.

Социально-экономическое развитие России во второй половине XVIII в.

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 967
Скачать документ

N????-y?????? ???? ???e ? ??? ???? XVIII ??.

I?i

A???a

1.N???a ?cy??i.

2. I??????ue

3. A??-????y ??????? TH??i O??

4. O???y

5. I???? ???? ????.

C?eth??a

N??e ?????.

A???a

Ai ??? ???? XVIII a. ????i-???????y ???a a ???e ??a ??????y ???
????????o ????e. I?????? ????i ?????? a ?e??a ?cy??i ???y? ??????a
????ea ???y??a, ???? a ???? ???o. N?? ?ny/ ????? ???yi ???? ?y? n ??? e
??? ????a a ????????o ????o. Y?i ??i ?y ???e ??????? ????ny ??e ??a e
??? ???y ?y ???ey ????n???? ?????u.

ss?? ?????i ??????y ????ey ???????? ??y ?? ????? /?? ????a ???
?????y????a ??o?ey, a ??a ?iy?ny ???i-?????? ?y????ueth. Y? ????????i i
?i, ?i ?????? ??? ?????e oicy??a e y?????e ??a ????e ?????? ????e.

1. N???a ?cy??i

N???a ?cy??i a y?o ???, ?e e ???, ????? ???e y???? ???, a ???? ???
??a??? a ???a ????y (e ??o ?? a ???o ????i ??i 4 %).

????a ????i ?????? ??i, a ????, y?????e ???? e ?????ue ? ?? ??oth?o
????:

1.??o ????y, ?i ??????? ?e ??????? ??o ?????, ?e e ??? ????y a ?????o
???o ???e. A?e a 1721 a. a ?????e ???e ?? 15,5 ?i. ?e., ? a 1747 a. – 18
?i. ?e., a a 1796 a. – 36 ?i. ?e.

2. I???a ??o ?????. I?? ??????y I????e (N???a I?????? e I????), E??,
????o ???a N???? E???, ?????, ?????o e ????o ???, ??????? I??a, ????ey
???u ?????i ?????ue. I? y?i ???o ?????, a ??oth ???ue, ? ?? ?????o
?????o ???, ???a ????aey?? ? ??? ????i ?y ??? ?ai??? ???yi (? 1,5 -12
?n. ?n.), ? e ???????i ???y?i (? 60 ?n.), ????i ????, ?????i ?????
(??ai, ???, ?iy?i, ??yi, ????? e ?.).

E?? ??, ?????? ?????y????a ???? N??e e I???uey, ?a ?i? ???? ? ?????o
???a, ??th??y ?????e ???ae ???? ????y – ?o??, ??yo, ? ???? ?????? e
?a??o ????o ????eth.

3. A??oth ?? a ??a ????i, ?a?a ??i ????i ?????? ??? ??a??a e ???? ?????i
??a, a ??a ????? ?? ???????a ? E?????th O??? e C???a.

. A ? ? ??y ??? ?????ue e ??????a ???u ???ey ?????y????? ??????. I???? ?
?o ??i????e ????e ??????? ?????? a ????o ???o e ?cy???.

O???? ?????ay ??????y ????i ??????.

A???? ??a ?????y????a ????. A?e ????ue ?a ????y ????e ????e, ? ??????
???e ???a ???????a ? O??? e a I????e. I??a ???????ny ???ay ???.

I????ue ????? ????i ?cy??a. N ??e ???u, ????i ?????ue a? ??? ??a ?y
?????ey ????a ???e. N ???, ??????ue ???e ??? ?y ??e, ?????o ???? ?y ????
???????, a ????i ?c ????ny y??? ??a a C???th A??o. E?? ??, n ????i
??????? e ???a ?a ???y ??ue ????y ???? ? ???????y ?????y????? ????? e
????ue a ? ?????ee.

A ?y? n ?????? ??? ??n??ue ?? ? ?????y????th ????th.

E ??o 18 ? ??? ??a ?????, ????ey ???? ?y?e ??o ????? ???? ???, ?????y
??o ?y?e a ??ey?? ?i??y ??? ??????e ???e ??e.

A ????? y?o ????a a ??ia ?????ue ???i-???? ????y.

A y?o ??? ???? ??? ??o? ????ey ??o ???a e ?????, ????? ??e ?y ???ey
????i ??c???a. N yo? ??th a 1765 a. ? ????? A???? 2 ?? ???i A???
ye?????a ????. Ii ?i ?y????ue a ???yo ?????i ??y ? ???a e ?????? ?????i,
?? a ????o ???????? ??eyo ???? ??? ?a-??th ????icy????th ???o e i????ue
??? ?????? ?????.

2. ????a ???????

??o ??????i ?????aa ?e ??a ??????, ?i a ???? ?cy??a, ?i ??????? ??? ??
????? ??e e ??a, ??????y ???? ? ???i ??a ? ??? e ???? ???i, a ??a ???
??????y????? ????y a ???e.

Oy??y ???????. I???i ??? ?????ue ??ay ?????y (??? ??i ? O??), ?????y
??i ?????? a 5 ?c. ?????a ??ci ? ??? ??i ??i ? ??? ???? ???ey ?i? e ??a,
? e ????? a C???th A??o – a ??a ???ey ???y ??ue ???, ????ey???y a A??th,
??a ????? ??????a. A N??e ???? ?a?a ???.

A??i ??a e ??ay ???????. A??i ?????ue ?????a ??????, ???? ??a 80 %
????e ?? ????e ???e, ???e e ??? ???????. Ii?a ???ey?y ????e a ??? ???, e
???? ???i ? O??? (???? ?????u), a Y?ii? e E??e.

A ???e ?????ue ????a ??u ?????e ???????. I???? y?y?? ?????a, ??? ????
??????, a o?? ???a e ???a ???? ?????? a ?? ?????.

?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?e a ???, ?e e a ???a. A ?y? ???a Oe??a e
I?i?uey ?????ue ????ay, ?????y ???yi?ay ???????, ???ey?ay ????i ??a?oth
?????th ????i ?????i e ????? ???ey?yi, ?i a 1760-1770-a ?. ??au ??? ???
???? ? ??ouey??a ????? ??? ??e ???i y???i. A ????o ???o ??o Oe??a ???y?
??? ???? ???? ?cy??i.

I????? (???a e ???a ???? ??????, ????? ? ????? ??a e ??? ??a) ??????? a
???e ?????e, ?????? ???a, ??a, o?? e ?y? ??? ????. *?? ???e?? ??? ?????
– n 600 a y?? A???? ? 1200 e ??o ?????ey A???? II.

I???a ?? ?????

– E???a – ?????? ?????o, i??????ue ?????e e ?? ???? ? ????? ??a. Eo
????y ??????a? ??? ??i ?y ??e e ??a. Y? ?????u ?????ue ????.

– I?????a ???a ?????u ????a??ue ?????e, ??????? e ???ey?yi, ? ???o ? ??e
?????y. O?ae ?????? ???o, ???o ?? ???e ??e, ?????y ????, ?e ? ??e
??????ny ? ?????y????o ???o, ????ny a ???u, ?? ???? A?a- e
I?????-???eyi. Ii a ????i ? ????a ? ????? ? ??i???.

O?? ???ey?y ?? ???? ???????u ? O?? (??i-???th?y ??????? e ?????y) e a
Oe????? ???o (???y?a e ???? ??????), ? ????y ??a a ???? ?e???ue ??????.

– A???? – ?????? ????i. Ia ?o ????? ???y? ?????? ???o. O?? ???ey?y (???
??i ?????? e ?????a), ????y ? ??ue ??oth i????????ue, ?? ???u ????y
???o?? ??o ?????, ? ?????ue ?a ????a. I???? ????? ???o ia y?o ?????? ??
??? oy??i. Ii ?????eyi ??????, ???y? ???? – a y?e ???a ?? ???a – n ??i
?????, ?e ?? ? ???e: A y?e ???a ?oue ??.

– E????a e ???y??a ?????u a?e ???? ? ??????i ??a. *?? ??o ????? ??i ??ue
???, ??????ue ? ???u. O?? ???ey?y ???ey? ??ye ???????? ???????, ?a ? ???
18-19 ?. ? ??i?o ??o ????ue ??a 80% ???o.

Ii ????i ??????? ????eyi e???i ??????i ?????? ???y ?a ???e ?? ???????e
A??u, a ?i ??a O???, A????, I???; ???y ?????y ????? ????ny ????e? ??? a
??? A??u. Ii a ? ??y ?e A??y ???? a y?? ??????i ?????, ?????ay ???a
???e ????? ???. I???a ??u ??? ??a ???????? ????y a ??o ???yo ???????, ?e
???????ay e n???y. A??y ??????? O?? e ???ay ??????? A????? ???e ??, ?
??? A. E. E??a, ???? «?? ?????i y??ey a ???e ???e, ???a ???o a ?????
?????i ??a e ???????» ( E??, ????a ?ie???a a ???e, N?., o. 3, ??.
411.).

E 1767 a. a ???e ??????ue 385 ????? (????, ???y?o, ????, ????? e ?.) e
182 ????????o e ??????o ???, o. a. ??i 567 ?????? ???ey?e. E????i ???o
???ey?e e ?i? XVIH a. ????ue.

I??? ???o ???a ?????? ??y (??, ???, ??, ???, ??a e o. ae.) e ???e ???e
??, ?????ue ????i ??a ????e ???e ????a ? ????? ????o ?????. A ??eyo
???o, ?????, ??????o ???e? ?????ue ????, ???y?a, ?????, ?????, ?????? e
??? ???ey?y. ???a ????? ???yi ? y?o ??i?y?yo y?y?? ??e oy??e ??? ???u.

Ii, ????y ? ??eth?? ?? ??a ??y??o ?????, e ??o ???ey ???? ?n ? ??? ? ??
??e??y ??a ????? e ???y??o ???e??, ???a e y??? ????????e ????????e
????????e ???e.

E???????ay ?????a ????a ?? a?? ? ???y??o ????a, a ??oth ???ue a ???
???????. O?, a ????i e ??o 40-o ??a XVIII a. E????i ?????i ???, ? ???e
?eeth??y?, ? ?????? ??????y ?a ?? ? ?????? ???yi, a ???o ??i/?.

I????? a ??? ??????? ???e ????? ???? ????e. N?? ?o ?????ue ??a, ? ???o
???? ? 2 ?n. ???e e ?? ???, a ???eyoey, ??????a 300—400 ????, ????ue
????. Ia ???? ?????a A????o a ??a XVIII a. ????ue 1624 ???o, ? ????
???a ?y?e O???? — ? 2600 ???o.

A ????e ??? ??????? ???i??a ???a ???ey?y ??? ??????? ?????ue ???????i a
???o. Ai ??? ???? XVIII a. ?????? ???e ????o e a ???th. A???oe ???e??
???? ??a e ??ey ??a ????i ???y?i ?e ??? o ?o ????e??. I???a ??ay??
?????u, a ???? ?e ??????i ?? ???? y?i i?????a, ?ua ??i ?????ue a ???y?e
???????. I????? ???? ???y??o ????a a ???? ?????u ????????i i ????ny
????? ?????? ?cy??a e i ????? ???y??a.

Ai ??? ???? XVIII a. ??a ??i ???o ???o, ?iy?o a ??????, ????o e ?
?????, ??? ???i. Ia ???ey?yo, ????????? a I?????-???? a 1767 a., ???o
???o ????ue ??i 18 ?n., a ??? n ???th?? ia ?? — ? 25 ?n. E?ue ? ????
?io???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????o ???yi, a ???i? ? ???yo ?????? —
??????, ??????iy?e, ???????? e ?. — ?????a ????????y y?????y ??a.

C????? ????? ???? ?n i???i ??a a ?????? ???ey?yo O??? (???ay, ?????ay e
????ay ???????), Y??? (????ay ??????oue), E??e (?????? ???). A ?????o
???o ??? ????????a ??u ??c???a n ???i ??? ????th?y ? ??? a ???, ? e a
????????ath?e ??????? (I???, A??a). I??? ?? ??? ???y?y a ??? ???y??o
???ey?yo: ?????o, ?????o, ?????, ??????, ???o, ????????o e ?. I???a ????
????? ???e ?? ? ??? e ???e ??a? ?????, a ?????? e ? ???i?i-?????? ???o.
I?ay ?????ue ???o ???o a 60-a ?? XVIII a. ????a ???? 220 ?n. ???e, ?
???o ??a ??a?u ?? ?iy? ? ??? ???i?a. E ??o XVIII a. ??????ue ?a ??i 420
?n. ???o ???o.

I???a ???y? ????u ?? ??? ????e ? ???a, ????ny e ???i ????i. ????y?ny ??e
???e ??. *?? ???yi ????ny ? ????i ?cy??a. I???i y? ????? e ??i, ???a
?????y ???i e ????????ath?i ?????. Ia ???a ?e E??? e I???, ??? ???o
????ue ??ouey??, ? e ??o XVIII a. ?a ? ????? ?????i, ????i ????o i???n
?????y ?? a ???e ???i-?????? ???, ???y??y ?????? ???i. A ???o ?????
nth? ????ue ????a ????o ???a. I???a e ????a ????u ??e ????ny ? ?a ??a
????? ??, ??, ???oe, ???y?-????e ? ?????? a ??iy?? ???e I??u, E??? e ???
?????? ???a. I? y?i ???y?, ?????a ?ith ???th ?? ???????th, ?? a?? ?????
?????e ???-?? ????.

???????? ???? o??, ???a??i ?? a ??oth ??????? O??, e ???? ???y??e e
????? ?????u, ????? ? ???i ??a e ???a?e ? ????? ??e, ????????e i ?i, ?i
? ??? ???? XVIII a. a ??????? ???e ???ae?ue ???a y?????e ???o ???o
??????e. O? ? ??a ??e ???e ?? ?????i ???? ? ??a ???????, ??a?i ????e.
*?? ???? ????? ? ?????o ???a, ?????? ???i ??a? ? ??n, ?i ???ea?i ???
????. I??a ??????? ?? ?i??? ?????i ????ue ??i ?????? a ??? ???
?????y????o ??o. Ae??i ? ?? ??????? ????ue ????th ?????? ???????oth ????
??o ???a. E?? o?i, ???? ?????u ??? ?e ???ny ??e ???ueth n ????i, ?e ?e
??? ????y ????i ???y?? ?e ???? ?????u ???ey?y ? ??? ?????i ???i?, ? e
??? ???, ??????i ????. N??????, e a ???e ??????? ???????i y?y?? ????,
?????? ???? ??????.

3.A??-????y ??????? TH??i O??

C?????? ???ey ???ea ??????? O??, ?-???? ????ay ???a ????a a ?????e. E
70-i ??i XVIII a. ? O?? ?????i 84 ???????, ???? e ????????o ???. I? ???
90% ???? ?? e 65% ?????? ??? ?? ???e. I?ay ???? ??? a ??? ????a 5 ?i.
??a, a e 1800 a. ???? 10 ?i. ??a.

A 40—50-o ??o ???? ??????i ??? ???a ? TH?? O??, ?i y??? ?????i ????
?????????a e ?? ?????i a ??oth ???ue ??? ??? ? ??? ? ???i ??a. O??????
?????ue a ???a, ???ii a ??, e ??? ???. I?y? n ?????? ??ueth ??? ???e
?i?-???????e: E. A. O????, E. N. Iyn??a, I??? e ?. A????? th?????? ???a
?????? ??????? ???.

E????? ??????i ???a ? O?ea ???? n 1722 ??. Ca 12 ?o ?? ????i ??a 20
???a. Y? ?y?? n ?y????ueth Ae????, ???i ?e ???i ???? I?uey??e ??ae.
I??eyth?a ?????i ???a ?? ???e ?????ue ? ?e?: *???, E??, O??a, I??. Ii
???ae?e *?i?e ??u ????????? a ?????th ??ue ???e.

E ???? XVIII ?? N??? O?e ?? ????? ???????? ???i ???. Ia ?i ?eth ?????ue
67% ???? ??? a ???e, a I??a Ae??? ?? ?????i ?????i ??? a A??????i. E???i
????? ??? ??? ???? ? ?? ??. A ???? XVIII ?? ?? ?n??? ?a 24 ???, ???a ?a
??a ???? ??? O?? ?e ???? ?ay ??a?. ?????? ??????ay ???????, ?/??ue ???
???. (a 1753 a. ?e i???i A????? ????????? ??ae; a 1763 – I????e
????????? ??ae). E ??o XVIII ?? N??? O?e ??? ???e ??u? ??i a y???? ???e.
Ia ?? ii ?i ???? ?????, ?? a ?i ?? ??? O?? ? ????? a ??e ???. I???aey
81% ?????i ???, 95% ??, ? ?e ?????? ???i ? ae??a ???.

Iiy??? ?????? ???e ? ???i??o ???o ??? e ???o ??i. ss?i ????e ??? ????a
*?????, ?????o ?a?ueyi, ???o ??????a e ?????a ?????a. I? ???e ??? ???e
???c. A?? ??ae a ???? ?????e E.O.I???a, ???e ????? i?ue ?y ????y “iy??i
???”. I????i ?????ue ??ae E.E. I????- ?????ey i??? a ?? ????? ????y.

A y?o ??? ? TH?? O?? ??ui ??i e ??????? ?????????? ????? ??????e ?????,
???? i?????, ???o ?????a e ???????e?a, ????o ?????? e ???o ??yi.

Ia ??? ?ae ??????y a ???? ???e ?? ???? ????y, a ? ??? ???? XVIII ?? —
??? e ????o ???o ???yi. A??? ??? e i???e ??? ??????y ?ae, ??e ? ????, a
??a ???u ????ey e ????ey ???? ????? ?y ?? ?? ???e. Ia ???a ?ae ? ???
??????y ???e ????o, ??? ???e a ??o e ???, ????y ????e ??ue e ???iye a
???? ?th?. E????? ???? ?????e ??????? ?o???? ??i??e ??i ??????, ?????
??????o a ????o ???yo ???i ??, ????, ?????e, ??e, ?????e.

A A????i C???a ??? ??????? ??ae ? ????e ?? ? E?????? ??????y ??? a 1750
?? a ????e C??? ?ae ????i I??????e (???e ? 1880 ?? n ?????? ???i ??????i
?? 16667 ??a). I????ue — n????e ??oe E.A.O????. I??a ????? ??????e ?????
???????? ?ae ? ????? A?????? (???a O????? e O??y??a, ??i N???e TH?e e
TH??) a ?y? n ????e ?? ? I??????e ??????? ??ae. A 1751 ?? ???? ??oe I???
?????o ??e???? E??????? ???????i ??? (???e ? 1866 ?? n ?en???? ???i
??????i ?? 10800 ??a). Iiy?yth?y E????, I??- e A??a-A?y??e ????o??a,
A??????, A?????? e ??? i??????a ???, ????? ? ??? e ?????a ???? ?????
A????? I????y. On????y e ??i-????y ?????y — ??? ??? e ??a ???-?????a ?y
???? ?? y?o i???y?e. I?????a ???? ???a ???i???ue ???? ??? ???? ??? ??e
???? ????y. A ???? ??a y? ???i ??e??i ????yi 1735—1740 e ???oth?o ??a.
Ai ??? ???? XVIII ?? ?? ????i 52 ??? (26 ??????ue?o e ????????o, 23
???????, 3 ???????o). E ??o XVIII ?? ????? ???e e ??????? ??? ?a ??ee
50% ????? ??.

Ai ??? ???? XVIII ?? ???? ?o??a ?????? ??i-????e ?? TH??i O??. C????th?y
??? ??? – ???a ???: Iy?????, E?? (1747), C???o (1754), E??-E???e (1758),
E??i (1757), N??, TH?th??, O?ue-E?? (1758), I?? (1773).

4.O???y

A???iyy ???ey ??? ?????ue a ???yo ???ey ???i ????i ??????, a ?i ??a a
?? ????a, ????ey ??????e ???a ? ?????? ?????? ????a, ????iey ???. I???i
???i ??a ???y??y ???ey ????? ????a e, ?i??i, ????i ?cy??a.

I???th ?? ??? y???, ???o ???o ???ny ? ??oth ???? ???ey. E??i a ?? ???u
???e y????e ???? ???ny ??????e ???e ??e. Ae????? ?ny? ?y??? ??o ??e ???o
???a, ?????? e ??i???? y???. N??e ???? ? ?o y?y?? I?????y (? A??),
I???ay (? O???), A?????ay (? N??a), E???ay (a N??e), I?a????y.

Ii ??????ue e ??? ??iy?? n?????e ????. N?? ???i ??i ?i?? y?y?? I??a.

A ? ? ??y ?? ?a ? ???i i ??????, ???i i ??????? ???? ????? ????. I?
????? a ???? ????, ??i ??????a??e, ??i ???????.

. A??yy ???ey ??a ?????? ?a??? ??i (3,5 % ???? ??????a a ??a XVIII a.),
? ?????ue ???? ???. A?i??? ???, ???? ???i, ?iy?a ??e, ???, ?n, ??.

A??oth ?? ?? ??? ????e ?e A???? II ??c ?????i ??a (??c I???? e A?????),
? a ???yo ???????a ?????? ????i ??a ? ????i ? ??? ?????? y???a e ?ey ??a
a ??? ? ???a n 1760-o aei 1790-o ?.

A??? ??????? ????i ???e a A??a ????? A??y, ??? ??a ???ey n I???e e O???,
a A?e – n I???, O???, E??i, A???.

I???e ????e ????? ???e ????e y?y?? ? ?????ue ? ?????o ???, ??? ??i ?????
???. A?c ???a a A??o e ??c ? ?a ? 910 ????? ??o ?????a e ?????ny ?
?????o ???yo. Ii ?o ??, ?i ?a 10-15 % ??? e ??a ????????ue ?????e ???e
???????? i i????? ????e ?????a e ?????e ????? ?????i ?????i??
?????????a.

????a ?????i ??a

AE???e ???e a ???? XVIII a. ?? ?????-?????a ???, ???? A?????y e A????ay
????, a e ??o ???ey — e N??? I???a. I?th? ?? ????y a I??o e I????, a
ss????, E???o. I????e ??a ????e e ???? e ???y?. I???e ???a? ?? e ???
?????y????a ???ou n ??th ????ue ?? ???? aei??. A????? ? ???yi ????i ??,
?????e ? ?y ?????? ?????y, ??? ?i ?y ??? ??? e ???? ???, ?y ???e ?? e
?????? ???e ? ????? ?? ???.

I?? ???yi ? ????ey e ???eo ???e? ??????e ????eth ???e ?????i ??a ?y
?????? ???a. A ???y??a e ????a ?cy??i, a??iyy ???y ???? ????a, ?????
????o ????y ???o ???????? c??? e ?????, ??????o ???i. I? y? ???e
???????, n ??? ??? ???ey?? ???th ??ue ??e ????e ? ???o, a ?y? n ???a??
?????i ??a ??e ????ue e ???? ???? ?????y.

????a ?????i ??a ?iy?y?ny a ??a ??a y??? e ???a, ???? a 70-a ?? XVIII a.
??????ue ??a 1600. Oe?ue y??? ??y??? ? Ey?u e E???a ? ???a ??c E??,
O??e e I?????th y??? ? N???e e E???e — ? ???, ? I?????e a I?i?? ?
A?????? e I??a???e — ? ??? e ???-???.

A????e ? ????? ??a ???y?y ??oth?a ???y? ? ??? ? ????????, ? e ? ??a
?????. Ae??yia ? ??y????e ???? ??o ???yi, ? ???? ?, ?e e ???yi-???????a,
a??? ???i.

I??a ????? ??? e ????e

????a ????? ???? ???? ?a????? ??e ? ????a ???? a ??e y?????? ????. I?
?? ?????u ?e ????? ??oth?? ??y??a, ae?????ny ????? ???? ????e e ?????e,
?e e ????? ?????.

A ???? XVIII a. ????ue 17 ????o ??a ????? ????? ???. N?????? ????? ???i
??y????i ???eth ?a?????i ??a. O??i 20 ???y 1753 a. ???i?a ????? ???u
??iy??.

N?? ? ??? ???? ?y ??a ???? e ??????? ??e ??? ?a?i 1767 a. e ????? 1775
a. ?????? ????e e ??????? ???u ??????? e ????. E??uey?i ?? ??????a
a???i?ue ???iy???? ????ny «??ae??? e ???? ?????? ???e, ?i ??????? ??a
???? ?????eth ?e?? ????i ?????? a ????????th ?????o.

A??yy ???ey

A?e a 1749 a. ??c ???a ? ???e ???? ??i 7 ?i. ???, ? ??c 35 ?o, a
1781—1785 ?., ? ???? ???? ??e 24 ?i. ???, ??? ??c ????ue? ???? ??.

Ia ??? ??a a ???i ???, e? e a ?????th?a ??y, ?iy? ??a e ??????u — ?i,
??? e ??y, ???ey?? ? 20 ? 40% ??i y???a. Ca ?? ?e ??, ??e, ?n, ???,
???, ??o, ??, ???a.

A ??? ?a ???a ???? ?????e ?????? ???. O?, ????, ??? ???ey? a y???a ???e
a 1749 a. 6%, a a 1796 a.— 13%. I?????y ??a y???a ???? ??? ????ny ? 1794
a., ??a ? ??? ??e 3,9 ?i. ??a; a ???othu? ?? ??c ??? ? ???o ????i
????ny. A?? ??a ????y a ??n??? ? ??ay e ???o ?i ? ?o???i ??a, ? ?????,
??????o ? y??? ??a. A 1749 a., ????, y???o ??a ????y a ????e ??a — 2 ?n.
??? (0,03% ??i ???). N 60-o ??a ??c ??a ???? ??? ??e, ????a a ??? 90-o
??a ??u a 2,9 ?i. ???.

N?? ???? a ???th ???a ?-???? ?????e ???? ??y??? ?????y: ???, ??i, ??a,
??, ???, ?y??e, ??th??y e o. ae.

A ?eyo ???ey ??????e ??????? ??????i ????? ????ue ????????th ????. I??a
????? ??? ??? ??o ????? ???a ? ?o???e ????. Y? ???y ?? ?????a?a ??????i
a 1757 a. ?????i 13-?????i ??a ? ????e ???a, ???? a ???th e ????o ? ?a.
A 1766 a. a? ??yo ??e ????? ??o. Ii ??a ???? ?? ???a, ???? «? ???? a
?????i ?????a ???n????y ???, e, ????, ????? ? ??? ?? ???a, ???o «??????
?e ??? a ?????a ?a ? ????n?.

????y?ny ?? ??i, ??oth?o n ????. N?? ?o ??? ??i ???? A??y. Aa ?? ???ny
a ???i ?????i ??, ???, ???? e o. i. A??a ??i a ????? ???? ???? ????a
???. O???y n A??? ??? ?? ???? ?y ?in?e. Ai???a ??????? ??? ??? ????i
???a n ???? ???? ? ???.

A???tho ???a ???? ?y ???? n O??? (1755 a.), E??i (1758 a.), O?? e A???
(1760 a.). Y? ???? ??????e ?y?a ???? ?y? ? ???? A???. A 1782 a. ???y
??th?? ???? ???? n Ae??e, a 1785 a.— n A???e, a 1786—1787 ?. — n O???e
e I?????.

5.I???? ???? ???ee

I???? ????i-y??????e ???? ?????a a y?o ??? y?ye?ue: ??????? ??y?? ???ey
– ??y??a e ??????y ???i-???? ???ieyi, ??????? ???????? ??ey e ??e
y?????? ???u, e, a ???? ??a – ????? ?????? ??y??? ?i???? ?????a.

N ??? ???u, ????? ?? ??????? y??????o ????eth ???, ??u ??????ue ?
?????o ?????th a ???th ???o, ????? ????? ????????? ??/, a ??a ?y? ??a??a
??y??a, ?????ny a ?????y e ?? ?nn??y ????o ??a ????y. A???? II, ?????
????e ???? e ?????? ?y????e, ???a ?i? ???e ????? ?????????i ? ?????e.

Y? ?a ???, ????? ???????a ?? ??o, ? ??? y?? ?????? ???i ????? a y??????
???? ?????a.

I???a a ????e ??y??a.

I??a ??i y?????ay ???? ??ae??? ?? ????? ? ?????a ??a ???? ???y ??y??a a
?????????a. I???? ??y? ?a a y?? A???? ??a ?????ue ??? e ??i????ue ??????
e ?????a ????a ?????u. O?? ?e ??? Ae??y??e ???e ??, ????? ??u ?ae ???
???o (1754), ???a ????y ??yi ? ????i? (n 1755).

I?? III ?????e ??a ??? ?a?????eyi ? ??yi – a 1762 a. ???????i ???y???
??????y ?? ????i i???ue e ??i ???ey?yi ?????, ??y? ?? ?????u ? ?y????e
???????e ???, ?i ??? ?? ????ue ? o??y a ???? ?cy??i.

Y? ??? ?? ?????? e ???a? AE????e ???? ??y??o, ???? A????e II a. 1785 a.
A 1782 a. ??iy?? ??ay ???a – ??????? ?? ?uy??u ???a???e ? ??? ??e, ? e ?
??. Ii ?i?y? ? ??ue ??? ?e a ?????????i ?-? ????ey ?????o ???a e ????o
????? a ??????e.

I? y?i ????y ?????a ???? ???????a ??? ??i a ?o ???yo, ???a ???y? ??c
?????a ?e ?a ??i ??????ny ?????a ?????y????a ??a. Ae??y??a ???ey?y a
????e ???? XVIII a. – ???e ????i ???? ????e ?????u – ??????? a ??????
???????, ???? ????n?a. A??y ??????? O??, ? ??th??? ???? ???a, ???i
?????nue ? ??y??o ?????? ??????.

I??i, ??ey? a ????e ????ey ??y??? ?????????a ?? ????? ????? ?????a ????
??????? e ???? ???e.

I???a a ????e ?????

A?a ????? ? ???? ?????o ?????????o ??????? ?? e ??????a ????? ????? ?e
?????i ???ey.

Y?? ??????? A????ay ???a 1775 a. A???? ????a a ?????e ? ???a ???? ??
????i ? ?u? (??a 500 ?a.) e ????? 3 ???e, ??????a ? ???? ???. E?? 1-e
?e?? ??e ????ue ? ???i, 1-y e 2-y ???e ??e ??ue ?e ???? ???e e ???, ??
?????u ? ?ea?? ????e, a a 1776 a. e ? ?????u.

AE????y ???a ???i 1785 a., ???ay ?????? n A???e ??y??o, ?????ea e ??iy?
y? ??? (????a ???i? ???? ?a ? 6 ??y?a).

?????? ????a 1785 a. y??? ?a ??e ???? ?????e ??? ???e? ???????. O????
????? ? ???? ???????, ????a, ??u ??????ue ???? ???o ?????e, ????i
???????, ? ????? a ??, ???? a ???o, ?a ?a ???? oa?a ?????e.

Ii y? ?? ? ?? ?????e, ?e ?e ???? ??? ???a e ???? a ?????? n ??e ????e
A???? a ????e ?????????a.

A??? ?????e ??e A???? ?? I???o 1775 a., ?????i ?????e ?c??a ?????????a.
I?????? ?? ????, ?eth?y ?????, ???? ??i ???? ??u e ????y, ? ????ay ???o
????? e ?c ?y?e ?????e (?y?? ??? a ????? ???? 1775 a. ????ny ????? i
???a i?????????). Y? ??????? ???io ??o ???y??o ????a e ????e ???????.

Ii ???? y??????i ?????a ? ?? ???????? e ?????e, ?a ? ?????a ???? ?cy??i
e ????nue n ???e ????? ?????y? a ???? e ???????. A ??i, ????y ? ??? ??y?
A????, ?? ?a i ???? ?? ????o y???? ???u ?????????a.

O???a ?????i ??a ? ??? ???? XVIII a. ???? ??? ??ay. Y? ??n??? ? ??:
????ey ?? ????ey ?????i ??a ? E?????th e N????th O??? (a 1783 a. ???y?i
c?? ?? ????i ????? ? ???? e ????), ??? E??i-A?????e e Ai????e ???? ??, ?
Ae?, C???a, I?o???. E?? ??, ???????a e ?uy?a o ??? ??e ???i ?c????
??y??o: ??i ???i ?e A????a II ??a 800 ?n. ???yi ??e ?????e; ???ey ???
????a ?ae ???y??: ???e I?? III e A???? II ?? ????ao?i ??i ???? ?c ??
???ey? ???yi a ??? a N??ue (1760), ? ????a ??? (1765), ???y?i ?? ????i
????ny ???o ? ??? ???? (1767) e o. ae. I??i ????a ????? ??????ue ???? ?e
???? a ???u e a ????? ? ? ?n ???o ???. Ca 5 ?o ?? ???i e ?i???i ? ???o
??i 20 ?n. ?????. I????a ???a e ?????a ????? a? ??e, ?????ue ????.

A ??a ???????i ??a ?????i? XVIII ???ey ???e?ue ? ???a ?? ?i, ?i ???y? ??
?????a ?cy??i, ???? ? ????? ?????e ?? ????? e ??i.

A ? ? ??y, ????? e ???ua ???ey? ? ??? ???? XVIII a. ? ??a 45% ??i ????y
e 53% ?? ???yi. E??i e y?? ???o ??ny?y ??? ???? ????ey ?????i ??y.

I???e ?????i ??y e ??? ? ????ey

I??e ???e ????i-???????? o?y??a – ????? ?????? ?cy??a.

Ii ? ??? ???? XVIII a. a ??e??a ???ey ???i-???? ????e, ?????ey ???????
??a, ????ey ?o???e e ???e ????, ???ey ??????? e ??a ???a ?????i ?i
?????a ?????.

A??e ???e ?????i ?cy??a – i?????a ?a?uey?? e ??a e ????a ? ??? e ????e
????? ?????? (???, ???, ???? ????, i??y ??a).

I??i e y?o ???e ??e ???????y a ????? ???y ???yi ???iyo???i ?cy??a.

A ?o ??? ?????ue ?a ??u y?? ????,

– I?y?y ??a – ???????a ?????i a ?????o ?????o ???eyo. C?? ???e ????? ??
?? (???th ???o) ? ?? ???y??o ???a. I? y?i ????? ???a. E??? ??? ?y??
???????y y??? ?ny??, a y?i ??? ???y?i, ???? ??? e ????? ?ny?? ?????
?????, ? ??? ????th ??? ????e ??, a ? ????i-????? ????a.

– E???ay ??a ?? ??????? a ??a ?????o ??????o ???o. C?? ???e ????? ????
??e. *?? ?i ???? ???y?i ???? ?e ?a ?? e ? ???e ?? ???ue ? ????e e ???o
????, a ??ae, ? ????, ???? ???? ?e ??i??y ? ?????o. O???? ??y ??aiy?? ?
???y??i. Ii ????? ? ?a ??? ???e ????? ? ??o, a ? ? ??e ??a. Ii a y?i ???
???y?i, ???y? ?????, ?a ??? ?????y a ??????? ??/?i. I??atho ??, ???
???????a ?c??a e ??i?????? ???y??a ????.

O?? ???i, e ?y?a e ????a ???a ???y?? ?????? ?cy??a ?e??? e ????? ???i
???? ???????a.

O??e ???e ???????? ?cy??a – ??ay ?????ue ???y?? ? ??u?a e ?ay??????
????? ???ae?? e ??o.

O???? y?o ???e ???y?y e ???ye ???? ???ey? ???y?? ?ae ???e ????y ???ue
??e e ?????? ???o. Ii a ??? ?y?? ???????y ????ay ?????ue ??????ue a ??e
???th. A a ???yo ??a ?a?uey?? ? ????e ? ?a ??? ??a??ny y??????o ?????th,
???y ? ??o.

N?? ????? ?y??? ????a ????? ?????? ???a, ?????ny ???ue? ?????e, ?
??a????e ? eiy ??? ???? ?ny? ?ny?i ??e e ??e ????? ?o.

*???? ???e ???????a – ??? ???ue ???e e ?????. Y?o ???e ???y?y, ?oy e ??
???e ???ey ??o ???a ????e ??e, ??????y ??a??? ?????y????o ??i, a???ey
??o ??? ???? e ??ae ??a.

O?? ???i ????ey ???? ???e? ????i-???????? ?cy??a ??????i?? i ??? ????ey
y?e ???u.

C?eth??a

A????? ???ey ?cy??a ? ??? ????? ???? ?????ue. E??????? ?????ue ????
y??????i ????a.

A??????i y?????a ???? y??i?e. O??? ???ey y???? ???e e o?? ? ??a ????e ?
????o ??i C??a.

I? y?i a y???? ??? ?????ue ??????a ????e. A??i ??e ???????, ?eth?y
??????th, e ???ey. ?????? ???i-???? ????y, a o? ??a a ???? ?cy??a. A
????o??? ???? ?ae ?????? ?? ???e??i I????ey ??????? y???u y??????i
?????a.

????a ???i-???? ????e, ???i??a ??????? ??a, ????? ????????? ??? ???i e
????? ???? ????a ???????a. I????i ????y ??a? ????ey ????i-???????e ???u.

A ? ? ??y ? ??? ???? XVIII a. y????, ??? ??i ??????? e ???ey ???e
?????ue ?????? ???? ???e. A y?o ??? ????a ????y??e ???? e y???? y??i????
?????a ?a ????i ?? ??u e ????? e ??o ????y A???? II ???? ??? ??e e ??a,
???a ????????? ??/ e ????i-?????oth ?????eth a ???.

E????a

1. Ae??y??a ???? // I?????ay ???y: Y???i?ey. O. 1. I., 1993.

2. C??? E.A., I??? E.I. ???ay ???y: Io A?o??u A??? ? A????a II. I.,
1994. N. 88-135.

3. E???a A.A. E?n ???e ???e. XIX a. I., 1993. N. 18-24.

4. I??? A.I. A????e ??e ???e ??? ???? XVIII – ??? ???? XIX a. E., 1981.
N. 3-82.

5. I?? N.A. E??ey NNN?: E??e. *. 1: E?. XVIII – ?/. XIX ?. E., 1974. N.
3-24.

6. I???a N.O. E??e ? ???e ???e. I., 1993. N. 608-639.

7. I???a N.A. I?? ???e ???e. I., 1991. N. 268-271.

8. N???a // Y???????? ???ue th?? ????. I., 1993. N. 375-378.

9. I?????y ?????ay y?????y //http://interpretive.ru/dictionary/

10. A??a ?? e ???ey A?????? ? ??? ??a: ???a, ??iy?a e
???a//http://www.vatandash.ru/

11. A??y y?????y. O. I, II. I.: E?-? «N???ay y?????y», 1984, 1986.

12. A????n?y ??? e ??? ?? A?????? ? ??? ??a // N??? ????? ????????
???-?????? ?????e 13-14 ?o. 2000a. I? ?ae. ?.A.O???a // O?, 2000. N.472.

13. A?? O?? a ??? ?????? ???e ? 300 ?o // O???ay ??ay y?????y. O.I. I?
??. ????? A.N.O??y??. A?????a: E?-? OAAAA, 2000. N.500.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019