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Состязательный процесс во времена Петра I

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C i ae a ? ae a i e a.

Aaaaeaiea……………………………………………………… 2

Aeaaa I. I?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai ?one n ae?aaiaeoeo

a?aiai aei i?aia?aciaaiee Iao?a Aaeeeiai…..…………… 6

Aeaaa II. I?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai a yiioo Iao?a I……..…… 11

Aeaaa III. Ninoycaoaeueiue i?ioeann ii Oeaco «I oi?ia

noaea» io 5 iiya?y 1723 ……………………………………… 20

Caeeth/aiea………………………………………………….. 25

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u………………………………………… 26

A a a ae a i e a.

E?aoeee enoi?e/aneee i/a?e

i iao?ianeeo i?aia?aciaaieyo.

Yiioa i?aia?aciaaiee Iao?a Aaeeeiai anaaaea aucuaaea a ?innee ia?iiiue
eioa?an, eioi?ue ia?a?in a?aieoeu no?aiu e i?eia?ae iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
oa?aeoa?. Oaea a oiaea iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i auyaeeenue eo noi?iiieee e
i?ioeaieee, caaycaeny oio enoi?e/aneee nii?, iocaoee eiaai iiiuia aeatho
naay ciaoue ia oieueei a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee, ii e a iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie. Auea ee aeayoaeueiinoue Iao?a «?aaiethoeeae naa?oo»? Ianeieueei
aa?iui e aa?iui e ia?niaeoeaiui ieacaeny iooue «aa?iiaecaoeee» ?innee?
Ia iaian ee oea?ue-i?aia?aciaaoaeue oyaeaeiai oua?aa ?onneie
iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?a? Eee, iai?ioea, aac ?aoi?i o ?innee aue au
ioiyo noeioe e ?acaeoeth? Ana yoe aii?inu ieacaeenue nae/an aeey ian
aeaeaei ia ioaea/aiiuie aii?inaie, iineieueeo i?iaeaia i?aainoaaiiinoe
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, o?ieia ioaeaeaiiiai e aieaa aeeceiai i?ioeiai
inoaaony a /enea aeooaeueiuo. Ioaaou ia yoe aii?inu iiaeii iieo/eoue
?anniio?aa ?acoeueoaou aannii?ii aaeeeeo i?aia?aciaaiee a aeecie ?innee.

A ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie enoi?eia?aoee a?aiy ?aoi?i Iao?a eiaei
?acee/iua o?aeoiaee, i?aaeaeu eioi?uo i?inoe?athony io aacoaea?aeii
aiieiaaoe/aneeo ioeaiie aei e?aeia io?eoeaoaeueiuo.

Ia enoiaea XII aaea io/aoeeai ii?aaeaeeeenue oa /a?ou enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey ?innee, n eioi?uie naycaiu iineaaeothuea i?ia?anneaiua yaeaiey
a yeiiiie/aneii, eoeueoo?iii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii iieiaeaiee no?aiu.

?inney a XII coieaoee cia/eoaeueii ie?aiea ia oieueei a yeiiiie/aneii ,
ii e a aiaiiii ioiioaiee. Ae oaeaeinue aeoaiei a noaie ioiaeaeiooue
naith thaeioth a?aieoeo, i?anaeay aa?anneaiua iiiieciiaaiey E?uineiai
oainoaa e Oo?oeee. Aieueoia enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea eiaei ainniaaeeiaiea
Oe?aeiu n ?inneae, aica?auaiea a ninoaa ainoaea?noaa noa?eiiuo ai?iaeia
Eeaaa e Niieainea. Ianeieueei iiauneeanue ?ieue ?innee a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo.

?inney ?aniieaaaea a?iiaaeiuie i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, aa ia?iae aue
o?oaeiethaeaui, oaeaioeeaui e ioaeanoaaiiui. E oai ia iaiaa ec-ca
ainiiaenoaa oaiaeaeia-e?aiinoieeia e aneaaenoaea iaaeaaii?eyoii
neiaeeaoeony aiaoieo ianoiyoaeuenoa ( ionoonoaea auoiaeia e Aaeoeeneiio
e *a?iiio ii?yi) iia ionoaaaea io ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai a
yeiiiie/aneii e eoeueoo?iii ?acaeoee.

Oaea a aeaoneea e thiioaneea aiaeu o aoaeouaai eiia?aoi?a ai iiiaii
noi?ie?iaaeny oa?aeoa?, e?oa eioa?ania e oeaiiinoae, eioi?ue noaiao
ii?aaeaeythuei aeey anaai aai iineaaeothuaai oea?noaiaaiey( aea?eea
iioaoiua aie e ei?aaeaaiaeaeaiea ia ssoca e Ia?ayneaaneii ica?a ioaeee
eioa?an e ainoaea?noaaiiui aeaeai).

E nia?aiaiieeia, e iioiieia aoaeao ii?aaeaoue iaiau/aeiay neea e
naiaia?acea aai ee/iinoe. Yia?aey e ?aciinoi?iiiinoue (a iieiie ia?a
i?iyaeaoayny eeoue a c?aeua aiaeu) ni/aoaeenue a iai n a?oainoueth, a
ii?ie e aeanoieinoueth; oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue, o?oaeiethaea – n
i?eno?anoeai e ie?ooeai e caaaaai aanueia ieceiai oieea;
iai?eoioeeainoue, i?inoioa a iauaiee – ni no?aoiuie aniuoeaie y?inoe e
?oeii?eeeaaenoaii ; aeaeaei ia iieiioeaiiia ia?aciaaiea – n iinoiyiiie
oyaie e ciaieyi, iniaaiii aiaiiui e oaoie/aneei; aai /enoi «cooiiooiia»
i?ienoiaeaeaiea – n ethaiaueth e ei?aaeyi e ii?th; iaeiiaoe, aai
aeoai/aeoee iao?eioeci – n oaaaeaieai, a a iieiaeinoe e n i?aeeiiaieai
ia?aae caiaaeiie eoeueoo?ie.

Aaaeiaeoei ?acoeueoaoii ?aoi?i Iao?a I noaei nicaeaiea nia?aiaiiie
?aaoey?iie a?iee e oeioa. Oaea i?e aeecie oea?y ?inneeneay a?iey
ca?aeiiaiaeiaaea naay iaeiie ec neeueiaeoeo a Aa?iia, a iieiaeie
ioa/anoaaiiue oeio noae ainiiaenoaiaaoue ia Aaeoeea.

?aoi?iu Iao?a I ciaiaiiaaee ioi?ieaiea aaniethoiie iiia?oee. ?inneeneee
aaniethoeci, a ioee/ea io eeanne/aneiai caiaaeiiai, aiciee ia iiae
aeeyieai aaiacena eaieoaeecia, aaeaine?iaaiey iiia?oa iaaeaeo oaiaeaeaie
e o?aoueei nineiaeai, a ii au?in ia e?aiinoie/anei-aeai?yineie iniiaa.
Aai oi?ie?iaaieth niinianoaiaaee o?aaeeoeee naiiaea?aeaaey, aeaeueiaeoaa
oneeaiea oeaio?aeecaoeee aeanoe, io/anoe caaenyuea io iai?yaeaiiie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ianoaiiaee e iiuoa caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai aaniethoecia.

Aeaaaeoeaoue aoi?iai ieoya?y iaeia ouny/a naiuenio aeaaaeoeaoue aoi?iai
aiaea ai a?aiy oi?aeanoaaiiiai i?acaeiiaaiey Ieooaaeneiai ie?a Naiao
i?aiiaeian Iao?o I oeooeu Aaeeeiai, eiia?aoi?a ana?inneeneiai e iooea
ioa/anoaa. N i?eiyoeai Iao?ii I oeooea eiia?aoi?a ?inney noaea eiia?eae.

Nicaeaiiay Iao?ii iiaia «?aaoey?iia» ainoaea?noai ia oieueei nouanoaaiii
iiauneei yooaeoeaiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey, ii e iineoaeeei
aeaaiui ?u/aaii iiaea?iecaoeee no?aiu. Iiiaea iao?ianeea iiaiaaaaeaiey
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee oaeeaeoaeueioth aeeao/anoue. Ainoaea?noaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey, iniiaaiiua Iao?ii I, ninoaaeyee einoye ?inneeneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe aanue XVII, a io/anoe e aeaeaa. ?ae?ooneea iaai?u
i?inouanoaiaaee aei 1874 aiaea, a Naiao, Neiiae, i?ieo?aoo?a, oaaaeue i
?aiaao, ?aaii eae e any ?inneeneay eiia?ey, — aei 1917 aiaea. Iiaeiaiia
«aeieaiaeeoaeuenoai» iaeuecy iauynieoue eia/a, iaaeaee i?aaie/iinoueth
iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, eo aaeaeaaoiinoe
iio?aaiinoyi no?aiu. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iaiaeiaaaeii e i?e ioeaiea a
oeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe Iao?a I e i?aeoe/anee ana ?aoi?iu niioaaonoaiaaee
«aeooo a?aiaie». Ii naiaio ianooaao e no?aieoaeueiinoe i?iaaaeaiey
iao?ianeea ?aoi?iu ia eiaee aiaeiaia ia oieueei a ?inneeneie, ii e , ii
iaiueoae ia?a, a aa?iiaeneie enoi?ee. Iiuiue e i?ioeai?a/eaue ioia/aoie
iaeiaeeee ia ieo iniaaiiinoe i?aaeoanoaothuaai ?acaeoey no?aiu,
yeno?aiaeueiua aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea oneiaey e ee/iinoue naiiai oea?y.
Iie?aynue ia iaeioi?ua oaiaeaioeee, iaiaoeaoeany a XVII aaea, Iao? ia
oieueei ?acaee eo, ii eae au «i?eoii?ea» co?aio, ca ieieiaeueiue
enoi?e/aneee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie auaae aa ia ea/anoaaiii aieaa aunieee
o?iaaiue. Anaai eeoue ca /aoaa?oue aaea, i?e/ai aaea XVIII-ai, ioithaeue
ia noieue no?aieoaeueiiai, eae aae XIX-e e oae oai aieaa XX-e, ii
i?aa?aoee ?inneth a iiaouanoaaiioth aea?aeaao, eioi?ay ii naiae
i?iiuoeaiiie e aiaiiie neea ia onooiaea naiui ?acaeoui no?aiai oiai
a?aiaie. Iao? i?eiauee ?inneth e ia?aaeiaui aeinoeaeaieyi caiaaeiie
eoeueoo?u, aeiaeeny oe?ieiai auoiaea e Aaeoeeneiio ii?th, /aai ia iiaee
aeiaeoueny iineianeea ainoaea?e, ia/eiay n XVI aaea. Ec naiaai
eciee?iaaiiiai, caoieonoiiai iieiaeaiey no?aia anooieea ia oieueei ia
ii?ia Aa?iiu, ii e noaea aeiieie?iaaoue ia Ainoiea e Naaa?a eiioeiaioa e
«ie iaeei aii?in iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo ioiioaiee a Aa?iia ia iia
?aoaoueny aac aa o/anoey».

Iaeiaei ana iiaia i?eaeaaeinue n o?oaeii. A iaiiiai/eneaiiua oeieu
o/aieeia iaae?aee n aieueoeie i?iaeaiaie, /anoi iiae iea/ e e?ee
iaoa?ae. I?inaauaiea e eoeueoo?a naaoneiai oa?aeoa?a ioaaouaaee i/aiue
oceee e?oa ethaeae — 0.5% ianaeaiey. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
ianaeaiey i?iaeieaeaei nouanoaiaaoue a o?aaeeoeeyo iineianeiai oea?noaa.

Ieaoie ca ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey yaeeinue aeaeueiaeoea oe?aieaiea
e?aiinoie/anoaa, a?aiaiiia oi?iiaeaiea oi?ie?iaaiey eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee e neeueiaeoee iaeiaiaue, iiaeaoiie iaaeei ia ianaeaiea.
Ainoaea?noai aueiea/eaaei n?aaenoaa ec iauanoaa ia ianooaaiua i?iaeou,
ia iiaia no?ieoaeuenoai, ia noaniyynue a niiniaao. A 1705 aiaeo aue
ecaeai oeac ii eioi?iio ana aeoaiaua a?iau a ainoaea?noaa iaaei auei
naeaoue i?aaiai aeanoe ii onoaiiaeaiiie oeaia. Caoai yoe a?iau
ia?ai?iaeaaaeenue ii oeaia, oaaee/aiiie a/aoaa?i, oi anoue aeaaea ec
nia?oe ethaeae ecaeaeaee i?eaueue.

E ana aea a?yae ee iiaeii niaeaneoueny n oacenii I.I. Ieetheiaa i oii,
oi «oeaiie ?aci?aiey ?inney auea aicaaaeaia a ?aia aa?iiaeneeo
aea?aeaa», a oae oai aieaa n ?aaieie?oaiuie a iineaaeiaa a?aiy
iieiaeaiey ia «enoi?e/aneie iaii?aaaeaiiinoe» aeaenoaee Iao?a, eioi?ua
aea «a iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie noaiaie caoi?iiceee i?ia?anneaiia
?acaeoea ?innee». Ianiio?y ia ia?iiiua oyaiou e aeaenoaeoaeueiia
?aci?aiea iann naeueneiai e ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, i?iiuoeaiiinoue e
oi?aiaey i?e Iao?a I oaaioee aeaeaei aia?aae e aeaaea naeueneia
oicyenoai, iaace?ay ia e?eceniua yaeaiey, ii?iaeaeaiiua Naaa?iie aieiie,
oaeiaeaoai?yei a oeaeii aic?inoea aioo?aiiea e yenii?oiua iio?aaiinoe.
Eeth/aaui, aeey ioeaiee iao?ianeeo i?aia?aciaaiee, yaeyaony aii?in i
oii, iiaeii ee auei ?aoaoue ianouiua i?iaeaiu n iaiueoeie ecaea?aeeaie,
ia ca n/ao oneeaiey e?aiinoie/anoaa e naiiaea?aeaaey, a ?acaeaay
eaieoaeenoe/aneea ioiioaiey? Ioaao, ii-aeaeeiiio, aoaeao
io?eoeaoaeueiui. Iauaeoeaiua iio?aaiinoe no?aiu a i?aiaeieaiee e?aeia ia
aeaaii?eyoiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iieiaeaiey, a ii?neeo iooyo,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?acaeoey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, iaecaaaeii
iiaeoaeeeaaee e aieia, a oa, a naith i/a?aaeue, – e iaeneiaeueiie
oeaio?aeecaoeee aeanoe e iiaeeecaoeee anao ?ano?nia. Ionthaea e
«ainoaea?noaaiii-e?aiinoie/aneee» iiiaeo ?aoi?i e eo ?aaeeeaeeci. N
oi/ee c?aiey aioo?aiieo oneiaee, ?inneeneea o?aaeeoeee e?aiinoie/anoaa,
naiiaea?aeaaea (eioi?uo ia auei a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia), ianoi?ie?iaaiiinoue
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee e eo nioeeaeueiuo «iineoaeae» oaeaea aeaeaee
iaaiciiaeiui ao?aeoaciia ?acaeoea. E oiio aea, ia noieo caauaaoue, /oi
ii/oe any Aa?iia, eneeth/ay Aieeaiaeeth e Aiaeeth, a ainaiiaaeoeaoii
aaea ioithaeue ia ?annoaeenue aua n oaiaeaeeciii, ionoue e ai?acaei
aieaa iyaeei e i?aae?aniieiaeaiiui e eaieoaeenoe/aneie yaiethoeee, /ai
?inneeneee.

Ianiio?y ia anth i?ioeai?a/eainoue ee/iinoe Iao?a e aai i?aia?aciaaiee,
a ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee aai oeao?a noaea neiaieii ?aoeoaeueiiai
?aoi?iaoi?noaa, ieiaeioai?iinoe eniieueciaaiey aeinoeaeaiee Caiaaea e
aaccaaaoiiai, ia uaaeyuaai ie naay, ie ae?oaeo, neoaeaiey ?inneeneiio
ainoaea?noao. O iioiieia Iao? I, i?aeoe/anee, aaeeinoaaiiue n?aaee
oea?ae ii i?aao nio?aiee aea?iaaiiue aio i?e aeecie oeooe Aaeeeiai.

A e a a a I.

I?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai ?one

n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei

i?aia?aciaaiee

Iao?a Aaeeeiai.

«Anyeee i?ioeann a iaoai ae?aaiai i?aaa e a Iineaa aei Noaeaaieeia aue
ninoycaoaeueiui i?ioeannii (noaeii)». Ae?aaia?onneia i?aai (ii ?onneie
I?aaaea) aua ia ciaei aeinoaoi/ii /aoeiai ?aca?aie/aiey iaaeaeo
oaieiaiui e a?aaeaeaineei i?ioeannii, oioy, eiia/ii, iaeioi?ua
i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey(iai?eia?, aiiaiea neaaea, naiae ii ?onneie
I?aaaea) iiaee i?eiaiyoueny oieueei ii oaieiaiui aeaeai. Ai anyeii
neo/aa e ii oaieiaiui, e ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai i?eiaiyeny
ninoycaoaeueiue(iaaeieoaeueiue) i?ioeann, i?e eioi?ii noi?iiu
?aaiii?aaiu e naie yaeythony aeaeaaoaeai anao i?ioeannoaeueiuo
aeaenoaee( aeaaea iaa noi?iiu a i?ioeanna iacuaaeenue enooeaie).
Iioa?iaaoee nai aeieaeai aue i?eaeaeaoue e noaeo iaeae/eea, icaaioeoueny
ecuneaieai e aeinoaaeaieai ia noae aeieacaoaeuenoa aai aeiiaiinoe e
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naia iaaeiaiea ia noaea. Ia noaea noi?iiu aunooiaee a
ie?oaeaiee naieo ?iaenoaaiieeia e ninaaeae, eioi?ua auee ii nouanoao eo
iiniaieeaie.

Aeieacaoaeuenoaaie a noaeaaiii i?ioeanna auee: i?eciaiea noi?ii,
iieacaiea naeaeaoaeae — «iineooia» (naeaeaoaeae ii neooo) e «aeaeieia»
(i/aaeaeoeaa), i?aeaeee e i?enyaa.

I?aeaeee au?aaeaeenue a oi?ia iiaaeeiea noi?ii eee naeaeaoaeae ia iiea
(noaea aiaeueaai), eniuoaiey aeaeacii eee aiaeie. E i?enyaa i?eaaaaee ii
ae?aaeth eae a ioiioaiee noi?ii, oae e naeaeaoaeae.

Noaeaaiue i?ioeann aue onoiui. ?aoaiea noaea — i?eaiai? — auiineeinue
oaeaea onoii. I?eaiai? ii noaeaaiui aeaeai inouanoaeyeny ae?ieeaie eae
noaeaaiuie eniieieoaeyie.

Iauae oaiaeaioeeae ?acaeoey i?ioeannoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e
noaeaaiie i?aeoeee a XV—XVII aaeao auei iinoaiaiiia oaaee/aiea
oaeaeueiiai aana ?icunea a oua?a oae iacuaaaiiio «noaeo», oi anoue
caiaia ninoycaoaeueiiai i?eioeeia neaaenoaaiiui, eieaeceoeeiiiui.

«Nune (?icune), eioi?ue, eae naiinoiyoaeueiay oi?ia i?ioeanna, iiaeao e
aeaaea aeieaeai ia/eiaoueny ii ii/eio i?aaiia noaeaaiie aeanoe,
iiyaeyaony a Iineianeii ainoaea?noaa n aicieeiiaaieai aoaiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, a iaycaiiinoe eioi?uo aoiaeeei i?aneaaeiaaiea
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ?acaiy e a?aaaaea». A ia?aiia/aeueiie naiae oi?ia
nune aue ia i?ioeann, a eeoue n?aaenoaii iieiee e iaeacaiey eeoeo
ethaeae. N oa/aieai a?aiaie e yoie eaoaai?ee eeoe noaee ioiineoue ia
oieueei ?acaieieeia e a?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua auee noaa/aiu n iiee/iui ia
ianoa i?anooieaiey, ii e ?aoeeaeeaenoia e ethaeae, iaeeoiaaiiuo iaueiie.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue a aieaa aeaoaeueiii
?anneaaeiaaiee aeaea iooai ?anni?inia naiiai i?anooiieea, ia niaa?oae ee
ii e i?aaeaea oaeeo i?anooieaiee, e iooai nunea, ia neuaao ee ii a
iaueia eeoei /aeiaaeii, ?acaieieeii, a?aaeoaeai eee ai?ii. Oaeei ia?acii
nune — ei?ioeay i?ioeaaeo?a eacie eeoeo ethaeae — i?aa?aoeeanue a
neaaenoaaiiue i?ioeann, a iniiao eioi?iai auei iieiaeaii ia/aei
i?aneaaeiaaiey i?anooieaiee a ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaaeiaiey.
Aoaiua o/?aaeaeaiey naie aeieaeiu eiaeoue ?acaieieeia, nuneeaaoue i?i
ieo e ia/eiaoue aeaei, iacaaeneii io oniio?aiey aeaeiaueeia e aeaeaiey
eo i?ae?aoeoue aeaei ie?ii.

A?aiy aicieeiiaaiey nunea, eae naiinoiyoaeueiie oi?iu i?ioeanna, n
o?oaeii iiaeaaony onoaiiaeaieth. Yoi iiaeao auoue iauyniaii oai, /oi
aicieeiiaaiea aai, eae auei neacaii auoa, naycaii n iiyaeaieai aoaiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, a iineaaeiea, eae ecaanoii, iiyaeeenue ia aaeeiia?aiaiii
ii eaeiio-eeai o/?aaeeoaeueiiio aeoo, a auee aaaaeaiu iinoaiaiii ii
aeaeiaaiiui a?aiioai, eioi?ua aeaaaeenue oie eee ae?oaie ianoiinoe ii
/aeiaeoiui ianoiiai ianaeaiey.

Ii Noaeaaieeo 1497 aiaea i?ioeann oa?aeoa?eciaaeny ?acaeoeai noa?ie
oi?iu, oae iacuaaaiiai noaea, oi anoue ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, e
iiyaeaieai iiaie oi?iu noaeii?iecaiaenoaa — ?icunea. I?e ninoycaoaeueiii
i?ioeanna aeaei ia/eiaeinue ii aeaeiaa enooea, eiaiiaaaoaeny /aeiaeoiie.
Iia iau/ii iiaeaaaeanue a onoiie oi?ia. Ii iieo/aiee /aeiaeoiie
noaeaaiue i?aai i?eieiae ia?u e aeinoaaea ioaao/eea a noae. ssaea
ioaao/eea iaania/eaaeanue ii?o/eoaeyie. Anee ioaao/ee eaeei-eeai ia?acii
oeeiiyeny io noaea, oi ii i?iea?uaae aeaei aeaaea aac ?acae?aoaeuenoaa.
Enooeo a oaeii neo/aa auaeaaaeanue oae iacuaaaiay «aannoaeiay a?aiioa».
Iayaea enooea a noae aeaeea ca niaie i?ae?auaiea aeaea.

Noaeaaiee i?eciaaae aannii?iui aeieacaoaeuenoaii nianoaaiiia i?eciaiea
noi?iiu. Anee enoaoe ioeacuaaeny io anaai eee /anoe enea eee ioaao/ee
i?eciaaae eneiaua o?aaiaaiey, oi eiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa oaea ia
o?aaiaaeinue.

Ae?oaei aeaeii aeieacaoaeuenoa auee naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey. A ioee/ea
io ?onneie I?aaaeu Noaeaaiee i?eciaaae oieueei iaeei aeae naeaeaoaeae —
iineooia.

Aeieacaoaeuenoaii i?eciaaaeinue e «iiea» — noaeaaiue iiaaeeiie.
Iiaaaeeaoee a aith n/eoaeny i?aaui, oi anoue auea?uaae aeaei.
I?iea?aaoei i?eciaaaeny ia yaeaoeeny ia iiaaeeiie eee naaaeaaoee n iaai.
Ia «iiea» iiaeii auei aunoaaeyoue ca naay iaeieoa.

A ea/anoaa aeieacaoaeuenoa noaee i?eiaiyoueny ?acee/iiai ?iaea
aeieoiaiou: aeiaiai?iua aeou, ioeoeeaeueiua a?aiiou. Aeieacaoaeuenoaii
n/eoaeanue oaeaea i?enyaa.

Nia?aiaiiua i?aaiaaaeu, caieiathueany i?iaeaiaie enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaa (iai?eia?, i?ioanni? I.E. *enoyeia) n/eoatho, /oi iaino?aiea
eeanniaie ai?ueau iaoneiaeei iiyaeaiea iiaie oi?iu i?ioeanna — ?icunea,
oi anoue neaaenoaaiiiai, eee eieaeceoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. ?icune
i?eiaiyeny i?e ?anniio?aiee iaeaieaa na?ueaciuo oaieiaiuo aeae, a oii
/enea e ii iieeoe/aneei i?anooieaieyi. Aai aaaaeaiea auei iaoneiaeaii
no?aieaieai ia noieueei iaeoe enoeio, neieueei auno?i e aeanoiei
?ani?aaeoueny n «eeoeie» ethaeueie. «Eeoie» /aeiaae — yoi, aiiaua
aiai?y, ia iaycaoaeueii oee/aiiue i?anooiiee. Yoi eeoue eeoei
iaaeaaiiaaeaaeiia, n aeo?iie neaaie, eioi?ia «iaeeoiaaee» «aeia?ua»
ethaee, oi anoue aeaaiiaia?aiiua /eaiu iauanoaa.

?icune ioee/aeny io ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna oai, /oi noae nai
aicaoaeaeae, aae e caaa?oae aeaei ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa e
eneeth/eoaeueii ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Iiaenoaeeiue aue nei?aa iauaeoii
i?ioeanna. Aeaaiui niiniaii «auyaeaiey enoeiu» i?e ?icunea yaeyeanue
iuoea.

Oaea Niai?iia Oeiaeaiea 1649 aiaea oaeaeyao ?icuneo aeinoaoi/iia ianoi,
oioy i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony noaeo. Eiaiii yoie oi?ia iinayuaia
a?iiaaeiay aeaaa O, aa eanathony e ae?oaea aeaau. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
ana aua ia i?iaiaeeeinue /aoeiai ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oaieiaiui e
a?aaeaeaineei i?ioeannii, oioy ia/aei eo ?acaeaeaiey oaea eiaei ianoi.

A?aaeaeaineea e iaia aaaeiua oaieiaiua aeaea ?anniao?eaaeenue a ii?yaeea
iaaeieoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, oi anoue oiai, /oi a Oeiaeaiee iacuaaaony
noaeii. Iioa?iaaoee iiaeaaae a noaeaaiue i?aai cayaeaiea, a eioi?ii
eceaaae niaea?aeaiea (oeaio enea) e oeacuaae ianoiaeeoaeuenoai
ioaao/eea. Noaeuey-aeueye aeaeae iaaeienue ia cayaeaiee, eioi?ia
i?eia?aoaei iinea yoiai oi?io iiaiai aeieoiaioa — i?enoaaiie a?aiiou.
I?enoaaiay a?aiioa auaeaaaeanue /eiiaieeo noaeaaiiai i?aaia — i?enoaao,
eioi?ue e iaycai aue iaania/eoue yaeo ioaao/eea. Iieo/ea i?enoaaioth
a?aiioo, ioaao/ee aeieaeai aue yaeoueny a noae naiiee/ii eee iaeoe
ii?o/eoaey, eioi?ue ian au ioaaonoaaiiinoue naiei eiouanoaii ca yaeo
ioaao/eea a noae. Ii?o/eoaeuenoai ioi?ieyeinue ii?o/iie caienueth. Anee
enoaoe oeeiiyeny io yaee a noae, i?enoaa aeieaeai aue iieiaoue aai e
i?eaanoe, a noaeuey iaycai aue ia ioioneaoue aai aei oao ii?, iiea ii ia
aunoaaeo ii?o/eoaeae.

Noi?iiu, i?eauaoea a noae, aeieaeiu auee oaeinoiaa?eoue naith yaeo a
niaoeeaeueiii cayaeaiee. Ioaao/ee, ia yaeyaoeeny a noae aei o?ao ?ac,
i?iea?uaae aeaei. Enooeo auaeaaaeanue noaeaaiui i?aaiii aannoaeiay
a?aiioa, ii eioi?ie ii aac noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa eiae i?aai
o?aaiaaoue n ioaao/eea eee aai ii?o/eoaey aiciauaiea enea.

Aei ia/aea noaeaaiiai i?ioeanna noi?iiu eiaee i?aai aeiaiai?eoueny ia
enea. Ioaao/ee iia i?eciaoue oeaio enea e oaeiaeaoai?eoue aai, e aeaei
ia yoii caeai/eaaeinue. Niai?iia Oeiaeaiea i?aaeinoaaeyei i?aai ioaiaea
noi?iiaie noaeuee eee iiaeuey/aai, o.a. nae?aoa?y noaea, anee eiaeenue
ia oi iniiaaiey. Noi?iiu auee iaycaiu aei eiioea o/anoaiaaoue a
noaeaaiii ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, iinea ieii/aiey eioi?iai iiaeienuaaee
i?ioieie canaaeaiey. Ia?aui aeaeii aeieacaoaeuenoaa ii eneai e
iaeiaaaeiui oaieiaiui aeaeai yaeyeinue e?anoiia oeaeiaaiea.

Aoi?ui aeaeii aeieacaoaeuenoa auee iieacaiey naeaeaoaeae. Nouanoaiaae e
oaeie aeae aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eae iauay nnueea eee iauay i?aaaea, eiaaea
iaa noi?iiu nnueaeenue ia iaeiiai e oiai aea naeaeaoaey eee a?oiio
iaeieo e oao oa naeaeaoaeae, oneiaeeaaynue, /oi eo iieacaiey aeey aeaea
aoaeoo ?aoathueie. Eeoei eee eeoea, ia eioi?uo nnueaeenue noi?iiu,
aeieaeiu auee auoue i/aaeaeoeaie oaeoia, i eioi?uo iie
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee.

A ninoycaoaeueiii i?ioeanna aieueoia cia/aiea eiaee oaeea
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eae nnueea ec aeiiaaouo e iauay nnueea. I?e nnueea ec
aeiiaaouo noi?iiu nnueaeenue ia a?oiio naeaeaoaeae, oeacuaay i?e yoii,
/oi anee oioue iaeei ec naeaeaoaeae aeano iieacaiea, i?ioeai?a/auaa
ooaa?aeaeaieyi noi?ii, eee oeaaeao ia naith iainaaaeiieaiiinoue a yoii
aii?ina, oi aeaiiay noi?iia aaoiiaoe/anee i?iea?uaaao aeaei. I?e iauae
nnueea iaa noi?iiu nnueaeenue ia iaeiiai naeaeaoaey, oneiaeeaaynue, /oi
aai iieacaiey aoaeoo ?aoathueie aeey aeaea.

Iaune eae aeae aeieacaoaeuenoaa caeeth/aeny a aii?ina ieieueiuo ethaeae
i nii?iuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao aeaea. Noi?iiu ia aeieaeiu auee
i?enoonoaiaaoue i?e iaunea, /oiau oai naiui ia aeeyoue ia ii?aoeaaaiuo
ethaeae. Ii?in i?iaiaeeeny eeoeii, iacuaaaiui nuueeii. Iieacaiey
ieieueiuo ethaeae, aeaaaaoeany iiae i?enyaie, caienuaaeenue e
ne?aieyeenue eo iiaeienueth. E?iia iau/iiai i?eiaiyeny e iiaaeueiue
iaune, oi anoue ianniaue ii?in ianaeaiey, eiiaaea nauoa noa /aeiaae. Ii
aeaeo ii?aoeaaeenue ana ac?ineua ethaee, eoi ciaao, eoi aeaeae, eoi
neuoae, eoi i?aaeiieaaaao /oi-eeai e o.ae. ?acoeueoaou iiaaeueiiai
iaunea iiaen/eouaaeenue, e oa noi?iia, eioi?ay iieo/aea aieueoa ioaaoia
a aa iieueco, auea?uaaea aeaei.

Aanueia nouanoaaiiui aeaeii aeieacaoaeuenoa yaeyeenue ienueiaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, ocaeiiaiiua Niai?iui Oeiaeaieai 1649 aiaea.

A noaeaaiuo eneao ?acia?ii iaiaa ?oaey i?eiaiyeny oaeie aeae
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eae ae?aaee.

Iinea en/a?iaiey noi?iiaie anao aeaeia aeieacaoaeuenoa ninoaaeyeny
noaeaaiue nienie, oi anoue i?ioieie noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, e aeaei
ia?aoiaeeei a aeaeueiaeooth i?ioeannoaeueioth noaaeeth, eioi?ay
caaa?oaeanue i?eaiai?ii, eee aa?oaieai.

E?iia iau/iiai noaeaaiiai i?ioeanna, aeaaiui ia?acii ii a?aaeaeaineei
eneai, Oeiaeaiea ciaao ae?oaoth oi?io i?ioeanna — ?icune eee nune,
iniiaaiiue ia neaaenoaaiiuo ia/aeao. Yoiio aeaeo i?ioeanna a iniiaiii
iinayuaia aeaaa XXI Oeiaeaiey «I ?acaieiuo e oaoeiuo aeaeao». A iae
iiae?iaii ?aaeaiaioe?oaony ai?ueaa n a?aaaaeii, ?acaiai e e?aaeae, e
eioi?ui i?eiaiyeenue iniaua iaoiaeu neaaenoaey — nune. Nune i?eiaiyeny
oaeaea e ii iieeoe/aneei aeaeai, iai?aaeaiiui i?ioea iniia oea?neiai
no?iy.

Aeaea ii iieeoe/aneei e eiouanoaaiiui i?anooieaieyi aicaoaeaeaea ia
oieueei iioa?iaaoay noi?iia, ii e naie noaeaaii-aaeieieno?aoeaiua
i?aaiu.

E iniiaiui aeaeai ?icunea, e?iia iieacaiee naeaeaoaeae, ioiineeny aua e
iiaaeueiue iaune. Aai iau/ii i?iaiaeeee neoaeeaua ethaee aoaiuo e
aiaaiaeneeo eca. Iie aeii?aoeaaee ethaeae anae aieinoe eee aoau,
aiaaiaenoaa. I?e yoii niae?aeenue iieacaiey ia oieueei oao, eoi nai
aeaeae, ii e oao, eoi neuoae, eoi i?aaeiieaaae /oi-eeai ii aeaeo
?icunea.

Nia?aiiua naaaeaiey, a neo/aa eo aaeeiiaeaney, aeaaaee iniiaaiey
eaaeeoeoee?iaaoue /aeiaaea eae iaaeiyaiiai, eee «iaeeoiaaiiiai». Oaeiai
/aeiaaea noaaeee caoai ia iuoeo, ai a?aiy eioi?ie ii eee i?eciaaae naith
aeio eee io?eoeae aa. Iineaaeiaa ia aeeyei ia auianaiea ?aoaiey i ia?a
iaeacaiey, eioi?ay oaea ii?aaeaeyeanue ?acoeueoaoii iiaaeueiiai iaunea.
Eae i?aaeei, aeiiaiua i?eaiaa?eaaeenue e nia?oiie eacie eee aea
oth?aiiiio caeeth/aieth n i?eiaiaieai ?aciiai ?iaea oaeaniuo iaeacaiee.

I.O. Aeaaeeie?neee—Aoaeaiia n/eoae, /oi «aei Iao?a Aaeeeiai aiiaua
iaaei i?eciaoue aua ninoycaoaeueiua oi?iu i?ioeanna iauei yaeaieai, a
neaaenoaaiiua — eneeth/aieai».Eiie oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaaeny N.A.
THoeia. Ii iieaaae, /oi a yoi a?aiy oieueei «iaiaa aaaeiua oaieiaiua e
a?aaeaeaineea aeaea… ?anniao?eaaeenue ii?yaeea iaaeieoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna, oi anoue oae iacuaaaiiai noaea». Aua aeaeueoa iioae I.A.
*aeueoeia, aiai?eaoee i «iineaaeieo inoaoeao ninoycaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna(noa?eiiiai «noaea»)», eioi?ua, ii aai neiaai, en/acatho i?e
Iao?a I. Aiaeec Niai?iiai Oeiaeaiey iieacuaaao, /oi enoeia eaaeeo
aaea-oi iina?aaeeia. ?icune aei Iao?a iaeuecy n/eoaoue aua
ainiiaenoaothuae oi?iie i?ioeanna, ii iaeuecy n/eoaoue e eneeth/aieai.

A e a a a II.

I?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai a yiioo

Iao?a I.

I?ioeannoaeueiia, eae e ana inoaeueiia, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Iao?a
Ia?aiai ioee/aeinue iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth e i?ioeai?a/eainoueth.
Aianoa n oai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai a yoio
ia?eiae naeaeaei aieueoie oaa aia?aae. Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue, /oi aia?aua
a enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa aue nicaeai i?ioeannoaeueiue eiaeaen, oioy e n
ianeieueei ia?aie/aiiie noa?ie i?eiaiaiey. «E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea
i?ioeania eee noaeaaiuo oyaeaa» e A?oeeoe aieineee auee aiiaua ia?auie
eiaeeoeeaoeeiiiuie aeoaie a ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

I?e anae iiaecia iao?ianeiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iii yaeeinue eiae/aneei
?acaeoeai oao i?ioeannia eioi?ua i?ienoiaeeee a ?onneii i?aaa aei Iao?a.

Eae oaea auei neacaii auoa, oaiaeaioeey e caiaia noaea ?icuneii
ii?aaeaeyaony iaino?aieai eeanniaie ai?ueau, iaecaaaeii auoaeathuei ec
iauaai ?acaeoey oaiaeaeecia. Ia?aoiae e aunoae e iineaaeiae noaaeee
oaiaeaeecia—aaniethoecio, iaoneiaeaiiue a ?innee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
a?iiaaeiui ?aciaoii e?anoueyineeo ainnoaiee, nii?iaiaeaeaaony
no?aieaieai ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna e iaeaieaa aaniiuaaeiui,
oa??i?enoe/aneei oi?iai iiaeaaeaiey nii?ioeaeaiey o?oaeyueony iann. A
yoii aeaea ia iineaaeithth ?ieue ea?aao e noaeaaiay ?ai?anney.

Noae aue i?ecaai noaoue auno?ui e ?aoeoaeueiui i?oaeeai a ?oeao
ainoaea?noaa aeey i?ana/aiey anyeiai ?iaea iiiuoie ia?ooeoue
onoaiiaeaiiue ii?yaeie. Io noaeaaiuo i?aaiia o?aaiaaeinue, /oiau iie
no?aieeenue ia noieueei e oyniaieth enoeiu, neieueei e ono?aoaieth. A
yoii ieaia aeey ainoaea?noaa aieaa aaaeii auei iiea?aoue eiiaaea e
iaaeiiaiiai, /ai aiiaua ieeiai ia iiea?aoue, eai aeaaiay oeaeue—iauaa
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea(‘/oia ae?oaei ia iiaaaeii auei oae ai?iaaoue’). Yoei
caaea/ai e ioaa/aei i?ioeannoaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai yiioe Iao?a I.

Oaeanoi/aiea ?ai?annee, naienoaaiiia ia?aoiaeo e aaniethoecio,
io?aaeaeinue e a i?ioeannoaeueiii i?aaa. Oneeeaaaony iaeacaiea ca oae
iacuaaaiua «i?ioeannoaeueiua i?anooieaiey»: ca eaeai?enyao,
eaeanaeaeaoaeuenoai oaia?ue aaiaeeony nia?oiay eaciue—«iau/iia oe?aoaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Iao?a»,ii neiaai A.I. Eeth/aaneiai.

A ia/aea naiaai oea?noaiaaiey Iao? niaa?oaao ?aoeoaeueiue iiai?io a
noi?iio ?icunea. Ii ?aoee oi?acaeieoue ninoycaoaeueiue i?ioeann, naanoe
ia iao aeoeaiinoue noi?ii a i?ioeanna n oai, /oiau aeaaioth ?ieue a iai
ea?aee noaeuee. Eiaiiui oeacii 21 oaa?aey 1697aiaea «Ia ioiaia a
noaeiuo aeaeao i/iuo noaaie, i auoee aianoi iiuo ?ani?ino e ?icuneo, i
naeaeaoaeyo, ia ioaiaea iiuo, i i?enyaa, i iaeacaiee eaeanaeaeaoaeae e i
iioeeiiuo aeaiueaao» iieiinoueth ioiaiyaony ninoycaoaeueiue i?ioeann n
caiaiie aai ii anai aeaeai i?ioeannii neaaenoaaiiui, eieaeceoeeiiiui.
Nai ii naaa oeac 21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea ia nicaeaao i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo
oi?i i?ioeanna. Ii eniieuecoao oaea ecaanoiua, neiaeeaoeany ia
i?ioyaeaiee aaeia, au?aaeaynue neiaaie I.O. Aeaaeeie?neiai-Aoaeaiiaa,
«iineianeea» oi?iu ?icunea.

Caeii i/aiue e?aoie, a iai caienaiu eeoue iniiaiua i?eioeeieaeueiua
iieiaeaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii ia caiaiye i?aaeuaeouaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i ?icunea, a iaiai?io i?aaeiieaaae aai eniieueciaaiea
a ioaeiuo i?aaeaeao. Yoi oi?ioi aeaeii ec oeaca 16 ia?oa 1967 aiaea,
ecaeaiiiai a aeiiieiaiea e ?acaeoea oaa?aeueneiai oeaca Ia?oianeee oeac
aiai?eo: «a eioi?ua noaouee a Oeiaeaiuea iaaeeaaeao e ?icuneo e ii oai
noaoueyi ?acuneeaaoue ii i?aaeiaio».

Oeac 21 oaa?aey i?aaeaea anaai i?iaicaeaoaao ioiaio noaeia e i/iuo
noaaie ( noaouey 1: «A a ianoi noaeia e i/iuo noaaie ii /aeiaeoueth
anyeeo /eiia ethaeae a iaeaeao e a ?aci?aieyo /eieoue ?icune…»). Iiae
noaeii caeanue iiieiaaony oi?ia i?ioeanna, iinyuay ninoycaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?. Iiiyoea i/iay noaaea eiaao niune, ioee/iue io nia?aiaiiiai.
Yoi ia aeae aeieacaoaeuenoaa, a iniaay oi?ia i?ioeanna, i?iiaaeooi/iay
iaaeaeo noaeii e ?icuneii. Ia?aiia/aeueii i/iua noaaee auee
?aciiaeaeiinoueth noaea, aai oi?iuaiiie oi?iie. Noi?iiu noaaeeenue
eeoeii ae?oa e ae?oao e aeieacuaaee ia?aae noaeueae naith i?aaioo. Ii ni
a?aiaiai noaeuey ia?anoaao auoue ianneaiui a?aeo?ii e naiaiaeiue nii?
noi?ii i?aa?auaaony a eo aeii?in. Oaeei ia?acii, Oeac 21 oaa?aey 1697
aiaea ioiaiyao ia oieueei ninoycaoaeueioth, ii e iieoninoycaoaeueioth
oi?io i?ioeanna. Iineieueeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai XVII aaea aua ia ciaao
aeaeaiey ia oaieiaiue e a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
ioiaia ninoycaoaeueiinoe ioiineony ia oieueei e oaieiaiui, ii e
a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai.

Caeiiiaeaoaeue iuoaaony iauynieoue ?aoi?io iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ai?ueau n
ceioiio?aaeaieai i?ioeannoaeueiuie i?aaaie ni noi?iiu oyaeoueony. E.Ae.
Eaaaeei neeiiai i?eciaoue ca enoeio yoi iauyniaiea: «Aeaey aeaeeia
iieiaeaiea i?aainoaeey, aneaaenoaea yaaae, aieieeo e aan/eneaiiuo
iai?aaae oyaeoueony, Iao? iiieiae, /oi neiaaniia noaeii?iecaiaenoai —
noae e i/iua noaaee ainieouaaee cei, ioaeaaay aanue oiae i?ioeanna ai
aeanoue oyaeoueony e oai ioe?uaay iiea eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Aio eacaeinue
eo/oei n?aaenoaii i?ioea i?iecaiea oyaeoueony iiae/eieoue eo naii
?acaeoea i?ioeanna eiio?ieth noaeae, eioi?ua oaea ii caaieth aeieaeiu
auoue aethnoeoaeyie i?aainoaeey».

Eiaeea aeinoaoi/ii naiaia?aciay: /oiau noi?iiu ia ceioiio?aaeyee naieie
i?ioeannoaeueiuie i?aaaie, ioaeii eeoeoue eo anyeeo i?aa, iiaeiaii oiio,
eae iiaeii ecaaaeoue /aeiaaea io aieaciae, oaea aai.

Neiai «?icune» ( e aai neiiiei «nune») a XVII aaea eiaei aeaiyeee niune.
N iaeiie noi?iiu, iii icia/aei onoaiiaeaiea enoeiu, ?anneaaeiaaiea
ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ionthaea oi?ioee?iaee a caeiiao: «nuuaony aei i?yia
(aoaeao onoaiiaeaii aeiiiaeeeiii), «ii nuneo»(ii ?anneaaeiaaiee aeaea),
«nuneeaoe anyeeie nunee iae?aiei» (?anneaaeiaaoue aeaei anaie niiniaaie)
e o.i. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiae ?icuneii, eee nuneii, iiieiaeanue iniaay
oi?ia noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, neaaenoaaiiue i?ioeann.

A Oeaca io 21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea eiaaony a aeaeo aoi?ia cia/aiea neiaa
«?icune». ?icuneiie i?ioeann aaiaeeony aeey anao aeae, eae oaieiaiuo,
oae e a?aaeaeaineeo. A niioaaonoaee n th?eaee/aneie o?aaeeoeeae XVII
aaea a caeiia nia/aea aeaaony i?eia?iue nienie i?aaiia?ooaiee,
?acae?aaiuo ?icuneii, a iioii iaiauaiea, ?ani?ino?aiythuaa aeaenoaea
ii?iu ia ana aeaea.

Ioiaia ninoycaoaeueiuo oi?i ia iiaea, i/aaeaeii, auoue noii?ioeaioiie.
Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaae ia ioaee/iue niinia aicaoaeaeaiey aeaea,
naienoaaiiue neaaenoaaiiiio i?ioeanno, a /anoiue — ii /aeiaeoiie
(noaouey 1: «ii /aeiaeoueth anyeeo /eiia ethaeae…»).

Ioiaiyy a oeaeii noae, caeii ia iia ioeacaoueny ana aea e caeanue io
ioaeaeueiuo oeie/iuo einoeoooia yoie oi?iu i?ioeanna. A Oeaca
aiai?eoueny, ii nouanoao, i oae iacuaaaiie iauae nnueea, ecaanoiie
Niai?iiio Oeiaeaieth (no. no. 168-172 ae. X) e i?eiaiyaoaeny a
ninoycaoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Anee iaa noi?iiu nnueathony ia iaeieo e oao
aea naeaeaoaeae, iieacaiey i?eciathony ?aoathueie aeey aeaea.(noaouey
2: «Eoi enoaoe ia naeaeaoaeae iioeaony anyeeo /eiia ethaeae ia iaeiiai
/aeiaaea eee ia aeaoo eee aieueoa, a ioaao/ee ia oao ethaeae iioeaony
aea ia anao aacioaiaeii eee ec ieo iioeaony ia iaeiiai ae /aeiaaea: e
oao naeaeaoaeae i?ioea nnueie aeii?aoeaaoue a i?eeacao ia?aae noaeueyie
ai?aaaeo…. e aa?oeoue oa aeaea ii naeaeaoaeaaie neacea»). Ai?i/ai,
iiyaeaiea iauae nnueee a noaea auei au?aaeaiea oi?iaeecaoeee i?ioeanna,
oaiaeaioeee e oi?iaeueiie ioeaiea aeieacaoaeuenoa, naienoaaiiie e noaeo,
e ?icuneo, ii aeinoeaathuae naiaai ?anoeaaoa eiaiii a neaaenoaaiiii
i?ioeanna.

Oeac aaiaeeo iiaua oi?iaeueiua i?eciaee aeey ioeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa,
aeiioneay ioaiae naeaeaoaeae. Iiaiaeii aeey ioaiaea i?eciathony
a?aaeaeaaiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo naeaeaoaeai e ioaao/eeii. Noae iaycai
i?iaa?eoue iaee/ea yoie a?aaeaeu. Eo/oei aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiai caeii
n/eoaao noaeaaioth oyaeao iaaeaeo naeaeaoaeai e ioaao/eeii, eiathuoth
ianoi a eaeii-eeai i?eeaca (noaouey 3: «… e /aeiaeouea aai ioaao/eeiai
ia iaai naeaeaoaey a eioi?ii i?eeaca…»).

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi Oeac io 21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioaiae naeaeaoaeae oieueei ioaao/eeii. Ionthaea aeaeii,
/oi caeii ia i?aaeiieaaaao ieeaeie aiciiaeiinoe aunoaaeaiey naeaeaoaeae
ioaao/eeii, eia/a aiciee aii?in ia eo ioaiaea enooeii. Oaeei ia?acii,
i?aaa enooea e ioaao/eea ia?aaiu.

I?e ionoonoaee naeaeaoaeae i?eoiaeeoueny i?eaaaaoue e noieue
niiieoaeueiiio aeieacaoaeuenoao, eae oea?eiaiay i?enyaa — i?eaaaeaiea e
aa?a. A neeo niaoeeoeee yoiai aeaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeii auei
ee/iia o/anoea noi?ii a i?eianaiee i?enyae («o aa?u auoue»). Oeac
aiai?ee, /oi e?ano aeieaeai oeaeiaaoue oieueei nai ioaao/ee, a «ia
aeaoai e ia naienoaaiieeii e ia ethaeai eo».

I?enyaa i?eiineoueny ia a noaea, a a oea?eae. I?eaiaeeo e iae ia
noaeuey, a nayuaiiee. Nayuaiiee i?e yoii iaycai ianoaaeoue i?enyaathueo,
i?aaeoi?aaeeoue i aieueoii a?aoa, eioi?ue aa?ao ia naith aeooo
eeyoaii?anooiiee.

Oeac aaiaeeo nia?oioth eaciue ca eaeanaeaeaoaeuenoai. (noaouey 10: «A
aoaea aea eoi naeaeaoaeue neaaeao ai naeaeaoaeuenoaa eaeeai, e i?i oi
nuuaony ae: e ca oi aai eiaeiia naeaeaoaeuenoai eacieoue nia?oueth ae»).

Oeac aia?aua aaiaeeo oa?iei «naeaeaoaeue», i?eoaaeoee ia niaio i?aaeiaio
oa?ieio «iineoo» e aua aieaa ?aiiaio — «aeaeie».

Ioiaiyy i/iua noaaee, ainoaea?noai oaaee/eaaei aeioiaeu eaciu (i?e
a?iiaaeiuo cao?aoao ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?i yoi auei i/aiue enoaoe), eai
ca ieo ?aiueoa ia a?aeenue noaeaaiua iioeeiu. Iineieueeo ana aeaea
?acae?athony ?icuneii, oi e iioeeiu aceiathony ni anao, aa?iaa, ni anao
eeoe, i?iea?aaoeo aeaei.

Oeac onoaiaaeeaae i?aaeaeu aeaenoaey caeiia ai a?aiaie. Ia?aoiie neeu
ii, eae e anyeee i?ioeannoaeueiue caeii, ia eiae, /oi niaoeeaeueii
iaiaa?eaaaony, ii i?eiaiyeny e iacaeii/aiiui aeaeai, a oii /enea
ia?aniao?eaaaiui a neeo iaaeaeiaaiey ( noaouey 14: «A eioi?uy noaeiuy
aeaea e i/iuy noaaee aei naai Ainoaea?aaa oeaco a i?eeacao e a ai?iaeao
aa?oaiu, a iinea oiai aa?oaiuey ia oa aeaea nii?o ii na /enei ia auei:
e oai auoue oae, eae iie aa?oaiu; a i ia iaaa?oaiiuo e ia eioi?uy
aa?oaiiuy aeaea /aeiaeouea i?eianaii aei naai ainoaea?aaa oeaco, e ii
oai aeaeai aaeeeaai ainoaea?y oeac /eieoue ii naio ae naiaio aaeeeaai
ainoaea?y oeaco ?icuneii»). E ?aoaiiui aeaeai i?eiaiyeny i?eioeei,
onoaiiaeaiiue a ?onneii i?aaa aua X aeaaie Niai?iiai Oeiaeaiuey, — res
judicata pro veriata habetur. Aaaaeaiea iiaie oi?iu i?ioeanna ia
yaeyeinue iniiaaieai aeey ia?aniio?a ?aoaiiuo aeae.

Oeac 21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea aue aeiiieiai e ?acaeo «E?aoeei ecia?aaeaieai
i?ioeannia eee noaeaaiuo oyaeaa». «E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea i?ioeannia…»,
iniiauaaynue ia i?eioeeiao oeaca 1697 aiaea, ?acaeaaao eo i?eiaieoaeueii
e aiaiiie thnoeoeee, aiaiiiio noaeii?iecaiaenoao, yaeyynue, oaeei
ia?acii, niaoeeaeueiui caeiiii ii ioiioaieth e iauaio caeiio.

A naiae i?ioeannoaeueiie /anoe yoio aeieoiaio i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaoeeaeueiue caeii ii ioiioaieth e Oeaco io 21 oaa?aey 1697 a. Oeac
onoaiaaeeaae iauea i?eioeeiu ?icuneiiai i?ioeanna, eioi?ue, ii iiaieth
O.E. Eaeeiu/aaa, i?eiaiyeny a aiaiiuo noaeao aua a OVII aaea ( ii
oaieiaiui aeaeai ). « E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea…» — aiaiii-i?ioeannoaeueiue
eiaeaen.

Ii aiineo nouanoaaiii iiaua oi?iu e einoeooou a i?ioeannoaeueiia i?aai
?innee. Yoe iiaiaaaaeaiey a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a i?ienoaeatho ec caiaaeiuo
enoi/ieeia, eioi?uie iieueciaaeenue ninoaaeoaee ?onneeo aieineeo
caeiiia, ii iie io?aaeatho e o?iaaiue iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai e
i?aaiaiai ?acaeoey ?innee, aeinoeaiooue ath e ia/aeo XVIII aaea,
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aaniethoecia.

Iaeiaei, iineieueeo « E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea…» eiaei ia?aie/aiioth
noa?o i?eiaiaiey e iineieueeo iii auei eiaiii e?aoeei, iaeuecy neacaoue,
/oi Niai?iia Oeiaeaiea a /anoe, eanathuaeny ?icuneiiai i?ioeanna,
iieiinoueth iioa?yei neeo.

Ii neiaai Aeaaeeie?neiai-Aoaeaiiaa, a «E?aoeii ecia?aaeaiee…» «
iaoei naaa ianoi iieiia i?eiaiaiea iiiyoey neaaenoaaiiiai
(eieaeceoeeiiiiai) i?ioeanna…». Oai ia iaiaa ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou
ninoycaoaeueiinoe ana aea nio?aiythony : aiciiaeiinoue aeey noi?ii
i?iyaeyoue iaeioi?oth eieoeeaoeao a aeaeaeaiee aeaea, iaiai /aeiaeoiie e
ioaaoii, ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa nii?iuo aii?inia e aeieacaoaeuenoa e ae?.
Ai?i/ai, «/enoiai» neaaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, i/aaeaeii, ia auaaao.

Iiaeii ioiaoeoue a ?anniao?eaaaiii aeieoiaioa oaeoth oaiaeaioeeth :
eieoeeaoeaa noi?ii noaeaaony ca n/ao ?anoe?aiey i?aa noaea; a oi aea
a?aiy aeayoaeueiinoue noaea e ioeaiea ei ianoiyoaeuenoa aeaea ana
aeano/a ?aaeaiaioe?othony caeiiii, aeey i?iyaeaiey nianoaaiiiai
oniio?aiey e eaeie-eeai eieoeeaoeau noaeae ii/oe ia inoaaony ianoa. Aiey
noi?ii e aiey noaea iiaeiuathony e caiaiythony aieae caeiiiaeaoaey. A
yoii e i?iyaeyaony oe?aieaiea aaniethoecia n aai no?aieaieai
nin?aaeioi/eoue ana iaeanoe aeecie a ?oeao iaeiiai eeoea –
naiiaea?aeaaiiai iiia?oa.

«E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea…» iinayuaii ii/oe oeaeeeii aii?inai
noaeiono?ienoaa e i?ioeanna. Ec?aaeea ano?a/athony noaouee ( e aeaaea
iineaaeiyy aeaaa ), niaea?aeauea ii?iu iaoa?eaeueiiai oaieiaiiai i?aaa.
Ioaeaeaiea i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa io iaoa?eaeueiiai – aieueoia
aeinoeaeaiea ?onneie caeiiiaeaoaeueiie oaoieee ia/aea XVIII aaea,
iaecaanoiia aua Niai?iiio Oeiaeaieth.

Aianoa n oai aua ia ?aca?aie/eaathony oaieiaiue e a?aaeaeaineee
i?ioeann, oioy iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe oaea iaia/athony ( iai?eia?, a
ii?yaeea iaia?iaeiaaiey i?eaiai?ia ). Iauee oiae i?ioeanna, iacaaiey
i?ioeannoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia e aeaenoaee, a i?eioeeia, iaeeiaeiau e aeey
oaieiaiuo, e aeey a?aaeaeaineeo aeae.

A ioee/ea io Niai?iiai Oeiaeaiey «E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea …» iino?iaii
aanueia /aoei. Aia/aea eaeoo aeaa aeaau, iinyuea eae au aaiaeiue
oa?aeoa?. A ieo aeathony iniiaiay noaia noaeiono?ienoaa e iaeioi?ua
iauea iieiaeaiey i?ioeanna. Caoai eaeao iineaaeiaaoaeueiia eceiaeaiea
oiaea i?ioeanna, naiaia?acii ?acaeaeaiiia ia o?e iniiaiua /anoe.

Oi?ioee?iaee caeiia ian?aaiaiii aieaa /aoee, /ai a Niai?iii Oeiaeaiee.
Iiaeaeoe, aia?aua a ?onneii i?aaa /anoi aeathony iauea ii?aaeaeaiey
aaaeiaeoeo i?ioeannoaeueiuo einoeoooia e iiiyoee, oioy e ia anaaaea
niaa?oaiiua. Caeiiiaeaoaeue ia ?aaeei i?eaaaaao e /aoeiio ia?a/eneaieth
eeanneoeeaoeee ioaeaeueiuo yaeaiee e aeaenoaee. Iaeioi?ua noaouee caeiia
niaea?aeao a naaa ia oieueei ii?io i?aaa, ii e aa oai?aoe/aneia
iainiiaaiea, eiiaaea n i?eaaaeaieai ?acee/iuo oi/ae c?aiey ii aeaiiiio
aii?ino.

Ii naiae caeiiiaeaoaeueiie oaoieea «E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea…» noieo
aeinoaoi/ii auniei. Aianoa n oai ioaeii ioiaoeoue iaeei aiaoiee
iaaeinoaoie caeiia. Yoi — i?eno?anoea caeiiiaeaoaey e eiino?aiiie
oa?ieiieiaee, iau/ii nianai iaioaeiie e ia anaaaea a?aiioiie. A.I.
Eeth/aaneee ioia/ae, /oi Iao? I ia i/aiue neeai a ?onneie a?aiiaoeea.
Iaaei iieaaaoue, /oi a eiino?aiiuo ycueao ii aue ia neeueiaa. Aua
N.I. Nieiaueaa ioiaoee, /oi Iao? a ioee/ea io aai noa?oeo
a?aoueaa, ia iieo/ee na?ueaciiai ia?aciaaiey. Ii aue ii i?aeiouanoao
naiio/eie, oioy e aaieaeueiui naiio/eie.

Caeii cae?aieyao no?ieioth nenoaio noaeaaiuo i?aaiia, ia ecaanoioth aei
Iao?a I, aeiaieueii /aoei ?aaeaiaioe?oao aii?inu iiaenoaeiinoe. Aeey
inouanoaeaiey i?aainoaeey nicaeathony niaoeeaeueiua i?aaiu. Iaeiaei iie
ana aua ia aei eiioea ioaeaeaiu io aaeieieno?aoeee. Noaeueyie a aiaiiuo
noaeao yaeythony no?iaaua eiiaiaee?u, a ea/anoaa aoi?ie einoaioeee
aunooiaao niioaaonoaothuee ia/aeueiee, i?eaiai?u noaeia a ?yaea neo/aaa
ooaa?aeaeathony auoanoiyuei ia/aeuenoaii. Iao iiea aeaeaiey ia i?aaiu
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey e noaeaaiua i?aaiu.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei a i?ioeanna ionoonoaoao aeaeaiea ia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai e i?iecaiaenoai aeae iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
noaea.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia n/eoae, /oi «E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea…» auei
caeinoaiaaii ec caiaaeiuo enoi/ieeia. A iai iaoei naia io?aaeaiea iieiia
i?eiaiaiea iiiyoey neaaenoaaiiiai (?icuneiiai) i?ioeanna. I?ioeann
noaiiaeoueny oaeiui e ienueiaiiui (aianoi noaeiaiai?aiey onoaiiaeai
aeaoe?aoiue iaiai aoiaa iaaeaeo noi?iiaie). Enoaoe iiaeaaae ienueiaiiia
cayaeaiea. Ioaao/ee i?aaenoaaeye aic?aaeaiea oaeaea a ienueiaiiii aeaea.
Oaeay oi?ia i?ioeanna i?eiaiyeanue ia oieueei a aiaiiuo noaeao, ii e ai
anao noaeao eae ii oaieiaiui, oae e ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai.
I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai aeiioneaaony oieueei i?e ia aiciiaeiinoe noi?ii
ee/ii yaeoueny a noae e oieueei ii iaeioi?ui aeaeai.

«Aaaeiaeoei iaaeinoaoeii iao?ianeiai i?ioeanna iaueiiaaiii n/eoatho
aaaaeaiiia ei o/aiea i oi?iaeueiii cia/aiee aeieacaoaeuenoa (oi anoue
ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiie ioeaiea eo caeiiii, a ia noaeueath). Ii i?e
eneeth/eoaeueiii ainiiaenoaa neaaenoaaiiuo ia/ae a i?ioeanna, yoi nei?aa
aeinoieinoai, /ai ia aeinoaoie: eai i?iecaie, aeaiiue noaeuea, aue
noieue aaeee, /oi aac ia?aie/aiey aai oai?eth oi?iaeueiie neeu
aeieacaoaeuenoa, naii iiiyoea noaea oo?a/eaaeinue au: i?eaiai? yaeyeny
au i?inoui ?aoaieai noaeuee ii aai oniio?aieth».

Nianoaaiiia i?eciaiea ii-i?aaeiaio n/eoaeinue aeieacaoaeuenoaii. Iii
yaeyeinue «eo/oei naeaeaoaeuenoaii anaai naaoa». Aeaaiaea?y oaeiio
ioeai/iiio acaeyaeo, i?ioeann i?aeiouanoaaiii iai?aaeyaony e
aueiea/eaaieth nianoaaiiiai i?eciaiey iuoeie, i?eiaiaiea eioi?ie
cia/eoaeueii aic?inei.

Aoi?ui aeaeii aeieacaoaeuenoaa auee naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey.
Caeiiiaeaoaeue ?acee/ae neeo naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee a caaeneiinoe io
ii?aeueiuo ea/anoa naeaeaoaey, aai iiea, iauanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey e
ioiioaiey eo e noi?iiai. A ia?aii neo/aa e naeaeaoaeuenoao ia
aeiioneathony «i?anooiieee, yaiua i?aethaiaeae, ethaee, ia auaoea o
eniiaaaee»; ai aoi?ii neo/aa neea naeaeaoaeueneeo iieacaiee aieueoa anee
naeaeaoaeue ioae/eia (a ia aeaiueia), ciaoiue /aeiaae (a ia
i?inoiethaeei), aeooiaiue (a ia naaoneee), e o/aiue. A o?aoueai neo/aa
naeaeaoaeuenoai ?iaenoaaiieeia ia aeiioneaeinue. *enei naeaeaoaeae
ii?aaeaeyaony ni noi?iiu ieieioia: iieacaiey iaeiiai ia yaeythony
aeieacaoaeuenoaii.

A iao?ianeii i?ioeanna ooeaeae «iaeei ec aeaeia noaea Aiaeueaai, eiaiii
I/enoeoaeueiay i?enyaa, e eioi?ie aeiioneaaony iaaeiyaiue a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea i?ioea iaai ia auei ae?oaeo aeinoaoi/ii aaniiuo oeee; ai?i/ai
caeiiiaeaoaeue iaiaeia?eoaeueii niio?eo ia i?enyao, i?aaeii/eoay eo/oa
inoaaeoue /aeiaaea a iiaeic?aiee». N i?eiyoeai i?enyae iiaeic?aaaaiue
n/eoaeny ii?aaaeaiiui. A neo/aa ioeaca io i?enyae, ii i?eciaaaeny
aeiiaiui, ii iaeacuaaeny cia/eoaeueii neaaaa, /ai i?e onoaiiaeaiee aai
aeiiaiinoe ae?oaeie, aieaa aa?iuie aeieacaoaeuenoaaie.

Iaeiiaoe, a /enea eo/oeo aeieacaoaeuenoa n/eoaeenue ienueiaiiua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa (iai?eia?, oi?aiaua eieae).

Ioeaiea ioiineoaeueiie neeu aeieacaoaeuenoa au?aaeaaony a caeiia
oa?ieiaie «niaa?oaiiia» aeieacaoaeuenoai eee «ianiaa?oaiiia». Anyeia
aeieacaoaeuenoai i?eieiaaony ca naa?oaiiia oieueei i?e ecaanoiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao: oae, nianoaaiiia i?eciaiea («eo/oaa naeaeaoaeuenoai
anaai ie?a») aeieaeii auoue i?iaa?aii; naeaeaoaeueneea iieacaiey
ioeaieaathony noaeii ii eeoeai naeaeaoaeae e ianoiyoaeuenoaai; aeaaea
i?enyaa (inoaoie i?aaeieo aaconeiaiuo n?aaenoa i?ioeanna) iiaeic?aaaaony
a aeiiouaiee aiciiaeiinoe eeyoaii?anooieaiey.

Iinea ?anniio?aiey aeieacaoaeuenoa, ii aieueoeinoao aieinia noaeae (noae
aue eieeaaeaeueiui) auiineeny i?eaiai?, eioi?ue iaeaeaeny a ienueiaiioth
oi?io, iiaeienuaaeny noaeueyie e ne?aieyeny aoaeeoi?ii.

Caeiiiaeaoaeue ia iauyniee, e eaeiai ?iaea noaeai e aeaeai aeieaeii
i?eiaiyoueny «E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea…». Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ii
ia?aiia/aeueiie aai iunee, i?eiaiaiea aai ia?aie/eaaaony aiaiiuie
noaeaie.

Ii?aaeaeaiiui aeenniiainii Oeaco io 21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea e «E?aoeiio
ecia?aaeaieth i?ioeania eee noaeaaiuo oyaeaa» cao/eo eiaiiie oeac io 5
iiya?y 1723 aiaea «I oi?ia noaea». Oeac ioiaiye ?icune e aeaeae noae
aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie i?ioeanna. Aicieeaao aii?in, /ai aucaaii noieue
?aceia eieaaaiea a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

E.Ae. Eaaaeei ii yoiio iiaiaeo inoi?iaeii cayaeye: «I?e/eiu…
aica?auaiey e i?aaeiae oi?ia noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, iaeaeaiiie iaoaeiaiith,
n oi/iinoueth iaecaanoiu». N.A. THoeia n/eoae ioiaio ?icunea
?acoeueoaoii oiai, /oi ii naay ia ii?aaaeae: «Yoe i?ioeannoaeueiua
oi?iu, n aycaiiua n eaioeaey?neie oaeiie e ienueiaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii,
ia oieueei ia ono?aieee aieieeou a noaeao, ii aeaaea cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie niinianoaiaaee aa ?acaeoeth».

Iaeiaei ?icune ia aue iiainoueth aeey ?one, e Iao? I, aaiaey aai,
aeieaeai aue ciaoue aai iaaeinoaoee aua a 1697 aiaeo e oai aieaa a
iiiaio ecaeaiey «E?aoeiai ecia?aaeaiey…». Enoi?e/aneay ianoaiiaea a
1697 e 1723 aiaeao ia ?acee/aeanue noieue i?eioeeieaeueii, /oiau
iio?aaiaaoue ei?aiiie eiiee i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa. I?aaenoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue eneaoue ioaao ia yoio aii?in eaeei-oi ae?oaei iooai.

Ai-ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue iaaeinoaoi/ioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue naieo
iiiyoee «noae» e «?icune», a neeo /aai caeiiiaeaoaeue, aiciiaeii, ia
anaaaea noieue ?acei i?ioeaiiinoaaeye eo, eae iai /anoi eaaeaony.

Ai-aoi?uo, enneaaeiaaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ( a /anoiinoe, «E?aoeiai
ecia?aaeaiey…») iieacuaaao, /oi a ?icunea nio?aiyeenue iaeioi?ua
yeaiaiou ninoycaoaeueiinoe e, iaiai?io, a noaea eiaeenue yeaiaiou
oi?iaeecia naienoaaiiua neaaenoaaiiiio i?ioeanno.

A-o?aoueeo, naia aeeciue i?aiyonoaiaaea oi/iiio niaethaeaieth Oeaca io
21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea, ?ani?ino?aiaieth ?icunea ia ana oaieiaiua e oai
aieaa ia ana a?aaeaeaineea aeaea. Ai anyeii neo/aa a i?aeoeea e iinea
yoiai Oeaca oaea?aeaeinue ?acaeaeaiea ia noae e ?icune. Iaaea?ii nai
Oeac io 5 iiya?y 1723 aiaea oiiieiaao ia yoii: «Ia iaaeeaaeeo ?acee/aoue
(eae i?aaeaea auaaei) iaeei noae, ae?oaie ?icune…».

A-/aoaa?ouo, ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi Oeac i
oi?ia noaea ia?yaeo n e?eoeeie i?aaeuaeouaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ( «…a
ia ii noa?ui i oii oeacii, eai a noaeao iiiai aeatho eeoiyai aiai?eoue,
e iiiai iaiaaeiaiiai ieooo, /oi aanueia cai?auaaony») iiae/a?eeaaao e
naith i?aainoaaiiinoue n iei: «Iiiaaea i oi?ia noaea iiiaey oeacu auee
ni/eiaiu, ec eioi?uo iuia nia?aii, e eae noaeeoue iaaeeaaeeo, oiio oi?ia
yniaa ecia?aaeaia…».

Oaeei ia?acii, eciaiaiey aiineiua Oeacii i oi?ia noaea, i?aaenoaaeythony
ia noieue oae i?eioeeieaeueiuie, eae yoi eaaeaony ia ia?aue acaeyae. A
ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a Oeac ecaeai ia ai eciaiaiea, a ?acaeoea i?aaeuaeouaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

E.Ae. Eaaaeei iieaaae, /oi Oeac i oi?ia noaea icia/aao «ainnoaiiaeaiea
iaoaai ae?aaiaai noaea , oi?iu a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
?acoiaaony, aeaeieciaiaiiie niia?acii n iio?aaiinoyie a?aiaie».

«Noae ii oi?ia» aeieaeai aue eiaoue i?eiaiaiea ai anao iaaiaiiuo
noaeao, a oii /enea oaieiaiuo: «ana noaeu e ?icunee eiatho ii nae oi?ia
ioi?aaeyooea». Iaeioi?ua aeaaiua iinoaiiaeaiey noaea ii oi?ia ia
i?eiaiythony, iaeiaei, e aeaeai ia eciaia, «ceiaeaenoaa», inei?aeaiee
aaee/anoaa e aoioa (noaouey 5: «e?iia neo aeae: eciaiu, ceiaeaenoaa eee
neia i?ioeaiuo ia eiia?aoi?neia aaee/anoai e aai naiueth e aoio»). «Oaea
i?e naiii Iao?a I (a 1724 aiaeo) aeaenoaea i?ioeannia e «oi?iu noaea»
auei ?ani?aaeaeaii ii ioiioaieth ei anai noaeai eiia?ee oae: iineaaeiyy
aeieaeia aeaenoaiaaoue i?e ?aoaiee a?aaeaeaineeo aeae («ia?oeeoey?iuo»),
ia?aua a aeaeao oaieiaiuo («aeiiineoaeueiuo e oeneaeueiuo»). A 1725 a.
iay 3 naiao enoieeiaae, /oi iiae iacaaieai «ceiaeaenoaa» ?acoiathony
i?anooieaiey i?ioea aa?u, oaeenoai, ?acaie, oaoueaa. Eoae, iauaa
cia/aiea noaea ii oi?ia en/acei: e yoiio i?eaaee i?aeoeea e
iineaaeothuea ocaeiiaiey: n iaeiie noi?iiu, aieineea «i?ioeannu» auee
?aoeaie?iaaiu aeey iaaiaiiuo noaeia, n ae?oaie — iaeaeaii auei
iaaiciiaeiui ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny a oaieiaiuo noaeao «noaeii ii oi?ia».
Iaeiaei, oaeay aeaienoaaiiinoue oi?i i?ioeanna (a?aaeaeaineiai e
oaieiaiiai) ia oaea?aeaeanue: eae ocaeiiaiey, oae e i?aeoeea ?aoeoaeueii
iaeeiiyeenue a noi?iio eieaeceoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna» . I/aaeaeii, iauea
oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey aaniethoecia ana aea o?aaiaaee ainiiaenoaa ?icunea,
oioy, iiaeao auoue, e ia a noieue aaca?aie/iie oi?ia, eae
i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue Oeacii io 21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea.

A e a a a III.

Ninoycaoaeueiue i?ioeann

ii Eiaiiiio oeaco io

5 iiya?y 1723 aiaea

«I oi?ia noaea».

Oeac io 5 iiya?y 1723 aiaea «I oi?ia noaea» eciaiyao noaeii?iecaiaenoai
Aieineiai onoaaa e ainnoaiiaeaieth i?aaeiaai ii?yaeea ninoycaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna n iaeioi?uie eciaiaieyie, «eeiiyueieny e niiauaieth noaeuea
aieaa aeoeaiie ?iee i?e ai?ueaa noi?ii».

Oeaco i oi?ia noaea auea i?aaeiineaia aaiaeiay /anoue. A iae aeaiu
iainiiaaiea caeiia, aai ioiioaiea e i?aaeuaeouaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao e
iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey eciaiaiee, aiineiuo yoei aeoii a i?ioeannoaeueiia
i?aai.

Aeaaiia iiaiaaaaeaiea caeanue, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, — ioiaia ?icuneiie
oi?iu i?ioeanna. Iaeiaei i?aeoeea ia iioea ii eeiee iieiie eeiee iieiie
ioiaiu ?icunea. Ai anyeii neo/aa oaea /a?ac o?e aiaea A.Ae. Iaioeeia,
aeaaay oeacaiey niaoeeaeueiiio noaeo ii aeaeo A.I. Aeaaea?a, I.A.
Oienoiai e ae?oaeo, caienae: «A ?icuneo iaae ieie ia /eieoue».
I/aaeaeii, /oi aac yoiai oeacaiey oaeie ?icune iia auoue o/eiai.
Ai?i/ai, oae e iieo/eeinue: A.I. Aeaieaa?a ii anai i?aaeeai ?icuneiiai
i?ioeanna iiaeaa?aee iuoea e aeaaea aeaaaeaeu.

I?ioeann ia/eiaeny n iiaea/e ienueiaiiiai i?ioaiey enooeii — /aeiaeoiie.
Oeac oaeaeyao iniaia aieiaiea ia naycaiiinoue eceiaeaiey i?ioaiey.
O?aaiaaiey e?aoeinoe e /aoeinoe /aeiaeoiie auaeaeaaeenue aua a «E?aoeii
ecia?aaeaiee…» (no.3 ae. «I /aeiaeo/eea»). Ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey e
/aeiaeoiie i?aaeuyaeyeenue e Niai?iui Oeiaeaieai (no. 102 e ae?. ae. O),
a /anoiinoe o?aaiaaiea oi/ii oeacuaaoue oeaio enea. A Oeaca «I oi?ia
noaea» auei i?aaeienaii i?ioaiea ?aniieaaaoue ioieoaie, ioieo ca ioieoii
e oae, /oiau oi, /oi iaienaii a iaeiii ioieoa ia iiaoi?youe e ia
niaoeaaoue n eceiaeaiiui a ae?oaii (noaouey 1: «Eae /aeiaeoiuy, oae e
aeiiioaiee ienaoue ioieoaie, oae /enoi, aeaau /oi ienaii a iaeiii
ioieoa, a ae?oaii au oiai ia auei»).

Caeii ?acee/aao aeaa aeaea /aeiaeo/eeia: enoaoe — a a?aaeaeaineii
i?ioeanna e aeiiineoaeue — a oaieiaiii. Iaeiaei i?ioeaiay noi?iia iineo
i?aaeiaa iauaa aeey oao e ae?oaeo aeae iacaaiea — ioaao/ee.

Caeii i?aaeuyaeyao ii?aaeaeaiiua oi?iaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e i?ioieieo,
?aiaa ionoonoaiaaaoea a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (noaouey 2: « A eiaaea a?aiy
i?eaeao noaea, oiaaea ecaioiaeoue aeaa oao?aaee i?ioeaiua oio?ii, e iiie
caia/aoaoue, e cae?aieoue nae?aoa?th ii eenoai, ec eioi?uo ia iaeiie
ienaoue ioaao/eeia ioaao, ia ae?oaie enooeiau eee aeiiineoaeaau
oeeee.»).

?aaeaiaioe?oaony ii?yaeie noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey. A ioee/ea io «E?aoeiai
ecia?aaeaiey…» (no.2 ae. «I ioaao/eea») oaia?ue cai?auaaony aeaaaoue
ioaao ia /aeiaeoioth a ienueiaiiii aeaea. Oai aieaa oaea ia iiaeao auoue
?a/e ia iaeiii iaiaia i?ioeannoaeueiuie aoiaaaie.

Cai?auaaony aicaoaeaeaoue ano?a/iue ene eee ano?a/iia iaaeiaiea aei
ieii/aiey neaaenoaey ii iniiaiiio aeaeo. Aiciiaeia ia?aaea/a ano?a/iie
aeaeiau a ae?oaie noae, anee iia ia iiaenoaeia aeaiiiio noaeo.

Noaeaaiia neaaenoaea aaaeaony ii ioaeaeueiui ioieoai /aeiaeoiie,
i?ioaiea enooea /eoaeinue ii ioieoai, ia eioi?ua ioaao/ee aeieaeai aue
aeaaaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiua ioaaou. Ii ia iia eanaoueny neaaeothuaai
ioieoa, iiea ia aeaaae en/a?iuaathuaai ioaaoa ia i?aaeuaeouee aii?in
(noaouey 3: «A eiaaea ia?aie ioieo ni anai i/enoeo… oiaaea ni?ineoue
enooea, eiaao ee ii aua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, e iioii ioaao/eea, /oi ii
eiaao ee aieaa e ii?aaaeaieth… aaeaoue ?oee i?eeiaeeoue e eaaeaeiio
naiaio ioieoo»). Ioaao/ee oaia?ue eiaao i?aai a ethaie iiiaio
noaeaaiiai neaaenoaey oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue i i?eiauaiee e aeaeo iiauo
aeieoiaioia. Aeey yoiai aeaaony a?aiy — iiaa?noiue n?ie( noaouey 3: «…
aoaea aea ioaao/ee noaiao i?ineoue a?aiyie aeey ni?aaie, oi aeaaaoue,
aaeaee eaeea ienueia eiaao, n iiaa?noiui n?ieii…»). Eiie?aoiua ii?iu
iiaa?noiiai n?iea ia oeacaiu.

A yoie noaouea aeiaieueii y?ei aunooiaao ninoycaoaeueiinoue i?ioeanna.
Noi?iiu nii?yo, aeieacuaay naith i?aaioo, ii eaaeaeiio aii?ino.

I?eioeei ninoycaoaeueiinoe i?iaiaeeony e a noaaeee aei noaeaaiie
iiaeaioiaee n iaeioi?uie ecuyoeyie aeey na?ueaciuo i?anooieaiee (eciaia,
aoio, inei?aeaiea eiia?aoi?neie oaieeee). Ioaao/eeo ia iicaea /ai ca
iaaeaeth aeaaony eiiey («nienie») /aeiaeoiie, /oiau ii iia
iiaeaioiaeoueny e caueoa (noaouey 5: «Iaaeeaaeeo i?aaeaea noaea…
aeaoue nienie ioaao/eeo n ioieoaie, iiaeaiiuo io /aeiaeo/eeia… i?ecaaa
ioaao/eea i?aae noae, e aio naiiio ioaeaoue iiie nienie, ia eioi?ii
iiiaoeoue anai noaeyuei /enei ia eioi?ia noaoue e noaeo, aeaau iaaeaey
iieiay oa eiiey a ioaao/eeiauo ?oeao auea»). Aaiaeyony ii?aaeaeaiiua
eaioeaey?neea oi?iaeueiinoe aeey iaania/aiey yaee ioaao/eea a n?ie ia
noae: iiiaoea i aeaoa noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa, ?anienea a iieo/aiee
«nienea» — ?aaa?n (no.5 «…e acyoue n iaai ?aaa?n, /oi ii eiieth
iieo/ee, e aeieaeai ia iieiaeaiiie n?ie e noaeo noaoue aac anyeie
ioaiai?ee»). Yoe oi?iaeueiinoe aeiiieiythony aieaa nouanoaaiiuie ia?aie:
aiciiaeiinoueth iaeiaeaiey a?anoa ia eiouanoai (i?yii ia
i?aaeoniio?aiiie, ii iiae?acoiaaathuaeny a caeiia), ii?o/eoaeuenoaii,
a?anoii ioaao/eea (no.5 «A aaeaee oniio?aii aoaeao, /oi o oiai ioaao/eea
ia oieeeia /enei, neieei a /aeieaeouea enooeiaa iieacaii eneo,
aeaeaeeiiai e iaaeaeaeeiiai eiaiey ia aoaeao, oi nia?aoue ii iai ii?oee,
eioi?ui a oii eneo iiaeii aa?eoue, /oi aio aei aa?oaiey oiai aeaea ia
nuaoaoue, e a cai?a oao ii?oe n?ieo aieaa iaaeaee ia aeaaaoue; a aoaea
ii?oe ii eii ia aoaeao, oi aea?aeaoue aai iiae a?anoii»).

Oeac aica?auaaony e aeiaieueii oe?ieiio i?eiaiaieth ii?o/eoaeuenoaa,
ii/oe caauoiai a «E?aoeii ecia?aaeaiee…». Noaeaaiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai nouanoaaiii ?anoe?yaony. Anee ?aiueoa iii
aeiioneaeinue aeaaiui ia?acii i?e aieacie noi?iiu, oi oaia?ue ia
noaaeoueny ieeaeeo ia?aie/eaathueo oneiaee. Aaiaeeony einoeooo
aeiaa?aiiinoe («ienueia aa?thuea»). I?e yoii i?aaa iiaa?aiiiai
i?aaeiieaaathony ?aaiuie ii iauaio i?aaai aeiaa?eoaey ( noaouey 7:
«*aeiaeo/eeii aea e ioaao/eeii aeaaony aiey iinueaoue a noae, eiai
oioyo, oieueei n ienueiaie aa?thueie, /oi iiie o/eieo, ii i?aeineiaeoue
ia aoaeao»).

*oi eanaaony a?anoa, oi ii oeacai io 12 aeaeaa?y 1720 aiaea e io 6
ai?aey 1722 aiaea a?anoiaaiiua ioaao/eee niaea?aeaeenue ca n/ao enooea.
Iiyoiio aeey enooea yoa ia?a i?ana/aiey auea aeiaieueii
ia?aiaieoaeueiie.

Enooeo e ioaao/eeo iaaei auei i?eoiaeeoue n noae ia iicaeiaa 8-ie /ania
oo?a. Anee eoi-oi ec ieo ia i?eaeao ?aiueoa 11-oe /ania, oi aio
i?aaeienuaaeinue ia neaaeothuee aeaiue yaeoueny e 8-ie oo?a, a anee ii
iiyoue aia?aiy ia i?eaeao, oi caaea?aeaoue aai a noaea, /oiau ia
aiei/eoue aeaei (noaouey 5 «A i?eoiaeeoue enooeii e ioaao/eeii e noaeo a
oeaciie aeaiue ia iicaeiaa inueiiai /ano ii oo?o; a aaeaee eoi ec ieo
i?eaeao a iaeeiiaaeoeaoii /ano, oiaaea oiio neacaoue, /oia ii (aaeaee ia
oi?aeanoaaiiue i?acaeiee e ia aine?aniue aeaiue, a eioi?ua noaeiua aeaea
ia ioi?aaeythooea) aue ia ae?oaie aeaiue ?aii; a aoaea eoi e a ae?oaie
aeaiue oaeaea i?eaeao iicaeiaa inueiaai /ana, oiaaea oiai aei ae?oaiaa
aeie, a eioi?ii noae auoue eiaao, ec i?eeaco ia auioneaoue, /oia io oiai
a oaeeo noaeiuo aeaeao i?iaeieaeaiey ia auei»).

*aeiaeo/ee nai iaycai nia?aoue ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa (iaeei
ec oa?aeoa?iuo i?eioeeiia ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna) aei ia/aea
noaeaaiiai ?acae?aoaeuenoaa. Eeoue anee ioaao/ee auaeaeaaao
iaiaeeaeaiiua aic?aaeaiey, enooeo aeaaony aiciiaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeoue
iiaua iaoa?eaeu. Ai?i/ai, caeanue eaeao ?a/ue i aeieoiaioao, a ia i
anyeeo aeieacaoaeuenoaao ( no. 5 «… ii (enoaoe) aeieaeai noaoue ia
iieiaeaiiie n?ie a noaea ni anaie e oiio eneo i?eiaaeeaaeaueie
ieniyiiuie aeieoiaioaie eee aeieacaoaenoau …… aaeaee ioaao/ee oaeea
ioaiai?ee a ii?aaaeaiea naaa i?eianao, i eioi?uo enoaoe e /ayoue ia iia,
ii i?eioaeaeai aoaeao iiia ieniyiiui naeaeaoaenoaii ii?iaa?aiooue, oi a
oaeii neo/aa enooeo aeey iieiaeaiey oaeiaa i?e iai iaia?aoathuaainy
aeieoiaioo noaeuea aeaaaoue iiaa?noiue n?ie…»).

Eeoei ii ?aciui aeaeai iiaei auoue iiaenoaeii ?aciui i?aaiai. Ec yoiai e
aicieeaao io?aaeaiiay a noaouea 6-ie Oeaca eieeecey, i/aaeaeii, ia?aaeei
eniieueciaaaoayny iaaeia?iniaanoiuie ethaeueie, /oiau auea?aoue i?ioeann
iaoiaeiuie iooyie. A noaouea ?anoeaieaaaony eae i?anooieaiea e neo/ae
a?oaiai aini?aiyonoaiaaiey noi?iia yaeoueny noae. «Aaeaee enoaoe eee
ioaao/ee, a n?i/iue aeey noaeiaiai?aiey aeaiue aoaeoo acyou a ae?oaie
noae, ii ae?oaiio aeaeo, oi iie aeieaeiu iauyaeoue i naaa, /oi ei a
yoio aeaiue iacia/aii noaeiaiai?aiea a oaeii-oi noaea e iieacaoue —
ioaao/ee eiieth /aeiaeoiie, a enoaoe — aeeao aeaiiue aio noaeueyie,
iinea /aai noae oaeiaiai iaiaaeeaiii aeieaeai ioionoeoue, a i?ioeaiii
neo/aa noaeuee, caaea?aeaaoea oaeiaiai, aoaeoo iaeacaiu eae i?anooiieee
caeiia». A yoie aea noaouea aiai?eony i oii, /oi anee enoaoe eee
ioaao/ee caaieatho ei aeith noaeiaiai?aiey, oi iie aeieaeiu ecaanoeoue
ia yoii noae, eioi?ue aeieaeai iineaoue aeey inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey o?ao
/eaiia, e iinea inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey ioeiaeeoue aeaei aei
aucaei?iaeaiey aieueiiai. Anee eoi-eeai ec oyaeoueony ia yaeeny ei
n?ieo, iacia/aiiiio aeey ?acai?a aeaea, oi oi?aeanoaaiii, n aa?aaaiiui
aiai, iaeaoaeny oeac, i?aaeienuaathuee ionoonoaothuaio yaeoueny a
iaaeaeueiue n?ie iiae oa?icie auoue iaaeiaiiui cai/ii.

Oeac ia?a/eneyao neo/ae oaaaeeoaeueiie iayaee noae: « 1) Aaeaee io
iai?eyoaey eaeia iiiaoaoaeuenoai eiae. 2) Aac oia noae. 3) Io aiaeyiiai
e iiaea?iiai neo/ay e ai?ianeeo ethaeae eaeia ian/anoea eiae. 4) Aaeaee
?iaeeoaee eee aeaia e aeaoe oi?oo.».

Ionoonoaea ia noaeaaiii ?acae?aoaeuenoaa aac oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei, eae
yoi auei e a i?aaeoanoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, aea/ao ca niaie
i?iea?uo aeaea. Acuneaiea ii noaeaaiiio ?aoaieth ia?auaaony ia eiouanoai
i?iea?aaoae noi?iiu e aa ii?o/eoaeae.

Oioy Oeac e i?iaicaeaoaao onoiinoue a ea/anoaa i?ioeannoaeueiiai
i?eioeeia, iaeiaei a noaouea 8-ie iu aeaeei iiyoue aeiaieueii neiaeioth
nenoaio ienueiaiiiai ioi?ieaiey aeaea («A eiaaea aeaei ecneaaeiaaii ana
aoaeao, oiaaea caeaeaoue auienee ioieoaie ae, e i?i/anoue eaaeaeiio e
aaeaoue iiaeienaoue ii ioieoai /aeiaeo/eeo e ioaao/eeo eaaeaeiio ia
naia, aeey oiai ana ee auienaii»).

Caeii o?aaoao, /oiau i?eaiai? auiineeny ii ioaeaeueiui ioieoai
iaaeiaiey, a ia iauee aeey anaai aeaea, eae yoi auei ?aiueoa.

Aia?aua o?aaoaony, /oiau i?eaiai? iniiauaaeny ia niioaaonoaothueo
(«i?eee/iuo») noaoueyo iaoa?eaeueiiai caeiia. Ca i?eiaiaiea
iaiaaeeaaeauaai caeiia ( ?aoaiea aeaea «ii iai?eee/iui ioieoai») noaeuey
iiaeaa?aaeny iaeacaieth (noaouey 8: «… oiaaea i?eaiai?u iiaeienuaaoue
ia eaaeaeii ioieoa aeey ?aoaiey ii ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaai, i?eaiaey
naiua i?eee/iua ioieou e oiio ?aoaieth; a aaeaee ii iai?eee/iui ioieoai
?aoaiea o/eiaii aoaeao, oi noaeyuey ieaeaienaiiui oo?aoii iaeacaiu
aoaeoo»). Iaeiaei ia ioiaia i?eaiai?a a yoii neo/aa ie/aai ia
aiai?eoueny.

Oeac «I oi?ia noaea», iiaeiaii i?aaeuaeouei i?ioeannoaeueiui caeiiai, ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaao aua oaeeo yoaiia i?ioeanna, eae i?aiey noi?ii e
caeeth/eoaeueiia neiai iiaenoaeeiiai.

A caeeth/eoaeueiie oi?ia Oeaca i?aaeaea anaai i?eaiaeeony oi?ia
/aeiaeoiie, eioi?ay «ia/eiaeanue oeooeii ainoaea?y», — iiaiaaaaeaiea,
eioi?iai ?aiueoa ia auei a i?ioeannoaeueiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Iiae oeooeii, ioe?uaathuei /aeiaeoioth, iiiauaaony ia?auaiea e noaeuea.
Niaea?aeaiea aeaea eceaaaaony a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaiey noaouee 1-ie
?anniao?eaaaiiai oeaca. Aua oeacii io 12 ieoya?y 1699 aiaea auei
i?aaeienaii /aeiaeoiua, eae e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea i?ioeannoaeueiua
aeieoiaiou, ienaoue ia aa?aiaie aoiaaa.

A caeeth/aiee iiae/a?eeaaaony ?ani?ino?aiaiea ianoiyuaai oeaca ia ana
aeaeu noaeia e cai?auaaony iiae no?aoii iaeacaiey i?eiaiyoue ae?oaoth
oi?io i?ioeanna («Ana noaeu e ?icunee eiatho ii nae oi?ia ioi?aaeyooea,
ia oieeoy, /oi ney oi?ia noaea e oiio neoaeeo, a e ae?oaiio ia neoaeeo.
A aaeaee eoi aoaeao eiui ia?acii noaeeoue e ?icuneeaaoue, eee /aeiaeoiua
i?eieiaoue, oi yei ia?ooeoaeue ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aa iaeacai aoaeao»).
Iaeiaei niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi aeaiiue Oeac ia iia iieiinoueth
caiaieoue «E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea…» e aeaaea Niai?iia Oeiaeaiea a
iaeanoe ?aaeaiaioaoeee noaeii?iecaiaenoaa, eai ii iaiiiai aaaeiaa yoeo
caeiiia n oi/ee c?aiey iieiiou inaauaiey i?ioeanna. Iiyoiio ioiaio
Oeacii i?aaeuaeouaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eae yoi aiai?eoueny ai aaiaeiie
/anoe caeiia, neaaeoao iiieiaoue ia eae ioiaio i?ioeai?a/aueo aio
ioaeaeueiuo ii?i, caeeth/aiiuo a yoeo caeiiao.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue iiaia aeinoeaeaiea a iaeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
oaoieee — niaoeeaeueiia oeacaiea a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia a?aiy aaaaeaiey
aai a aeaenoaea («Noaeu ii nae oi?ia ia/aoue noaeeoue n i?eoiaeyuaai
1724 aiaeo n ia/aea». «N ia/aea» neaaeoao iiieiaoue eae n 1 yiaa?y.).

C a e e th / a i e a.

Iinoaiiaeaiey Oeaca «I oi?ia noaea» ia oieueei ia oeo/oeee, a, iai?ioea,
onoaoaeee iaaeinoaoee noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Oeac aei e?aeiinoe noaniee
aeaenoaey noi?ii a i?ioeanna, ?anoe?ee i?iecaie noaeae, ia onoaiiaee
ii?aaeaeaiiuo n?ieia aeey auianaiey i?eaiai?a e oai naiui nicaeae ii/ao
aeey i?ioeaaoaiey ii?yaeeia, eioi?ua oee a ?ac?ac n yeaiaioa?iuie
o?aaiaaieyie i?aainoaeey. «Iiyoiio iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi aieueoeinoai
iaeacia, iiaeaiiuo a caeiiiaeaoaeueioth eiienneth 1767 aiaea,
aii?oaeathony i?ioea ninoycaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, eae ii onoaiiaeai a
«oi?ia noaea», oae eae io iaai inoaeanue, aeaenoaeoaeueii, oieueei
oi?ia, eioi?ay eeoue oneiaeiyea e oaeeeiyea i?ioeann, iaaeaeo oai, eae
naie aeaea ?aoaeenue ii eieaeceoeeiiiiio oniio?aieth noaeae».

Ec anaai auoa neacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a ia?aie iieiaeia
XVIII-ai aaea nouanoaiaaee aeaa oi?iu i?ioeanna: neaaenoaaiiue,
ea?aaoee ainiiaenoaothuoth ?ieue, e ninoycaoaeueiue, ia eiaaoee
aieueoiai cia/aiey.

Iniiaiua ii?iaoeaiua aeou.

Oeac io 5 iiya?y 1723 aiaea «I oi?ia noaea».

Oeac ia ioiaia i/iuo noaaie, i auoee aianoi iiuo ?ani?ino e ?icuneo, i
naeaeaoaeyo, ia ioaiaea iiuo, i i?enyaa, i iaeacaiee eaeanaeaeaoaeae e i
iioeeiiuo aeaiueaao io 21 oaa?aey 1697 aiaea.

«E?aoeia ecia?aaeaiea i?ioeania eee noaeaaiuo oyaeaa» 1715 aiaea.

?onneay I?aaaea.

Noaeaaiee 1497 aiaea.

Niai?iia Oeiaeaiea 1649.

Iniiaiua enneaaeiaaiey.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Iao?a I. I., 1997.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai X-XX. O. 4. I., 1986.

Iaaeaiei I.E. Ioaioeu aiacaea Iao?iaa. I., 1988.

?aaeei E.I. O/aaiee enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa. Iao?ia?aae., 1915.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Iaci? enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa. Eeaa-NIa.,
1909.

THoeia N.A. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa NNN?. *.1. I., 1950.

*aeueoeia I.A. Oaieiaiue i?ioeann. I., 1948.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey a aeaayoe oiiao. O. IV.

Eaaaeei E.Ae. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. NIa., 1897-1898.

Eaeeiu/aa O.E. I?aaiaua aii?inu aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVII a. I., 1954.

Nieiaueaa ni/eiaiey a ainaiiaaeoeaoe eieaao. Ei. XVIII. I., 1995.

Aaeyaa E.Ae. Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee ?onneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I., 1888.

Enoi?ey ioa/anoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa. *.1. I., 1996. Iiae
?aaeaeoeeae i?ioanni?a *enoyeiaa I.E.

Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa NNN?. *.1. I., 1967. Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae
Nio?iiaiei E.A.

Eia-eaeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeinoeaeaieyo Caiaaea — a aeaea eiicaiiuo
aauae e eiea — Iao? iieo/ee aua a aeaonoaa, a naiuea «caiaaeieea» A.N.
Iaoaaaaa, aaea au?inea aai iaoue e aaea ainieouaaeny ii nai. Iicaeiaa ia
thiiai Iao?a i?iecaaee iaecaeaaeeiia aia/aoeaiea i?aeiouanoaa caiaaeiiai
aiaiiiai e ii?neiai aeaea.

Iaaeaiei I.E. Ioaioeu aiacaea Iao?iaa. I., 1988.

?aaeei E.I. O/aaiee enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa. Iao?ia?aae. 1915.

?aaeei E.I. Oeac. ni/.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Iaci? enoi?ee ?onneiai i?aaa. Eeaa-NIa.,
1909.

THoeia N.A. Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa NNN?. *. 1. I.,1950.

*aeueoeia I. A. Oaieiaiue i?ioeann. M.,1948.

Eeth/aaneee A.I. Ni/eiaiey a aeaayoe oiiao. T. IV. C. 87

INC?E. O. III. ? 1576.

Eaaaeei E.Ae. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee. NIa., 1897-1898.

Eaeeiu/aa O.E. I?aaiaua aii?inu aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVII a. I., 1954.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Oeac. ni/.

Nieiaueaa N.I. Ni/eiaiey a ainaiiaaeoeaoe eieaao. Ei. XVIII. I., 1995.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Oeac. ni/.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Oeac. ni/.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Oeac. ni/.

Iao?a I.

Eaaaeei E.Ae. Oeac. Ni/.

THoeia N.A. Oeac. Ni/.

Eaaaeei E.Ae. Oeac. ni/.

Aeaaeeie?neee-Aoaeaiia I.O. Oeac. ni/.

?aaeei E.I. Oeac. ni/.

Oeeo. ii: Iaaeaiei I.E. Oeac. ni/.

INC?E. O.VI. ? 3685, 3940.

Aaeyaa E.Ae. Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee ?onneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I., 1888.

Aaeyaa I.E. Oeac. ni/..

INC?E. O. III. ? 1703.

?aaeei E.I. Oeac. ni/.

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