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?AOA?AO

ii eo?no «Enoi?ey ?innee»

ii oaia: «Neaaiay iiaaaea iiae Eo?neii»

Aaaaeaiea

Yoi niauoea eiaao aeoai/aeoee iao?eioe/aneee, ainieoaoaeueiue niune, oae
eae iii iaiiieiaao iai ia oieueei ia ia?iiiuo aea?oaao, i iioa?yo
?iaeiuo e aeeceeo, ii e ?ane?uaaao no?aieoeu iaoaai aa?ie/aneiai
i?ioeiai, aiaaoth enoi?eth Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee, niaaeeiaiee e /anoae
onoaiaaeeaaao iac?eioth naycothuoth ieoue iaaeaeo iiaeaeaaie o?iioiaeeia
e aioiaiinoueth e iei iuiaoiaai iieieaiey ?inneyi.

Iaoa Iaiyoue i oao n?aaeaieyo aeieaeia auoue ia i?inoi i/a?aaeiui,
yieciaee/aneei aica?auaieai e i?ioeiio, a iinoiyiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
ii i?iaeieaeaieth o?aaeeoeee, aa?ie/aneeo aeae o?iioiaeeia, iia aeieaeia
aeeoue a ?aoiuo aeinoeaeaieyo iaoeo ioeoea?ia e nieaeao ia aeaai iiaie
?innee.

E eiia/ii, iu iaycaiu ia?aae naaoeie iaiyoueth iiaeaoeo ia aieia ciaoue
eaeie oeaiie aeinoaeanue iiaaaea, eco/aoue oeaiiue aiaaie iiuo. Yoiio e
iinayuaia iaoa oaia.

1. Ia?aeiiiia n?aaeaiea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie e aoi?ie ie?iaie aiei

Eo?neay aeoaa caieiaao a Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia iniaia ianoi. Iia
i?iecioea a ethea-aaaonoa 1943 aiaea, eiaaea aieia aeinoeaea aaaeiiai,
ia?aeiiiiai yoaia. E yoiio a?aiaie a ?acoeueoaoa ?aca?iia
iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo aiene iiae Iineaie ?ooioee aeoea?ianeea ieaiu
«iieieaiiniie aieiu». Iiaaaeu niaaoneeo aiene iiae Noaeeia?aaeii (17
ethey 1942 a. – 2 oaa?aey 1943 a.) e a ceiiai ianooieaiee 1942-1943 a.a.
iieiaeeee ia/aei ianniaiio ecaiaieth iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo caoaao/eeia ec
ia?aaeaeia iaoae no?aiu.

Ia ?yaea o/anoeia i?ioeaiee aue ioa?ioai a caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee ia
600-700 ei. A eoiaa a ?aeiia Eo?nea ia?aciaaeny aieueoie aunooi,
aioaaeoee a enoi?eth iiae iacaaieai Eo?neay aeoaa. Iia nicaeaaaea
aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey aaaeaiey aiaauo aeaenoaee eae niaaoneei
aieneai, oae e i?ioeaieeo. Yoi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie e
i?aaeii?aaeaeeei oi, /oi eiaiii a aeaiiii ?aeiia ?acaa?ioeenue ?aoathuea
n?aaeaiey eaoia-inaiiae eiiiaiee 1943 aiaea.

Aa?iaineia eiiaiaeiaaiea n/eoaei, /oi, ianiio?y ia e?oiiua ii?aaeaiey ia
niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa, aieia aeey iaai aeaeaei aua ia i?iea?aia.
I?iaaaey oioaeueioth iiaeeecaoeeth ethaeneeo e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia
ii/oe ii anae Aa?iia, iii ?aoeei i?iaanoe eaoii 1943 aiaea iiaia
aieueoia ianooieaiea a ?aeiia Eo?nea. Ianooieaiea iieo/eei oneiaiia
iaeiaiiaaiea «Oeeoaaeaeue». Iauee aai caiunae naiaeeeny e oiio, /oiau
ie?oaeeoue e oie/oiaeeoue iai?iiyaoeony a ?aeiia Eo?nea aienea
Oeaio?aeueiiai e Ai?iiaaeneiai o?iioia. A neo/aa oniaoa i?aaeiieaaaeinue
?anoe?eoue o?iio ianooieaiey e aa?iooue no?aoaae/aneoth eieoeeaoeao.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo ieaiia i?ioeaiee nin?aaeioi/ee iiuiua oaea?iua
a?oiie?iaee, eioi?ua ian/eouaaee nauoa 900 oun. /aeiaae, ieiei 10 oun.
i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, aei 2700 oaieia e ooo?iiauo i?oaeee, ieiei 2050
naiieaoia. Aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu aiceaaaeenue ia iiaaeoea oaiee «Oea?» e
«Iaioa?a», ooo?iiaua i?oaeey «Oa?aeeiaiae», naiieaou-eno?aaeoaee
«Oieea-Aoeueo-190-A» e ooo?iiaeee «Oaeioaeue – 129».

A eaeiau ieaiu auee o niaaoneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey? *oi iii i?aaeiieaaaei
aeaeaoue?

Ia?aiia/aeueii niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ieaie?iaaei ia/aoue eaoia –
inaiithth eiiiaieth 1943 aiaea oe?ieei ianooieaieai a thai-caiaaeiii
iai?aaeaiee. Iaeiaei a nayce n oai, /oi oaeaeinue ane?uoue caiunae
i?ioeaieea e ninoaa aai oaea?iuo a?oiie?iaie, a ieai auee aianaiu
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey.

Noaaea AAE ?aoeea nia/aea iaane?iaeoue oaea?iua a?oiie?iaee a?aaa a
iai?iieoaeueiuo n?aaeaieyo, a caoai ia?aeoe a eiio?ianooieaiea. «Eo/oa
aoaeao, – ioia/ae aaia?ae A.E. AEoeia a naiai aeieeaaea Aa?oiaiiio
Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaio, – anee iu eciioaai i?ioeaieea ia iaoae iai?iia,
auaueai aai oaiee, a caoai, aaaaey naaaeea ?aca?au, ia?aoiaeii a iauaa
ianooieaiea ieii/aoaeueii aeiaueai iniiaioth a?oiie?iaeo i?ioeaieea.» A
ioee/ea io iai?iieoaeueiuo iia?aoeee iiae Iineaie e Noaeeia?aaeii
iai?iia iiae Eo?neii auea n iaoae noi?iiu ia auioaeaeaiiie, a
i?aaeiaia?aiiie.

Eo?neay aeoaa ninoiyea ec iai?iieoaeueiie (5 – 23 ethey) e
ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee (12 – 23 aaaonoa), iauaaeeiaiiuo aaeeiui
caiuneii.

A oiaea iai?iieoaeueiie iia?aoeee ianooieaiea i?ioeaieea ec ?aeiia I?ea
aeieaeiu auee io?aaeaoue aienea Oeaio?aeueiiai o?iioa (eiiaiaeothuee
aaia?ae a?iee E.E. ?ieinnianeee), a ec ?aeiia Aaeai?iaea – Ai?iiaaeneiai
o?iioa (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae a?iee I.O. Aaoooei). A oueo yoeo o?iioia
?aniieaaaeenue e?oiiua no?aoaae/aneea ?aca?au, iauaaeeiaiiua a
iineaaeothuai a Noaiiie o?iio (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae – a?iee E.N.
Eiiaa).

Anaai e ia/aeo Eo?neie aeoau a ninoaaa Oeaio?aeueiiai e Ai?iiaaeneiai
o?iioia ian/eouaaeinue 1336 oun. /aeiaae, 3444 oaieia e NAO, 19,1 oun.
i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, 2172 naiieaoa. Eii?aeeiaoeeth aeaenoaee aiene,
i?eaeaeaaiuo e iia?aoeee, inouanoaeyee i?aaenoaaeoaee Noaaee Ia?oaeu
Niaaoneiai Nithca A.E. AEoeia e A.I. Aaneeaaneee.

Aieueoia aieiaiea niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea oaeaeeei eiaeaia?iiio
iai?oaeiaaieth e yoaeiie?iaaieth iai?iiu. Aa aeoaeia aeinoeaaea 300 ei.
Iia eiaea oi?ioi ?acaeooth nenoaio o?aioae e oiaeia niiauaiee. Aieneaie
Ai?iiaaeneiai e Oeaio?aeueiiai o?iioia, a oaeaea ianoiui ianaeaieai eo
auei au?uoi a iauae neiaeiinoe 9240 ei, onoaiiaeaii ieiei 1 iei. iei e
ooaania, iino?iaiu nioie eeeiiao?ia i?ioeaioaieiauo i?aiyonoaee.

Aioiaynue e aiyi ia Eo?neie aeoaa, niaaoneea aieiu iiauoaee naia aiaaia
ianoa?noai, naiui ouaoaeueiui ia?acii eco/aee aiaaoth oaoieeo e
aii?oaeaiea, aeiaeaaeenue acaeiicaiaiyaiinoe a ?an/aoao e yeeiaaeao,
ciaeiieeenue ii eenoiaeai n naiuie oycaeiuie ianoaie oaieia e NAO
i?ioeaieea, io?aaaouaaee acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie e
/anoyie ?acee/iuo ?iaeia aiene, auiieiyee aiaaua no?aeueau ia
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo iieeaiiao e o.ae.

Ca oiaeii aiaaie o/aau neaaeeee e ieacuaaee iiiiuue ia/aeueieee ?iaeia
aiene, ooaau o?iioia e eo eiiaiaeothuea. Oae, eiiaiaeothuee o?iioii E.E.
?ieinnianeee ee/ii iiauaae ia ?yaea ii/iuo caiyoee e i?ieiio?iee?iaae
auo/eo a?oeeea?enoia, oaieenoia e ae?oaeo niaoeeaeenoia.

A /anoyo aeoeaii aaeanue ainieoaoaeueiay ?aaioa. Eiiaiaee?u,
iieeoi?aaiu, ia?oeeiua e eiiniiieueneea i?aaiecaoeee ?acuyniyee
aiaiii-iieeoe/aneoth ianoaiiaeo, aeiaiaeeee caaea/e, iiaeeeciauaaee
ee/iue ninoaa ia iai?yaeaiioth aiaaoth o/aao, ia nicaeaiea
iai?aiaeieeiie iai?iiu.

Iiiai nee e yia?aee a niaaeeiaieyo e /anoyo ioaeaaaeinue
ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaea aieiia, i?aaeaeaey ianne?iaaiii
i?eiaiaiea i?ioeaieeii iiauo oeiia oaieia. Ana aeaeaeinue aeey oiai,
/oiau eeeaeaee?iaaoue o ee/iiai ninoaaa oaieiaiyciue, iiauneoue o iaai
ii?aeueiue aeoo, anaeeoue oaa?aiiinoue a oniao e a eiia/iii n/aoa – a
Iiaaaeo.

Niaaoneiio eiiaiaeiaaieth oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue, /oi ianooieaiea
i?ioeaieea iacia/aii ia 3 /ana 5 ethey. Ii ecaioiaeaoainy e a?ineo
oaoenoneei niaaeeiaieyi auea i?iaaaeaia a?oeeea?eeneay eiio?iiaeaioiaea.
A ?acoeueoaoa aa ianooieaiea aeoea?ianeeo aiene auei caaea?aeaii ia 2,5
– 3 /ana.

Ia/aaoayny aeoaa n?aco aea i?eiyea a?aiaeeiciue ?aciao e iineea e?aeia
iai?yaeaiiue oa?aeoa?. Iaoe aienea ia ae?iaioee. Iie ano?aoeee eaaeiu
oaieia e iaoiou a?aaa n iaaeaeaiiie noieeinoueth e ioaeanoaii. Eaaeaeue
?iae aiene eiae aeanyoee aa?iaa, ouny/e ioaaaeiuo aieiia. I ieo ciaea
any no?aia, aanue ia?iae.

Noieei n?aaeaeenue aieoeu no?aeeiauo /anoae e iiae?acaeaeaiee,
aaoiiao/eee, ioeaiao/eee, a?iiaaieueee, eioi?ua aoeaaeueii a?oaeueth
ano?a/aee a?aaeaneea oaea?u.

Iai?eia?, aieoeu e eiiaiaee?u 214-ai aaa?aeaeneiai iieea 73-e no?aeeiaie
aaa?aeaeneie aeeaecee ioaeanoaaiii io?aceee aoaeo 120 oaieia i?ioeaieea,
eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeaeenue aaoiiao/eeaie. Auei oie/oiaeaii 39 oaieia e
aei ouny/e aeoea?iaoeaa. Iniaaiii ioee/eeenue a aith aieiu 3-ai
aaoaeueiia. Ec 450 nieaeao e ioeoea?ia aaoaeueiia a no?ith inoaeinue
eeoue 150. Ii oaiee i?ioeaieea ia i?ioee. Ca yoio iiaeaea aanue ee/iue
ninoaa aaoaeueiia aue iaa?aaeaeai i?aeaiaie e iaaeaeyie, a eaieoaiu A.A.
Aaeueaei, E.A. Eeueynia e na?aeaio N.I. Ci?ei oaeinoiaiu caaiey Aa?iy
Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Auni/aeoaa ianoa?noai, aanno?aoea e ioaaao i?iyaeee ia Eo?neie aeoaa
niaaoneea a?oeeea?enou e ieiiiao/eee. A aith ca aunioo 257,3, /oi
naaa?i-caiaaeiaa Iiiu?ae, ioaaaeii aeaenoaiaaee ?an/aou 4-e aaoa?ae
540-ai iieea. Eo aie n 26 oaieaie i?ioeaieea aeeeeny ieiei o?ao /ania. A
ia?aaiie ai?ueaa iiaea aanue ?an/ao o?aoueaai i?oaeey. A?aaeaneeie
nia?yaeaie auaaaeaii ec no?iy aoi?ia i?oaeea. Ii ?an/ao ia?aiai i?oaeey
ec o?ao iieiaeuo naeue/ai Eo?neie iaeanoe Ae.I. Iaaeaaaeeiaa, I.I.
Oiieia, E.A. Noa?iaeoaoeaaa aianoa n inoaaoeieny a aeeauo iaaiae/eeii
/aoaa?oiai i?oaeey iineae/ii A.A. Ii?iciaui i?iaeieaeae aeaenoaiaaoue.
Ioaaaeiua a?oeeea?enou iiaeaeee 15 oaieia. Inoaeueiua iiaa?ioee aniyoue.
Enoaoe, ia aeieth a?oeeea?enoia i?eoeinue 60% anao iiaeaeouo e
oie/oiaeaiiuo a iai?iieoaeueiii n?aaeaiee iiae Eo?neii oaoenoneeo oaieia
e ooo?iiauo i?oaeee.

Eneeth/eoaeueiia ioaeanoai, ioaaao e ?aoeiinoue ia Eo?neie aeoaa
i?iyaeee oaieenou. A aeoaa i?eieiaee o/anoea ana iyoue niaaoneeo
oaieiauo a?iee e aeanyoue ioaeaeueiuo oaieiauo e iaoaiece?iaaiiuo
ei?ionia.

Iaeaieaa y?eei i?eia?ii aa?iecia e ioaeanoaa oaieiauo yeeiaaeae yaeyeny
oaieiaue oa?ai. Oae, 9 ethey ai a?aiy n?aaeaiey ia Iaiyiueneii
iai?aaeaiee oaieiaay ?ioa eaeoaiaioa Aeoeianeiai ec?anoiaeiaaea aanue
caian aiaca?yaeia. Ii eiiaiaee? caiaoee, /oi iao?ao a iyoeaeanyoe io
aai iaoeiu ec eiueiu auiiecaao «Oea?». Ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe ii?aceoue
aai iooa/iui iaiai, Aeoeianeee ?aoee eaeoe ia oa?ai. ?aciaiaa iaoeio
iiae ai?o, ii anae iannie naiae «o?eaeoeaoe/aoaa?ee» a?acaeny naieo ai
a?aaeaneoth iaoeio. «Oea?» e aai yeeiaae auee auaaaeaiu ec no?iy. Ii
iiaeaee e niaaoneea oaieenou. Ecaanoiu eiaia /eaiia aua 26 yeeiaaeae,
niaa?oeaoeo ia Eo?neie aeoaa oaieiaue oa?ai.

Iiiai/eneaiiua i?eia?u aaccaaaoiiai aa?iecia a Eo?neie aeoaa
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee niaaoneea eao/eee, i?aaenoaaeoaee eiaeaia?iuo aiene,
naycenou, ?aaioieee oueiauo /anoae e iiae?acaeaeaiee. (Ia caiyoee
aeaeaoaeueii i?eaanoe eiie?aoiua i?eia?u ii eaaeaeiio ?iaeo aiene).

Aeaaiaea?y oii?iiio nii?ioeaeaieth niaaoneeo aiene, ianooieaiea oaea?iuo
a?oiie?iaie i?ioeaieea auei i?einoaiiaeaii. Eeoue oeaiie ia?iiiuo
iioa?ue aio oaeaeinue ia ioaeaeueiuo o/anoeao aeeeieoueny a iaoo
iai?iio. Ia oeaio?aeueiii o?iioa – ia 10 – 12 ei., ia Ai?iiaaeneii – aei
35 ei.

Ieii/aoaeueii iioi?iieei aeoea?ianeoth iia?aoeeth «Oeeoaaeaeue»
e?oiiaeoaa ca anth aoi?oth ie?iaoth aieio ano?a/iia oaieiaia n?aaeaiea
iiae I?ioi?iaeie. Iii i?iecioei 12 ethey. A iai o/anoaiaaei n iaaeo
noi?ii iaeiia?aiaiii 1200 oaieia e naiioiaeiuo i?oaeee. Yoi n?aaeaiea
auea?aee niaaoneea aieiu. Oaoenou, iioa?ya ca aeaiue aiy aei 400 oaieia,
auioaeaeaiu auee ioeacaoueny io ianooieaiey. Cia/eoaeueiua auee iioa?e e
n iaoae noi?iiu.

12 ethey ii i?eeaco Noaaee AAE aienea eaaiai e?uea Caiaaeiiai
(eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae – iieeiaiee A.Ae. Nieieianeee) e A?yineiai
(eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae – iieeiaiee I.I. Iiiia) o?iioia ia?aoee a
ianooieaiea ia i?eianeii iai?aaeaiee (iia?aoeey «Eooocia»). Ia/aeny
aoi?ie yoai Eo?neie aeoau – eiio?ianooieaiea niaaoneeo aiene. 15 ethey
ia?aoee a eiio?ianooieaiea niaaeeiaiey i?aaiai e?uea Oeaio?aeueiiai
o?iioa. A yoi a?aiy ia aaeai?iaenei – oa?ueeianeii iai?aaeaiee aua oei
iai?iieoaeueiia n?aaeaiea.

Eiio?ianooieaiea iaoeo aiene i?ioea i?eianeie a?oiie?iaee oaoenoia
i?iaeieaeaeanue a oa/aiee 37 aeiae. Ca yoi a?aiy aienea i?iaeaeioee a
caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee ia 150 ei.. A oiaea iia?aoeee auei ?aca?iieaii aei
15 aeeaecee i?ioeaieea.

Eiio?ianooieaiea niaaoneeo aiene ia aaeai?iaenei – oa?ueeianeii
iai?aaeaiee (iia?aoeey «Iieeiaiaeaoe ?oiyioeaa») ia/aeanue 3 aaaonoa
eiio?oaea?aie aiene Ai?iiaaeneiai e Noaiiiai o?iioia. Ia yoii
iai?aaeaiee iauay aeoaeia iai?iiu a?aaa aeinoeaea 90 ei. Ei auei
iiaeaioiaeaii 7 iai?iieoaeueiuo ?oaaaeae. Na?ueaciia aieiaiea i?ioeaiee
oaeaeee iai?iia Oa?ueeiaa.

Iaeiaei aeanoeia nii?ioeaeaiea i?ioeaieea auei neiieaii. 5 aaaonoa
niaaoneea aienea inaiaiaeeee ai?iaea I?ae e Aaeai?iae. Aa/a?ii 5 aaaonoa
a /anoue yoiai e?oiiiai oniaoa a Iineaa aia?aua ca aeaa aiaea aieiu aue
aeai iiaaaeiue naetho. N yoiai a?aiaie a?oeeea?eeneea naethou iinoiyiii
aicaauaee i neaaiuo iiaaaeao niaaoneiai i?oaeey.

Ana iiiuoee iaiaoeeiai eiiaiaeiaaiey ni?aaoue iaoa ianooieaiea a thai –
caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee e nio?aieoue a naieo ?oeao Oa?ueeia i?iaaeeeenue.
Iinea iyoeaeiaaiuo e?iaii?ieeoiuo aiaa iaiaoeeia eiiaiaeiaaiea ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia aeiy 22 aaaonoa auei auioaeaeaii ia/aoue iooiae ec ?aeiia
Oa?ueeiaa.

Iaoe aieiu, ioaa/aiiua aunieei ianooiaoaeueiui ii?uaii, aeaeaee ana,
/oiau auno?aa inaiaiaeeoue ai?iae, ia aeaoue a?aao aiciiaeiinoue
aci?aaoue i?iiuoeaiiua e a?aaeaeaineea iauaeou, i?iecaanoe iiaeaeiae.

Oae, no?aeeiaay ?ioa noa?oaai eaeoaiaioa A.I. Iao?euaaa iiae o?aaaiiui
iaiai i?ioeaieea caoaaoeea neeueii oe?aieaiioth ainiiaenoaothuoth ia
ianoiinoe aunioo. O?e ?aca aeoea?iaoeu iuoaeenue na?ineoue ?ioo n
auniou. Ii eaaeaeue ?ac ioeaouaaeenue iacaae. ?ioa iiianea oyaeaeua
iioa?e. E eiaaea i?ioeaiee ia?aoae a iiaoth aoaeo, aio oaeaeinue
i?i?aaoueny ia aunioo. Iao?euaa aucaae ia naay iaii aeeaeceiia
a?oeeea?ee. A?aa aue ioa?ioai, ii e a ?ioa inoaeenue a aeeauo eeoue A.I.
Iao?euaa, A.A. A?aonia, A.A. AEai/aiei, A.I. Iieeeaiia. Anai ei auei
i?enaiaii caaiea Aa?iy Niaaoneiai Nithca.

E 12 /anai 23 aaaonoa aienea Noaiiiai o?iioa auaeee oaoenoia ec yoiai
ai?iaea. N inaiaiaeaeaieai Oa?ueeiaa iiaaaeiiinii caaa?oeeanue aeoaa ia
Eo?neie iaiaiiie aeoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oiaea yoiai n?aaeaiey E?aniay a?iey aeiaeeanue ia?iiiuo
oniaoia. Aue ni?aai ieai eaoiaai ianooieaiey iaioeaa. Any iaiaoeeay
aiaiiay iaoeia iieo/eea iiaue nie?ooeoaeueiue oaea?. Ia anai niaaonei –
aa?iaineii o?iioa iaioeu auee auioaeaeaiu ia?aeoe io ianooieaiey e
no?aoaae/aneie iai?iia.

2. Enoi/ieee iiaaaeu iiae Eo?neii e aa enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea

Aeanoyuay iiaaaea iiae Eo?neii naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea i aeaeueiaeoai
eciaiaiee niioiioaiee nee ia niaaonei – aa?iaineii o?iioa a iieueco
Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee, i iaee/ee iiuiuo enoi/ieeia, ieoaaoeo a?ieth
e o?iio. I?e/eiaie ii?aaeaiey oaoenoneeo aiene auee ia eeeiaoe/aneea
oneiaey, eae iuoaeenue iauynieoue naie ?ieiaua iaoaea/e iaiaoeeea
aaia?aeu, a oeoaie/aneea oneeee niaaoneiai ia?iaea e aai a?iee ii caueoa
naiaai Ioa/anoaa.

*oi-aea iaania/eei oniao niaaoneeo aiene a Eo?neie aeoaa? Eaeea
enoi/ieee e oaeoi?u niinianoaiaaee iiaaaea?

Ai – ia?auo, aiaaua oniaoe E?aniie A?iee noaee aiciiaeiu aeaaiaea?y
aa?ie/aneiio o?oaeo niaaoneiai ia?iaea, ia?iiiui iiaeeecaoeeiiiui
aiciiaeiinoyi i?aaei?eyoee ouea.

O?oaeaieee ouea oe?ieei iioieii iinoaaeyee o?iioo aiaaoth oaoieeo e
aii?oaeaiea, /anoi i?aainoiaeyuea aiaeiae/iua iaiaoeeea ia?acoeu. Oae,
eiee/anoai aaoiiaoe/aneiai i?oaeey a aeaenoaothuae a?iee e etheth 1943
aiaea ii n?aaiaieth n ai?aeai oaaee/eeinue ii/oe a 2 ?aca,
i?ioeaioaieiaie a?oeeea?ee – a 1,5 ?aca, caieoiie – a 1,2 ?aca,
naiieaoia – a 1,7 e oaieia – a 2 ?aca.

Iniiaiie aiaaie aaeeieoeae, iai?eia?, a?iiaoaieiauo e iaoaiece?iaaiiuo
aiene yaeyeny iiaea?iece?iaaiiue n?aaeiee oaie O-34 (n 85 ii iooeie
aianoi 76 ii). Iinooiaee ia aii?oaeaiea e iiaua oaiee. Oyaeaeue oaie EN
cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeee iaiaoeeee oyaeaeue oaie «Oea?». Iiuiui
n?aaenoaii ai?ueau n oaieaie a?aaa noaee naiioiaeii – a?oeeea?eeneea
onoaiiaee. Ana yoi cia/eoaeueii oneeeei iaiaaoth e oaea?ioth iiuue
a?iiaoaieiauo aiene. Aiaeiae/iua eciaiaiey i?ienoiaeeee a a?oeeea?ee,
aaeaoeee e ae?oaeo ?iaeao aiene.

Ia?yaeo n Nooiiooiuie aieneaie e Aiaiii – Aicaeooiuie Neeaie iieo/ee
aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea e Aiaiii – Ii?neie oeio. Ia aai aii?oaeaiea
iinooiaee iiaua aiaaua e aniiiiaaoaeueiua ei?aaee, iiuiua a?oeeea?eeneea
n?aaenoaa, ii?neay aaeaoeey cia/eoaeueii oneeeeanue ca n/ao nicaeaiey
iiauo eno?aaeoaeueiuo, oi?iaaeiiiniuo, aiiaa?aee?iai/iuo, ooo?iiauo
/anoae e niaaeeiaiee.

Ana yoi iaania/eei i?aainoiaenoai Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee iaae
i?ioeaieeii a eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa aiene, aii?oaeaiee e aiaaie oaoieea,
iieiaeeoaeueii neacaeinue ia eo aiaauo aeaenoaeyo ia nooa, a aicaeooa e
ia ii?a.

Ai – aoi?uo, a 1943 aiaeo E?aniay A?iey iaeaaeaea oaea aeinoaoi/ii
na?ueaciui aiaaui iiuoii, iiauneeinue iieeiaiae/aneia eneonnoai
aiaia/aeueieeia, i?ioanneiiaeueiia ianoa?noai eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa e anao
aieiia.

Einoyeii aii?oaeaiiuo nee yaeyeenue ioeoea?neea eaae?u. Iie aioiaeeenue
e i?ioiaeeee ia?aiiaeaioiaeo a 1943 aiaeo a 18 aiaiiuo aeaaeaieyo, ia 5
aiaiiuo oaeoeueoaoao a?aaeaeaineeo aocia, a 231 aiaiiii o/eeeua e
i?eia?ii a oaeii aea eiee/anoaa eo?nia. A i?aaeaeaeaiee e?oiiuo
ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee AEI a iaa 1943 aiaea i?eiye ?aoaiea
oi?acaeieoue einoeooo caianoeoaeae eiiaiaee?ia ?io ii iieeo/anoe e
ia?aaae aieaa 130 oun. iieeo?aaioieeia ia eiiaiaeiua aeieaeiinoe. *anoe
e iiae?acaeaeaiey iieo/eee ioeoea?neee ninoaa n caia/aoaeueiuie
ea/anoaaie e aiaaui iiuoii.

Aieueoay ?aaioa i?iaiaeeeanue ii iiaeaioiaea aiaauo ?aca?aia aeey
o?iioa. Iiiieiaiea a?iee aiaiii-iao/aiiuie ?aca?aaie oei /a?ac nenoaio
Anaaiao/a, a caianiuo a?eaaaeao e iieeao, a oaeaea /a?ac Oi?aaeaiea
oi?ie?iaaiey e eiiieaeoiaaiey aiene. Ieaiiia?ii i?iaiaeeiay aiaiii –
iiaeeecaoeeiiiay ?aaioa noaea iaennyeaaiui enoi/ieeii iiiieiaiey a?iee
iiauie, naaaeeie ?aca?aaie. Iiuo aa ai iiiaii oeaiai e a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo.

A – o?aoueeo, aaaeiui enoi/ieeii iiaaaeu iiae Eo?neii, eae e a ae?oaeo
n?aaeaieyo, yaeyeny aani?eia?iue aa?ieci niaaoneeo aieiia. Nauoa 100
ouny/ aieiia – o/anoieeia aeoau ia Iaiaiiie aeoaa auee iaa?aaeaeaiu
i?aeaiaie e iaaeaeyie, a aieaa 180 iniai ioee/eaoeony ec ieo oaeinoiaiu
aunieiai caaiey Aa?iy Niaaoneiai Nithca. Iniai ioee/eaoeany niaaeeiaiey
e /anoe oaeaea auee iaa?aaeaeaiu i?aeaiaie, iieo/eee aaa?aeaeneea e
ii/aoiua iaeiaiiaaiey.

A – /aoaa?ouo, aaaeiui enoi/ieeii neeu niaaoneiai iauanoaa, aai
iaiiaaaeeiinoe auee ae?oaeaa e aaeeinoai anao ia?iaeia iaoae
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiie no?aiu. Oyaeaeua aiaeu ai?ueau n oaoeciii noaee
aaee/aeoei eniuoaieai yoie i?i/iinoe, niinianoaiaaee aeaeueiaeoaio
niei/aieth niaaoneeo ethaeae. Aeoea?iaoeai ia oaeaeinue ?ac?ooeoue
aaeeinoai iaoaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy, aaeoue eeei iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie,
aucaaoue iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ?ani?e a iauanoaa e a?iee.

Naiiioaa?aeaiii auiieiyee aiaaua caaea/e ia Eo?neie aeoaa
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiua yeeiaaee oaieia, naiieaoia, i?oaeeeiua ?an/aou,
iiae?acaeaeaiey e /anoe. Anoue iiiai i?eia?ia, eiaaea nieaeaou e
ioeoea?u aea?oaiaaee niaie ?aaee nianaiey oiaa?eua ae?oaie
iaoeeiiaeueiinoe. A aiaauo oneiaeyo aeaenoaey aieiia ii?aaeaeeeenue,
eiia/ii, ia iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth, a aa?iinoueth I?enyaa,
iiieiaieai aieineiai aeieaa, caeiiii aieineie ae?oaeau: nai iiaeaae, a
oiaa?eua au?o/ae.

Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, /oi iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiui a E?aniie A?iee aue ia
oieueei ?yaeiaie, na?aeaioneee e ieaaeoee ioeoea?neee ninoaa. Iieeaie,
a?eaaaeaie, aeeaeceyie, ei?ionaie, a?ieyie e o?iioaie eiiaiaeiaaee
i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiaeo ia?iaeia iaoae no?aiu. (?oeiaiaeeoaeue caiyoey
iiaeao ia?aoeoueny e a?oiia e iaueie oneeeyie iacaaoue ianeieueei
aiaia/aeueieeia ?aciie iaoeeiiaeueiinoe).

Aac iaeyaeee ia iaoeeiiaeueiinoue ioia/aeenue e iiaeaeae iniai
ioee/eaoeony a aith. Oieueei n?aaee oao, eoi a oiaea eaoia – inaiiae
eiiiaiee 1943 aiaea oaeinoiai caaiey Aa?iy Niaaoneiai Nithca, auee aieiu
iyoeaeanyoe iaoeeiiaeueiinoae.

Niaianoiay ai?ueaa ia?iaeia no?aiu a aiaeu aieiu auea oi?ioae oeieie
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecia, niinianoaiaaaoae iiieiaieth ia?ac?uaiinoe naieo
eioa?ania n eioa?anaie aaeeeiai ?onneiai ia?iaea. Iaeiaei a iineaaeiea
aiaeu, e niaeaeaieth, a iaeioi?uo ?aaeiiao i?iyaeythony yeaiaiou
naia?aoecia, eioi?ua iaoiaeyo ii?aaeaeaiiia io?aaeaiea e a a?iee. Aanue
ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiue enoi?e/aneee iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi
neiaeiua caaea/e eaa/a ?aoaoue niaianoiuie oneeeyie, a ia ii
ioaeaeueiinoe. Eae aiai?yo a ia?iaea: «Anee ae?oaeaa aaeeea, aoaeao
?iaeeia e?aiea» e «*ai e?ai/a ae?oaeaa, oai eaa/a neoaeaa».

A-iyouo, oniaoo aiaauo aeaenoaee ia Eo?neie aeoaa niinianoaiaae oe?ieee
?aciao ia?oecaineiai aeaeaeaiey e iiaeiieueiie ai?ueau ia ieeoie?iaaiiie
a?aaii oa??eoi?ee.

E na?aaeeia 1943 aiaea a oueo a?aaa aeaenoaiaaei 24 iiaeiieueiuo
iaeanoiuo e 370 ie?oaeiuo, ai?iaeneeo, ?aeiiiuo e ae?oaeo ia?oeeiuo
i?aaiia. E eiioeo aiaea ian/eouaaeinue nauoa 250 oun. aii?oaeaiiuo
ia?oecai. Aieueoeinoai e?oiiuo ia?oecaineeo niaaeeiaiee e io?yaeia eiaee
naycue n Oeaio?aeueiui ooaaii ia?oecaineiai aeaeaeaiey e eii?aeeie?iaaee
naie aeaenoaey n E?aniie A?ieae.

Oae, a ia?eiae Eo?neie aeoau ia?oecaiu ?acaa?ioee «?aeueniaoth aieio» a
oueo a?aaa e ia?aeeciaaee ia?aaicee aeoea?iaoeaa ii aeaeaciui aei?iaai,
/ai niaeaenoaiaaee ianooieaieth E?aniie A?iee. Oieueei a ethea 1943
aiaea ia?oecaiu niaa?oeee ia aeaeaciuo aei?iaao a?aaa aieaa 1200
aeeaa?nee. A aaaonoa auei aci?aaii 171 oun. ?aeuenia, a e 15 naioya?y
/enei ac?uaia ia aeaeaciuo aei?iaao ieeoiaioia aeinoeaei 214705. Aue
iaianai oaeaea cia/eoaeueiue o?ii aeeaie neea e aiaaie oaoieea
i?ioeaieea.

A-oanouo, aiaaua oniaoe E?aniie A?iee auee naycaiu n iiiaia?aiiie
aiaiii-i?aaiecaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee. I?e
niaaoneie aeanoe ia?oey ?ani?ino?aieea naia aeeyiea ia ana aaaeiaeoea
o/anoee ainoaea?noaaiiie e iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iniaaiii yoi oa?aeoa?ii
auei aeey aiaiiiai a?aiaie.

Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee auea inouanoaeaia ia?ano?ieea
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia aiaiiue eaae, oe?aieaiu Aii?oaeaiiua Neeu,
oneeaia ainieoaoaeueiay ?aaioa a iauanoaa. Aiein ia?oee iinoiyiii cao/ae
a oueo, ia o?iioa e ia ieeoie?iaaiiie a?aaii oa??eoi?ee. Aeaaioneay
aeayoaeueiinoue eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee ii i?aaiecaoeee anao nee ia?iaea
ia ioii? a?aao iiaeaioiaeea oneiaey aeey ei?aiiiai ia?aeiia, eioi?ua
y?ei i?iyaeeenue a oiaea Eo?neie aeoau.

Nie?ooeoaeueiue ?aca?ii ioai?iuo aiene aa?iaooa iiae Eo?neii yaeeny
iaeiei ec ?aoathueo niauoee Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu e iae aiaiii –
iieeoe/aneia e enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea.

A aeoaa iiae Eo?neii auei ?aca?iieaii 30 ioai?iuo aeeaecee i?ioeaieea.
Iaiaoeei – oaoenoneea aienea iioa?yee ieiei 500 oun. /aeiaae, 1500
oaieia, 3000 i?oaeee e 3700 naiieaoia. Iieiinoueth aicianoeoue yoio
oua?a oaoenoneay Aa?iaiey oaea ia niiaea. No?aoaae/aneay eieoeeaoeaa
iieiinoueth ia?aoea e E?aniie A?iee.

Eo?neay aeoaa iieiaeeea ia/aei iauaio no?aoaae/aneiio ianooieaieth
Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee. E na?aaeeia aaaonoa a iae o/anoaiaaee oaea
ainaiue o?iioia. A oe?eia ianooieaiey aeinoeaea aeaoo ouny/ eeeiiao?ia.
E na?aaeeia naioya?y iaoe aienea auoee e Aeiai?o, n oiaeo oi?ne?iaaee
aai e nicaeaee aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey iieiiai ecaiaiey oaoenoneeo
ieeoiaioia n niaaoneie caiee. Caaa?oai aue ei?aiiie ia?aeii a oiaea
Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie e anae aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa iaea?aeaiiie iiaaaeu aua auoa iiaeiyeny aaoi?eoao
Niaaoneiai Nithca eae ?aoathuae neeu aioeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee. Anaio
ie?o auea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia niiniaiinoue aai nianoaaiiuie neeaie
?aca?iieoue aeoea?ianeoth Aa?iaieth e aa naoaeeoia.

Iiaaaeiiiniia caaa?oaiea aeoau ia Eo?neie aeoaa eiaei e?oiiaeoaa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cia/aiea, Iia ieacaea ia?iiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
aeaeueiaeoee oiae aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. ?aca?ii cia/eoaeueiuo nee
aa?iaooa nicaeae auaiaeiua oneiaey aeey aunaaeee aiaei – aia?eeaineeo
aiene a Eoaeee a ia/aea ethey 1943 aiaea.

Oniaoe E?aniie A?iee niaeaenoaiaaee i?ioeanno ?anoe?aiey e oe?aieaiey
aioeoaoenoneie eiaeeoeee. A aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao n oaoenoneei aeieii
anooiaee ana iiaua no?aiu. Anee aei iaiaaeaiey ia Niaaoneee Nithc a
ninoiyiee aieiu n Aa?iaieae iaoiaeeeinue 15 ainoaea?noa, oi e eiioeo
1943 aiaea – oaea 36.

A oiaea a?aiy a oaoenoneii aeiea iinea ii?aaeaiey ia Eo?neie aeoaa
oneeeeny e?ecen e aeaaea ia/aeny aai ?aniaae. Eaieooee?iaaea Eoaeey.
Ioeacaeenue io aa?annee i?ioea Niaaoneiai Nithca ssiiiey e Oo?oeey.
I?iayoea e?oae Aaia?ee, ?oiuiee, Oeieyiaeee noaee i?aaei?eieiaoue
iiiuoee aueoe ec aieiu. Oneeeaaeanue ecieyoeey oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee.

Niauoey aiaiiuo eao aeatho aiaaooth ieuo aeey ?aciuoeaiey, aiaeeca,
auaiaeia e o?ieia. A caaeneiinoe io i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eioa?ania, iiaeii
ii ?aciiio e yoiio iiaeieoe. Aeey ian, ec n?aaeaiey ia Eo?neie aeoaa
aeooaeueiu neaaeothuea o?iee.

1. A o?oaeiuo aeeciaiiuo neooaoeeyo iiaeii iaeeaeaoue iiiiuue io
ae?ocae e nithcieeia, ii i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ?ann/eouaaoue ia
naie nianoaaiiua neeu e ?ano?nu. A 1943 aiaeo Niaaoneee Nithc iaeei aae
aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao n ia?iiiie aiaiiie iaoeiie Aa?iaiee. Iaauaiey NOA
e Aiaeee ioe?uoue aoi?ie o?iio ia auee auiieiaiu ie a 1942 aiaeo, ie a
1943 a. Aieaa oiai, a naiue ?acaa? aeoeaiuo ianooiaoaeueiuo aeaenoaee
1943 aiaea NOA i?ae?aoeee iinoaaee n aaniu aei iiya?y iaeioi?ua aeaeu
aii?oaeaiey, i?iiuoeaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e i?iaeiaieuenoaey ii eaiae –
eeco.

Naaiaeiy, eiaaea ?inney iaoiaeeony a oyaeaeii nioeeaeueii –
yeiiiie/aneii iieiaeaiee iia ia oieueei ia iieo/aao iaauaiiuo ?aiaa e
ino?i iaiaoiaeeiuo eiaanoeoeee n Caiaaea, ii aua ooaea – o aa a?aieoe
iaaiaoaaony iai?yaeaiiinoue, /oi canoaaeyao iai?aaeyoue
aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa ia oe?aieaiea naieo ?oaaaeae.

A /anoiinoe, aeoeaii i?i?aaaouaaaony aii?in i i?eaeeaeaiee iaoianeeo
a?oiie?iaie e a?aieoeai ?innee. A aeaaoi?ee *a?iiai ii?y oaea
iaiaeiie?aoii i?iaiaeeeenue o/aiey n o/anoeai NOA. Ec Aaoeiaoiia /anoi
cao/ao cayaeaiey i ?ani?ino?aiaiee naieo aeeciaiiuo eioa?ania ia
Caeaaeacuea, N?aaeithth Aceth, I?eaaeoeeo. Aeoeaece?oaony
aeayoaeueiinoue niaoeneoaea ?yaea ainoaea?noa i?ioea ?innee. A yoeo
oneiaeyo, eiaaea e oiio aea ?anoe?ythony ?acee/iua eiioaeou Aii?oaeaiiuo
Nee ?innee n a?ieyie caiaaeiuo no?ai, aaaeii iiiieoue enoi?e/aneee iiuo
e i?iyaeyoue aaeeoaeueiinoue.

2. Iiuo aieiu, a /anoiinoe aeoaa iiae Eo?neii, iieacuaaao, /oi a eaeie
au neiaeiie neooaoeee ia auea no?aia, aa Aii?oaeaiiua Neeu, ia?iae e aai
?oeiaiaeeoaee iaoiaeeee ec iaa auoiae e oniaoii ?aoaee noiyuea ia?aae
ieie caaea/e. Yoi anaeyao iioeieci e iaaeaaeaeo, /oi iaoe naaiaeiyoiea
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiua e a?iaeneea i?iaeaiu aoaeoo a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy
?aoaiu e a?iey aiiaue caeiao aeinoieiia iieiaeaiea a iauanoaa e
aaoi?eoao aa au?anoeo aua aieueoa.

3. Iiuo iiaeaioiaee e i?iaaaeaiey e?oiiaeoaai n?aaeaiey ia Eo?neie
aeoaa o/eo, /oi iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ia oniao eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea
eiiaiaee?u e ia/aeueieee ethaiai ?aiaa aoaeoo i?eaeaaaoue aiaaie auo/ee
naieo iiae/eiaiiuo ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea e eiio?iee?iaaoue aa oiae n
iniaie ouaoaeueiinoueth.

Ia yoii aaaeii iiiieoue iniaaiii naaiaeiy , eiaaea eiaaony iaiaei
i?iaeai e o?oaeiinoae a i?aaiecaoeee aiaaie o/aau.

Ii aeaaii ecaanoii, /oi iaeie a oaeeo neo/ayo euoo iauyniaiey i?iaeai, a
ae?oaea – eo ?aoaiey.

4. Iaeiiaoe, aeoaa ia Eo?neie aeoaa iniaaiii y?ei iieacaea aaaeiinoue
aunieie ii?aeueii – ineoieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee aieoeia e anae
ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou. Iiuo aieiu o/eo, /oi n iiauoaieai iai?yaeaiiinoe
aiaauo aeaenoaee o?iaaiue aa aeieaeai iiauoaoueny. Iia aeieaeia auoue
eiie?aoiie i?eiaieoaeueii e auiieiyaiui caaea/ai e ioaaouaaoue ana
eaoaai?ee aieiia.

Oaeei ia?acii, neaaiay iiaaaea iiae Eo?neii eiaea ?aoathuaa cia/aiea
aeey aeaeueiaeoaai oiaea e enoiaea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu e anae
aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu. Auaiaeu e o?iee ec yoiai e?oiiaeoaai n?aaeaiey ai
iiiaii iio/eoaeueiu. Oai?/aneia eo eniieueciaaiea iiiiaeao oniaoiaa
?aoaoue nia?aiaiiua iaoe caaea/e

Caeeth/aiea

A Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia ?aoaeanue noaeueaa iaoaai Ioa/anoaa,
noaeueaa anae ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee. Oeaiie ia?iiiuo oneeee e aieueoeo
aea?oa E?aniay A?iey io?aceea iaoanoaea oaoenoneeo aa?anni?ia,
i?eioaeeea e eaieooeyoeee aeoea?ianeoth Aa?iaieth e ieeeoa?enoneoth
ssiiieth, ecaaaeea /aeiaa/anoai io oa?icu oaoenoneiai ii?aaiuaiey.

N?aaee aaaeiaeoeo n?aaeaiee Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu iniaia ianoi
i?eiaaeeaaeeo Eo?neie aeoaa. Iia ?acaa?ioeanue a ethea-aaaonoa 1943
aiaea ia iaoe?iuo i?inoi?ao oeaio?aeueiie ?innee. Aeoaa i?iaeieaeaeanue
50 aeiae e ioee/aeanue ?aciaoii e iai?yaeaiiinoueth aiaauo aeaenoaee,
naieie aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeie e aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneei iineaaenoaeyie.

Yoi auei a?aiaeeiciia e iaeanoi/aiiia noieeiiaaiea aeaaiuo
no?aoaae/aneeo a?oiie?iaie Niaaoneiai Nithca e oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee. A
iaai auei aiaea/aii n iaaeo noi?ii aieaa /aou?ao ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. A
oiaea oii?iuo iai?iieoaeueiuo aiaa, a caoai iiuiiai eiio?ianooieaiey
E?aniay A?iey ?aca?iieea oaoenoneea aienea. Iaiiiiei: ia iooe e iiaaaea
a Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia auee o?e enoi?e/aneeo ?oaaaea – Iineaa,
Noaeeia?aae e Eo?ne. Anee iiae Iineaie aue ni?aai ieai «iieieaiiniie
aieiu» aa?iaineiai oaoecia, oi iiae Noaeeia?aaeii auei iieiaeaii ia/aei
ei?aiiiio ia?aeiio a aieia. A iaoa auaeathuayny Iiaaaea a Eo?neie aeoaa
e a n?aaeaiee ca Aeiai? caaa?oeea ei?aiiie ia?aeii a oiaea Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie e anae ie?iaie aieiu. Niaaoneea Aii?oaeaiiua Neeu,
aac?acaeaeueii aeaaeay no?aoaae/aneie eieoeeaoeaie, ia?aoee a
ianooieaiea e aaee aai aei iieiie iiaaaeu iaae a?aaii.

I?eeiaeaiea

IAUAA NIIOIIOAIEA NEE

IA EO?NEII IAI?AAEAIEE E IA*AEO ETHEss 1943 a.

( ni.: Enoi?ey aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu o.7.N.144.)

Neeu e n?aaenoaaOeaio?aeueiue e Ai?iiaaeneee o?iioA?oiie?iaea aiene
i?ioeaieeaNiioiioaiea nee e n?aaenoaEe/iue ninoaa(oun./ae) 1336Nauoa
9001,4 : 1I?oaeey e ieiioeaou

(oun.oo.)19,1 Ieiei 101,9 : 1Oaiee e NAO3444*Aei 27001,2 : 1Naiieaou
2172*Ieiei 20501 : 1

* A oii /enea nauoa 900 eaaeeo oaieia.

** E?iia naiieaoia aaeaoeee aeaeueiaai aeaenoaey, a oaeaea ii/iuo
aiiaa?aee?iaueeia «II – 2». N o/aoii yoeo nee ian/eouaaeinue 2900
naiieaoia.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aiae?iieeia I. Aaoe Aaeeeie Iiaaaeu (e 60-eaoeth aa?ie/aneie iai?iiu
Noaeeia?aaea) //I?eaioe?. – 2006, ? 4.

2. Aeoaa ca Eaaeac – I., 2007.

3. Ae?iiia N.A. Enoi?ey ?innee (o/aaiia iiniaea) – I., 2006.

4. Eaaiia A.I. Aeie aieineie neaau ?innee. – I.. 2006.

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