiii a ieo, a ia a i?aaeieo
iieii ni?aaaaeeeauo “n iaeiie noi?iiu” — “n ae?oaie noi?iiu”, ia eioi?uo
ian e oaia?ue “eia-eoi” iuoaaony oaea?aeaoue. Iaeie — ii eia?oeee noa?uo
i?aaenoaaeaiee, ae?oaea — /oi oaeaea aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeii — ec aiieia
nia?aiaiiie iieeoe/aneie ei?unoe.

Nae/an ii?ie ?acaeathony ?acae?aaeaiiua aieina: “Io neieueei aea iiaeii
— ana Noaeei aea Noaeei! Iaoee iaen/a?iaaioth oaio e aio naaa oaoaony
?ac?aoaiiie niaeinoueth, oi?aaeiythony a no?aeueaa ii iieieieeo”.

A iiaeiaiuo caia/aieyo, aeaaea anee iie i?eiaaeeaaeao y?ui
noaeeienoai (oioy, eiia/ii, ia oieueei ei), anoue ii?aaeaeaiiue ?acii.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaoa i?anna eoaea niaeaa e ioe?iaaiiaa noaeeo i
i?ioeii, /ai, neaaeai, i oiaea ia?ano?ieee e i aeayoaeueiinoe iuiaoiaai
ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa. Iiea yoi oae, iu ana aua
inoaainy a ?aieao neiaeeaoeony a noaeeineoth yiioo iauanoaaiiuo ii?i, e
niioaaonoaaiii iaoa ii?aeueiia i?aai ia e?eoeeo Noaeeia auaeyaeeo a
ecaanoiie ia?a oneiaiui. Yoi ai-ia?auo. Ai-aoi?uo, aa?ii e oi, /oi
iiiaea ia/aoiua aunooieaiey i Noaeeia e aai a?aiaie ia aaiaeyo a iai?io
neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiuo ianneaia iiaiai oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea.
Inoaiaaeeaay aieiaiea /eoaoaey ia ioaeaeueiuo aiiethueo oaeoao
noaeeineiai aaccaeiiey, aeanoieinoe, eiaa?noaa, iiaeiaiua ioaeeeaoeee
aua e aua ?ac iaaeeaatho iaoe /oanoaa (/oi aeaenoaeoaeueii caaeooaoueny.
Ii aeaaiia, aeoiaaony, ana-oaee a ae?oaii. A iaaeinoaoea enoi?e/aneiai
aeaeeiiai eiaeono?eaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai iiaeuaia, nicaeaaaeanue (e oniaea
iieiinoueth noi?ie?iaaoueny) nenoaia, eioi?ay, i?iaicaeaoay eicoiae
aeaeaeaiey “aia?aae e auoa”, a noa?a yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
ioiioaiee oaeoe/anee i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia ia?ooeioth noaaeeueiinoue e
iaeciaiiinoue. Nenoaia i?eioeeieaeueii noaoe/aneay, niciaoaeueii
ioeeth/eaoay ana aeaeaaoaee nioeeaeueiiai naii?acaeoey e noieue aea
iineaaeiaaoaeueii iiae/eieaoay ana naie iiaenenoaiu e einoeooou — io
iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii aei oeieu, i?annu, Nithca
ienaoaeae — caaea/a aini?iecaiaenoaa e oaaeiaa/aiey iaee/iiai ninoiyiey
iauanoaa. E a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaeoaeueii iaeaaeathuay oie eia?oeeae e
niiniaiinoueth e ?aaaia?aoeee, oie no?aoiie neeie nii?ioeaeaiey ethaui
i?aia?aciaaieyi (aeaaea anee iie enoiaeyo naa?oo), eioi?ay a 60-a aiaeu
iaoneiaeea iaoniao ia/eiaiee O?ouaaa e i?aaei?eiyoie auei yeiiiie/aneie
?aoi?iu, a a iaoe aeie neacuaaaony i/aaeaeiui aeey anao oi?iiaeaieai
ia?ano?ia/iiai i?ioeanna.

N iieiie oaaaeeoaeueiinoueth iieacaa, /oi e a iaeaieaa “iyaeii”,
iaianeeuenoaaiiii naiai aa?eaioa noaeeineay nenoaia noieue aea ii?i/ia,
aoaeoaeueia e aania?niaeoeaia, eae e a ia?aiia/aeueii aeanoeii,
a?aaeiaaneee iiuo eae au aei?eniaae aeey ian yoo nenoaio e oai naiui
oeao?o naiiai Noaeeia, aai iauaeoeaii-enoi?e/aneoth ?ieue iaiaoiaeeii,
/oiau i?aiaeieaoue, aci?aaoue noieue oa?aeoa?ioth aeey nia?aiaiiiai
/aeiaaea yiioeeiiaeueioth ianneaiinoue e aeooioo), ii, ca n?aaieoaeueii
?aaeeeie eneeth/aieyie, aeatho iaei ieue oio, iieeoe/aneiio e
enoi?e/aneiio niciaieth iauanoaa. Oai aieaa, /oi Noaeei i?aaenoaao a ieo
iau/ii eeoue eae yaeaiea i?ioeiai, ia eiathuaa i?yiiai ioiioaiey e
nia?aiaiiiio iieiaeaieth no?aiu, aa i?iaeaiai e ia?niaeoeaai. Anee oae,
oi e a naiii aeaea ia ii?a ee aio ooiaeeoue ia no?aieoeu niaoeeaeueiuo
enoi?e/aneeo aeo?iaeia e eiea. i/euay ieiuaaeeo ianniaie ia/aoe aeey
/aai-oi aieaa ceiaiaeiaaiiai?

Anee au oae… Ii. e niaeaeaieth, yoi nianai ia oae. E, i?eciaaay ca
oiiiyioouie aieinaie aeieth enoeiu, oi/aony, iaeiaei, ioaaoeoue ei n
iieiui oaaaeaeaieai: Noaeei — oaia ino?i aeooaeueiay, naaiaeiyoiyy. Ia
aeey iaeieo niaoeeaeenoia — aeey iauanoaa a oeaeii. Ii — ianouiay
i?iaeaia iaoaai ianoiyuaai e iaoaai aoaeouaai, io oiai eee eiiai
?ac?aoaiey eioi?ie yoi aoaeouaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaeneo. E ianoiyuee
?acaiai? i iai aua oieueei-oieueei ia/eiaaony.

*oi aea aeaeaao oaio Noaeeia noieue aaaeiie aeey /aeiaaea iaoeo aeiae?
?acoiaaony, ia noieueei ii nai, oioy caaaaeee (iiae/an i?a/iua oaeiu)
aai ee/iinoe e aeia?aoee, eeoue io/anoe i?eioe?uoua, aua, aa?iyoii,
aeieaia a?aiy aoaeoo caieiaoue iaoa aiia?aaeaiea. E aeaaea ia noieueei
aai iieeoe/aneay e ainoaea?noaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue, oioy a iae anoue
iaiaei oaeiai, /oi e aei neo ii? iiiaea aeaai?acoiiua iaoe iauanoaiaaaeu
i?aaeii/eoatho iaoiaeeoue, eae noiea n iaaeienueth: “Ia aeacae! Oaueao!”
Iaeaieaa aeooaeueiui, iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaothuei a nia?aiaiiie aeecie
inoaaony aeey ian ianeaaeea Noaeeia. I?aaeaea anaai a aeaea oie nenoaiu
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ay nicaeaia auea a NNN? iiae aai
?oeiaiaenoaii, onoiyea a iio?ynaieyo 50—60-o aiaeia, caiiai
noaaeeece?iaaeanue a “yiioo canoiy” e, oaeei ia?acii, n ecaanoiuie
iiaeeoeeaoeeyie aeiaeeea aei ia?ano?ieee, a cia/eo, e aei naaiaeiyoiaai
aeiy.

Ia?aae iaie noieo caaea/a i?aiaeieaiey yoie nenoaiu, i?aa?auaiey aa a
ia/oi i?eioeeieaeueii io iaa ioee/iia. Caaea/a iienoeia iaaa?iyoiay ii
naiae o?oaeiinoe, e nae/an, ia noa?oa, iia, iiaeao auoue, iniaaiii
aeanoei eniuouaaao ian. Eniuouaaao iaoo aieth e ia?aiaiai, na?ueaciinoue
iaoeo iaia?aiee, enoeiioth ia?o iaoae aioo?aiiae naiaiaeu, aioiaiinoue
ianoaeaeaoue (a caoai e ?aoaoue) naie i?iaeaiu aeaenoaeoaeueii
aacaiyciaiii, ia ia?aie/eaay naay i?eau/iuie cai?aoaie: yoiai eanaoueny
aua iaeuecy, yoi aua ia neacae Ai?aa/aa, a yoi ii (eee Eaiei) neacae
eia/a… Anee iiaeiaiua cai?aou aeey ian inoathony a neea — cia/eo iai
ia noieo e a?aoueny ca aeaei, iu aai oieueei iiaoaei — e i?eoii
iaycaoaeueii — naiae iieiaei/aoinoueth e o?oninoueth. Caoi anee iu e a
naiii aeaea nic?aee aeey na?ueaciiai ?acaiai?a i oii, /oi anoue e /aai
iu oioei, oiaaea ii nai niaith aoaeao e naiaiaeiui io eicoiaiaie
e?eeeeainoe, e ioaaonoaaiiui, ene?aiiei, eiino?oeoeaiui.

Aeaaaeoa aea ia?aoeiny iaiin?aaenoaaiii e ee/iinoe Noaeeia e
auyniei, eaeei ii aue e ii/aio oaeei noae. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey
yoie oeaee i?iniio?ei aai aeia?aoeth: eoi auee aai ?iaeeoaee,
eaeei ii aue a aeaonoaa, a thiinoe e o. ae.

2. A ianeieueeeo aeanyoeao eeeiiao?ia io noieeoeu A?ocee Oeoeena (iuia
Oaeeene) iaoiaeeony ai?iaeie Ai?e. A eiioea i?ioeiai aaea ii
i?aaenoaaeye niaie iinaeaiea n iaeiiyoaaeiuie aeiiaie, n iueueiuie
oei/eaie eaa?oaeia aaaeiiou. Ai?e ?aniieiaeai ia aa?aaao Eo?u a
aeeaiieniie ianoiinoe. Ia oieiao aie?oa ai?iaea iiae ai?y/ei eaaeacneei
nieioeai ecaeaaia i?iec?anoae aeiia?aae, ec eioi?iai aeeoaee aeaeaee
ioee/iia aeii. A ae?aaiea a?aiaia, niaeanii a?a/aneie ieoieiaee, ssnii e
a?aiiaaou eiaiii ia /a?iiii?neeo aa?aaao A?ocee eneaee cieioia ?oii.

A ia/aea 70-o aiaeia XIX aaea ec naea Aeeaee-Eeei a Ai?e ia?anaeeeny
Aenna?eii Eaaiiae/ Aeaeoaaoaeee, naiiaeiee. Anoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi
ii ia aue a?oceiii ii iaoeeiiaeueiinoe, a i?ienoiaeee ec inaoei, aeeaoeo
a ai?ao. A 1874 aiaeo ii aeaieeny ia thiie Aeaoa?eia Aai?aeaaia
Aaeaaeca, eioi?ay, eae e aa ioae, ?iaeeeanue a naiuea e?aiinoiuo.
Aeaoa?eia Aai?aeaaia auea iaa?aiioiie, iiaeiaii naiaio ioaeo ia aiai?eea
ii-?onnee.

Yoa ?uaeaaieinay i?eaeaeaoaeueiay aeaiueia auea aeoaiei ?aeeaeiciie. Aua
a iieiaeinoe ae i?eoeinue iioi?iieoue aeaoo naieo ieaaeaioeaa. Eiaaea 9
aeaeaa?y (ii a?eai?eaineiio eaeaiaea?th 21 aeaeaa?y) 1879 aiaea ?iaeeeny
nui Eineo, iia ii/oanoaiaaea, /oi aeeciue aa i?eia?aea iiaue niune. Iia
iaaeii ethaeea naiaai nuia e eaneiai iacuaaea aai Nini, Ninnei. Eiaaea
aa ?aaaiie caaieae, iia naiiioaa?aeaiii auoaaeeaaea aai. Aieaciue ia
i?ioea aanneaaeii: ia eeoea E. A. Noaeeia inoaeenue iioee io iniu, a
iaeiie ?oeie ii aeaeaae n o?oaeii aei eiioea niine aeecie.

?iaeeoaey ii-?aciiio i?aaenoaaeyee naaa noaeueao nuia. Iaoue a 1888
aiaeo caienaea aai a ianoiia aeooiaiia o/eeeua. Ii anei?a Aenna?eii
Aeaeoaaoaeee caa?ae aai ioooaea. Ii oioae, /oiau aai nui oaeaea noae
naiiaeieeii. Ioaoe iiaac aai n niaie a Oeoeen, aaea ?aaioae a oa/aiea
o?ao eao ia iaoaiie oaa?eea Aaeaeueoaiiaa, iinea oiai eae aai
nianoaaiiay ianoa?neay a Ai?e ?aci?eeanue. Iaeiaei ai?ueaa a naiuea
caeii/eeanue a iieueco iaoa?e, ioee/aaoaeny neeueiie aieae. Nini iiyoue
aa?ioeny a o/eeeua. Ioaoe oia? a 1890 aiaeo.

Aeaoa?eia Aai?aeaaia ?aaioaea i?a/eie a aiaaouo naiueyo, /oiau
i?iei?ieoue naay e nuia. Yoa aeaiueia i?iaeeea aeieaoth aeeciue. Iia
oaeaeaea, eae aa nui noae ?oeiaiaeeoaeai aeaaioneie no?aiu, ie?oaeaiiui
iieeiiaieai e ainoeuaieai ethaeae. Naia iia aaea ne?iiioth, i?inooth
aeeciue a A?ocee. Ii i?inueaa nuia iia ia ei?ioeia a?aiy ia?anaeeeanue a
E?aieue, ii ana aea anei?a aa?ioeanue aeiiie. Oai iia e oia?ea a 1937
aiaeo.

A aeooiaiii o/eeeua iaeue/ee Aeaeoaaoaeee n/eoaeny iaeiei ec eo/oeo
o/aieeia. Ii auaeaeyeny i?e?iaeiui oiii e iniaaiii oi?ioae iaiyoueth.
Yoa aai niiniaiinoue aiineaaenoaee iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea.

A oi a?aiy iao/aiea oei ia ?onneii ycuea, ii a?oceineea iaoeeiiaeueiua
o?aaeeoeee ana-oaee nio?aiyeenue. Ii ainiiieiaieyi iaeiieeannieeia,
Aeaeoaaoaeee i?i/eoae ana eieae a ai?iaeneie aeaeeioaea, iniaaiii ii
ethaee ?iiaioe/aneoth a?oceineoth i?ico. A oa aiaeu ii iiciaeiieeny n
aa?iyie eeanne/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee *aa/aaaaeca e ?onoaaaee. Iniaia
i?eno?anoea ii eniuouaae e eieaai ienaoaey Eacaaae.

A ethia 1894 aiaea ii ieii/aiee o/eeeua ii aue ioia/ai eae eo/oee
o/aiee. O/eoaeue niaaoiaae aai iaoa?e i?iaeieaeeoue iao/aiea niiniaiiai
iaeue/eea. Iieiaeie Eineo Aenna?eiiiae/, ia aeinoeaoee aua 15-eaoiaai
aic?anoa, a naioya?a 1894 aiaea aue ca/eneai a Oeoeenneoth i?aaineaaioth
aeooiaioth naieia?eth. N yoiai a?aiaie e aei iay 1899 aiaea yoi naiia
cia/eoaeueiia o/aaiia caaaaeaiea A?ocee ieacuaaei ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ia
aai aeooiaiia ?acaeoea. A yoe aiaeu ii aue neooaoaeai naieia?ee,
iieo/aaoei noeiaiaeeth.

Oeoeenneay i?aaineaaiay naieia?ey yaeyeanue oiaaea ?annaaeieeii
anyeiai ?iaea inaiaiaeeoaeueiuo eaeae n?aaee iieiae?aee, eae
ia?iaeie/anei-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo, oae e
ia?enenonei-eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo; iia auea iieia ?acee/iuie
oaeiuie e?oaeeaie. Ainiiaenoaothuee a naieia?ee eacoeoneee ?aaeei
aucuaae o Noaeeia ao?iue i?ioano, ieoae e oneeeaae a i?i
?aaiethoeeiiiua iano?iaiey. Iyoiaaeoeaoeeaoiee Noaeei noaiiaeoueny
?aaiethoeeiia?ii.

“ A ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea,– aiai?eo Noaeei ,– y anooiee n
15-eaoiaai aic?anoa, eiaaea y naycaeny n iiaeiieueiuie a?oiiaie
?onneeo ia?enenoia, i?iaeeaaaoeo oiaaea a Caeaaeacuea. Yoe a?oiiu
eiaee ia iaiy aieueoia aeeyiea e i?eaeee aeon e iiaeiieueiie
ia?enenoeie eeoa?aoo?a”.

1 A 1896—1897 aiaeao Noaeei noieo ai aeaaa ia?enenoneeo e?oaeeia
naieia?ee. A aaaonoa 1898 aiaea ii e oi?iaeueii anooiaao a oeoeenneoth
i?aaieioeeth ?inneeneie nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aai/ee ia?oee. Noaeei
noaiiaeony /eaiii a?oiiu „Ianaia-Aeane” — ia?aie A?oiineie
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie i?aaieaaoeee, nua?aaoae a 1893—1898 aiaeao
ecaanoioth iieiaeeoaeueioth ?ieue a ?ani?ino?aiaiee eaeae ia?enecia.
„Ianaia-aeane” ia auea IIAeoe/anee iaeii?iaeia—a? aieueoeinoai noiyei ia
iiceoeeyo „eaaaeueiiai“•• ia?enecia” e neeiiyeinue e ao?aeoaciiio ia-

oeeiiaee“io“ Noaeei, Eaoeoiaaee, Oeoeoeeaeca ninoaaoo^EOOIiaiaeyuaa
yae?i ?aaiethoeeiiiiai ooiEE?aai iaiueoeinoaa „Ianaia-aeane”,
Oe^^^?^aa?iaeuoai ?aaiethoeeiiiie nioeeae-

1 Noaeei aaae?o a yoio ia?eiae eioaineaioth i?iiaaaiaeenoneoth ?aaioo a
?aai/eo e?oaeeao, o/anoaoao ia iaeaaaeueiuo ?aai/eo nia?aieyo, ieoao
eenoiaee, i?aaiecoao noa/ee. Yoi auea ia?aay oeiea ?aaiethoeeiiiie
i?aeoe/aneie ?aaiou, i?ieaeaiiay Noaeeiui n?aaee ia?aaeiauo i?ieaoa?eaa
Oeoeena. \

„ss aniiieiath, — aiai?ee Noaeei,— 1898 aiae, eiaaea y aia?aua
iieo/ee e?oaeie ec ?aai/eo aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ianoa?neeo… Caeanue, a
e?oao yoeo oiaa?euae, y iieo/ee oiaaea ia?aia nai? aiaaia
?aaiethoeeiiiia e?auaiea… iieie ia?auie o/eoaeyie auee oeoeenneea
?aai/ea”^

Caiyoey ia?enenoneeo ?aai/eo e?oaeeia a Oeoeena i?ioiaeeee ii
ninoaaeaiiie Noaeeiui i?ia?aiia.

A naieia?ee, aaea auea iaeaaeaia no?iaay neaaea ca „iiaeic?eoaeueiuie”,
ia/eiatho •aeiaaaeuaaoueny i iaeaaaeueiie ?aaiethoeeiiiie ?aaioa
Noaeeia. 29 iay 1899 aiaea aai eneeth/atho ec naieia?ee ca i?iiaaaiaeo
ia?eneno. -Iaeioi?ia • a?aiy Noaeei ia?aaeaaaony o?ieaie, a caoai (a
aeaeaa?a 1899 a.) iinooiaao ia ?aaioo a Oeoeenneoth oece/a-neoth
iana?aaoi?eth a ea/anoaa au/eneeoaey-iaaethaeaoaey, ie ia ieiooo ia
i?ae?auay ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. 1

Oaea a oi a?aiy Noaeei—iaeei ec naiuo yia?ae/iuo e aeaeiuo ?aaioieeia
oeoeenneie nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee. ?„A ia?eiae
1898—1900 aa. neiaeeeanue e ioi?ieeanue ?oeiaiaeyuay oeaio?aeueiay
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay a?oiia oeoeenneie i?aaiecaoeee… 1 Oeoeenneay
oeaio?aeueiay nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay a?oiia i?iaaea ia?iiioth
?aaiethoeeiiii-i?iiaaaiaeenoneoth e i?aaiecaoeeiiioth ?aaioo ii
nicaeaieth iaeaaaeueiie nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oeeiie
i?aaiecaoeee’^. Noaeei aicaeaaeyao yoo a?oiio. Eaieineee „Nithc
ai?ueau ca inaiaiaeaeaiea ?aai/aai eeanna” aue ia?acoeii, eioi?iio
iaeciaiii neaaeiaaee a naiae ?aaioa oeoeenneea ?aaiethoeeiiiua
nioeeae-aeaiie?aou. ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea a Oeoeena iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
?aaiethoeeiiiiai iaiueoeinoaa „Ianaia-aeane” (Noaeei, Eaoeoiaaee,
Oeoeoeeaeca) a yoio ia?eiae ia/eiaao auoiaeeoue ec ?aiie noa?ie, /enoi
i?iiaaaiaeenoneie ?aaiou „n auaeathueieny aaeeieoeaie” ec ?aai/eo. *
Aaeoaoeey a iannao ioo?i auionea eenoiaie ia aeiai* aeiaaiua oaiu, ioo?i
eaoo/eo nia?aiee e iieeoe/aneeo aeaiiino?aoeee i?ioea oea?ecia
auaeaeaaaony aeeciueth ia ia?aue ieai.

Iiaoth oaeoeeo ano?a/aao a oouee iiii?ooienoe/aneia aieueoeinoai
„Ianaia-aeane”, eioi?ia neeiiyeinue e „yeiiiiecio”, /o?aeinue
?aaiethoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia, auei i?ioea „oee/iie” iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau n
naiiaea?aeaaeai. Noaeei, ?aaiethoeeiiiia iaiueoeinoai „Ianaia-aeane”
aaaeoo iaeanoi/?iioth e iai?eie?eioth ai?ueao i?ioea iiii?ooienoia ca
i?iaaaeaiea iiaie oaeoeee, oaeoeee ianniaie iieeoe/aneie aaeoaoeee. Iie
iaoiaeyo ai?y/oth iiaeaea?aeeo o ia?aaeiauo ?aai/eo Oeoeena.

A ia?aoiaea oeoeenneeo nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia e iiaui iaoiaeai ?aaiou
auaeathuothny ?ieue nua?ae Aeeoi? Eo?iaoianeee—ia?aciaaiiue ia?eneno^
noieeee iineaaeiaaoaeue e aeeaeaeoee ni?aoiee Eaieia, i?iaiaeiee
eaieineeo eaeae a Caeaaeacuea, Ii i?eacaea a Oeoeen inaiueth 1900 aiaea
ii caaycuaaao oaniua ioiioaiey NI Noaeeiui e ?aaiethoeeiiiui
iaiueoeinoaii „Ianaia-aeane”, noaiiaeony aeeaeaeoei ae?oaii e ni?aoieeii
Noaeeia.

Eiaaea n aeaeaa?y 1900 aiaea ia/aea auoiaeeoue eaieineay “Ene?a”, Noaeei
oeaeeeii noae

3. A aeaeaa?a 1925 aiaea ioe?ueny XIV nuacae ia?oee. A
iieeoe/aneii io/?oa OeE Noaeei ia?eniaae y?eoth ea?oeio ?inoa
iieeoe/aneie e oicyenoaaiiie iiue Niaaoneiai Nithca. Iaeiaei, aiai?ee
Noaeei, iu ia iiaeai oaeiaeaoai?eoueny yoeie oniaoaie, eai no?aia iaoa
i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny ionoaeie, aa?a?iie. Aeey oiai, /oiau
iaania/eoue yeiiiie/aneoth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue iaoae no?aiu e oe?aieoue
a? iai?iiiniiniaiinoue, aeey oiai, /oiau nicaeaoue iaiaoiaeeioth aeey
iiaaaeu nioeeaeecia yeiiiie/aneoth aaco,—iaaei i?aa?aoeoue iaoo no?aio
ec aa?a?iie a eiaeono?eaeueioth.

N o?eaoiu XIV nuacaea aiaeaeue ia?oee aiai?ee: “I?aa?aoeoue
iaoo no?aio ec aa?a?iie a eiaeono?eaeueioth, niiniaioth i?iecaiaeeoue
naieie nianoaaiiuie neeaie iaiaoiaeeiia iai?oaeiaaiea,—aio a /?i nooue,
iniiaa iaoae aaia?aeueiie eeiee”.

EIAeONO?EAEECAOeEss a enoi?e/anee e?ao/aeoea n?iee oaeie
ia?iiiie e aianoa n oai ionoaeie a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee no?aiu, eaeie
yaeyeny Niaaoneee Nithc a oio ia?eiae, i?aaenoaaeyea aeaaioneea
o?oaeiinoe. Ioaeii auei iino?ieoue caiiai oeaeue ?yae io?aneae
eiaeono?ee, iaecaanoiuo noa?ie oea?neie ?innee. Ioaeii auei nicaeaoue
iiaoth iai?iiioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue, eioi?ie ia auei a i?aaeiae ?innee.
Ioaeii auei iino?ieoue caaiaeu nia?aiaiiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei,
iaaaaeiiuo noa?ie aea?aaia. Yoi o?aaiaaei eieinnaeueiuo n?aaenoa.
Eaieoaeenoe/aneea ainoaea?noaa aeiauaaee eo aaniiuaaeiie yenieoaoaoeeae
ia?iaea, caoaaoie/aneeie aieiaie, e?iaaaui a?aaaaeii eieiiee e caaeneiuo
no?ai, aiaoieie caeiaie. Ii Niaaoneay no?aia ia iiaea iieueciaaoueny
yoeie a?yciuie enoi/ieeaie, a iooue aiaoieo caeiia aue aeey ia? cae?uo
eaieoaeenoaie. Inoaaaeinue aeiauoue n?aaenoaa oieueei aioo?e Niaaoneie
no?aiu.

Iie?aynue ia oeacaiey Eaieia, Noaeei ?ac?aaioae iieiaeaiey i
nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee iaoae no?aiu. Ii iieacae, /oi:

1) nouanoai eiaeono?eaeecaoeee ninoieo ia a i?inoii ?inoa
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a a •?acaeoee oyae?eie eiaeono?ee e i?aaeaea anaai a?
na?aeoeaaeiu—iaoeiino?iaiey, eai oieueei nicaeaiea oyae?eie
eiaeono?ee e nianoaaiiiai iaoeiino?iaiey iaania/eaaao iaoa?eaeueioth
aaco nioeeaeecia e noaaeo no?aio nioeeaeecia a iacaaeneiia io
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ie?a iieiaeaiea;

2) yeni?ii?eaoeey iiiaueeia e eaieoaeenoia a iaoae no?aia a ?acoeueoaoa
Ieoya?ueneie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, oie/oiaeaiea /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, oaa?eee, caaiaeu, aaiee e o. ae. e ia?aaea/a eo
a iauaia?iaeioth nianoaaiiinoue—nicaeaee iiuiue enoi/iee
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iaeiieaiey aeey ?acaeoey eiaeono?ee;

3) nioeeaeenoe/aneay eiaeono?eaeecaoeey a ei?ia ioee/aaony io
eaieoaeenoe/aneie— iineaaeiyy no?ieony ioo?i eieiieaeueiuo caoaaoia e
a?aaaaeae, aiaiiuo ?aca?iiia, eaaaeueiuo caeiia e aaniiuaaeiie
yenieoaoaoeee ?aai/eo iann e eieiieaeueiuo ia?iaeia, a nioeeaeenoe/aneay
eiaeono?eaeecaoeey iie?aaony ia iauanoaaiioth nianoaaiiinoue ia
n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, ia iaeiieaiea e naa?aaeaiea aiaaonoa,
nicaeaaaaiuo o?oaeii ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi; nioeeaeenoe/aneay
eiaeono?eaeecaoeey ia?ac?uaii naycaia n iaoeeiiiui oeo/oaieai
iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey o?oaeyueony iann;

4) iiyoiio ei?aiiuie caaea/aie a ai?ueaa ca eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth
yaeythony iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, nieaeaiea
naaanoieiinoe, ai?ueaa ca o?oaeiaoth aeenoeeieeio, ?aaeei yeiiiiee e o.
ae.;

5) oneiaey no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia a NNN?, o?oaeiaie yiooceaci
?aai/aai eeanna— aeaeatho aiciiaeiui inouanoaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo aunieeo
oaiiia eiaeono?eaeecaoeee;

6) iooue e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ia?aaeaeea naeueneiai oicyenoaa eaaeeo
/a?ac eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth no?aiu, eioi?ay aeieaeea nicaeaoue
oaoie/aneoth aaco aeey yoie ia?aaeaeee.

Aii?oae?iiua yoie /?oeie e yniie i?ia?aiiie o?oaeyueany
Niaaoneiai Nithca i?enooieee e nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee
no?aiu.

Ie iaeia iaeanoue, ie iaeei aii?in eiaeono?eaeecaoeee ia
oneieuecaee ec iiey c?aiey Noaeeia. Noaeei—eieoeeaoi? nicaeaiey iiauo
io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?acaeoey e ?aeiino?oeoeee ?aiaa ionoaeuo
io?aneae. Noaeei-aaeioiiaeoaeue nicaeaiey aoi?ie
oaieueii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneie aacu a iaoae no?aia, no?ieoaeuenoaa
Eocaanna. Noaeei—i?aaiecaoi? e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue nioeeaeenoe/aneea
no?iae. Noaeeia?aaeneee o?aeoi?ino?ie, Aeiai?ino?ie, Iaaieoino?ie,
O?aeiaono?ie, ?inoianeee naeueiaono?ie, Eociaoeeno?ie, Oo?enea,
Na?aoianeee eiiaaeino?ie, no?ieoaeuenoai aaoiiiaeeueiuo caaiaeia a
Iineaa e Ai?ueeii e ?yae ae?oaeo no?iae,—ana iie naycaiu n eiaiai
Noaeeia.

Oaea e eiioeo 1927 aiaea ii?aaeaeeeenue ?aoathuea oniaoe
iieeoeee nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. Ia?aua eoiae auee
iiaeaaaeaiu XV nuacaeii ia?oee, nia?aaoeiny a aeaeaa?a 1927 aiaea. A
nai?i io/?oiii aeieeaaea Noaeei aeae y?eoth ea?oeio oniaoia
nioeeaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e iiae/a?eioe iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aeaeueiaeoaai ?anoe?aiey e oe?aieaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneeo eiiaiaeiuo
aunio, eae a ai?iaea, oae e a aea?aaia, aea?aea eo?n ia eeeaeaeaoeeth
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo yeaiaioia a ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa. N eneeth/eoaeueiie
aeoaeiie oiaa?eu Noaeei ?ane?ue ia?aae ia?oeae e niaaoneei ia?iaeii
anth neiaeiinoue e iianiinoue neiaeeaoaainy a?aiy “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iieiaeaiey e ii?aaeaeee i?eioeeiu iaeanoe niaaoneie aiaoiae iieeoeee.
Ii aiai?ee:

„Caaea/e ia?oee iaeanoe aiaoiae iieeoeee:

1. I?iaiaeeoue e ai?aaeue iieeoeeo ie?a e oe?aieaiey aeaeiauo naycae ni
anaie no?aiaie;

2. Niaethaeaoue inoi?iaeiinoue e ia aeaaaoue aoyiooue a eiioeeeou iaoo
no?aio i?iaieaoi?ai aieiu, i?eaueoei caa?aaaoue aea? /oaeeie ?oeaie;

3. Anaia?ii oe?aieyoue aiaaoth iiuue iaoae E?aniie A?iee e
Aiaiii-Ii?neiai E?aniiai Oeioa;

4. E?aieoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nayce ae?oaeau n o?oaeyueieny anao no?ai,
caeioa?aniaaiiuie a ie?a e ae?oaeaa iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie.

4.1931—1933 aiaeu i?aaenoaaeyee niaie naiaia?aciue ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae
a ?acaeoee Niaaoneiai Nithca, a no?ieoaeuenoaa iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia
iiaiai oeia, eioi?ue nicaeaaae Noaeei. Iauanoai ?acaee?aeinue aeo?yie
eieeaeoeaecaoeee e eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. Auaoea iiiiceoeeiia?u auee
?aca?iieaiu, iaeiaei /eaiu iiiiceoeeiiiuo a?oii iinea ioaee/iiai
iieayiey auee inoaaeaiu a iieeoe/aneie aeecie, ii, anoanoaaiii, ia ia
aunoeo ?oeiaiaeyueo iinoao. Auaoea iiiiceoeeiiiua a?oiiu en/acaee oaeaea
e iioiio, /oi ia/aei eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e eieeaeoeaecaoeee icia/aei
i?aeoe/aneia ?aoaiea iauanoaaiiuo i?iaeai, eioi?ua ?aiueoa
ianoaeaeaeenue oieueei a i?eioeeia, oai?aoe/anee. *oi eanaaony ioiioaiey
e iieeoe/aneiio ?oeiaiaenoao, ?oeiaiaeyuae ?iee Noaeeia, oi noaee
i?iyaeyoueny ae?oaea iano?iaiey. A oi a?aiy eae iauanoai iiae aeeyieai
ao?ue eieeaeoeaecaoeee e iiaaaeu noaeeineiai iai?aaeaiey iaae
iiiiceoeeae iaaeayeinue ia eaeia-oi niya/aiea e eeaa?aeecaoeeth aeecie,
a ia?oeeiii ?oeiaiaenoaa aiiaue oneeeeenue aieina, o?aaothuea ooiaea
Noaeeia. Oaea a 1930 aiaeo, oioy e ia ioaee/ii, iiiiceoeeiiiay a?oiia,
naycaiiay n eiaiaie N. E. Nu?oeiaa e A. A. Eiieiaaeca, auneacuaaeanue ca
niauaiea Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y. Nionoy aeaa aiaea aiaeiae/iia
o?aaiaaiea auaeaeioea a?oiia I. I. ?thoeia, caoai e?oaeie A. I.
Nie?iiaa, I. A. Yeniiioa e I. A. Oieia/aaa au?acee yoi a naiae
i?ia?aiia, ioiaoea, /oi ia?yaeo n iieeoe/aneeie ?aoaieyie aeieaeia auoue
iaeaeaia aiciiaeiinoue aeey niauaiey Noaeeia n iinoa Aaia?aeueiiai
nae?aoa?y OeE. Aia anyeiai niiiaiey, yoe aiaeu auee iai?yaeaiiuie aeey
Noaeeia n oi/ee c?aiey nicaeaiey aai ee/iie aeeeoaoo?u. Auei iaynii, eae
aoaeao ?aaae?iaaoue iauanoai ia oae iacuaaaioth “aoi?oth ?aaiethoeeth”.
Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue aeey iaai nicaeaaaei oaeaea e ana aieaa iuooeiia
i?ioeainoiyiea oe?ieeo e?oaia ia?oeeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa.

E?ecenioth aeey Noaeeia ianoaiiaeo oneeeei oi, /oi a iiya?a 1932 aiaea
aai aoi?ay aeaia Iaaeaaeaea Aeeeeoaaa iieii/eea n niaie, inoaaea
ne?ioaie aeaieo aeaoae A aacaoao niiaueee i aiacaiiie e
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie nia?oe. Iieieiie aue 31 aiae.

A ia/aea 30-o aiaeia ec ia?oee auee eneeth/aiu o?e ecaanoiuo aeayoaey
iiiiceoeee, e ei auianee noaeaaiue i?eaiai?, caoai a nnueeo aiiaue auee
ioi?aaeaiu iiiaea aeaeiua iiiiceoeeiia?u.

XVII nuacae AEI(a), i?ioiaeeaoee a ia/aea 1934 aiaea, iieo/ee iacaaiea
“nuacae iiaaaeeoaeae”. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aiaoia ii eacaeny
aeaiiino?aoeeae aieueoiai aaeeinoaa. Ii ia naiii aeaea ianoaiiaea aioo?e
aunoaai ia?oeeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa auea ii-i?aaeiaio iai?yaeai iie.
Aioo?aiiea eiioeeeou au?aceeenue e a oii, /oi niaeanii noaiia?aiia
nuacaea, Noaeeia eca?aee ia Aaia?aeueiui nae?aoa?ai OeE, a. oi?iaeueii
/eaiii Nae?aoa?eaoa e nae?aoa?ai OeE AEI(a). Oioy iieo/eaoe ia nuacaea
neiai ecaanoiua iiiiceoeeiia?u aiieiaaoe/anee i?aaiciineee aaiee
Noaeeia, a ?oeiaiaeyueo ia?oeeiuo e?oaao aiiaue anoae aii?in i aai
ia?aiauaiee Iiiaea n aieueoei oaeiaieuenoaeai aeaeaee au ia iinoo
Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y OeE iiioey?iiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey Eaieia?aaeneie
ia?oeeiie i?aaiecaoeee N. I. Ee?iaa.

5.1 aeaeaa?y 1934 aiaea Na?aae. Ie?iiiae/ Ee?ia au, oaeo auno?aeaie a
nieio a ei?eaei?a Niieueiiai a oi iiiaio, eiaaea ?yaeii n iei ia auei
io?aiu. No?aeye Eaiieae Ieeieaaa, eioi?ue, niaeanii iaaeeoeeineiio ia
neaaeiaaieth, naeaeaiiiio a oio ia?eiae, eiae iaonoie/eaoth ineoeeo. E
iiiuia nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai i?aaeiieiaeaiee i oii, /oi ca ethaee
iiaeno?aeaee oaeeoeo Ee?iaa e eoi yaeyeny i?aaiecaoi?ii oaeenoaa. Ca
ei?ioee; n?ie en/acee ana iaiin?aaenoaaiiua naeaeaoaee — ioeoea?u IEAAe,
nio?oaeieee io?aiu Ee?iaa. Caoai ia iniiaaiee i?eaiai?a noaea aue eaciai
nai Ieeieaaa. Iao ia iin?aaenoaaiiuo naeaeaoaeuenoa, eioi?ua
iiaeoaa?aeeee au, /oi ca oaeenoaii noieo Noaeei. A oi aea a?aiy o?oaeii
naaa i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi yoi iieooaiea iiaei i?iecieoe aac aai aaaeiia.
ssnii, /oi ia eeanne/aneee aii?in, eii yoi auei auaiaeii, naaiaeiy
iiaeao auoue aeai iaeiicia/iue ioaao.

Nicaeaiea e nio?aiaiea iaia?aie/aiiie ee/iie aeeeoaoo?u Noaeeia noaei
aiciiaeiui oieueei iinea oiai, eae auea oie/oiaeaia oa aeueoa?iaoeaa,
eioi?oth i?aaenoaaeye Ee?ia. Anaiauaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea noaeeineie
aeaniioe/aneie aeeeoaoo?u iiaei inouanoaeyoueny oieueei iooai oa??i?a
ai anae no?oeoo?a aeanoe. Noaeei yoi iiiye aeiaieueii auno?i. Iinea
iieooaiey oaeeoea, a oaeaea aieaa noa /aeiaae, iaaeiyaoeony a oa??i?ecia
e iaoiaeeaoeony a yoi a?aiy a oth?ueiao, auee eaciaiu. Ec Eaieia?aaea
auei auneaii aieueoia /enei ethaeae, iiaeic?aaaaiuo a iiiiceoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Auee oaeanoi/aiu oneiaey niaea?aeaiey a oth?ueiao,
ia?aae noaeii i?aaenoaee Eaiaiaa e Ceiiaueaa. Ia/eiaeanue yiioa ?ani?aau
n auaoae iiiiceoeeae, n aaeeeei iieieaieai, i?aaenoaaeyaoei aieueoaaeci.
Yoe oaeanu, eae ia yoii aiai?ee O?ouaa ia XX nuacaea, ia/aeenue n
niaa?oaiey oya/aeoaai aaccaeiiey, eieoeeaoi?ii eioi?iai aue Noaeei. 1
aeaeaa?y 1934 aiaea ii aai oeacaieth, aac ii?ina /eaiia Iieeoath?i
nae?aoa?ai OeEE NNN? auei ninoaaeaii iinoaiiaeaiea OeEE NNN? “I aianaiee
eciaiaiee a aeaenoaothuea oaieiaii-i?ioeannoaeueiua eiaeaenu nithciuo
?anioaeee”. A niioaaonoaee n iei neaaenoaea ii aeaeai i oa??i?enoe/aneeo
aeoao aeieaeii auei caeai/eaaoueny a 10-aeiaaiue n?ie. Aeaea neooaeenue
aac o/anoey noi?ii. Eannaoeeiiiia iaaeaeiaaiea i?eaiai?ia, iiaea/a
oiaeaoaenoa i iiieeiaaiee ia aeiioneaeenue, a i?eaiai? i?eaiaeeeny a
eniieiaiea iaiaaeeaiii iinea aai auianaiey.

Anoanoaaiii, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoe aaccaeiiey eiaeeony ia oieueei ia
Noaeeia, ii e ia anao oao, eoi iiiiaae aio a niaa?oaiee i?anooieaiee.
Aeecei noiyaoea e Noaeeio Iieioia e Eaaaiiae/ eniieueciaaee oaeenoai
Ee?iaa eae i?aaeeia aeey ?ani?aau n iaoaiaeiuie ei eeoeaie, n ecaanoiuie
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie, aeayoaeyie Niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaa. *?acau/aeiua
oaieiaiua caeiiu iicaieyee aicaiaeeoue eeaaaoo e eno?aaeyoue /anoiua e
aa?iua ia?oee eaae?u. A noaiia?aiia XXII nuacaea EINN iiaeii i?i/eoaoue
i oii, /oi a iiya?a 1937 aiaea Noaeei, Iieioia e Eaaaiiae/
naieoeeiie?iaaee i?aaeaiea noaeo aieueoie a?oiiu ecaanoiuo ia?oeeiuo,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo a aiaiiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae. Iiaeienue yoie “o?ieoeu”
noieo ia aeieoiaioa, iaeia?ythuai yoo aeoeeth. I aacaeaeinoiii ia?auaiee
n ethaeueie, eioi?ua iaoiaeeeenue iiae neaaenoaeai, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
?aciethoeee Noaeeia, Eaaaiiae/a, Iieioiaa, Iaeaieiaa, Ai?ioeeiaa ia
ienueiao e cayaeaieyo inoaeaeaiiuo.

Iinea oaeenoaa Ee?iaa ia/aeanue iiaeaioiaea e i?aaiecaoeee aieueoeo
i?ioeannia, i?iaiaeeeinue, ?anoe?aiea naoe eni?aaeoaeueii-o?oaeiauo
eaaa?ae, inouanoaeyeenue ianniaua aunueee. A naioya?a 193a aiaea Noaeei
e AEaeaiia, ioaeuoaaoea a Ni/e, iai?aaeee oaeaa?aiio /eaiai Iieeoath?i,
o?aaoy caiaiu ia?eiia aioo?aiieo aeae ssaiaeu, iiaeaioaaeeaaaoaai ia?aue
aieueoie ioaee/iue i?ioeann, iioeae?oy aa oai, /oi IAIO ia /aou?a aiaea
ionoaao a ?aciaea/aiee o?ioeeenoneeo e ae?oaeo eiio??aaiethoeeiiiuo
yeaiaioia. Yiioo 1937—1938 aiaeia a ia?iaea iacuaatho “aaeiaueiie” ii
eiaie i?aaiieea ssaiaeu — I. E. Aaeiaa, iacia/aiiiai ia?eiiii aioo?aiieo
aeae. Iaeiaei ianniaua ?ai?annee i?ioea i?inouo niaaoneeo a?aaeaeai,
i?ioea ?oeiaiaeyueo ia?oeeiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaae?ia,
iaacaeaaeeaaiea eiiaiaeiaaiey E?aniie A?iee, nicaeaiea ia?iiiie naoe
eaaa?ae a Neae?e y ae?oaeo ianoao ia iiaee i?ienoiaeeoue aac iaeia?aiey
Noaeeia, a a?anou e eeeaeaeaoeey iiiaeo ouny/ ?oeiaiaeeoaeae—aac aai
ee/iiai e i?yiiai .oeacaiey. Nienee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, iiaeeaaeaueo
eeeaeaeaoeee, aeaenoaeoaeueii, aioiaee ia?eii aioo?aiieo aeae, ii aeey
eo iaeia?aiey o?aaiaaeanue aeca Noaeeia e Iieioiaa, a ia?aaeei e
Eaaaiiae/a. A 1937—1938 aiaeao Aaeia i?aaenoaaee i?eia?ii 400 oaeeo
nieneia. Ii iaeiei naaaeaieyi, a ieo niaea?aeaeinue iiiai ouny/ eiai,
iaeioi?ua enoi/ieee iacuaatho 40 ouny/ eeoe.

“Neiaeeeanue ii?i/iay i?aeoeea, eiaaea a IEAAe ninoaaeyeenue
nienee eeoe, aeaea eioi?uo iiaeeaaeaee ?anniio?aieth ia Aiaiiie
eieeaaee, e ei ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeyeanue ia?a iaeacaiey. Yoe nienee
iai?aaeyeenue Aaeiaui ee/ii Noaeeio aeey naieoeeiie?iaaiey
i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia? iaeacaiey”, –aiai?ee O?ou?a ia 20-ii nuacaea
ia?oee. Oioy Noaeei iuoaeny ii?aaaeaoue iieeoeeo ianniaiai oa??i?a
auaeaeiooui ei oacenii iaino?aiey eeanniaie ai?ueau ii ia?a
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia, yoi ieeiei ia?acii ia oiaiueoaao aai
ee/iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Noaa?eeiaaiiua i?ioeannu e iiaeiaiua
ae?oaea aeoeee auee naiuie a?iieeie i?iyaeaieyie aieiu oa??i?a
i?ieaoeaoaeny ii anae no?aia.

6.A iiiai/eneaiiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo, iinayuaiiuo Noaeeio, inaauathony
?aciiia?aciua aii?inu, naycaiiua n aai ee/iinoueth. Iaeiaei a?yae ee
iaeaeaony aii?in, ii eioi?iio au iiaiey e ioeaiee enneaaeiaaoaeae
niaiaaeaee.

Aeaaea oaeea ecaanoiua /a?ou oa?aeoa?a Noaeeia, eae aeaoee/ea,
aa?ieiinoai, niiniaiinoue ioeacaoueny io aeaiiiai ei neiaa, aeanoieinoue
?anniao?eaathony ii-?aciiio. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai caaeneo io ii?aaeaeaiey
oaeoi?ia, iioeae?iaaaoeo aai iiaaaeaiea. Ai?i/ai, nae/an ana aieueoa
enneaaeiaaoaeae neeiiythony e oiio, /oiau ia iauyniyoue iiaaaeaiea
Noaeeia eneeth/eoaeueii aai oyaeaeui aeooaaiui caaieaaaieai, iaieae
i?aneaaeiaaiey, aieaciaiiie iiaeic?eoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay i?iyaeyeanue
e ii ioiioaieth e aai eieeaaai e ni?aoieeai. Anai yoei /a?oai aai
oa?aeoa?a iniaia cia/aiea eiia/ii aea i?eaeaao oaeoi?, eioi?ue Eaiei
iacaae “iaiauyoiie aeanoueth”, nin?aaeioi/aiiie a ?oeao Noaeeia.
I?aaaea, Eaiei oeacuaae e ia oaeea /a?ou oa?aeoa?a naiaai aoaeouaai
i?aaiieea, eae eai?eciinoue, a?oainoue, iaeiyeueiinoue ii ioiioaieth e
oiaa?euai e ii?aaeaeaiiue yaioeaio?eci.. Iicaeiaa auyniyeinue, /oi
ouaneaaea Noaeeia auei aieaa neeueiui, /ai o O?ioeeiai, /oi o iaai auee
niaa?oaiii aacoaea?aeiua aiaeoeee, /oi ii iieiinoueth i?aiaa?aaaao
ii?aeueiuie ii?iaie. Eaiei oieueei oiaaea noae ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia yoa
ea/anoaa Noaeeia, eiaaea aioo?e ia?oee oio neiioeaio?e?iaae a naieo
?oeao “iaiauyoioth aeanoue” e ia/ae i?aaei?eieiaoue iiiuoee
eiio?iee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue naiiai Eaieia. Ii a oio ia?eiae yoe
ea/anoaa Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y OeE aua ia auee ianoieueei i/aaeaeiuie,
eae yoi noaei iicaeiaa. Iiaeiaiua /a?ou ee/iinoe Noaeeia, ia i/aiue
?acai?/eaiai a n?aaenoaao, aa?iyoii, ia i?iyaeeenue au, anee au ii,
neaaeai, caiye aeieaeiinoue nae?aoa?y ?aeeiia eee oi?aaaeiia
aaea-ieaoaeue a ?innee eee A?ocee. Aaaeue oieaeaiiinoue, ianeeea e
aeanoieinoue i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iauanoaaiioth aieaciue, eioi?ay a
?innee eiaea aaeiaia i?ioeia. A ia/aea aaea ianaeaiea iiiaeo aea?aaaiue
iiaeaa?aaeinue ii?eai. Aeaaea aeieaea aiaeu iiaeiieuey ia niiaee
?aaeeeaeueii eciaieoue ainoi/iua, ii-aceaonee iaoe?ioeiua /a?ou
oa?aeoa?a Noaeeia. E naiiaeenoeeieeia aai i?eo/eee aeooiaiay naieia?ey e
no?iaea i?aaeea i?aauaaiey ia iaeaaaeueiii iieiaeaiee. Iaeiaei e iie ia
ia?aeiieee a iai aiaeaeenoneeo aiaeoeee. Ii ia?a i?eaeeaeaiey e aa?oeiai
aeanoe yoe no?aieaiey ana aieueoa e aieueoa caiieiyee aai ee/iinoue. Eae
e iiiaea ianoiyuea ?aaiethoeeiia?u, ii aue /aeiaaeii iaea?aeeiui, ii ia
oieueei eaeaae ?aaiethoeee. Ii aue iaea?aeei iuneueth i naiai
i?aaeiacia/aiee, i naiai i?ecaaiee. Aai niiniaiinoue iaaycuaaoue ae?oaei
naith aieth iaeuecy ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n iiiyoeai neeueiie aiee. N?aaee
/eaiia ia?oee aieueoaaeeia auei iiiai ethaeae n neeueiie aieae, auei
iaiaei e oaeeo ethaeae, eioi?ua a noaeeineeo oth?ueiao nio?aieee niith
ii?aeueioth oece/aneoth noieeinoue, e, enoaoe, eae ieoao ?ie Iaaeaaaeaa,
o?oaeii neacaoue, ieacaeny au Noaeei niiniaiui ia yoi a iiaeiaiuo
oneiaeyo.

7.A 30-a aiaeu i?eieiaeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?e ii iiauoaieth
aiaiii-oai?aoe/aneiai o?iaiy eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa, oi?ie?iaaieth o iaai
aeaeiai, ianooaaiiai iuoeaiey. Ii iaeuecy ecaaaeoueny io ai?ueeie iunee,
/oi aeanyoee ouny/ eiiaiaee?ia ia niiaee (ia ii naiae aiea) i?eiaieoue
ciaiey e oiaiea ia iiea a?aie, caueuae Ioa/anoai. A oeaeii iaeaioia
aieiu aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneay iuneue a ?EEA ia onooiaea iaiaoeeei
aeieo?eiaeueiui onoaiiaeai. No?aoaae/aneea eaeae iineee i?ia?anneaiue,
ii, e niaeaeaieth, a ?yaea neo/aaa iaeiinoi?iiiee e ieioi oaycaiiue n
i?aeoeeie iia?aoeaiiai eneonnoaa oa?aeoa?. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue,
iaaeiioeaieaaeanue no?aoaae/aneay iai?iia. Iiiaia /oi auei
i?aaeoniio?aii aiaiiie iuneueth ?aiaa a iaaeae?eii aoaeouai
i?eae?ony iauoiuaaoue ioo?i e?iaaaie yiie?ee a oiaea no?aoiie
o/?au ia iieyo n?aaeaiee.

Ianiio?y ia caeeth/aiea iaeoa i iaiaiaaeaiee e aeiaiai?a i
“ae?oaeaa” n Aa?iaieae , Noaeei /oanoaiaae , /oi ia caiaaeiuo
a?aieoeao naouathony oo/e. A oi aea a?aiy ii ioeai/ii oaa?iaae
a oi /oi iiea Aeoea? ia aeiaue?ony oniaoa ia Caiaaea ii ia
?aoeony aanoe ai?ueao ia aeaa o?iioa. A ?yaea naieo aunooieaiee,
e a /anoiinoe 5 iay 1941 aiaea a E?aiea, Noaeei ianoie/eai
i?iaiaeee iuneue i oii, /oi iaioeu iiaaaeaeatho aeaaiaea?y
i?aaeaea anaai i?aaeeueiie iieeoe/aneie no?aoaaee eneeth/athuae
iaeiia?aiaiioth ai?ueao ia Caiaaea e ia Ainoiea. Ii Noaeeia
ii?aceea e?aeinoue, c eaeie aa?iaoo iineaaeiaaoaeueii nie?ooee
?yae a?iee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai. Ii ia aue oaa?ai, /oi
E?aniay A?iey naiaa?aiaiii ecaea/?o aeey naay o?iee ec
no?aieoaeueii ?acai?a/eaathueony niauoee. eiaiii iiyoiio a naieo
aanaaeao n Oeiioaiei Noaeei, eco/ea ianoiyoaeueiua iaci?u
aeaenoaee iaiaoeeeo aiene, iiaeaioiaeaiiua aeey iaai Aaiooaaii,
iiniaaoiaae iiaiio ia?eiio iai?iiu oneeeoue aieiaiea aiaaie
auo/ea aiene.

Coaeeio au? iiiaia auei iaecaanoii. Ia ciae ii, iai?eia?, eae
aeoea?ianeea aiaiiua ioeaieaaee ninoiyiea E?aniie A?iee, a?
eaae?ia a ia/aea 1941 aiaea. Eae auynieeinue oaea iinea aieiu,
Aeoea?, ciay i i?ieaoeaoeony ii E?aniie A?iee a 1937—1938 aiaeao
?ai?anneyo, cao?aaiaae io naieo ?acaaaei?aaiia aeieeaae i
ea/anoaa ioeoea?neiai ninoaaa ?EEA. Ca iieoi?a ianyoea aei ia/aea
aieiu, ia iniiaaiee aeieeaaea aiaiiiai aooaoa Aa?iaiee a NNN?
iieeiaieea E?aana, ae?oaeo aeaiiuo, oth?a?o aeieiaeeee : ioeoea?neee
ei?ion ?EEA ineaaeai ia oieueei eiee/anoaaiii, ii e ea/anoaaiii.
“Ii i?iecaiaeeo ooaeoaa aia/aoeaiea, /ai a 1933 aiaeo. ?innee
iio?aaothony aiaeu, /oiau aeinoe/ue a? i?aaeiaai o?iaiy…”

Iioaioeeaeueiue (a oi/iaa, ?aaeueiue) i?ioeaiee ia aac iniiaaiey
aeeth/ae a /enei aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey naay oaeoi?ia oaeoe/aneoth
caiaio oeaeuo caaiueaa aiaiiie no?oeoo?u NNN?. A enoi?ee o?oaeii
iaeoe i?aoeaaeaio, eiaaea iaeia ec noi?ii iaeaioia nia?oaeueiie
noaaoee oae au ineaaeyea naay naia. E i?inoeoue, e caauoue yoi
iaaiciiaeii.”

E ia/aeo aieiu eeethcey i iaiia?aoeiinoe Noaeeia aoeaaeueii
ineaieyea ethaeae, a oii /enea e an? niaaoneia aiaiiia
?oeiaiaenoai. Aeey oiai, /oiau ?acaayoue a?, iio?aaiaaeny eeoue
iaeei ethiueneee aeaiue 1941-iai…

Inouanoaea ecaanoiua iai aeeieiiaoe/aneea oaae ii i?aaeioa?auaieth
aieiu e aeiionoea a yoii ieaia yaiua iieeoe/aneea i?in/?ou e
ioeaee, Noaeei an? a?aiy eniuouaae aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey. C
iaeiie noi?iiu, aeaenoaotho niaeaoaiey n Aa?iaieae, eioi?ua, eae ii
iieaaae, iaioeai aieaa auaiaeiu, /ai NNN?. Aaaeue n eo iiiiuueth
Aeoea? ecaaaeae aieiu ia aeaa o?iioa, e iiyoiio ii aoaeao
niaethaeaoue eo iieiaeaiey. oaeiaie auea eiaeea ?annoaeaeaiee
“aiaeaey” e aai ie?oaeaiey.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, Aeoea?, aoaeo/e ii naiae iaoo?a aaaioth?enoii
(a a yoii Noaeei aue oaaaeae?i) , ia iaycaoaeueii aoaeao
neaaeiaaoue iau/iie eiaeea. Any aai eiioeueneaiay no?aoaaey
iino?iaia ia o/?oa e?aoeia?aiaiiuo oaeoi?ia: aiacaiiinoe, eiaa?noaa,
iai?aaeneacoaiinoe. Iiyoiio Noaeei n aeoaieei iianaieai neaaeee ca
anaie aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeie oaaaie Aeoea?a, oiaeii “iieieaiiniie”
aieiu ia Caiaaea. Ia neo/aeii Noaeei aeae oeacaiea Oeiioaiei
ee/ii oaaaeeoueny a ?aaeueiie aiaaioiaiinoe aiene.

8.A aine?anaiuea 22 ethiy 1941 aiaea Noaeei ioi?aaeeny niaoue
ia ?annaaoa, a iieiaeia o?aoueaai. A o?e /ana ii aue ?acaoaeai
oaeaoiiiui caiieii – ia/aeueiee Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa E?aniie A?iee
n?i/ii i?inee niaaeeieoue aai n oiaa?euai Noaeeiui. Oae iienuaaao
yoio ?acaiai? AEoeia.

“—*oi? Nae/an ?! — ecoieeny ia/aeueiee io?aiu. –Oiaa?eu Noaeei
nieo.

–Aoaeeoa iaiaaeey : iaioeu aiiayo iaoe ai?iaea!

Ianeieueei iaiiaaiee aeeeony iie/aiea. Iaeiiaoe a o?oaea aeooi
ioaaoeee :

–Iiaeiaeaeeoa.

Ieioou /a?ac o?e e aiia?aoo iiaeio?e E. A. Noaeei.

ss aeieiaeee ianoaiiaeo e i?inee ?ac?aoaiey ia/aoue ioaaoiua
aiaaua aeaenoaey. E. A. Noaeei iie/eo. Neuoo eeoue aai aeuoaiea.

–Au iaiy iiiyee?

Iiyoue iie/aiea.

Iaeiiaoe Noaeei ni?inee:

–Aaea ia?eii?

–Aiai?eo ii A* n Oeiioaiei. Neaaeeoa Iine??auoaao, /oiau ii
aucaae anao /eaiia Iieeoath?i.”

A iieiaeia iyoiai a eaaeiaoa Noaeeia nia?aeenue ana /eaiu
Iieeoath?i, ia?eii iai?iiu e ia/aeueiee Aaiooaaa. Iicaiieee a
iaiaoeeia iinieuenoai, caoai Iieioia oo?e, /oiau i?eiyoue iinea
Aa?iaiee. Aa?ioeny auno?i : “–Aa?iaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai iauyaeei
iai aieio. –Caaeyioa a aoiaaeeo, eioi?oth aea?aeae a ?oeao,
Iieioia aeiaaaee : –Oi?iaeueiue iiaiae noaiaea?oiue: “
Iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneay Aa?iaiey ?aoeea i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aioiayuaany
iaiaaeaiea ?onneeo… ”.

Iao, a ia?aue aeaiue aieueoiai oiea o Noaeeia ia auei.
Auea ?anoa?yiiinoue, ceiaa ia anao—aai oae aeanoiei iaiaioee,–
o?aaiaa ia?aae iaecaanoiinoueth. Oio ia?aue aeaiue /eaiu
Iieeoath?i ii/oe nooee i?iauee o iaai a eaaeiaoa, iaeeaeay
aanoae n a?aieoeu. Aiai?eee iaei. Ana a aeooa iaaeayeenue, /oi
yoi eeoue a?aiaiiua iaoaea/e. Ieeoi ia niiiaaaeny, /oi Aeoea?
iieo/eo aeinoieiue ioii?. Aiciiaeii, ia?aaiaa?eaaeenue iaaeaeo niaie
/eaiu ia?oeeiiai a?aiiaaa, ia iaaeaeth-ae?oaoth a ?aeiia a?aieoeu
caayaeoony oyae?eua aie. Aieia iiaeao noaoue ia eaeia-oi a?aiy
iiiiceoeeiiiie, aei oao ii? iiea E?aniay A?iey ia iaian?o
aa?anni?o nie?ooathuee ioaaoiue oaea?…

Eiaaea oo?ii 22 ethiy ANOAE AII?IN, EOI ia?aoeony e
ia?iaeo n niiauaieai i iaiaaeaiee aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee, oi ana,
anoanoaaiii, iiaa?ioeenue e Noaeeio, ii oio iaiaeeaeaiii ioeacaeny.
Ii/oe ia ?acaeoiuaay. Ioeacaeny ?aoeoaeueii. A enoi?e/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a ii nae aeaiue auooao iiaiea, /oi Noaeei i?eiye oaeia
?aoaiea iioiio, /oi aue, eae iai?eia?, aniiieiae A. E. Ieeiyi, a
iiaeaaeaiiii ninoiyiee, “ia ciae, /oi neacaoue ia?iaeo, aaaeue
ainieouaaee ia?iae a aeooa oiai, /oi aieiu ia aoaeao, a anee e
ia/i?ony aieia, oi a?aa aoaeao ?acaeo ia aai aea oa??eoi?ee e
o. ae., a oaia?ue iaaei i?eciaaaoue, /oi a ia?aua /anu aieiu
oa?iei ii?aaeaiea”.

Ii aeaei ianoiyei ia nianai oae. Aii?in ia ia?auaiee e ia?iaeo
?aoaeny ?aiiei oo?ii, eiaaea au? ieeoi a Iineaa ia ciae, /oi
iu “a ia?aua /anu aieiu oa?iei ii?aaeaiea”. I aieia e a?
oa?ica ia?iaeo /anoi aiai?eee. Aioiaeeenue e iae. Ii i?eoea iia
an? ?aaii iaiaeeaeaiii. Noaeeio auei ai iiiaii iaynii, eae
?acaeaathony niauoey ia a?aieoea. Aa?iyoiaa anaai, ii ia oioae
ie/aai aiai?eoue ia?iaeo, ia oyniea naaa neooaoeee. Noaeei
ieeiaaea aei yoiai, ai anyeii neo/aa a 30-a aiaeu. ia aeaeae
e?oiiuo oaaia, ia aoaeo/e oaa?aiiui a oii, /oi iie ieaaeoony ia
aai iieiaeaiee. Ii anaaaea eneeth/ae ?ene, eioi?ue iia au
iieieaaaoue aai aaoi?eoao, aaoi?eoao aiaeaey.

22-iai oo?ii oaeei ia neuoae iiaaaeiuo ?aeyoeee, aue a o?aaiaa,
aeaaea niyoaiee, ii aai ia iieeaeaea aioo?aiiyy oaa?aiiinoue, /oi
/a?ac aeaa-o?e iaaeaee ii iaeaaeao Aeoea?a ca aa?ieiinoai e aio
oiaaea “yaeony” ia?iaeo. (Ia?aeecothuee oie ii?aceo Noaeeia eeoue
/a?ac /aou?a-iyoue aeiae, eiaaea ii iaeiiaoe oaaaeeony, /oi
iaoanoaea ian?o nia?oaeueioth oa?ico ia oieueei Ioa/anoao, ii e
aio, “ioae?iio e iaiiaaaeeiiio aiaeaeth”.) *oi yoi auei eiaiii
oae, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aeaa aee?aeoeau aieneai, iaeia?aiiua a 7.15
oo?a e a 9.15 aa/a?a 22 ethiy a aai eaaeiaoa e iiaeienaiiua
Oeiioaiei, Iaeaieiaui e AEoeiaui

Ia/aei aieiu canoaei Niaaoneee Nithc iaiiaeaioiaeaiiui.
No?aoaae/aneea ioeaee aunoaai aiaiiiai eiiaiaeiaaiey onoaoaeee
o?oaeiinoe. Aeiaieueii aeieai Noaeei aue ianiiniaai ii?aaoue n
aeiaiie, aeaneaoae, /oi aieio ioaeii aanoe ia oa??eoi?ee
i?ioeaieea. ionooiaoue iaeuecy auei aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea aienea
iiaee caiyoue aieaa auaiaeiua iiceoeee n oi/ee c?aiey
no?aoaae/aneie iai?iiu. Aee?aeoeaa ? 2 Ia?eiiaoa iai?iiu, ioaeaiiay a 7
/ania oo?a 22 ethiy, auea i?inoi iaauiieieiui e aanniuneaiiui i?eeacii,
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea ia eneaaeaiiii iiieiaiee ianoaiiaee. Oaeia iaaeaeia
iuoeaiea a iiaeoiaea e ?oeiaiaenoao aiaiiuie aeaenoaeyie i?eaaei e
a?iiaaeiui ethaeneei iioa?yi.

A aiyo n E?aniie A?ieae, caueuaaoae eaaeaeoth iyaeue caiee, iaioeu,
aeaaea a ia?eiae naiaai naiiai auno?iai i?iaeaeaeaiey, ianee aieueoea
iioa?e, /ai a ethaie ec naieo i?aaeuaeoueo eaiiaiee. Ieaiu “aeeoee?eaa”
?ooioee.

8 aaaonoa Noaeei aue iacia/ai Aa?oiaiui Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei
Aii?oaeaiiuie Neeaie NNN?. Ii aicaeaaeye Noaaeo Aa?oiaiiai
Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey. N 19 ethey ii caiye iino ia?eiia iai?iiu,
inaiaiaeea io yoie aeieaeiinoe N. E. Oeiioaiei. A ia/aeueiue ia?eiae
aieiu Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee ia i?iyaee naieo iieeiaiae/aneeo niiniaiinoae.
Nia?aiaiieee aaeeiiaeooii ioia/atho aai /?acau/aeioth niiniaiinoue
?acae?aoueny a ianoaiiaea, ia?iiioth ?aaioiniiniaiinoue e
eneeth/eoaeueioth auno?ioo, n eioi?ie ii inaaeaae e caiiieiae aeaaea
iaeue/aeoea oaoie/aneea aeaoaee. Ii aai i?aaenoaaeaiey i no?aoaaee auee
a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a onoa?aaoeie, iie auee naycaiu n iiuoii
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu.

Iu oaea ioia/aee neeiiiinoue Noaeeia ioaa?aaoue eaeae i no?aoaae/aneie
iai?iia. Aieueoie a?aae i?eianei a ia/aea aieiu aai no?aieaiea iinoiyiii
iaaycuaaoue niaaoneei aieneai ianooieaiea. Aeaaea a oneiaeyo
eaoano?ioe/aneiai iieiaeaiey ia Caiaaeiii o?iioa a ia?aua aeie aieiu
Noaeei iiioaeaeae e ianooiaoaeueiui aiyi. Iiae Iineaie ii iaoa?iaeeai
iiaenoaaeaae aienea e ia?aoiaeo a eiio?ianooieaiea, eiaaea nee oaaoaei
oieueei aeey iai?iiu. Iinea oniaoiiai ianooieaiey iiae Iineaie niaaoneea
aienea e eaoo 1942 aiaea iiyoue iiiaee a no?aoaae/anee iaauaiaeiia
iieiaeaiea.

Niaeanii iaioa?ai iaeioi?uo aaia?aeia, caieiaaoeo aunoea iinou a
Aaia?aeueiii ooaaa, iuoeaiea Noaeeia auei noaiaoe/ii, ii ia oa?iae,
eiaaea aio auneacuaaeenue aic?aaeaiey. Ei auee aeiiouaiu iaiaeua ioeaee
a iiaeai?a eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa, caoai iaeioi?uo auaeaeioouo ei naiei
eeoe Noaeei iaiainiiaaiii iaaeiee a i?aaeaoaeuenoaa. Auee ioaeaiu iiae
o?eaoiae e ?anno?aeyiu aaia?ae a?iee Ae. A. Iaaeia, eiiaiaeothuee
Caiaaeiui o?iioii, e ?yae iiae/eiaiiuo aio aaia?aeia e aunoeo ioeoea?ia.

?yae enneaaeiaaoaeae ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi eiaiii ee/iue i?eia? Noaeeia
iiiia inoaiiaeoue iioie aaaoueo ec Iineau. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua enoi?eee
iiaeaa?aatho niiiaieth oi, /oi Noaeei iaoiaeeeny a Iineaa a e?eoe/aneea
aeie iai?iiu noieeoeu. Oae, ii iiaieth ?. Iaaeaaaeaaa, a iiiaio iaieee,
ia/aaoaeny 16 ieoya?y, ii oiaea iieeioe ai?iae e ianeieueei aeiae
ionoonoaiaae. Ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee iieaaatho, /oi aai ionoonoaea auei
aieaa aeeeoaeueiui.

A oiaea ieaie?iaaiey eiio?ianooieaiey iiae Iineaie Noaeei o?aaiaae,
/oiau niaaoneea aienea ianooiaee ii oe?ieiio o?iioo, oioy a oi a?aiy
iuouaeanue iaoaaoea ethaeneeo e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?aca?aia. Ii ianoaeaae ia
i?iaeieaeaiee ianooieaiey, ianiio?y ia oi /oi caiaoii ennye
ianooiaoaeueiue ii?ua aiene. Ecaanoii, /oi Noaeei ioeeiiye i?aaeeiaeaiey
AEoeiaa i ia?aa?oiie?iaea aiene.

A oiaea naiaai eaoiaai ianooieaiey 1942 aiaea iaioeu ano?aoeeenue n
onoaaoeie, eciioaiiuie aieneaie, e yoi, anoanoaaiii, iaeaa/eei ei
auiieiaiea iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/. Eae e eaoii 1941 aiaea, niaaoneia
eiiaiaeiaaiea iaaa?ii ioeaieei iai?aaeaiea aeaaiiai oaea?a aeoea?ianeeo
aiene, oae eae i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi e eaoii 1942 aiaea iaioeu iiyoue
aeaeioony ia Iineao. A iie ia/aee ianooiaoue ia THai-Ainoi/iii
iai?aaeaiee. E oiio aea Noaeei oaa?iaae, /oi aieia iiaeao caeii/eoueny a
1942 aiaeo. Eiaiii iiyoiio auee caieaie?iaaiu ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee
o Oa?ueeiaa e a E?uio. Ianooieaiea ia thaa caaa?oeeinue i?iaaeii — a
oiaea “ea?/aineie eaoano?iou” ca iaeei ianyoe auei iioa?yii 200 ouny/
/aeiaae, ia?iiiia eiee/anoai aiaiiie oaoieee, oyaeaeie a?oeeea?ee.

Ianooieaiea iiae Oa?ueeiaii oaeaea auei iaoaea/iui. Iinea ia/aeueiiai
oniaoa niaaoneiai ianooieaiey iaioeu ?acaa?ioee eiio?ianooieaiea e
ie?oaeeee aienea E?aniie A?iee. E oioy ia/aeueiee Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa
i?aaeeaaae yoi naeaeaoue ?aiueoa, Noaeei ioaeae i?eeac i i?einoaiiaea
ianooieaiey, eiaaea oaea auei iicaeii. Aeaa a?iee iiiaee a ie?oaeaiea.
Ia THaeiii o?iioa iaioeu ii/oe aani?aiyonoaaiii i?iaeaeaaeenue aia?aae.
A yoio iiiaio io/ayiiiai iieiaeaiey Noaeei ioaeae naie ecaanoiue i?eeac
? 227, a eioi?ii auei noi?ioee?iaaii o?aaiaaiea: “Ie oaao iacaae!”
Iicaaee eeiee o?iioa auee iinoaaeaiu caa?aaeeoaeueiua io?yaeu.

Inaiueth 1942 aiaea iaioeaa oaeaeinue inoaiiaeoue oaea a aeoaeia no?aiu
— ia Eaaeaca e ia Aieaa. ?aoathuoth ?ieue nua?ae ianniaue aa?ieci
niaaoneeo ethaeae, eioi?ue oai?ee /oaeana. A?aiaeeiciia n?aaeaiea
i?iecioei a ?aeiia ai?iaea, iacaaiiiai a /anoue Noaeeia, a i?ioeii
Oea?eoeuia. 23 aaaonoa 600 iaiaoeeeo naiieaoia iiaeaa?aee ai?iae
aiiaa?aee?iaea, a oio aea aeaiue nooiiooiua /anoe aa?iaooa a 7
eeeiiao?ao e naaa?o io ai?iaea auoee e Aieaa. Aie oee ca eaaeaeoth
iyaeue caiee, ca eaaeaeue aeii. 15 ieoya?y iaioeu caiyee o?aeoi?iue
caaiae. A ?oeao niaaoneeo aiene inoaaaeanue iieina aaeieue ?aee oe?eiie
a ianeieueei nio iao?ia.

6 iiya?y aacaou iioaeeeiaaee ienueii Noaeeio io caueoieeia Noaeeia?aaea:
“Iinueay yoi ienueii ec ieiiia, iu eeyiainy Aai, /oi aei iineaaeiae
eaiee e?iae, aei iineaaeiaai aeuoaiey, aei iineaaeiaai oaea?a na?aeoea
aoaeai ionoaeaaoue Noaeeia?aae e ia aeiionoei a?aaa e Aieaa!

Ia?aae eeoeii iaoeo iooeia, iinaaeaaoeo aa?iaa oea?eoeuineie iai?iiu,
ia?aae iieeaie oiaa?euae ae?oaeo o?iioia, ia?aae iaoeie aiaauie
ciaiaiaie, ia?aae anae Niaaoneie no?aiie iu eeyiainy, /oi ia iin?aiei
neaau ?onneiai i?oaeey, aoaeai aeoueny aei iineaaeiae aiciiaeiinoe.

Iiae Aaoei ?oeiaiaenoaii iooeu iaoe iiaaaeeee a oea?eoeuineie aeoaa,
iiae Aaoei ?oeiaiaenoaii iiaaaeei iu e oaia?ue a aaeeeie aeoaa iiae
Noaeeia?aaeii!”

II iiya?y iaioeu aiiaue iioee a aoaeo, iaeiaei aieueoeo oniaoia ei ia
oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny. Oeaiie ia?iiiuo iioa?ue niaaoneea aienea ionoiyee
Noaeeia?aae. 19 iiya?y ia naaa?a e ia thaa io ai?iaea ia/aeinue iiuiia
eiio?ianooieaiea. O?aonioouny/iay a?iey Iaoethna, ia iieo/eaoaai i?eeaca
e ionooieaieth, auea ie?oaeaia. 2 oaa?aey 1943 aiaea eaieooee?iaaee
iineaaeiea /anoe ie?oaeaiiie a?oiie?iaee aiene.

Ii iaaethaeaieyi i/aaeaeoeaa, n ethiy ii iiya?ue 1941 aiaea niaaoneea
aacaou ?aaeei oiiieiaee eiy Noaeeia. Aia?aua ca aeieaea aiaeu ia
ioaeeeiaaeenue aai oioia?aoee, ia auei iau/iuo neaaineiaee. Iinea
?aca?iia iaioeaa iiae Iineaie ii aiiaue caiye naia noa?ia ianoi a
i?iiaaaiaea, ii a o?oaeiia eaoi 1942 aiaea iiyoue ioioae ia caaeiee
ieai. Iinea Noaeeia?aaea ia/aeinue i?ineaaeaiea aiaiiiai aaiey Noaeeia.
Ia/eiay n yoiai a?aiaie iioei niciaoaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaaaiaeu i
“aaieaeueiii iieeiaiaeoea”.

Yoa eaaaiaea ia?aaeeea naiiai Noaeeia, aa aeeyiea iuouaaony e a iaoe
aeie. I?aaaeeaa ee iia? Aa?ii ee, /oi oai?oeii anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneie
iiaaaeu E?aniie A?iee aue Noaeei? Ia?aaeei iiaeii oneuoaoue oaeie
neeeiaeci: ?ac aieia caeii/eeanue iiaaaeie, a Noaeei aue Aa?oiaiui
Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuei, oi, cia/eo, ii aue aaeeeei iieeiaiaeoeai. Ia iniiaa
eco/aiey iaioa?ia niaaoneeo aiaia/aeueieeia, ?aaio enoi?eeia e
eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee, ?acae?aaoeo aeaenoaey Noaeeia, iiaeii
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a neo/aa i?iaeoiaiiie, ouaoaeueiie e yooaeoeaiie
iiaeaioiaee e aieia iaiaoeeia ianooieaiea iiaeii auei au inoaiiaeoue ia
o Aieae e Eo?nea, a cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa, i?e/ai n iaiueoeie ethaeneeie
e iaoa?eaeueiuie iioa?yie. Ia iaoiaeu ?oeiaiaenoaa Noaeeia, ia aai
ioiioaiea e naiei ni?aoieeai e nio?oaeieeai ?aoathuaa aeeyiea ieacaee oa
iieoi?a aeanyoeeaoey, a oiaea eioi?uo noi?ie?iaaeny e ie?ai ieo i
iaiia?aoeiinoe e aeaeueiiaeaeiinoe aiaeaey. Ii eniuouaae oyao e
aano?aeoiiio noaiaoecio, /anoi iaaeiioeaieaae neeo i?ioeaieea e
ia?aioeaieaae nianoaaiiua niiniaiinoe. Aai ia aieiiaaee iioa?e. Ii ia
oioae eee ia iia aanoe aieio n iaiueoeie iioa?yie. A oi aea a?aiy iaaei
neacaoue i oii, /oi aaia?aeu, ?aaioaaoea ieiei iaai a Aaia?aeueiii
ooaaa, ioia/atho aai eneeth/eoaeueioth neeo aiee, naiiiaeaaeaiea e
/aoeinoue, ia?iiioth ?aaioiniiniaiinoue. Iie iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi ii aue
niiniaai o/eoueny e aeaeaoue auaiaeu ec ioeaie ia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea
aieiu e /oi a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai iia naiinoiyoaeueii ?acae?aoueny a
aii?inao aiaiiie no?aoaaee. Aaoi?u ainiiieiaiee ia iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
ecaeaaaoaeueneiai caia/aiey I. N. O?ouaaa i oii, /oi Aa?oiaiue neaaeee
ca aiaiiuie aeaenoaeyie ii aeiaono. Yoi io?eoeae e ia?oae A. E. AEoeia:
“Iiao oaa?aei neacaoue, /oi E. A. Noaeei aeaaeae iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie
i?aaiecaoeee o?iioiauo iia?aoeee e iia?aoeee a?oii o?iioia e ?oeiaiaeee
eie ni ciaieai aeaea, oi?ioi ?acae?aeny e aieueoeo no?aoaae/aneeo
aii?inao. Yoe niiniaiinoe E. A. Noaeeia eae Aa?oiaiiai
Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai iniaaiii ?ane?ueenue, ia/eiay ni Noaeeia?aaeneie
aeoau”.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia aieiu o Noaeeia ia inoaeinue e neaaeia i?aaeiae
iaoaa?aiiinoe. Ia ia?aaiai?ao ii i?aaenoaaae ia?aae nithcieeaie eae
aaeoi/eaue, neeueiue e oeo?ue ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue. ?oeiaiaey
aiaiiuie iia?aoeeyie, ii aiieia niioaaonoaiaae naiei aunieei iinoai. Ai
a?aiy e?oiiuo ianooieaiee — a iniaue eioa?an Noaeeia aucuaaee eiaiii
ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee — i?iyaeyeanue aai eaaeeoeeaoeey a aiaiiuo
aii?inao. Iaeiaei aai ee/iinoue ia i?aoa?iaea eciaiaiee e ai a?aiy
aieiu. Ii iia auoue aacaeaeinoiui aeaaea ii ioiioaieth e nianoaaiiiio
nuio. A naiii ia/aea aieiu sseia Aeaeoaaoaeee iiiae a ieai, aoaeo/e
?yaeiaui ioeoea?ii. A ia/aea 1943 aiaea iaioeu i?aaeeiaeeee iaiaiyoue
aai ia ieaiaiiiai oaeueaeia?oaea Iaoethna. Ioaao Noaeeia aue oa?aeoa?iui
aeey iaai: “Iie oioyo, /oiau y ia/ae oi?aiaaoueny n ieie. ss ia aoaeo
yoiai aeaeaoue. Aieia—yoi aieia ”. Iicaeiaa sseia iiaea a ieaio. Aai
aeaia a niioaaonoaee n oeacii, ii eioi?iio iiaeeaaeaee iaeacaieth
?iaenoaaiieee iiiaaoeo a ieai, auea a?anoiaaia a Iineaa.

A no?aoaae/aneii e ineoieiae/aneii ioiioaieyo iiaaaea iiae Noaeeia?aaeii
icia/aea iiai?io a enoi?ee aieiu. Ii ?aaee ieii/aoaeueiie iiaaaeu
i?eoeinue i?eianoe aua iaiaeua aea?oau. Eaoii 1943 aiaea E?aniay A?iey,
?aniieaaaaoay oiaaea oaea i?aeiouanoaii a oaoieea, i?aaeioa?aoeea
iiiuoeo iiaiai e?oiiiai ianooieaiey aeoea?iaoeaa e ?aca?iieea
no?aoaae/aneoth a?oiie?iaeo i?ioeaieea iiae Eo?neii. Noaeei n/eoae
aaaeiui iiae/a?eiooue, /oi a yoie aeoaa aue ?acaayi ieo i iaiiaaaeeiinoe
iaiaoeeie a?iee a eaoieo iia?aoeeyo. Iinea aieueoie iiaaaeu,
iaea?aeaiiie a ?aeiia Eo?nea, ia/aeinue iinoaiaiiia ecaiaiea aa?iaineeo
aiene n oa??eoi?ee Niaaoneiai Nithca. Iniaaiii ouaoaeueiie iiaeaioiaeie
ioee/aeinue e?oiiia ianooieaiea E?aniie A?iee eaoii 1944 aiaea a
Aaei?onnee. Aaei?onneay iia?aoeey eiaea eiaeiaia iaeiaiiaaiea
“Aaa?aoeii”. Iia oaai/aeanue aeenoaoaeueiui oniaoii. Aeey niaaoneeo
aiene ioe?ueny iooue a Aa?iio, ?aaeueii noae cao/aoue eicoia
i?aaeuaeouaai ia?eiaea: “?aca?iiei oaoenoneiai caa?y a aai nianoaaiiie
aa?eiaa”. E?aniay A?iey ecaiaea oaoenoneea aienea ec Aieaa?ee, ?oiuiee,
Aaia?ee, Iieueoe. A ia/aea 1945 aiaea niaaoneea aienea iaoiaeeeenue oaea
a Aa?iaiee, oa?iaeay aa noieeoea — Aa?eeio. Aeoea? a?inae a aie ana
iaee/iua neeu, no?aiynue caaea?aeaoue i?iaeaeaeaiea niaaoneeo iiene.
Ainoi/iue o?iio iieo/ae iiaee?aieaiey aeaaea ca n/ao ineaaeaiey
iaiaoeeie iai?iiu ia Caiaaea, aaea n ethiy 1944 aiaea aaee aie
aiaei-aia?eeaineea aienea, niaa?oeaoea aunaaeeo a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Ii
ana auei iai?anii. I?aaaea, E?aniie A?iee ia oaeaeinue n oiaeo caiyoue
Aa?eei, ii, ia?aa?oiie?iaaa naie neeu, iia ia/aea aaniie ianooieaiea,
eioi?ia noaei nie?ooeoaeueiui. Iaiaoeeia nii?ioeaeaiea auei neiieaii.
Aa?iaiey eaieooee?iaaea. A ii/ue n 8 ia 9 iay 1945 aiaea aue iiaeienai
Aeo i aaciaiai?i/iie eaieooeyoeee Aa?iaiee, n niaaoneie noi?iiu aai
iiaeienae ia?oae Iaoeia, caianoeoaeue Aa?oiaiiai Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai.

9. Iaeiaei ?aaeinoue iiaaaeu ia iiaea canoaaeoue caauoue i
no?aoiuo ?ac?ooaieyo, i?e/ei?iiuo Aa?iaineei oaoeciii. Iioa?e e
iiaeeeiiia aaee/ea aa?iecia niaaoneiai ia?iaea eeethno?e?oao nooea
oeeo?u, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuea i oii, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc iioa?ye a
yoie aieia 30 % naiaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa. Ii yoi
i?aaenoaaeyaony ia noieue cia/eoaeueiui ii n?aaiaieth n oo?aoie
20 ieeeeiiia /aeiaa/aneeo aeeciae.

Ec ni?aaee, eioi?oth iiaeaioiaeee aeey Noaeeia a yiaa?a 1947
aiaea aiaiiua e Aicianaineee, auoiaeeei, /oi i iaoeo iioa?yo
iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue i?eaeeceoaeueii. Yoa e?iaaaay noaoenoeea,
iniaaiii a ia/aea aieiu, aaeanue e?aeia ieioi. Aicianaineee
niiauee i?e ee/iii aeieeaaea: aieaa eee iaiaa oi/ii iioa?e iiaeii
aoaeao ioeaieoue eeoue /a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa, ii ii
eiathueiny iaiaoeai, anaai iiaeaei aieaa 15 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae.
Noaeei i?iiie/ae: ii aeiianaieth Aaiooaaa, oaeouo, oia?oeo io ?ai
e i?iiaaoeo aac aanoe ia iiea aiy—7,5 ieeeeiia /aeiaae. A 1946
aiaeo Noaeei inoaiiaeeny eiaiii ia yoie oeeo?a. Aio ia oioaeinue
aiai?eoue i aieueoae oeaia, aaaeue oiaaea n?aco iiooneiaao aai
iieeiaiae/aneee ia?ac. Yoiai aeiionoeoue ii ia iia.

Oeaia iaoae aaeeeie Iiaaaeu iaeiiaa?ii auniea. Iaanaaaea iiaaaea
aoaeao ie?aoaia ai?a/ueth aacia?iuo iioa?ue. Noaeeia yoio aii?in
ieeiaaea ia io/ee. AEa?oaaiiue noaeeineee nioeeaeeci o?aaiaae e
aea?oaaiiuo iiaaae. Naia iai?aeiaeiinoue yoiai enoi?e/aneiai oaeoa
ia oieueei iiae/??eeaaao aaeeeia aeieaioa?iaiea, iiaeaeaeie/anoai
niaaoneiai ia?iaea, ii e iaiiieiaao: Noaeeio noaoue oai, eai ii
noae, iicaieeee.

10.Aa?aeeeo enoi?ee auiineo i?aaeaea anaai ia?iae, eioi?ue
o?e aeanyoeeaoey o?e ca /aeiaaeii, aeanoiei iii?aaoei aaeeeoth,
oioy, iaaa?iyoii, e ooiie/aneoth Eaeath. A eiia/iii n/?oa iiiuoee
?aaeeciaaoue yoo eaeath e iinea Noaeeia ieii/eeenue ia?iiiie
enoi?e/aneie iaoaea/ae. A oiaea “noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa” an?
neeueiaa iaiyaony iieeoe/aneee iaeee Noaeeia. Ii oaea naaiaeiy
ynii, /oi aiai?eoue e ienaoue i Noaeeia – yoi cia/eo
aniio?aoueny, aaeyaeaoueny a yiioo, ia ueoa eioi?ie yoio /aeiaae
inoaaee noieue aeoaieoth e e?iaaaoth aiyoeio. Eae au oai ie
auei , ia iniiaa aiaeeca ouny/ aeieoiaioia, noaeeineie ia?aienee,
?aoaiee e oeacaiee aeeeoaoi?a, ainiiieiaiee aai ni?aoieeia e
ethaeae, iauaaoeony n iei, iu a i?aaa naeaeaoue au? ianeieueei
caaa?oathueo “iaceia” ia yoii ii?o?aoa.

AEeciue e nia?oue Noaeeia iiaeoaa?aeeee ?yae aa/iuo enoei.
I?iianoue enoi?ee iaeeiaeiai aeoaiea aeey anao. Ii yoi iaaeaiey
ooaaeoaai ooaea iiaeao aeiiineoueny eae i?ecua e naeaeaoaeuenoai
Aeia?a e Cea. /ai aieueoa iu ocia?i i Noaeeia, oai aeoaaea
oaaaeaeaainy, /oi aio noaeaeaii noaoue a enoi?ee iaeiei ec naiuo
no?aoiuo ieeoeaoai?aiee Cea. Ieeaeea aeaaea iaia?aiey e i?ia?aiiu
ia iiaoo neoaeeoue ii?aaaeaieai aeoia aan/aeiaa/iinoe. Noaeei
naiae aeeciueth au? ?ac iieacae, /oi aeaaea aeaai?iaeiua, aunieea
/aeiaa/aneea eaeaaeu iiaeii auaa?iooue iaeciaieo, anee iieeoeea
ioeacuaaaony io nithca n aoiaieciii. Noaeei auionoee ec iiey
c?aiey aeaaiia—/aeiaaea. Aeey “aiaeaey” /aeiaae anaaaea aue e
inoaeny ninoaaiie /anoueth iannu, a yoi ii/oe ie/oi. AEeciue e
nia?oue Noaeeia iiaeoaa?aeeee, /oi aaeeiiaeanoea eae au?aaeaiea
aeeeoaoo?u iaeiiai eeoea enoi?e/anee eneeth/eoaeueii o?oiei. Iii
aeaiao, en/acaao aianoa ni nia?oueth aaeeiiaea?aeoea. Noaeei
ieeiaaea ia iia e ia oioae iiiyoue, /oi iiaeeeiii naiaiaeiia
iauanoai—yoi ia ieaooi?ia aeey ie?aieaeu, ia aa?oeia eioi?ie
iaoiaeeony iaeei /aeiaae, a annioeeaoeey, aaea eaaeaeue aieai
i?eieiaoue o/anoea a auai?a nianoaaiiie noaeueau.

AEeciue e nia?oue Noaeeia iieacaee, /oi ionoonoaea aa?iiiee
iaaeaeo iieeoeeie e ii?aeueth anaaaea a eiia/iii n/?oa i?eaiaeeo
e e?aoo. Enoi?e/aneee iayoiee niauoee a iaoae no?aia iiaeiye
Noaeeia ia aunooth oi/eo e iionoee aai aei iecoae. AEeciue e
nia?oue Noaeeia ?aeueaoii aunaaoeee, /oi /aeiaae, aa?yuee oieueei
a iiaouanoai ianeeey, iiaeao eaeoe io iaeiiai i?anooieaiey e
ae?oaiio. Aeaei?aoeee, nicaeaiiua aeeeoaoi?ii ec aai “neaau,
ioae?inoe, i?ici?eeainoe, ii/eoaiey”, ?aii eee iicaeii ?ooaony. Naiae
aeeciueth e nia?oueth Noaeei iieacae, /oi aai i?aoaicee ia
niaa?oainoai oi?aaeaiey ieacaeenue i?ec?a/iuie. Aai niiniaiinoue
iaeaaeaaaoue niciaieai ethaeae, i?aa?auaoue eo a aacaeoiiuo
eniieieoaeae yaeyaony a?iciui i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieai—e /aio iiaeao
aanoe aeanoue aaneiio?ieueiay, aaniethoiay e neiioeaio?e?iaaiiay a
iaeieo ?oeao. Ii yoi enoi?e/aneia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea iu a iieiie
ia?a au? ia o/ee. Iaae?aeiuo aa?aioee ii iaaeiiouaieth
iaiaeanoaeaiey ia?aiai eeoea a ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa iiea au?
ia nicaeaii. O?eoio Noaeeia e o?aaaaeey ia?iaea—aa/iia
i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea… Enoi?ey Noaeeia iaaeiyao. Nia?oue ia noaea aai
ii?aaaeaieai.

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