.

Самоидентификация древних евреев

Язык:
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1862
Скачать документ

Oaeio?oneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Naiieaeaioeoeeaoeey ae?aaieo aa?aaa

Ninoaaeea: nooaeaioea III eo?na AENII

Aaoaoeeia Aaaaiey

I?iaa?eea: Oeaioeeia Iaoaeuey Aaaaiueaaia

Eaeaane 2006

Aaaaeaiea

Eaaeaeue ia?iae eiaao naith eoeueoo?o. Eoeueoo?a – yoi aeeaie
?acaeaathueeny i?aaieci. O eaaeaeie eoeueoo?u – naiy noaeueaa, naiy
eiaeea ?acaeoey, naia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeieaeiii e iaaeieaeiii, naie
eaeaae nayoinoe. Oieeaeueiinoue eoeueoo?a i?eaeaao aa aeooa. «Aaooaeueo»
– yoi i?aneiaie, «aeooa» eaaeaeie eoeueoo?u (ii ii?aaeaeaieth Inaaeueaea
Oiaiaea?a). Eiaiii ii ii?aaeaeyao aanue no?ie, anth oeaiue eoeueoo?u.
Iiea iia iieiaea, ana aa aniaeou iiae/eiythony aaooaeueoo. ?acaeaaynue,
eoeueoo?a noa?aao, aeeciaiiie yia?aee noaiiaeony ana iaiueoa e aeooa
oie?aao. Oie?ay, ia?iae oiineo n niaie aeooo e eco/eoue, iiciaoue aa
noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui. Eco/aiea oia?oae eoeueoo?u – yoi eco/aiea eeoue
aa oi?iu, ii ia aeooa. A nayce n yoei aeey iaiy i?aaenoaaeyao aeoaieee
eioa?an enoi?ey aa?aeneiai ia?iaea, aeeyuayny aio oaea /aou?a ouny/e
eao. A /ai aai eneeth/eoaeueiinoue, iniainoue, eaeiaa aai ?ieue a
enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Ie? i?eaue ioiineoueny e aa?ayi, eae e iaoeee,
eioi?ay eiaea a ae?aaiinoe naia ainoaea?noai e inoaaeea naith eaoiienue
a aeaea Aeaeee; ooea naeac ethaeneeo ia iiiaea noieaoey; aiiaue aicieeea
eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau oaiaeeoue a iaoeenoneoth aieith; e, iaeiiaoe,
nicaeaea naia ainoaea?noai, i?ioeai?a/eaia e inaaeaeaiiia. Iaeiaei ana
yoi eeoue naiua y?eea yieciaeu. Ia naiii aeaea enoi?ey aa?aaa ai?acaei
aeoaaea e iiiaia?aiiae. ss a naiae ?aaioa enneaaeoth oieueei ae?aaiee
yoai eo enoi?ee. Aa?ae eaeaioeoeoee?iaaee naay ?aiaa, /ai ii/oe ana
nouanoaothuea ia naaiaeiy ia?iaeu. Iie nio?aieee aa n?aaee oaeanathueo
aaaenoaee aieioue aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie. Ioeoaea yoa iaaa?iyoiay
noieeinoue? A /ai neea anaiiaeiuathuae eaeae, aaeioiiaeythuae aa?aaa e
iaania/eaoae eo iaeii?iaeiinoue? Ei?aieony iia a eo i?e?iaeiie
onoie/eainoe eee a eo oiaiee i?eniinaaeeaaoueny, a iiaeao auoue a
ni/aoaiee oiai e ae?oaiai?

Aa?ae aiaae?eeenue ai iiiaea iauanoaa. Eco/aoue enoi?eth aa?aaa – ii/oe
ana ?aaii /oi eco/aoue anaie?ioth enoi?eth, ii i?e yoii ?anniao?eaaao aa
iiae niaoeeoe/aneei oaeii c?aiey. Yoi aoaeao anaie?iay enoi?ey aeacaie
i?inaauaiiie e iiieiathuae aea?oau. Iiyoiio iiiuoea ioaaoeoue enoi?eth
aeacaie aa?aaa ?aaiineeueia e eaeie-oi ia?a naiiiiciaieth. Ia yoi
ia?aoee aieiaiea Aeeo?eo Aiioiooa?, eiaaea iaoiaeeeny a iaoeenoneie
oth?ueia. «Iu iao/eeenue,- ienae ii a 1942 a., – aeaeaoue aaeeeea
niauoey anaie?iie enoi?ee eae au nieco, n iiceoeee oao, eoi aue
ioaa?aioo, iaoiaeeeny iiae iiaeic?aieai, iiaeaa?aaeny aeo?iiio
ia?auaieth, aue aacaeanoai, oaiaoai e i?ace?aai, ei?i/a, oao, eoi
no?aaeae»?. E iiuo yoiai aeaeaiey ii n/ae aanoeaiiui.

Iuoaynue iiiyoue yoio ia?iae, aai noieeinoue e eneeth/eoaeueiinoue, y
noieeioeanue n ae?oaie aaaeiie, eanathuaeny e iaiy ee/ii i?iaeaiie, n
aaaeiui aii?inii – aeey /aai aeeaao /aeiaa/anoai? Anoue ee o iaai
aaeeeia i?aaeiacia/aiea eee aai enoi?ey a ii?aeueiii ieaia ia ooea
aeaeaei io enoi?ee io?aaueaa? Ie iaeei ia?iae a ie?a ia noiye oae
oaa?aei, eae aa?ae, ia oii, /oi o enoi?ee anoue oeaeue, a o /aeiaa/anoaa
– noaeueaa. Aua a naiii ia/aea naiaai eieeaeoeaiiai auoey iie aa?eee,
/oi eie iaeaeai caaeaiiue nauoa iooue ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai, iiaiaeu?ai
aeey eiaai aeieaeii iineoaeeoue eo iauanoai. I?e/ai ?ieue naith iie
i?i?aaioaee oaeeaeoaeueii iiae?iaii e aa?ie/anee aea?aeaeenue ca iaa
ia?aae eeoeii iaeiiaa?iuo no?aaeaiee. Iiiaea ec ieo aa?otho a iaa aei
neo ii?. O ae?oaeo iia o?ainoi?ie?iaaeanue a ia/oi iiaeiaiia aeaeaieth
I?iiaoay aea?iaaoue ethaeyi i?ia?ann neeaie e n?aaenoaaie naieo ethaeae.
Acaeyae aa?aaa noae i?iia?acii iiiaeo aaeeeeo ia/oaiee /aeiaa/anoaa,
i?aeniieiaiiuo iaaeaaeae e ia I?iaeaeaiea e ia *aeiaaea. Iiyoiio aa?ae
ieacaeenue a naiii oeaio?a aa/iie, iaennyeathuae iiiuoee aeaoue
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie aeinoieinoai oeaee.

Oeaeueth naiae ?aaiou y noaaeth ii?aaeaeeoue enoiee e nouiinoue
iauaaeeiythuae aa?aaa ia i?ioyaeaiee ouny/aeaoee eaeae, eioi?ay
iicaieeea ei nio?aieoue naith naiieaeaioe/iinoue e nua?aoue
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a enoi?ee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa.

Aeey yoiai iia iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue ?yae caaea/. Ai-ia?auo, aeaoue
ii?aaeaeaiea oaiiiaio naiieaeaioe/iinoe ia?iaea. Ai-aoi?uo, eco/eoue
i?ienoiaeaeaiea ae?aaieo aa?aaa ia iniiaa ?aaeueiuo enoi?e/aneeo oaeoia.
A-o?aoueeo, aeaoue aiaeec yoie enoi?ee niaeanii Aeaeee, oi anoue eae iia
iaoea io?aaeaiea a niciaiee naieo aa?aaa. A-/aoaa?ouo, ?ane?uoue iiiyoea
«aiaieca?aiiinoe» aa?aeneiai ia?iaea e i?ineaaeeoue aai oi?ie?iaaiea.
A-iyouo, y n/eoath aaaeiui ii?aaeaeeoue cia/aiea Aeaeee aeey aa?aeneiai
ia?iaea e aeey /aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii eae iniiaiiai enoi/ieea eaeae,
eaaoeo a iniiao ie?iaicc?aiey aa?aaa. ss oaeaea aeeth/eea a naith ?aaioo
iaaieueooth aeaao ia ioiioaiee aa?aeneie aeeanii?u ia ae?aaiai yoaia n
ae?oaeie ia?iaeaie, eioi?ia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ca?iaeaeaiee iai?eycie e
yoiio ia?iaeo aua a ae?aaiinoe.

A naiae ?aaioa y iieueciaaeanue ?yaeii eiea ii enoi?ee aa?aeneiai
ia?iaea.

A 1908 aiaeo iinea iniiaaiey Aa?aeneiai enoi?eei-yoiia?aoe/aneiai
iauanoaa enneaaeiaaiea aa?aeneie enoi?ee i?eia?aei iiaue ?aciao. Ii a
eiioea 1920-30-o aiaeia any yoa iao/ii-enoi?e/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue auea
i?ae?auaia, /oi neacaeinue ia ?acaeoee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie
oa?ieiieiaee e i?eiauaiee e aeinoeaeaieyi aa?aeneiai enoi?e/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey. A 1940-a aiaeu aeaa ?aoathueo niauoey a aeecie aa?aeneiai
ia?iaea – no?aoiay eaoano?ioa aa?iiaeneiai aa?aenoaa e ainnicaeaiea
ainoaea?noaa Ec?aeeue – aiiaue i?iaoaeeee eioa?an e aa?aeneie enoi?ee e
i?eaaee e oaeoaeaieth enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a yoie iaeanoe.
Ai anai ie?a auee iniiaaiu iiaua einoeooou ii enneaaeiaaieth aa?aeneie
enoi?ee, ioe?uou ioaeaeaiey ii eoaeaeea a aeanyoeao oieaa?neoaoia a NOA,
Aiaeee, O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee (ia aiai?y oae ia Ec?aeea).

«Enoi?ey aa?aeneiai ia?iaea» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Yooeiaa?a – ieiae
nio?oaeie/anoaa ?yaea enneaaeiaaoaeae. Iauee iaci? enoi?ee aa?aeneiai
ia?iaea ni a?aiai aai ca?iaeaeaiey – yaeaiea iaiau/iia. Aia?aua n 1930-o
aiaeia a?oiia i?ioanni?ia Ea?onaeeineiai oieaa?neoaoa inouanoaeea
caaea/o nicaeaiey naiaeiiai oiia aa?aeneie enoi?ee, iiaeuoiaeeaoaai
iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee. Yoi enoi?ey ia?iaea, e
eioi?ie iauaaeeiythuaa ia/aei i?aiaeieaaaao oaiaeaioeeth ae?iaeaiey,
ianiio?y ia ?annayiea a ?aciuo no?aiao e aeeth/aiea a iieeoe/aneoth,
yeiiiie/aneoth e eoeueoo?ioth aeeciue yoeo no?ai. A i?eaeiaea eieaa
iaienaia ia ea?eoa (iia auoea a naao a o?ao oiiao ia ea?eoa a 1969-1970
aa. a ecaeaoaeuenoaa «Aeae?»). Eaaeaeue ec aaoi?ia i?eaea?aeeaaaony
naieo aicc?aiee e ninoaaee naie ?acaeae a niioaaonoaee ni naiei
enoi?e/aneei iiaeoiaeii. Ianiio?y ia ana ?acee/ey, aaoi?u yoiai o?oaea
noiaeyony a naieo acaeyaeao a oii, /oi iie oniao?eaatho a aa?aeneie
enoi?ee – n aa ia?aaeoeo yoaiia e ii nae aeaiue – oeaeinoiinoue,
iaaeaeeioth aeaaea a ?aciiia?acee enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia.

I aaeeinoaa aa?aeneie enoi?ee e aa i?aainoaaiiinoe naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
iniiaiua enoi?e/aneea oaeou: ainnicaeaiea aa?aeneiai ainoaea?noaa ia
ae?aaiae ?iaeeia iaoeee, iinea aeaoo ouny/ eao ecaiaiey e ?annayiey;
aeeciue aa?aeneie aeeanii?u a ?acee/iuo oeeaeeecaoeeyo –
yeeeienoe/aneie, ?eineie, a?aaneie e aa?iiaeneie; i?iyaeaiea anaiauae
aa?aeneie nieeaea?iinoe ni a?aiai Oeeiia Aeaenaiae?eeneiai e aei
ia?iiiiai yiooceacia, ioaaoeaoaai anao aac eneeth/aiey aa?aaa ai anai
ie?a, a iiiaio, eiaaea oa?iaeaea iianiinoue naiiio nouanoaiaaieth
ainoaea?noaa Ec?aeeue iaeaioia Oanoeaeiaaiie aieiu.

Eieaa aiaeeeneiai enoi?eea e aeo?iaeenoa Iiea Aeaeiiniia «Enoi?ey
aa?aaa» n/eoaaony iaeiie ec eo/oeo ?aaio, iinayuaiiuo ouny/aeaoiae
enoi?ee aa?aeneiai ia?iaea – io aeaeaeneie yiioe aei iaoeo aeiae. Eieaa
auaiaeii ioee/aaony io noieue /anoi ano?a/athueony oaiaeaioeeiciuo ?aaio
ia yoo neiaeioth oaio. Aaoi? ia iaoe?iii enoi?e/aneii iaoa?eaea aeaeaao
aeinoaoi/ii acaaoaiiua e iauaeoeaiua auaiaeu, eanathueany a eiia/iii
n/aoa ia oieueei ?iee e cia/aiey aa?aaa a ie?iaie enoi?ee, ii e aii?inia
i niunea nouanoaiaaiey anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii iiaeaiaeeo /eoaoaey e
ioaaoo ia aii?in, eioi?ue caaeaaaee naaa ana iieieaiey ethaeae: aeey
/aai iu nouanoaoai ia caiea e yaeyaony ee iaoa enoi?ey anaai eeoue
aanniuneaiiie noiiie niauoee.

Ia?iiiia cia/aiea a iiae ?aaioa eiaao eieaa «Io Aa?aaia aei
nia?aiaiiinoe» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae Ae.Oeoiaia, A. Aunioeee. Yoa eieaa
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acoeueoao enneaaeiaaiee aaaeoueo nia?aiaiiuo
aia?eeaineeo, ec?aeeueneeo e ?inneeneeo niaoeeaeenoia ii ae?aaiae,
n?aaeiaaaeiaie, iiaie e iiaaeoae aa?aeneie enoi?ee, yoie/aneie enoi?ee
aa?aaa, enoi?ee niaaoneiai aa?aenoaa, aeaeaenoeea, n?aaeiaaaeiaie e
nia?aiaiiie aa?aeneie oeeinioee, n?aaeiaaaeiaie aa?aeneie eeoa?aoo?u,
aeeth/ay ?aaaeienoe/aneoth e naaoneoth, a oaeaea iiaie aa?aeneie
eoeueoo?u ia ?acee/iuo ycueao. A iae i?aaenoaaeaiu iao/iua oeieu e
iiaaeoea oaiaeaioeee a iaeanoe eoaeaeee – eco/aiee aa?aeneie enoi?ee e
eeoa?aoo?u.

Aeey aeoaieiai iiieiaiey ?aeeaee aa?aeneiai ia?iaea – eoaeaecia –iia
iiiiaea eieaa Ieeeeiaoii N.I. «Eoaeaeci». Iia ianoieueei oi?ioi ciaao
aeeciue aa?aeneie iaueiu, /oi n aa iiiiuueth /eoaoaeue ia/eiaao
iiieiaoue: aeey aa?aaa ?aeeaey – yoi /anoue ee/iinoe. Ieeeeiaoii
ciaeiieo /eoaoaey n enoieaie eoaeaecia, n aai ?acaeoeai, n aaaeiaeoei
o?aaeeoeeyie, ia?yaeaie e i?acaeieeaie, eae iie i?ioiaeyo a aeiiao
aa?othueo e a neiaaiaa.

Eioa?anioth eioi?iaoeeth y ii/a?iioea ec eiea ?onneeo enoi?eeia ia/aea
aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea. Ia?aay eieaa E. Ieeieueneiai «Ae?aaiee Ec?aeeue».
Eae iaienaii a i?aaeeneiaee, oa?aeoa? i?aaeeaaaaiuo i/a?eia ii?aaeaeeeny
oie caaea/ae, eioi?oth iie naaa noaayo: aeaoue oe?ieoth iiioey?ecaoeeth
enoi?ee Ec?aeey a iao/iii inaauaiee, naiaiaeiii io eaeeo au oi ie auei
eiioanneiiaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee. Enoiaey ec oeacaiiie caaea/e aaoi? aua?ae
oi?io yieciaee/aneeo ?anneacaa, eai nenoaiiia eceiaeaiea i?ioeanna
enoi?ee Ec?aeey iiaeaeei au iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aeaoaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo, eioi?ia eeoeei au eieao iauaaeinooiiinoe. Aeey
oaaee/aiey iaaeyaeiinoe eieaa niaaaeaia ?enoieaie, aeathueie
a?oaieiae/aneee, aaia?aoe/aneee e ooaeiaeanoaaiiue iaoa?eae.

Aoi?ay eieaa – «Aa?ae a ae?aaiinoe e a n?aaeiea aaea» 1922 aiaea.
Ianoiyuea i/a?ee aeieaeiu auee aieoe a i?aaeiieaaathuothny e ecaeaieth
na?eth iiiia?aoee ?aciuo aaoi?ia ii enoi?ee aa?aaa a ioaeaeueiuo
no?aiao. Yoa eieaa ?anniao?eaaao iniiaiua iiiaiou enoi?ee yeiiiie/aneiai
e iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ec?aeeueneiai ia?iaea a aeiyeeeienoe/aneoth
yiioo, acaeiiioiioaiey Eoaeae e Yeeaaeu, a oaeaea enoi?eth aa?aaa a
?eineoth yiioo e a n?aaeiea aaea.

Iiieii eiea, iaiin?aaenoaaiii eanathueony enoi?ee aa?aeneiai ia?iaea, a
naiae ?aaioa y oaeaea eniieueciaaea o/aaieee ii yoiieiaee. O/aaiia
iiniaea Eo?uea N.A. aeeth/aao a naay iiae?iaiue iaci? iniiaiuo
yoiieiae/aneeo eiioeaioeee. I?ei?eoaoiia aieiaiea a iai oaeaeyaony oai
?acaeaeai yoiieiaee, eioi?ua eanathony iaoaieciia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
yoiinia, iauyniaieth i?ioeannia eo naiii?aaiecaoeee e aaeaioaoeee e
iaiythuaeny i?e?iaeiie e nioeeieoeueoo?iie n?aaea, a oaeaea niaoeeoeea
i?eiaiaiey yoiieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaeia a enoi?e/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo. A
eo?na eaeoeee E?unueei A.A. «Yoiiineoieiaey e iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua
ioiioaiey» ?ane?uaaaony ineoieiae/aneia naiaia?acea iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo
?acee/ee e ioiioaiee, iieacuaaaony eo i?ienoiaeaeaiea e niaoeeoeea. A
ae?oaie eieaa yoiai aaoi?a «Yoie/aneay ineoieiaey» aieueoia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony ineoieiae/aneei iniaaiiinoyi ?acee/iuo yoie/aneeo iauiinoae,
eo n?aaieoaeueiie oa?aeoa?enoeea, ineoieiaee naiaeiuo ioiioaiee a
?acee/iuo yoiinao, a oaeaea niaoeeoeea iaaeyoie/aneeo eiioeeeoia.

Enoi/ieeii a iiae ?aaioa yaeyaony ni/eiaiea Eineoa Oeaaey «Eoaeaeneea
ae?aaiinoe» a aeaoo oiiao. Eineo Oeaaee – iaeei ec iaeaieaa ia?aciaaiiuo
ethaeae naiai a?aiaie, a aeee ii a Eoaeaa e ?eia a ia?aii aaea ii
?iaeaeanoao O?enoiao, o.a. ii/oe aeaa ouny/ eao iacaae. Oeaaee ecaanoai
anaio ie?o eae aaoi? aeaoo auaeathueony i?iecaaaeaiee: «Eoaeaeneea
aieiu» e «Eoaeaeneea ae?aaiinoe». «Eoaeaeneea ae?aaiinoe» – ii/oe
aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee ii enoi?ee aa?aeneiai ia?iaea ia/eiay n yiioe
Iaeeaaaaa e aei caaiaaaiey Ea?onaeeia ?eieyiaie. Caeanue niaea?aeaony
oaeaea oeaiiaeoea iaoa?eaeu ii enoi?ee aicieeiiaaiey o?enoeainoaa,
?eineie e a?a/aneie enoi?ee. Iiaanoaiaaiea Oeaaey ainiieiyao i?iaae
iaaeaeo eieaaie Aaooiai e Iiaiai Caaaoia, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie oeaiiaeoaa
naeaeaoaeuenoai nia?aiaiieea O?enoa. A eieaa eniieueciaaiu a?aath?u ia
aea?aaa ec eeethno?aoeee e Aeaeee ecaanoiiai ooaeiaeieea XIX aaea
THeeona Oii?? oii Ea?ieuenoaeueaea.

Oaiiiai yoiieaeaioe/iinoe

Iiene i?e/eiii neaaenoaaiiuo naycae a enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa
auaiaeeo e ia iniuneaiea aai yoie/aneie enoi?ee. ss eiath aaeaeo aiaeec
iauaai e iniaaiiiai a i?ioeannao yoiiaaiaca(i?ienoiaeaeaiey,
ca?iaeaeaiey) e aeaeueiaeoae yoie/aneie enoi?ee (ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
en/aciiaaiey) iniiaiiai o?iaiy yoie/aneie no?oeoo?u /aeiaa/anoaa –
yoiinia, eee ia?iaeia (a yoiieoeueoo?iii niunea).

A nia?aiaiiii ie?a iaeeoei i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oaiaeaioeee ai
acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo iaoeeyie. Aeiaaeecaoeey, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
eacaeinue au, nicaeaao oneiaey aeey ioe?uoey e ?anoe?aiey ianooaaia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ?ano?nia a ie?a, a n ae?oaie –
i?ioeann aeiaaeecaoeee ia/eiaao ia?aeeciaaoue, oie/oiaeaoue
naiiauoiinoue yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiie iauiinoe e /aeiaaea. Iiyoiio y n/eoath
aeooaeueiui ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue aii?in i nouiinoe iaoeee, aa
iauiinoe, ianoa e ?iee a ?acaeoee anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. «*aeiaa/aneay
enoi?ey – yoi enoi?ey ia oieueei ainoaea?noaa, auaeathueony ee/iinoae e
eaeae, ii oaeaea enoi?ey ia?iaeia-yoiinia, eioi?ua ia?acotho
ainoaea?noai, auaeaeaatho ec naiae n?aaeu auaeathueony aeayoaeae,
nicaeatho eoeueoo?u e ycuee, o?oaeyony e aiththo, aeaeatho aaeeeea e
iaeua ecia?aoaiey, niaa?oatho aa?ie/aneea iiaeaeae e o?aae/aneea
ioeaee»?. E i?e yoii ethaee iniciatho naay i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iaeiie
yoiieoeueoo?iie enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe, au?aaaouaatho iauea oeaiiinoe e
eaeae, iiuiue iioaioeeae yoie/aneie nieeaea?iinoe e iiaeeecaoeee.
Niioaaonoaaiii yoiin-iaoeey – yoi iiuiay nioeeaeueiay, iiaeeecaoeeiiiay
e aeooiaiay nenoaia. Eaaeaeay ee/iinoue ooo i?eaycaia e ae?oaie, naiaai
?iaea yoie/aneeie ieoyie e naycyie enoi?e/aneiai, aeooiaiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Iia aea eioa?anii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue enoiee naiiniciaiey yoiina, aai
naiieaeaioeoeeaoeee. I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e eaeie-eeai a?oiia, iniciaiea aa
– iaeei ec naiuo ae?aaieo i?eia?ia i?iyaeaiey iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey
ethaeae. Ia ca?a /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee neiaeeeenue iauaaeeiaiey, noaaoea
i?iia?acii aoaeoueo yoiinia, – ?iaeu. *oanoaa ?iaeiaie iauiinoe,
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiiio ?iaeo – yoi naiua i?inoua e a oi aea
a?aiy i/aiue aeoaeiiua /aeiaa/aneea /oanoaa. Anyeay iauiinoue ethaeae,
ethaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie aicieeatho, oe?aieythony e ooieoeeiie?otho
eeoue aei oao ii?, iiea nio?aiyaony oaiiiai «iu», o.a. iiea ana ethaee
n/eoatho naay i?eiaaeeaaeaueie e aeaiiie iaoeee, eaeaioeoeoee?otho naay
n iae. «Iu» anoue ia /oi eiia, eae io?aaeaiea a niciaiee eiie?aoiie
nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe oaeoa iauaeoeaiuo oneiaee ninouanoaiaaiey aa
i?aaenoaaeoaeae. Aeey onoie/eainoe oaiiiaia «iu» iaecaaaeii aeieaeai
nouanoaiaaoue oaiiiai «iie», o.a. ae?oaie ia?iae, iaiioiaeee,
ioee/athueeny io ian nouanoaaiii, c?eii, auioeei, a iioiio inoathueeny
iaiiiyoiui. Eiaiii iniciaiea oiai, /oi anoue «iie», a naith i/a?aaeue
ii?iaeaeaao no?aieaiea ioaeaeeoueny ii ioiioaieth e «iei», iainiaeoueny
io «ieo» a ea/anoaa «iu».

A ?acoeueoaoa yoeo enoi?e/aneeo e ineoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e
ia?acoaony yoiin. Yoiin – (io a?a/. Ethnos – ieaiy, a?oiia, ia?iae)
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaay iauiinoue ethaeae,
iaeaaeathuay aaeeiui ycueii e eoeueoo?ie, a oaeaea iauei naiiniciaieai.
Iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acoeueoao iniuneaiey
ethaeueie naiae i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiie yoie/aneie iauiinoe e
iieiaeaiey iineaaeiae a nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Iaoeeiiaeueiia
naiiniciaiea au?aaeaao niaea?aeaiea, o?iaaiue e iniaaiiinoe
i?aaenoaaeaiey /eaiia iaoeee:

I naiae ii?aaeaeaiiie eaeaioe/iinoe e ioee/eyo io i?aaenoaaeoaeae
ae?oaeo iauiinoae;

Iaoeeiiaeueiuo oeaiiinoyo e eioa?anao;

Enoi?ee iaoeee, aa iuiaoiai ninoiyiee e ia?niaeoeaao ?acaeoey;

Ianoa naiae nioeeaeueii-yoie/aneie iauiinoe ai aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiuo,
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo e iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaieyo.

Ethaie yoiin i?iyaeyao naay eae neiaeiay nioeeaeueiay nenoaia.
Oi?ie?iaaiea yoiina iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo ia iniiaa aaeeinoaa oa??eoi?ee e
yeiiiie/aneie aeecie. Iaeiaei a ?acoeueoaoa iea?aoeee, aucaaiiuo
?acee/iuie enoi?e/aneeie i?e/eiaie, oa??eoi?ey ?annaeaiey yoiina ia
anaaaea eiiiaeoia, e iiiaea ia?iaeu iiaoo auoue ?annaeaiu a i?aaeaeao
ianeieueeeo ainoaea?noa. Yoi a iieiie ia?a ioiineony e aa?ayi. Aa?aeneay
enoi?ey ioaaouaaao ia oieueei ia?iiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie, ii e
eieinnaeueiia i?ino?ainoai.

Inoaiiaeiny iiiiae?iaiaa ia oaeii oaiiiaia, eae naiiniciaiea ia?iaea e
aai ca?iaeaeaiea.

N?aaee enneaaeiaaoaeae ?ani?ino?aiaiu ?acee/iua, ii?ie
acaeiieneeth/athuea eiioeaioeee i?e?iaeu yoie/aneeo iauiinoae,
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae e oaeoi?ia eo aicieeiiaaiey,
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e en/aciiaaiey. Yoi ii?aaeaeyao ?aciiaeaney a
auyaeaiee e iienaiee eo niaoeeoeee e ioee/ee io ae?oaeo nioeeaeueiuo
iauiinoae. Enoi/iee iiaeiaiuo ?anoiaeaeaiee ioaeii eneaoue a ieineinoe
ioiineoaeueii neaaie, ec-ca iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iiai oa?aeoa?a,
oai?aoe/aneie e oaeoieiae/aneie ?ac?aaioaiiinoe i?iaeaiu. Ii yoe
?anoiaeaeaiey iiaoo auoue neaaenoaeai yaiie aeooaeecaoeee oaiiiaia
yoie/iinoe a XIX- XX aa., ii?iaeeaoae noieue iaaaoeaiua yaeaiey, eae
iaaeyoie/aneea eiioeeeou.

A naiae ?aaioa a ?aieao eco/aiey enoi?ee aa?aeneiai ia?iaea ia ae?aaiai
yoaia y aoaeo aeoeaioe?iaaoue aieiaiea ia aiaeeca oaiiiaia aai
yoie/aneie eaeaioe/iinoe (naiiniciaiey). Naiiniciaiea aa?aaa i?aaeaea
anaai io?aaeaeinue a neiaeiie nenoaia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoie/aneeo
iauiinoae ia neio?iiiii (iaee/ea yoie/aneeo a?aieoe) e aeeao?iiiii
(iinooee?iaaiea iauiinoe enoi?e/aneie noaeueau e iaaeiieieaiiie
eoeueoo?iie i?aainoaaiiinoe) o?iaiyo.

Oieueei iaee/ea yoie/aneie eaeaioe/iinoe (naiiniciaiey) iicaieyao
neieue-ieaoaeue ei??aeoii auyaeoue i?eioeeieaeueiua ioee/ey yoie/aneeo
iauiinoae io eiuo nioeeoiia, i?aaeaea anaai i oaeeo, eioi?ua eiatho
noiaeiua ia?ea?u. Eiathony aaeaeo iiioeyoeeiiiua, oa??eoi?eaeueiua,
ycueiaua, eoeueoo?iua, oeeaeeecaoeeiiiua, ?aeeaeiciua, ainoaea?noaaiiua
iauiinoe. Iaeaieaa iioeiaeueii iaoaieci ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaiiiaia
yoie/aneie eaeaioe/iinoe (naiiniciaiey) iienuaaaony iiaeaeueth
«?aaeueiinoue e ieou – neiaieu – oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee – iaoaieci eo
?aaeecaoeee». A iae ?aaeueiinoue anoue noauaeoeaiia io?aaeaiea
ianoiyuaai; ieou – niaeaniaaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?ioeii; neiaieu,
aace?othuaany ia eieeaeoeaii io?aaeaiiie ?aaeueiinoe e ieoao, –
yoie/aneea ia?ea?u niuneiaiai iiey, eiathuea aeaiiino?aoeaiua ooieoeee
eae nio?aiythuea yoie/aneoth i?aainoaaiiinoue, oae e neaiaeece?othuea ia
ioee/ee io «ae?oaeo»; oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee oa?aeoa?iu aeey aeaiiie
yoie/aneie iauiinoe e i?eaioe?iaaiu ia yoie/aneea neiaieu e
aace?othueany ia ieo i?aaeii/oaiey, aini?eieiaaiua aa /eaiaie eae
naiii/aaeaeiua. Iaoaieciu ?aaeecaoeee oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee
aeeth/atho aeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?a/aiue nioeeaeueiuo eiaeia e
niioianaiiuo n ii i?aaee iiaaaeaiey e cai?aoia, iiaeaea?aeeaathueo
yoiia?oiiiaoth nieeaea?iinoue e auiieiythueo ?ieue yoie/aneeo a?aieoe, a
oaeaea iaania/eaathueo ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eaiaeia yoiieoeueoo?iie
i?aainoaaiiinoe. Eiaiii iiaeiaiay iiaeaeue yoiieoeueoo?iie
i?aainoaaiiinoe oi?ie?oao yoie/aneoth ea?oeio ie?a, oa?aeoa?ioth aeey
eiie?aoiie yoie/aneie iauiinoe a oeaeii e ioaeaeueiuo aa /eaiia a
/anoiinoe. Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi iaai? yoie/aneeo i?eciaeia, eee
iiaeaeue yoie/aneie eaeaioe/iinoe, iiaeao nouanoaaiii aa?uee?iaaoueny ai
a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa. Eiuie neiaaie, o eiie?aoiuo yoiinia ia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo yoaiao ?acaeoey iaeioi?ua yoie/aneea i?eciaee iiaoo auoue
ineaaeaiu eee ionoonoaiaaoue aiana.

A naiae ?aaioa y aeoeaioe?oth aieiaiea ia ae?aaiai yoaia ?acaeoey
aa?aaa. Eiaiii oiaaea e i?iecioae yoiiaaaiac yoiai ia?iaea. I?e yoii
neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi aaeeinoaaiiui i?yiui enoi/ieeii caeanue neoaeeo
Aa?aeneay Aeaeey. Aini?eieiay aeaeaeneee oaeno eae neiaiee/anee
iaoneiaeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth, a naio yoo eioi?iaoeeth – eae aiaoiaa
i?iyaeaiea niciaiey, iaiaoiaeeii i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea eneeth/eoaeueii
neiaeiinoue yoiai enoi/ieea.

I?aaeaea anaai, aeaeaeneea oaenou iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa iniiaiua
a?oiiu ii i?eciaeo i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Ia?aay aeeth/aao a naay oa /anoe
Aa?aeneie Aeaeee, eioi?ua ecia/aeueii auee i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
ienueiaiiie eiiioieeaoeee (a /anoiinoe, oea?neea aiiaeu e aeeianoe/aneea
o?iieee. Aoi?ay – ioaaouaaao eioi?iaoeeth, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
oee?eoee?iaaaooth a onoiie oi?ia e eeoue aiineaaenoaee caoeene?iaaiioth
a aeaeaeneii oaenoa (i?aaeaea anaai ?aiiea i?i?i/anoaa). Nouanoaaiiia
?acee/ea caeanue ninoieo a oii, /oi a ia?aii neo/aa i?eoiaeeony
iie?aoueny ia aeaeea?e?iaaiioth iiceoeeth aeanoe, a ai aoi?ii – neaaeoao
aeaeaoue eioaeeaeooaeueiue i?iaeoeo, au?aaioaiiue i?aeiouanoaaiii a
yeeoiie n?aaea. E?aeia aaaeii, /oi e a oii e a ae?oaii neo/aa nouanoaoao
aeanoei eaeaieiaece?iaaiiay naa?ocaaea/a.

I?iaeaiu aucuaaao oaeaea i?iaeaia aeaoe?iaee iienuaaaiuo niauoee;
i?ioeai?a/eau e iiaeoiaeu e eioa?i?aoaoeee «ciaeiaie nenoaiu» Aa?aeneie
Aeaeee.

A aieaa oe?ieii eiioaenoa ?aeiino?oeoeee yoie/aneie enoi?ee aa?aaa a
ae?aaiinoe i?eaeaeathony eiua ienueiaiiua enoi/ieee, a oii /enea e
iaaa?aeneea, a oaeaea aeaiiua a?oaieiaee, eeiaaenoeee, oece/aneie,
eoeueoo?iie, nioeeaeueiie aio?iiieiaee, oece/aneie aaia?aoee. Oaeie
eiiieaeniue n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?acee/iuo aeaeia enoi/ieeia aeaao
o/aiui aiciiaeiinoue ei??aeoiiai n iao/iie oi/ee c?aiey
yoiienoi?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai iienea.

Ia/aei ec?aeeueneiai ia?iaea

Ia/aei ec?aeeueneiai ia?iaea naycaii ni no?aiie, eioi?ay a aeaeaeneeo
enoi/ieeao eiaioaony Oaiaaiii (Eaiaai). Iicaeiaa thaeiay /anoue Oaiaaia
eiaiiaaeanue Eoaeaae, a naaa?iay – Ec?aeeai.

Oa??eoi?ey, ecaanoiay n ia/aea 2-ai oun. aei i.y. eae Oaiaai, caieiaea
ii-naiaio oieeaeueiia iieiaeaiea ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. Yoa oceay iieina
i?eaiaeiie aeey iaeoaiey caiee, ?aniieiaeaiiay iaaeaeo N?aaeecaiiui
ii?ai ia caiaaea e ionouiae ia Ainoiea, Eeeeeeeneie ieciaiiinoueth ia
naaa?a e Neiaeneei iieoino?iaii ia thaa, neoaeeea naiaia?aciui iinoii
iaaeaeo Ae?aaiei Aaeioii ia thaa e Iaeie Aceae n Ianiiioaieae ia naaa?a.
A aaia?aoe/aneii ioiioaiee no?aia aeaeeony ia /aou?a iaeanoe:
1)i?eii?neoth ?aaieio, iacuaaaioth a naiae thaeiie, oe?ieie /anoe –
Oaoaeie; «) ai?enooth iaeanoue e caiaaeo io Ei?aeaia (Aaeeeay,
Yo?aeineea e Eoaeaeneea ai?u); 3) Ei?aeaineoth aeieeio e 4)ieineiai?uea
e ainoieo io Ei?aeaia. Ae?aaiaeoee ai?iae Oaiaaia Ea?eoii aue iniiaai a
oanoii, a aiciiaeii, aeaaea a naaeueiii ouny/aeaoee aei i.y. e n/eoaaony
naiui ae?aaiei a ie?a oe?aieaiiui ai?iaeii. Oaiaai neoaeee naycothuei
caaiii iaaeaeo eoeueoo?ii-yeiiiie/aneeie oeaio?aie ae?aaiaai ie?a:
Aaeioii e Ianiiioaieae. Yoi iineoaeeei iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei oiai,
/oi no?aia i?eaeaeaea e naaa /oaeeo caaiaaaoaeae ai ana yiioe naiae
iiiaiouny/iie enoi?ee, oioy ei?aiiia ianaeaiea aa i?eieiaei eeoue
einaaiiia o/anoea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea. A 11-8-i oun. aei i.y.
yoi aue ?aaeii ?ani?ino?aiaiey iaooeeneie eoeueoo?u. Aa iineoaee nei?aa
anaai aiai?eee ia i?ioiao?aceeneii ycuea. A 6-ia/.4 oun. aei i.y. /anoue
iineoaeae yoiai ycuea iea?e?iaaea ia ainoie, aeieaey aei Ianiiioaiee.
Yoi auee iieoei/aaua ieaia, ecaanoiua eae naieou. Naieoiycu/iia
ianaeaiea Ia?aaeiae Acee ?aniaeinue ia caiaaeiuo e ainoi/iuo naieoia.
AEeaoea a Oaiaaia ethaee aiai?eee ia ycuea, eioi?ue noae
i?aaeoanoaaiieeii naaa?i-caiaaeiie a?oiiu naieoneeo ycueia.

A ia/aea 2-ai oun. aei i.y. iea?aoeee caiaaeiuo naieoia auee iai?aaeaiu
ia caiaae. A Aaeioa inaaeaaoea oai caiaaeiua naiieou auee ecaanoiu eae
aio (aii?ae). Ia ?oaaaeaXVIII-XVII aa. aei i.y. a ainoi/iie /anoe
aeaeueou Ieea aii?ae onoaiaaeeaatho naia ainiiaenoai. Aii?ae iieeaeatho
aeaeueoo Ieea e Ianiiioaieth a na?.2-ai oun. aei i.y., iie ei/aaaee
ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie aii?aeneeie ieaiaiaie ia Neiaa e a Oaiaaia. Caeanue a
XV-XIV aa. aei i.y. oae i?ioeann eo eiinieeaeaoeee a ieaiaiiua nithcu,
a?aaeaeiaaaoea eae iaaeaeo niaie, oae e n oaiaaineeie
ai?iaeaie-ainoaea?noaaie.Oaeia ?acaeoea niauoee, cao?iioaoeo aii?aaa,
?annaeaiiuo a ia?aie iieiaeia 2-ai oun. aei i.y. ia ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee
io Ianiiioaiee aei Aaeioa, ia ieoieiae/aneii o?iaia io?acee iicaeiaeoee
aeaeaeneee oaeno a iiaanoaiaaiee ia Aa?aaia e aai iioiieao, aeeth/ay
enoi?eth Einaoa (Eicaoa) e ?anneac ia Enoiaea ec Aaeioa ai aeaaa n
Iienaai (Iioa).

Ia iicaeiaa na?aaeeiu XIII a. aei i.y. iaeei ec oaeeo aii?aeneeo
ieaiaiiuo nithcia, ei/aaaaoeo ia Neiaa, ia?ae o?aaeeoeeiiioth aeey
ae?aaiaai Aeeaeiaai ainoiea oi?io nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, noaa
eoeueoiaie iauiinoueth Een?a^yeue (Ec?aeeue). Aa aicieeiiaaiea
aeoeaece?iaaei i?ioeannu yoie/aneie eiinieeaeaoeee ieaiaiiiai nithca
Ec?aeeue. Ia yoaia caaiaaaiey Oaiaaia e yoiio ieaiaiiiio nithco,
i?eieiay ec?aeeueneee eoeueo, i?eniaaeeieeenue ae?oaea ieaiaia ea?e, eae
iaeoaaoea a naiii Oaiaaia, oae e iea?e?iaaaoea ooaea n thaa e ainoiea.
Iiae yoei yoiiieiii (ea?e) o ie?oaeathuaai eiiyoie/aneiai inaaeeiai
ianaeaiey a Aa?aeneie Aeaeee e oeao?e?oao Aa?aai (Aa?aoai), eiaaea ii
iinaeyaony a Oaiaaia.

Eiaaony ianeieueei eioa?i?aoaoeee yoeiieiaee yoiiieia Een?a^yeue, ec
eioi?uo iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aa?eaio ia?aaiaeeony eae «…ai?thueeny
n Aiaii». O?iiieiae/anee yoio yoiiiei aia?aua ano?a/aaony a iaaeiene ia
noaea aaeiaoneiai oa?aiia Ia?iaioaoa (iineaaeiyy /aoaa?oue XIII a. Aei
i.y. ). A Aa?aeneie Aeaeee yoiiiei Een?a^yeue naycuaaaony n iao?ea?oii
Eaeiaii (ssaeiaii), i?eia?aooei aoi?ia eiy Ec?aeeue (Een?a^yeue).
Enoi?ee i Eaeiaa iicaieyao naeaeaoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea i i?aeiouanoaaiii
caiaaeiinaieoneii (niaeanii iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aeiioac
– aii?aeneii) i?ienoiaeaeaiee ieaiaiiiai nithca Ec?aeeue. A iieueco
yoiai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oaeno i i?aaeeao Eaeiaa – Aa?aaia e aai nuia
Enaaea (Eoeoaea), a oaeaea nio?aiaiea eeanneoeoee?oaiie naieoieiaaie
eae aii?aeneie iaiiiai/eneaiiie eaeneee (i?aaenoaaeaiiie eeoue
nianoaaiiuie eiaiaie) a aeaeaeneeo oaenoao. Iaaeaaii ?inneeneei
naieoieiaii E.Eiaaiii auea i?aaeeiaeaia aeiioaca, niaeanii eioi?ie aeaa
aii?aeneeo eiaie iaeiiai e oiai aea /aeiaaea – Eaeia e Ec?aeeue- iiaee
auoue i?aeoe/anee iaeiioeiiu i?i niuneo (caueuaoue, io?aiyoue) e
?acioeenue a ?acoeueoaoa oeaii/ee ia?iaeiuo yoeiieiaee.

Aoaeo/e eeaea?ii iaoeee, Eaeia-Ec?aeeue i?iecaiaeeo ia naao 12 nuiiaae e
aei/ue. Iicaeiaa, oaea iinea iiei?aiey Eiaaia, caiey Ec?aeey aeaeeony
iaaeaeo 12 eieaiaie – ieaiaiaie, ?iaeiia/aeueieeaie eioi?uo noaee
nuiiauey Eaeiaa. Nithcu aeaaiaaeoeaoe (eiiaaea oanoe) ieaiai auee
iau/iui yaeaieai a ainoi/iii N?aaeecaiiiii?uea e Iaeie Acee.
Iauaaeeiythuei eo oaeoi?ii iiaei auoue ia iauaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea, a iauay
i?aaeaiiinoue iaeiie nayouia. Iaeiaei ana yoe caiaaeii-naieoneea a?oiiu
eiaee aeaenoaeoaeueii iauea ei?ie e iaoiaeeeenue ai acaeiiii ?iaenoaa; o
ieo auee iauea ainiiieiaiey, i?aaeaiey e ii/eoaaiua i?aaeee. Ai a?aiaia
Eaeiaa ethaee ana aua iineee n niaie naiaeiuo aiaeeia, ii oaea
neeaaeuaaeenue iiiyoey iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai Aiaa. I?eiyoea Eaeiaii eiaie
Ec?aeeue ciaiaioao iiiaio, eiaaea Aaeeiue Aia (Aia Aa?aaia) oei?aiyaony
a Caiea Oaiaaineie e eaeaioeoeoee?oaony n ec?aeeueoyiaie – iioiieaie
Eaeiaa, iinea /aai aio anei?a i?aaenoieo noaoue anaiiaouei ssoaa,
iiiioaenoe/aneei Aiaii. *enei aeaaiaaeoeaoue a Aeaeee n/eoaaony e?oaeui.
Ia ainoiea yoi /enei auei nayuaiiui, aieoaaiui. A aiaeo aeaaiaaeoeaoue
ianyoeaa, nieioea a oa/aiee aiaea niaa?oaao e?oa ii iaao /a?ac
aeaaiaaeoeaoue nicaacaeee, ciaeia ciaeeaea. Iu n/eoaai aeanyoeaie, a
aaaeeiiyia n/eoaee ii aeaaiaaeoeaoe. O/aiua-ec?aeeueoyia, iinoeaoea anth
aaaeeiineoth ioae?inoue, i/aiue ethaeee yoi nayuaiiia /enei (a oaeaea
/enei naiue) e iinoiyiii oiio?aaeyee eo a naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo, eioi?ua
iu /eoaai oaia?ue a Aeaeee. Iie e ian/eoaee aeaaiaaeoeaoue eieai
ec?aeeaauo; iio eo auei, iaaa?ii, aieueoa. Iu ciaai, /oi a thaeiie /anoe
Iaeanoeiu, a ai?ao, ai a?aiaia Aeaaeaea aiacaeeeinue ec?aeeueneia ieaiy
Oaeaa. Ia yoii ieaiaie ?anneacuaaao enoi?ey oea?y Aeaaeaea. A yoi ieaiy
ia oiiieiaaony a /enea aeaaiaaeoeaoe nuiia Ec?aeey. Aiciiaeii, /oi,
e?iia Oaeaaa, auee e aua ae?oaea ieaiaia, ianoieueei iaeeea, /oi i?e
caaiaaaiee Iaeanoeiu iie ai a?aiy aieiu auee eno?aaeaiu eee niaoaeenue n
oaiaiayie, oae /oi anyeay iaiyoue i ieo en/acea.

Iinoaiaiii ec?aeeueneea ieaiaia canaeeee ?aaeii Eoaeaeneiai iaai?uey a
oeaio?a Oaiaaia, caoai ?annaeeeenue naaa?iaa a iicaeiaeoeo Naia?ee e
Aaeeeaa, a oaeaea ia naaa?i-ainoiea e a Aeeaaaea. Ianoiia ianaeaiea
ecaiiyeinue eeai anneieee?iaaeinue n oaie eee eiuie ec?aeeueneeie
ieaiaiaie. A ia/aea X aaea yoio i?ioeann caaa?oeeny aeey iiaeaaeythuaai
aieueoeinoaa yoiiycu/aneiai ianaeaiey e caiaaeo io ?aee Ei?aeai. A naith
i/a?aaeue, ae?aaiea aa?ae, ia?aoiaey io iieoei/aaiai ia?aca aeecie e
inaaeeiio, iinoaiaiii onaaeaaee iiiaea yeaiaiou aeooiaiie e auoiaie
eoeueoo?u caaiaaaiiiai ianaeaiey, eiaea ianoi e ycueiaay
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey.

Iauaaeeiaiiua ?aaeueiuie eee ieoe/aneeie ?iaeiieaiaiiuie ocai, iauei
?aeeaeiciui eoeueoii, iaueie aiaiiuie oniaoaie e iaoaea/aie,
oa??eoi?eaeueiui ninaaenoaii eee no?aieaieai e iaio, oneeeaoaeny
nioeeieoeueoo?iie iaeii?iaeiinoueth e ycueiaie iauiinoueth, ieaiaia
ea?e, aioaaeoea a ieaiaiiie nithc Ec?aeeue, iinoaiaiii ia?aoaee e iauaa
naiiniciaiea «iu» a i?ioeaiaan «ei, /oaeei, ae?oaei». Yoi iaoei aiaoiaa
io?aaeaiea iauaai naiiiacaaiey aaia-Een?a^yeue(nuiu Ec?aeey,
Ec?aeeueoyia). Aeoeaiua yoiieioaa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu o ae?aaieo aa?aaa
i?ioaeaee n iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe XI a. aei i.y., eiaaea o ieo
oi?ie?oaony ainoaea?noaaiiinoue – Ec?aeeueneia oea?noai.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea a yoie/aneie eioaa?aoeee ianaeaiey Ec?aeeueneiai
oea?noaa, eniiaaaeiaaaoaai iauaec?aeeueneee eoeueo, nua?aei aicaaaeaiea
a na?aaeeia X a. aei i.y. i?e oea?a Nieiiiia (Oeiii) (ie. 965-928 aa.
aei i.y.) Ea?onaeeineiai O?aia (ie. 954 a. aei i.y.), i?aa?auaiiiai a
iniiaiie eoeueoiaue oeaio? ae?aaieo aa?aaa. Ii, ianiiiaiii, aaaeiuie
oaeoi?aie auee oaeaea iaee/ea oa??eoi?eaeueiie oeaeinoiinoe, oe?aieaiea
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey iiae aeanoueth
oea?y. Yoi iicaieyao eiinoaoe?iaaoue caaa?oaiea e iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe X
a. aei i.y. oacu yoiiaaiaca (oi?ie?iaaiey) ae?aaieo aa?aaa eae
yoie/aneie iauiinoe, iniciaaoae naay ia?iaeii. Iineaaeiaa
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony nio?aiaieai ae?aaieie aa?ayie naiaai yoie/aneiai
aaeeinoaa, ianiio?y ia oo?aoo ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaeeinoaa. A aeaeaeneeo
oaenoao aa?ae eae ia?iae /aua anaai iauaaeeiaiu oa?ieiii ^ai, eiathuei
cia/aiea «(iao) ia?iae…a iniiaa naiae e?iaii?iaenoaaiiie iauiinoe».

Noano?aoii (iniiaie) a yoiiaaiaca ae?aaieo aa?aaa noae aii?aeneee
ieaiaiiie nithc Ec?aeeue, ieii/aoaeueii neiaeeaoeeny a oiaea ai?ueau ca
Oaiaai, a noia?no?aoii (iineaaeothueie aeeth/aieyie) – iiei?aiiia
iieoei/aaia e inaaeeia aeecei?iaenoaaiiia, i?aeiouanoaaiii naieoiycu/iia
ianaeaiea Oaiaaia, i?eiyaoaa Ec?aeeueneee ?aeeaeiciue eoeueo e
anneieee?iaaaoaany n ieaiaiaie ec?aeeueoyi. A i?ioeanna yoie/aneiai
niaoaiey, ia?aoaiey ?aeeaeiciie, nioeeieoeueoo?iie e ycueiaie aeecinoe
ecia/aeueii iieoei/aaieeaie-ec?aeeueoyiaie, ae?oaei iieoei/aaui e
inaaeeui ianaeaieai Oaiaaia e neiaeeeny ae?aaiaaa?aeneee yoiin.

Oaeei ia?acii, A yoiiaaiaca ae?aaieo aa?aaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e
iniiaiuo yoaia. A XV-XIV aa. aei i.y., iinea enoiaea ec Aaeioa, ia Neiaa
oae i?ioeann neeaaeuaaiey iaeiiai ec aii?aeneeo ieaiaiiuo nithcia. Ia
iicaeiaa na?aaeeiu XIII a.aei i.y. yoio ieaiaiiie nithc ia?ae iiaia
ea/anoai, noaa eoeueoiaie iauiinoueth Ec?aeeue. A XIII-XI aa. aei i.y. a
ieaiaiiie nithc Ec?aeeue aeeeenue ae?oaea aii?aeneea iieoei/aaua
ieaiaia, i?eiyaoea nithciue ?aeeaeiciue eoeueo ec?aeeueoyi. Ia ?oaaaea
1-2-ai oun. aei i.y. iniiaiay ianna aa?aaa ia?aoea e inaaeeinoe. Ia
yoaia ia?aoaiey inaaeeinoe a Oaiaaia a niciaiee ae?aaieo aa?aaa
ieaiaiiie nithc Ec?aeeue yaeyaony iineoaeai aiaeanoaaiiiai aeaaineiaaiey
e iauaeoii aiaeanoaaiiie caaiou. A X a. aei i.y., a ia?eiae
nouanoaiaaiey Ec?aeeueneiai oea?noaa, i?ienoiaeeea eioaa?aoeey
ec?aeeueoyi e caaiaaaiiiai ianaeaiey Oaiaaia a aaeeiue, oioy e neaai
eiinieeaee?iaaiiue ia?iae. Aaaeiaeoeie oaeoi?aie eiinieeaeaoeee ae?aaieo
aa?aaa eae ia?iaea, o.a. yoiiia?acothueie i?eciaeaie, auee:
i?aaenoaaeaiea i aaeeinoaa i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iie?aaoaany ia i?aiaeaaeaiea
yiaeiaaiiuo a?aeia, i?eiyoea iauaai ?aeeaeiciiai eoeueoa,
oa??eoi?eaeueiia aaeeinoai, iauay ainoaea?noaaiiinoue, noe?aiea ycueiauo
e eoeueoo?iue ?acee/ee, a oii /enea oi?ie?iaaiea iauaai eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea, ecaanoiiai a nia?aiaiiie eeoa?aoo?a eae aeaeaeneee ea?eo.

?aeeaeiciue eoeueo no?ieeny ia i?aaeaiiinoe Aiao, iiaeiiaaiee e
iieeiiaiee aio, /oi au?aaeaeinue a niaoeeaeueiuo iaycaoaeuenoaao
(Caaaoa), aea?oaii?eiioaieyo e iieeoaao ia?aae eia/aaii Caaaoa,
i?acaeianoaao, niaethaeaiee ?yaea ieuaauo cai?aoia (iicaeiaa ecaanoiuo
eae eao?oo), aiciiaeii, nayoinoe Oaaaaoa(noaaioiaai aeiy). A
?anniao?eaaaioth yiioo Ainiiaeue ia n/eoaeny aaeeinoaaiiui a ie?icaeaiee
aiaeanoaii, ii Aiaii, caeeth/eaoei aa?eo (aeiaiai?, Caaao) n ieaiaiiui
nithcii Ec?aeeue. I?eioeeieaeueiie iiaaoeeae auei iaee/ea acaeiiiai
Caaaoa Aiaa n ieaiaiiui nithcii Ec?aeeue e ieaiaiiiai nithca Ec?aeeue i
naiei Aiaii. Aa?iyoiaa anaai, oaea oiaaea i?iyaeeanue oaiaeaioeey e
iniuneaieth caeeth/eaoeo Caaao n Aiaii eae «aiaieca?aiiuo».

A ia?eiae ia?aoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe aa?io/aiea aa?aaa i?eia?aoaao
iaeioi?ua iiaua /a?ou. Oae, oi?ie?oaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i Caaaoa Aiaa n
aeeianoeae oea?y Aeaaeaea eae aa/ii i?aayuae, aa?a a aiaieca?aiiinoue
Ea?onaeeia. Ea?onaeeineee o?ai ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaaaeny
iauaainoaea?noaaiiui nayoeeeuai.

Iie?aynue ia aiaeec aeaeaeneeo oaenoia, aeaoe?oaiuo ia iicaeiaa X a. aei
i.y., iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue neaaeothuoth iiaeaeue yoie/aneie
eaeaioe/iinoe aa?aaa ia yoaia yoiiaaiaca. Ai-ia?auo, ae?aaieie aa?ayie
iniciaaaeinue aaeeinoai i?ienoiaeaeaiey io i?aiooeia e i?aaeaea anaai io
Eaeiaa e aai aeaaiaaeoeaoe nuiiaae. Iaaacuioa?anii, /oi ia?yaeo n
oiiieiaaoeiny yiaeiyoiiieiii Een?a^yeue a aeaeaeneeo oaenoao
eniieuecoaony e yiaeiyoiiiei aao Ea^eia (aeii Eaeiaa). Ai-aoi?uo,
aeeyiea ?aeeaeiciie ninoaaeythuae oaea oiaaea auei ioiineoaeueii
aaeeei. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oa?ieiieiaeae aeaeaeneeo oaenoia.
A-o?aoueeo, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oaaaeaeaiiinoue ae?aaieo aa?aaa a oii,
/oi eo i?aaeee a ninoaaa aeaaiaaeoeaoe ieaiai, ia?aciaaaoeo nia/aea
ieaiaiiie nithc Ec?aeeue, a caoai Ec?aeeueneia oea?noai, auee iioiieaie
oao, eoi iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii Iienay niaa?oee enoiae ec aaeiaoneiai
?aanoaa e caaiaaae aianoa n Aiaii caieth Oaiaaia. Aieaa oiai, caiey
Oaiaaia a eo i?aaenoaaeaiee oaea oiaaea iiaea aini?eieiaoueny eae
Iaaoiaaiiay aiaii ec?aeeueoyiai.

Yoie/aneeie neiaieaie ec?aeeueoyi ia yoaia caaa?oaiey yoiiaaiaca iiaeii
n/eoaoue iauaa naiiniciaiea (eae iioiieia Aa?aaia, Enaaea e Eaeiaa,
niaa?oeaoeo enoiae ec Aaeioa ai aeaaa n Iienaai), /oi iaoei au?aaeaiea
a iauai yiaeiyoiiieia, iauee ?aeeaeiciue eoeueo, caiey Oaiaaia eae
Iaaoiaaiiay aa?ayi Aiaii, iauay ainoaea?noaaiiinoue ai aeaaa n
aeeianoeae Aeaaeaea e ni noieeoeae a Ea?onaeeia, Ea?onaeeineee O?ai eae
iauaec?aeeueneee ?aeeaeiciue oeaio? e ianoi aiaeanoaaiiiai i?enoonoaey.
Ianiiiaiii, cia/eiie neiaieeeie iaeaaeaee iauea /a?ou a aeooiaiie e
iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?a. Iaiaa ii?aaeaeaiii auaeyaeeo a ea/anoaa
yoie/aneiai neiaiea iauiinoue ycuea, anee iie?aoueny ia aeaeaeneee oano.

N?aaee yoie/anee i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oeaiiinoae iiaeii auaeaeeoue iuouaiea
naiae enoi?e/aneie ?aeeaeiciie oieeaeueiinoe, a oaeaea oaiaeaioeeth e
ia?aoaieth aiaeaaeaioiie yoii?aeeaeiciie ea?oeiu ie?a, aaea ?ieue
yoie/aneeo a?aieoe ea?aee nioeeaeueii, ?aeeaeicii e eoeueoo?ii
ie?aoaiiua i?aaeii/oaiey.

Eaaiooa (Eenon Iaaei) aeaeeo caieth Eiaaia ia ioaeaeueiua o/anoee aeey
eaaeaeiai ieaiaie. Iaeii eieaii – eaaeou – nianai ia iieo/eei caiee aeey
i?iaeeaaiey, oioy eaaeoai auei ioaaaeaii ianeieueei ai?iaeia. Ei
ioaiaeeeanue ?ieue aeooiaiuo o/eoaeae aeey i?i/eo eieai, eaaeaeia ec
eioi?uo iaeaaaeinue iaeiaii ia niaea?aeaiea eaaeoia.

A na?aaeeia X aaea aei i.y. Ec?aeeueneia oea?noai aeinoeaei naiaai
?anoeaaoa, noaa iaeiei ec e?oiiuo ainoaea?noa Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea.
*eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey Ec?aeeueneiai oea?noaa a yoio ia?eiae
enneaaeiaaoaeyie ioeaieaaaony i?eia?ii a 1-2 iei. /aeiaae, n?aaee
eioi?uo aa?aaa auei yaii iaiaa iieiaeiu. A eiioea oea?noaiaaiey Nieiiiia
(Oeiii – nui oea?y Aeaaeaea) caiaoii iaino?eeenue ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
Naaa?ii e THaii. Iinea nia?oe Nieiiiia (ie. 928 a. aei i.y.)
oeaio?iaaaeiua oaiaeaioeee auee noieue aaeeee, /oi aeanyoue naaa?iuo
oao??eoi?eaeueii-ieaiaiiuo iaaeaeia ia i?eciaee aeanoue acioaaeoaai ia
i?anoie aai nuia ?iaiaia e iauaaeeieeenue a naiinoiyoaeueiia
ainoaea?noai. Iii oiiieiaaony a enoi/ieeao eae naaa?iia oea?noai,
oea?noai Yo?ai, Aaeo Ii?e eee oea?noai Oii?ii, iinea oiai eae a ieiei
870 a. aei i.y. aai noieeoeae noae ai?iae a?ey (Oii?ii), a /aua anaai
eae Ec?aeeue (Een?a^yeue).Aeaa thaeiuo oa??eoi?eaeueii-ieaiaiiuo iaaeaea
Eaooaea e Aaieaiei iauaaeeieeenue aie?oa ?iaiaia e nicaeaee cia/eoaeueii
iaiueoaa ii oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noai – oea?noai Eoaeay (Eaooaea),
noieeoeae eioi?iai inoaeny Ea?onaeei.

A 30-o aiaeao VIII a. aei i.y. ia/eiaaony iiuiay anne?eeneay yeniainey a
THai-Caiaaeiie Acee. A 722 aiaeo aei i.y. Ec?aeeue aue ieii/aoaeueii
caaiaaai Anne?eae, a aai oa??eoi?ey aioea a ninoaa anne?eeneie
i?iaeioeee Naia?eia. Aai ianaeaiea auei oaiaii e ?annayii. Oiaaea aea
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe naiae oa??eoi?ee eeoeeanue e Eoaeay, noaaoay
aannaeii anne?eeneie aea?aeaau. Aeaeueiaeoay noaeueaa Aeanyoe eieai
iaecaanoia. Iiyoiio ana nia?aiaiiua aa?ae i?iecioee eeai io eaaeoia (eee
io ?iaea aioo?e yoiai eieaia – nayuaiieeia eiaaiei), eeai io eieaia
Eaaoaeu.

Caoai Eoaeay ia ei?ioeia a?aiy ia?aoaea iacaaeneiinoue, ii iiyoue noaea
aannaeii Aaeioa, a iioii Aaaeeiiee. A 588 aiaeo aa?ae Eoaeae a
i/a?aaeiie ?ac ainnoaee, ii a 586 a. aei i.y. aaaeeiiyia acyee Ea?onaeei
e ?ac?ooeee Ea?onaeeineee O?ai.

?aniaae aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaa naiui iaaaoeaiui ia?acii neacaeny ia
eiinieeaee?othuae ?ie ?aeeaeiciiai eoeueoa ae?aaieo aa?aaa. I?i?i/aneay
eeoa?aoo?a (Eeey /Yeeyoo/, Aeenae /Yeeoa/, Aiin, Iney/Oioay/, Enaey
/Eaoayoo/, Ieoae /Ieoa/) naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeanoeii i?ioeainoiyiee
iiiioaenoe/aneeo e neie?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee a ?aeeaeiciuo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo aa?aaa Ec?aeey e Eoaeae a IX –VII aa. aei i.y.
Aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii ?aeeaeiciie eiinieeaeaoeee ae?aaieo aa?aaa noaea
«Eieaa Oi?u» (Eieaa O/aiey). Ii e?aeiae ia?a, n eiioea VII a. aei i.y.
Oi?a auea iniiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Eoaeae.

?aniaae aaeeiiai Ec?aeeueneiai oea?noaa ieacae aeeyiea ia oneeaiea
aeeaeaeoiuo ?acee/ee ?acaiai?iiai ycuea ae?aaieo aa?aaa a Eoaeaa e
Ec?aeea. Iaeiaei eeoa?aoo?iue aeaeaeneee ea?eo inoaeny iauei aeey
ianaeaiey iaieo ae?aaiaaa?aeneeo ainoaea?noa eae ycue ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa eeoa?aoo?iiai oai?/anoaa.

?aniaae Ec?aeeueneiai oea?noaa ieiei 926 a. aei i.y. iauaeoeaii
niinianoaiaae aeoeaecaoeee yoii?acaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia n?aaee
ae?aaieo aa?aaa a eiioea X-VIII aa aei i.y. Yoi auei naycaii n oo?aoie
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaeeinoaa e aeeeoaeueiie iaaeaeioniaeoeae, oae
iineaaeiaaaoei ca yoei oneeaieai ?aeeaeiciiai naia?aoecia e iiceoeee
ycu/aneeo eoeueoia ia Naaa?a e io/anoe ia THaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii a Ec?aeea
caiaoii aic?inei aeeyiea oeieeeeneie eoeueoo?u, oeieeeeneiai e
a?aiaeneiai ycueia. Ii nooe, nicaeaeanue neooaoeey, aeaaii?eyoiay aeey
i?ioeanna yoie/aneie ia?oeeaoeee n?aaee ae?aaieo aa?aaa e aicieeiiaaiey
a Ec?aeea e Eoaeaa aeaoo naiinoiyoaeueiuo yoiinia.

A oi aea a?aiy caaiaaaiea ae?aaieie anne?eeoeaie Ec?aeey a 30-20-o
aiaeao VIII a. aei i.y. ia?aaeienaeueiui ia?acii aeoeaece?iaaei i?ioeann
yoie/aneie eiinieeaeaoeee n?aaee ae?aaieo aa?aaa a eiioea VIII- ia/aea
VI a. aei i.y. Oae, iiaeii oeacaoue, /oi a Eoaeath aaaeaee iiiaea aa?ae
ec Ec?aeey, nianaaoeany io anne?eeneiai ainiiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
?aaeeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i oea?y Einee Ea?onaeeineee O?ai i?aa?auaaony a
aaeeinoaaiiue ?aeeaeiciue oeaio? e aeey oao naaa?yi, eoi ia aue ecaiai a
Anne?eth.

A iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe VII a. aei i.y. eoaeaeci aunooiaao oaeaea e eae
aaaeiaeoee oaeoi? anneieeyoeee n ae?aaieie aa?ayie eiiyoie/iiai
ianaeaiey – i?aeiouanoaaiii a?aiaiycu/iuo iioiieia eieiienoia, ?aiaa
ia?anaeaiiuo anne?eeoeaie ia oa??eoi?eth caoaa/aiiiai eie Ec?aeey.

Aiaeec aeaeaeneeo oaenoia, aeaoe?oaiuo IX- ia/aeii VI a. aei i.y., e
i?aaeaea anaai i?i?i/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, oeacuaaao ia nio?aiaiea ae?aaieie
aa?ayie iauiinoe yoie/aneiai naiiniciaiey (aiaoia au?aaeaiiiai a
nio?aiaiee iauaai yiaeiyoiiieia Een?a^yeue eae ia Naaa?a, oae e a
Eoaeaa).

Oai ia iaiaa, yoie/aneay eaeaioe/iinoue ae?aaieo aa?aaa a IX-ia/aea VI
a. aei i.y. i?aoa?iaea aiieia iauynieioth yaiethoeeth, i?aaenoaaeyy
niaie aanueia i?ioeai?a/eaoth ea?oeio. N iaeiie noi?iiu, oo?aoa
ainoaea?noaaiiiai, a caoai e oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aaeeinoaa (eae ?acoeueoao
ianniauo aeaii?oaoeee VIII – ia/aeaVI a. aei i.y.) caiaoii ineaaeea
?ieue yoeo yoie/aneeo neiaieia a naiiniciaiee aa?aeneiai ianaeaiey ,
iniaaiii ia Naaa?a. A oi aea a?aiy ia Naaa?a ianiiiaiii aeieaeiu auee
oneeeoueny yeaiaiou eieaeueii-ieaiaiiuo i?aaeii/oaiee e nieceoueny
neiaiee/aneay cia/eiinoue aeeianoee Aeaaeaea e Ea?onaeeineiai O?aia (a
iineaaeiai neo/aa, ii e?aeiae ia?a, aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu VII a. aei
i.y.). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeea yoie/aneea neiaieu, eae iuouaiea
iauiinoe enoi?e/aneeo noaeaa e i?eaa?aeaiiinoue iauei ?aeeaeiciui
oeaiiinoyi, iauee yiaeiyoiiiei Een?a^yeue, Caiey Ec?aeey eae Iaaoiaaiiay
anai aa?ayi, iaiai?io, aeieaeiu auee caiyoue eoaea aieaa cia/eiia ianoi,
/ai ?aiaa. Ai?i/ai, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue yaiua i?eciaee aeoeaecaoeee
?acee/ee ia Naaa?a e THaa a i?aaenoaaeaieyo i nianoaaiiii enoi?e/aneii
i?ioeii e ?iee Aiaa. sscue, eae e ?aiaa, ia ea?ae ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee a
yoie/aneie neiaieeea ae?aaieo aa?aaa a ?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae.

Iiaaoeee a yoie/anee i?eaioe?iaaiiuo oeaiiinoyo ae?aaieo aa?aaa a IX-
ia/aea VI a. aei i.y. – yoi i?aaeaea anaai aieaciaiiay ?aaeoeey ia
aeeeoaeueioth iaaeaeioniaeoeo, e?ao Ec?aeey e ecaiaiea aai ianaeaiey a
Anne?eth , aini?eieiaaoeany eae iaoeeiiaeueiay eaoano?ioa ia oieueei ia
Naaa?a, ii e a Eoaeaa.

Iaoaieciu ?aaeecaoeee iiaeiaiuo oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, eae iie
?aeiino?oe?othony ia iniiaa i?i?i/aneeo oaenoia, aeaeaeenue eo aaoi?ai
ia iooyo ?aaeecaoeee Caaaoa Aiaa e aa?aeneiai ia?iaea. Eiuie neiaaie,
iaeeoei oneeaiea ?aeeaeiciie ninoaaeythuae a ae?aaiaaa?aeneie
eaeaioe/iinoe, eioi?ay ana caiaoiae i?eia?aoaea yoii?aeeaeiciue
oa?aeoa?.

A 539a. aei i.y. ia?neaeneee oea?ue Ee? ?ac?aoee aa?ayi aa?iooueny a
Ea?onaeei ec aaaeeiineiai ieaia, eoaea a 586 a. aei i.y. eo oaiae oea?ue
Iaaooiaeiiini?. Oae a enoi?ee aa?aaa Eoaeae ia/aeanue iiaay y?a –
ia?eiae, a oa/aiee eioi?iai ei auei noaeaeaii aeeoue ia ?iaeiie caiea ,
oioy e a ea/anoaa iiaeaeaiiuo ie?iaie aea?aeaau. Oaeia iieiaeaiea
nio?aiyeinue aei 140 a. aei i.y. , eiaaea i?e Iaeeaaayo aa?ae caaiaaaee
oi?iaeueioth iacaaeneiinoue. Oaeei ia?acii, ia i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe
/aou?aonio eao oneiaey aeecie aa?aaa caaenaee io oneiaee, eioi?ua
aeeeoiaaea ei aea?aeaaa, aeaaeathuay aeaiiui ?aaeiiii Ainoi/iiai
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey. Io ia?nia yoa ?ieue ia?aoea e iaeaaeiioeai
Aeaenaiae?a Aaeeeiai (333 a. aei i.y.), a iinea aai nia?oe a 323 a. aei
i.y. – e aai i?aaiieeai, nia/aea Ioieaiayi, a caoai e Naeaaeeaeai.

Eieaa Aeeeaneano (Eioaeao) – iaeii ec ?aiieo naeaeaoaeuenoa aeeyiey
a?a/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia aa?aa Ea?onaeeia. A iae i?aaenoaaeyeinue,
/oi aeeciue eeoaia niunea e /oi ana oaioiaaia iaeeiaeiaay o/anoue –
i?aaaaeiui e ia/anoeaui, iiyoiio ioaeii ianeaaeaeaoueny ie?neeie
oaeiaieuenoaeyie aeiyie thiinoe. Noa?inoue aini?eieiaeanue eae
aiciiaeiia a?aiy eee aeaaea i?ieeyoea. Yoe yeeeienoe/aneea eaeae
i?iieeee a aa?oooeo ea?onaeeineiai iauanoaa. A iiaii ie?a
aaccanoai/eaiai noyaeaoaeuenoaa, ioe?uoii a?aeaie, aa?aeneia iauanoai
eciaieeinue a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie aeey oiai, /oiau iiaua eaeae
iieacaeenue yeeoa Ea?onaeeia i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie. Aia?aua iiiuoea
i?ioeainoiyoue iiaui acaeyaeai canaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaia a ?aaaeienoe/aneie
o?aaeeoeee, i?eienuaaaiie Oeiiio oa-Oeaaeaeeeo.Ii iuoaeny aic?iaeeoue
o?aaeeoeeiiiia iiieiaiea Caeiia eae Caaaoa iaaeaeo Aiaii e Aai ia?iaeii,
oeaiiinoe neoaeau a o?aia e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oiai, /oiau aa?ae iiiiaaee
ae?oa ae?oao a ciae auiieiaiey caiiaaaeae Aiaa. Aieaa i?iaeoiaiiay
caueoa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oeaiiinoae ia?aae eeoeii yeeeienoe/aneeo aayiee
niaea?aeeony a eieaa I?aioae?inoae Aai-Ne?u. Ioae?inoue aeey Aai-Ne?u
ia?ac?uaii naycaia n niaethaeaieai Caeiia, caiiaaaeaiiiai Aiaii, eai
any ioae?inoue – io Aiaa. Oa ioae?inoue, eioi?oth ana euoo e eioi?ay ,
iaoiaeynue a aa?iiiee ni anaeaiiie, yaeyaony «Einie/aneie» a oe?i/aeoai
niunea neiaa, anoue ia /oi eiia, eae «eieaa caaaoa Aiaa Anaauoiaai,
Caeii, eioi?ue caiiaaaeae Iienath eae ianeaaeea niiiai Eaeiaa». Aeey
aa?aaa enoeia aeinooiia a /enoaeoai aeaea – a oaenoa aiaeanoaaiiie Oi?u.

Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo aa?ayie e Naeaaeeaeaie noaee i/aiue iai?yaeaiiuie i?e
i?aaiieeao Aioeioa III. A 168 a. aei i.y. auoee a naao aeae?aou, a
eioi?uo cai?auaeenue ethaua ia?yaeu, iiae/a?eeaathuea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
aa?ayie e eo iaaa?aeneeie ninaaeyie, N oi/ee c?aiey caiiaaaeae Oi?u,
aa?ae aeieaeiu auee caauoue caeii e i?ac?aoue aai i?aaeienaiey,
i?aa?aoeaoenue a ia/anoeauo aiaiooeueieeia. Aeaiiua yaeeeou iiaeaeee ca
niaie aii?oaeaiiia ainnoaiea, eioi?ia iiaeiye Iaooaoeyoo Oaniiiae e
eioi?ui ?oeiaiaeee aai nui Eaooaea Iaeeaaae. Ainnoaiee, ia?ooaaoaany ia
aea?aeaao Naeaaeeaeia iaeiia?aiaiii n eiioeeeoaie a ae?oaeo iiaeaeanoiuo
ei ?aaeiiao, caaa?oeeinue oniaoii. O?ai aue ?eooaeueii i/euai e
nayuaiieee aa?ioeenue e ioi?aaeaieth iau/iuo eoaeaeneeo ia?yaeia. Yoa
iiaaaea auea oaaeiaa/aia a iau/aa ioia/aoue i?acaeiee Oaioeea. A
eiia/iii n/aoa ?iaeo Oaniiiaaa oaeaeinue iaea?aeaoue aeaieioth iiaaaeo:
e 140 a. aei i.y. aa?ae aeiaeeenue iacaaeneiinoe, a aeieaeiinoue
ia?ainayuaiieea auea cae?aieaia ca ?iaeii Oaniiiaaa. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaeiei ec aeieain?i/iuo ?acoeueoaoia aiiaiee Aioeioa IV ia aa?aaa naea
iacaaeneiinoue Eoaeae, aiiaue ia?aoaiiay iinea ii/oe /aou?aonioeaoiaai
ia?a?uaa. Ai a?aiaia ia?neaeneiai aeaaeu/anoaa Eoaeay eiaiiaaeanue
«ssooae», a a iineaaeiea aeaa aaea aei i.y., o.a. a yiioo iacaaeneiiai
aa?aeneiai ainoaea?noaa Oaniiiaaa e a ia?eiae iineaaeiaaaoaai ca yoei
?eineiai aeaaeu/anoaa, iacaaiea Eoaeay ?ani?ino?aieeinue ia anth no?aio.

?eineee eiia?aoi? Aae?eai, iiaeaaea a 135 a. i.y. ainnoaiea aa?aaa iiae
i?aaeaiaeeoaeuenoaii Aa?-Eioau, cai?aoee oiio?aaeyoue iacaaiea «Eoaeay»
e ia?aeiaiiaae no?aio a Ne?eth-Iaeanoeio; «Ne?ey», ii-aeaeeiiio,
nie?auaiiay «Anne?ey», a «Iaeanoeia» i?ienoiaeeo io eiaie oeeenoeieyi
(i-?-n-o a aaeiaoneeo oaenoao), ianaeyaoeo a ae?aaiinoe thaeiia
iiaa?aaeuea Oaiaaia. N oa/aieai a?aiaie aioei a oiio?aaeaiea nie?auaiiia
iacaaiea: Iaeanoeia. Iaeei ec iooeia oea?eae, Ea?iiei, ieoao a IV a.
i.y.: «Eoaeay, oaia?ue iacuaaaiay Iaeanoeiie…»

A yiioo ?aniaaea ?eineie eiia?ee aeaaiua oeaio?u aa?aeneiai ia?iaea
iaoiaeeeenue ia aeeaeiai Ainoiea e aieueoay aai /anoue auea
nin?aaeioi/aia a yoii ?aeiia. Iiai?ioiui ioieoii a aa?aeneie enoi?ee
auee oa ia?iiiua naeaeae, eioi?ua i?iecioee oai iinea ca?iaeaeaiey
eneaia e aiaeai?aiey onoaiiaeaiiiai ei no?iy, noieue nouanoaaiii
ioee/aaoaainy io i?aaeieo ?einei-o?enoeaineeo oi?i i?aaeaiey. Aaaeiia
caeeth/aiea, iiaeaiaeyuaa /a?oo iiae aiaeecii enoi?ee ae?aaieo aa?aaa,
ninoieo a neaaeothuai. Aa?aeneay iaoeey – aaeeinoaaiiay yoie/aneay
a?oiia ae?aaiaai ie?a, anooieaoay a n?aaeiaaaeiaue ie?, nio?aieea
iniiaiua /a?ou oa?aeoa?iiai aeey iaa iaeeea oaeeie, eaeeie iie
noi?ie?iaaeenue a i?aaeuaeouee ia?eiae. Aa ?aeeaey e eoeueoo?a
i?aoa?iaee iaiaei eciaiaiee a i?ioeanna eiioaeoa e ai?ueau n eoeueoo?aie
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, ii iie ia ia?aciaaeenue a ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey
i?ioeai?a/eauo e /oaeaeuo ae?oa ae?oao yeaiaioia. Aa?aeneee ia?iae ia
ii?iaa n?aaeieo aaeia ia aue i?eieoeaiui iauanoaii, onaieaoei ae?aaithth
eoeueoo?o, i?aainoiaeeaooth ii/oe ai anao ioiioaieyo aai nianoaaiioth, a
iaoeeae, noi?ie?iaaaoaeny aeaa ouny/e eao iacaae e i?iaeieaeaaoae e ia
yoii yoaia naiae enoi?ee ?acaeaaoue naia aiaaoia aeooiaiia ianeaaeea.

Ec?aeeueoyia

A naiae ?aaioa y eniieuecoth iaoiae ia?aeeaeueiiai n?aaiaiey
enoi?e/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey aa?aaa e aiaeeca ei?iae «iaiioiaeanoe»
yoiai ia?iaea, aai iniaaiiuo iauaaeeiythueo ia i?ioyaeaiee ouny/aeaoee
eaeae ia iniiaa ?aaeueiuo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuo enoi?e/aneeo oaeoia, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e ia iniiaa aeaeaeneeo oaenoia – n ae?oaie.. Iiyoiio a
yoie aeaaa y oi/o aeaoue ianeieueei eioth eioa?i?aoaoeeth
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aa?aaa, eae iia iienuaaaony a Aeaeee. Anoanoaaiii,
iaeeoei aoaeoo yaiua niaiaaeaiey, iioiaeea nthaeaou, eiaaoea ianoi a
enoi?ee, ii ii-naiaio io?aceaoeany e aini?eiyoua ae?aaieie aa?ayie.

Aa?ae – naiue oii?iue ia?iae a enoi?ee. Aeieacaoaeuenoai oiio – Oaa?ii.
Ii iaoiaeeony a aeaaaeoeaoe ieeyo e thao io Ea?onaeeia ia oieiao Eoaeae,
ia aunioa i?eia?ii iieoi?a eeeiiao?a iaae o?iaiai ii?y. Oai, a iaua?a
Iaoiaea, iaoiaeyony iiaeeu iao?ea?oia. Niaeanii ae?aaiaio i?aaeaieth,
oai a iaeiie ec ae?aaiaeoeo a?iaieoe iieiyony inoaiee Aa?aaia,
iniiaaoaey eoaeaeneie ?aeeaee e i?aaeea aa?aeneiai ia?iaea. ?yaeii
iiaeea aai aeaiu Na?u. A i?aaeaeao oiai aea nii?oaeaiey iaoiaeyony aie i
aie iiaeeu eo nuia Enaaea e aai aeaiu ?aaaeee. Ii ae?oaoth noi?iio
aioo?aiiaai aeai?a aua iaeia ia?a iiaee – Aa?aiiaa aioea Eaeiaa e aai
aeaiu Eee. A nia?oaee nii?oaeaiey, nianai ?yaeii n iei, iaoiaeeony
iiaeea eo nuia Eineoa. Ianeieueei iiaeii noaeeoue, eiaiii ionthaea
ia/eiaeanue 4000-eaoiyy enoi?ey aa?aaa.

Oaa?ii – ianoi, aaea aa?ae aia?aua ioeoeeaeueii i?eia?aee caieth. A
aeaaa 23 Eieae Auoey iienaii, eae iinea nia?oe naiae aeaiu Na?u Aa?aai
?aoee eoieoue iaua?o Iaoiaeo e ie?oaeathuea aa caiee a ea/anoaa ianoa
aeey iia?aaaiey naiae aeaiu, a a aeaeueiaeoai e aeey naay. Yoio oaeno –
iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo ai anae Aeaeee. Ii aini?iecaiaeeo iaeii ec
ae?aaiaeoeo e aa?aaeii o?aieiuo aa?aeneeo i?aaeaiee, i/aiue aei?iaia e
nouanoaaiiia aeey aa?aaa. Aa?aai i?enooiaao e ia?aaiai?ai ni neiaaie:
«ss o aan i?eoaeaoe e iinaeaiaoe». Aeey caeeth/aiey naeaeee aio
iaiaoiaeeii caeeth/eoue nia/aea oi?iaeueiia niaeaoaiea n iaueiie,
«nuiaie Oaoiauie», «ia?iaeii caiee oie». Ii caeeth/aieth naeaeee aiiaue
iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi caiey «aeinoaeanue Aa?aaio a nianoaaiiinoue» io
ianoiuo aeeoaeae (Eieaa Auoey, ae. 23). A yoii ia?aii ?aaeueiii yieciaea
aa?aeneie enoi?ee i?ae?anii iieacaiu aeaoniuneaiiinoue e aaniieienoai,
i?enouea aeaiiiio ia?iaeo.

Eoi aea aue yoio Aa?aai e ioeoaea ii i?eoae? Eieaa Auoey e
niioaaonaothuea aeaeaeneea oaenou yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiui
naeaeaoaeuenoaii aai nouanoaiaaiey, i?e/ai a ienueiaiiie oi?ia iie
aicieeee, aiciiaeii, /a?ac ouny/o eao iinea aai i?aaeiieaaaaiiai
nouanoaiaaiey. Aeaeaeneay enoi?ey, eioi?ay, n oi/ee c?aiey o?enoeai,
aa?aaa e aoaenoia, niaea?aeeo aa?iaaiey e i?aae?annoaeee, ainoiaeyuea e
naiui enoieai iaoaai nouanoaiaaiey, – yoi iaeanoue, aaea iauaeoeaiie
ioeaiee iniaaiii o?oaeii aeiaeoueny.

Oai ia iaiaa, ?aneiiee a A?aoeee e iaeie Acee ioe?uoea e ?aneiiee O?ie,
Eiina e ae?oaeo ieiieneeo ai?iaeia ia E?eoa e ieeeaineeo ai?iaeia ia
Iaeiiiianna, oaeaea ?anoeo?iaea e eco/aiea iaeaeaiiuo oai
aeieoiaioaeueiuo iaiyoieeia iicaieeee o/aiui iiae iaiei/eie eaaaiae
iouneaoue iaiaei yeaiaioia ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. E a Iaeanoeia e
a Ne?ee eco/aiea ae?aaieo iinaeaiee, a oaeaea iaoiaeea e ia?aaiae
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ioeoeeaeueii th?eaee/aneie e aaeieieno?aoeaiie
aeieoiaioaoeee oiai a?aiaie iicaieeee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
ainnoaiiaeoue oeaiiinoue ?aiieo aeaeaeneeo oaenoia eae iiaeeeiii
enoi?e/aneeo o?oaeia. Oaeei ia?acii, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aa?ae yaeythony
aaeeinoaaiiui ia?iaeii a ie?a, iaeaaeathuei enoi?e/aneei aeieoiaioii,
oioy ianoaie e aeinoaoi/ii iayniui, eioi?ue iicaieyao ei i?ineaaeeoue
naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea aieioue aei aanueia aeaeaeeo a?aiai.

Aa?ae, eioi?ui i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaoi?noai Aeaeee a aa aieaa eee iaiaa
nia?aiaiiii aeaea, ii-aeaeeiiio n/eoaee, /oi eo iaoeey, eioi?ay
n/eoaaony i?ienoiaeyuae io Aa?aaia , iiaea au i?ienoiaeeoue e io aua
aieaa ae?aaieo i?aaeeia , e iacuaaee naiei i?a?iaeeoaeai Aaeaia. *oi
iio?ynaao a aa?aeneii iienaiee nioai?aiey ie?a e /aeiaaea a n?aaiaiee n
ycu/aneie einiiaiieae, – yoi iieiia ionoonoaea eioa?ana e iaoaieea oiai
eae aiciee ie? e ianaeythuea aai nouanoaa. Aa?ae i?inoi i?aaeiieiaeeee
ecia/aeueiia nouanoaiaaiea anaiiaouaai Aiaa, eioi?ue aeaenoaoao, ii
ieeiaaea ia iienuaaaony e ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony, /oi i?eaeaao aio iiuue e
iaaeaeeiinoue naiie i?e?iaeu. I?e yoii iaeuecy neacaoue, /oiau aa?aeneee
Aia ioiaeaeanoaeyeny au a eaeii-oi niunea n I?e?iaeie. Ianiio?y ia
iieiia ionoonoaea eaeiai-eeai c?eoaeueiiai ia?aca, Aia ianoie/eai
i?aiiaeiineony eae ee/iinoue. Eieaa Aoi?icaeiiey, iai?eia?, noa?aoaeueii
iiae/a?eeaaao ?acee/ea iaaeaeo caaeoaeaeathueieny ycu/ieeaie, eioi?ua
iieeiiythony i?e?iaea e i?e?iaeiui aiaai, e aa?ayie, eioi?ua
iieeiiythony Aiao-ee/iinoe, e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao: «E aeaau ou, acaeyioa ia
iaai e oaeaeaa nieioea, eoio e caacaeu e ana aieinoai iaaaniia, ia
i?aeuenoeeny e ia iieeiieeny ei». Aieaa oiai, Aia-ee/iinoue n naiiai
ia/aea aeaao aaniethoii /aoeea ii?aeueiua onoaiiaee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
niaethaeaoue ana aai oai?aiey, oae /oi a aa?aeneii aa?eaioa ii?aeueiua
eaoaai?ee i?enoonoaotho e yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie aeey ia?auo ethaeae n
naiiai ia/aea. Oaeei ia?acii, aeienoi?e/aneea ?acaeaeu Aeaeee ia?acotho
naiaai ?iaea ii?aeueiue ooiaeaiaio, ia eioi?ii iieieony any oaeoe/aneay
no?oeoo?a. Aa?ae (aeaaea eo naiua i?eieoeaiua i?aaeee) ecia?aaeaiu eae
nouanoaa, iaaeaeaiiua aaniethoiie niiniaiinoueth ioee/aoue enoeiiia io
eiaeiiai.

Eiaiii iaeiaeaiea anaeaineie ii?aee ia oece/aneoth Anaeaiioth
ii?aaeaeyao oi, eae a Aeaeee iienuaaaony ia?aue enoi?e/anee aeinoiaa?iue
yieciae, a eiaiii Aaeeeee Iioii. A Ianiiioaiee iaeiaaea aeaenoaeoaeueii
i?iecioei oaeaniia iaaiaeiaiea. E n/anoueth, aiaeyiie aia Yiee niiauee i
ieaie?oaiie eaoano?ioa iaeiaio oea?th-ae?aoeo ii eiaie Ceoooae?a,
eioi?ue iino?iee eiaeeo e oaeei ia?acii nianny. Oeao?a nianeoaey
Ceoooae?u, auaaaeaiiiai a Aeaeee iiae eiaiai Iiy, yaeyaony ia?aui
iacaaeneiui iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai ?aaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey aeaeaeneiai
ia?niiaaea. Iie eae iineoaeue ii?aee i?i/ii aienuaaaony a nenoaio
oeaiiinoae, noi?ioee?iaaiioth a naiii ia/aea Eieae Auoey. Aa?aeneee
aa?eaio iiaanoaiaaiey ?anniao?eaaao eaaeaeia niauoea iiae oaeii
ii?aeueiuo niia?aaeaiee, a ana aianoa – eae iaeia naeaeaoaeuenoai
aiaeanoaaiiiai i?iiunea. Aieaa oiai, Iie ia i?inoi yaeyaony ia?aie
oeao?ie a aa?aeneie enoi?ee. ?anneac i iai i?aaeainoeuaao ?yae aaaeiuo
yeaiaioia ?aeeaee eoaeaecia. Caeanue e caaioa aa?aeneiai Aiaa i
iiae?iaiinoyo iino?ieee e caa?ocee eia/aaa. Caeanue e iiiyoea i oeao?a
i?aaaaeieea. E, /oi aua aieaa aaaeii, caeanue oeie/ii aa?aeneee aeoeaio
ia aunooth oeaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, i?ienoaeathuoth ec aea?iaaiey
aa Aiaii. Eiaiii iiyoiio neacaii a aeaaa 9 Eieae Auoey: «Eoi i?ieueao
e?iaue /aeiaa/aneoth, oiai e?iaue i?ieueaony ?oeith /aeiaaea: eai
/aeiaae nicaeai ii ia?aco Aiaeeth». Yoi iiaeii n/eoaoue oeaio?aeueiui
iioeaii eoaeaeneie aa?u, e i/aiue aaaeii, /oi i?iaicaeaoaaony eiaiii a
nayce n Iioiiii, ia?aui niauoeai, enoi?e/aneee oaeo eioi?iai eiaao
iaaeaeaeneia i?ienoiaeaeaiea.

A ?acaeaeao, iinayuaiiuo Iioiio, niaea?aeeony oaeaea ia?aia oiiieiaiea i
niaeaoaiee e ia?aay nnueea ia caieth Oaiaaineoth. Ii yoe oaiu ai?acaei
aieaa io/aoeeai i?ineaaeeaathony iicaeiaa, eiaaea ia?a/eneythony oea?e
iineaiioiiiuo a?aiai e ?a/ue caoiaeeo i iao?ea?oao. *oi aea eanaaony
ee/iinoe Aa?aaia, oi a aeaaao 1-25 Eieae Auoey Aeaeey iiaanoaoao i oii,
/oi Aa?aai, iioiiie Iiy, i?eaue ec «O?a Oaeaeaeneiai» nia/aea a Oa??ai,
a caoai a ?acee/iua ianoa caiee Oaiaaineie; ai a?aiy aieiaea ii
iooaoanoaiaae ii Aaeioo, ii aa?ioeny a Oaiaai e caeii/ee aeie naie a
Oaa?iia, oai, aaea a ia?aue ?ac eoiee caieth.

Eae oaea auei neacaii ?aiaa, a eiioea o?aoueaai ouny/aeaoey aei i.y.
aeeciue oeeaeeeciaaiiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai niiauanoaa auea ia?ooaia
aoi?aeaieai n Ainoiea. Yoe ethaee, eioi?ua aeaeaaeenue ec Ianiiioaiee a
noi?iio N?aaeecaiiiii?uey, aiai?eee ia caiaaeiinaieoneeo ycueao, iaeiei
ec eioi?uo yaeyeny ea?eo. Ii?aaeaeaiiay a?oiia eo a ianiiioaineeo
oaaee/eao e ianoaiiuo iaaeienyo eiaiiaaeanue eeai ea?iaeeoii «NA-aac»,
eeai Oaae?o (Oaie?o). O eaaeaeie a?oiiu aue naie oaeo, eee aiaiiue
aiaeaeue, eioi?ue a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe iia iiaanoe n niaie a aie ia?o
ouny/ iineaaeiaaoaeae. Eiaaea o ieo iiyaeyeny oain inanoue ia caiea e
iino?ieoueny, aiaeaeue iacuaae naay oea?ai, e iie ia/eiaee
a?oiie?iaaoueny aie?oa «aaeeeiai oea?y» aeaiiiai ?aaeiia. Aa?aai aue
aiaeaeai iaeiie ec eiiea?aioneeo a?oii oaae?o, eioi?ua oniaee ia?aeoe e
inaaeeiio ia?aco aeecie.

Iaoa?eae ec Eieae Auoey, iiaanoaothuee ia Aa?aaia, iinayuaiiue i?iaeaiai
eiiea?aoeee, aeaaeaiey eieiaeoeaie, aeiaiai?aie e i?aaai ii ?iaeaeaieth,
/aoei iiiauaao iao?ea?oia ia eo enoi?e/aneia ianoi, naeaeaoaeuenoaoy i
aaeeeie ae?aaiinoe e iiaeeeiiinoe aeaeaeneeo iiaanoaiaaiee. Ii yoio
iaoa?eae ia?aiaoai aua aeaoiy aeaeaie iaoa?eaea, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho
aeaenoaeoaeueioth oeaeue Aeaeee: iienaiea n oi/ee c?aiey ii?aee i?aaeeia
eca?aiiiai ia?iaea eae ee/iinoae e, /oi aua aieaa aaaeii,
i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey eo eieeaeoeaiuo acaeiiioiioaiee n Aiaii.
ss?einoue e ?aaeeci, n eioi?uie a yoeo ae?aaiaeoeo aeeciaiienaieyo
ecia?aaeaiu iao?ea?oe e eo naiuee, yaeythony, iiaeaeoe, naiie
caia/aoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth yoiai oai?aiey e ia eiatho aiaeiaia a
ae?aaiae eeoa?aoo?a.

I?eia/aoaeueiui iia i?aaenoaaeyaony e oi aieiaiea, eioi?ia oaeaeaii
aeaiueiai, aaaeouay ?ieue, eioi?oth iie ea?atho, aeeainoue eo ii?o?aoa e
yiioeeiiaeueiue ca?yae. AEaia Aa?aaia Na?a – ia?aue a enoi?ee ia?niiaae,
eioi?ue auaaaeai niathueiny. Eiaaea aa nui Enaae ?iaeeeny (a Na?a auea
oaea a i/aiue i?aeeiiiii aic?anoa) «neacaea Na?a: niao naeaeae iia aia;
eoi ie oneuoeo iai iia, ?anniaaony», e caeanue aa niao – aanaeue,
oi?aeanoaothuee; yoa ?aaeinoue aeiiineony e iai /a?ac i?iianoue /aou?ao
ouny/aeaoee. Aua aieaa aieioao Eieaa ?ooue, aaea iienaia acaeiiay
neiiaoey e i?aaeaiiinoue aeaoo iia/aeaiiuo e iaeeiieeo aeaiuei. Ianiy
Aeaai?u, aioaaeoay a Eieao Noaeae a aeaea aeaau 5, n aa iiiai/eneaiiuie
aeaineeie ia?acaie e iiaaaeiui aeiiii a /anoue aeaineie neeu e
aeiaeanoe, yaeyaony iaaa?iyea ee?e/aneei oai?aieai aeaiueiu. Yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aeaiueiu ea?aee aanueia eiino?oeoeaioth ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee aa?aeneiai iauanoaa, iaeaaeay eioaeeaeooaeueiie e
yiioeeiiaeueiie iiuueth e aunieie na?ueaciinoueth.

Ii aa?iainy e Aa?aaio. ?aiiea ?acaeaeu Aeaeee oeacuaatho ia i?yioth
naycue iaaeaeo ia?iaeiuie aiaeaeyie e Aiaii. Ii?aaeaeythuae caeanue
yaeyaony ?ieue Aa?aaia. Niaeanii Aeaeee ii – i?aaeie aa?aeneiai ia?iaea,
iniiaaoaeue iaoeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii yaeyao niaie i?eia? a aunoae
noaiaie oi?ioaai e ni?aaaaeeeaiai /aeiaaea. Yoi ?aaeueiue /aeiaae,
eioi?iio ia /oaeaeu no?ao, niiiaiey, aeaaea neainen; iaeiaei ii anaaaea
o?aieo aa?iinoue Aiao e aioia neaaeiaaoue aai oeacaieyi.

Ii anee Aa?aai aue iooeii-iniiaaoaeai aa?aeneie iaoeee, aue ee ii oaeaea
iniiaaoaeai eoaeaeneie ?aeeaee? A Eieaa Auoey ii i?iaicaeaoaao iniaua
ioiioaiey aa?aaa n Aiaii, eioi?ue aaeei e anaiiaou. Auaeathueeny
aa?aeneee enoi?ee Naei Aa?ii n/eoaao aai i?ioiiiiioaenoii, i?eoaaeoei ec
oeaio?a, aaea ?acaeoue eoeueo Eoiu i?eia?aoae ca/aoi/ioth oi?io
iiiioaecia. Iiaoaeaeaiey Aa?aaia iineee ?aeeaeiciue oa?aeoa?. Aiieia
aiciiaeii, /oi a yoi a?aiy a aai niciaiee iiiioaenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey
aua iieiinoueth ia noi?ie?iaaeanue, a ii oieueei aeaeaaeny a yoii
iai?aaeaiee, i?e/ai iieeioe Iaaeaeo?a/uea, iioiio /oi oaiioiaa iauanoai
caoei a aeooiaiue ooiee. Iiaeaeoe, auei au oi/iaa anaai iacaaoue Aa?aaia
oaiioaenoii, oi anoue /aeiaaeii, eioi?ue aa?oao a aaeeinoaaiiiai Aiaa
aeaiiiai eiie?aoiiai ia?iaea e i?eciaao i?aai ae?oaeo ia?iaeia eiaoue
nianoaaiiuo aiaia. E oiaaea ii noaiiaeony iniiaaoaeai aa?aeneie
?aeeaeiciie eoeueoo?u, iineieueeo i?iaicaeaoaao aeaa aa
iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeia, a eiaiii Caaao aiaa e aea?iaaiea Nayoie
Caiee. I?eioeei Caaaoa yaeyaony aani?aoeaaeaioiui; ii iaiaao aiaeiaia ia
ae?aaiai Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. ?acoiaaony, caaao Aa?aaio, aoaeo/e
ia?niiaeueiui, ia aeinoeaaao aua o?iaiy caaaoa Iienath, eioi?ue aue
aae?aniaai oaea oeaeie iaoeee. Ii iniiaiua i?eioeeiu caeanue oaea
iaee/anoaotho: yoi, ii nooe, niaeaoaiea i iieeiiaiee, iineooaiee a iaiai
ia iniaoth /anoue; caeanue aia?aua a enoi?ee oeao?e?oao Aia yoe/aneee,
naiaai ?iaea ieeina?aeiue eiinoeoooeeiiiue iiia?o, naycaiiue
nianoaaiiuie iiiyoeyie i ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Niaeanii Eieaa Auoey Aa?aai ia n?aco iniciaao aaaeiinoue ia?aoaiey ei
yoie iioe, /oi yaeyaony i?eia?ii iinoaiaiiiai, ?acaeaathuaainy
i?iyaeaiey aiee Ainiiaeiae. Ieii/aoaeueii aeaaineiaaiea ienoiaeeo ia
Aa?aaia iinea iineaaeiaai eniuoaiey, eiaaea Aia i?eeacuaaao aio i?eianoe
a aea?oao naiaai aaeeinoaaiiiai nuia Enaaea. Eae aiai?eony o Eineoa
Oeaaey, «Aa?aai, n/eoay iaiiaeiiaaiea I?aaeaa/iiio a /ai au oi ie auei
i?aaeinoaeeoaeueiui e iieaaay, /oi neaaeoao aani?aeineiaii iiae/eieoueny
ai anai Oiio, Eioi?ue ii aeaainoe Naiae aea?oao anai aeeciue e naia
?aniieiaeaiea… acye nuia … e ioi?aaeeny a iooue e ai?a.»? Yoi ?acaeae
yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei a Aeaeee, iineieueeo oi?ioee?oao iaeei ec iaeaieaa
ae?aiaoe/iuo e o?oaeiuo aii?inia ai anae enoi?ee ?aeeaee, a eiaiii
aii?in i oaiaeeoeee, /oanoaa ni?aaaaeeeainoe o Aiaa. Oae oi?ie?oaony
aaaeiia iiiyoea a aa?aeneii ie?iaini?eyoee: Aeaaea – aioiaiinoue aa?aaa,
anee iaiaoiaeeii ai eiy aiaa, i?eiineoue a aea?oao naiueth e
nianoaaiioth aeeciue. «Ia ec aeaeaiey /aeiaa/aneie e?iae iiaaeae
Ainiiaeue aio caeeaiea nuia, …ii aeaeay oaaaeeoueny a ia?aca aai iuneae,
o.a. iiaeioaony ee ii aeaaea oaeiio (aeanoieiio) iiaaeaieth. ?ac aea ii
oaaaeeeny a aioiaiinoe Aa?aaia e a aai /?acau/aeiii aeaai/anoee, oi
ionoue ii iieuecoaony anaie aea?iaaiiuie aio aeaaaie»4. A 1843 a.
Euea?eaai? iioaeeeiaae naie oeeinioneee aiaeec yoiai yieciaea «No?ao e
O?aiao», aaea ecia?aaeaao Aa?aaia «?uoea?ai aa?u», aioiaui
iiaea?oaiaaoue aeey Aiaa ia oieueei naiei nuiii, ii e yoe/aneeie
eaeaaeaie.

N oi/ee aea c?aiey enoi?eea yoio ?anneac aiieia eiae/ai, iineieueeo
Aa?aai aue nuiii naiaai a?aiaie, eiie?aoiie enoi?e/aneie ianoaiiaee,
eiaaea auei i?eiyoi ne?aieyoue aeiaiai?, i?eiiny a aea?oao aeeaioiia.
Aeiaiai? aea n Aiaii iaeiiaa?ii, aaneiia/ii aaeee, a iioiio e ne?aieyoue
aai neaaeoao, aea?oaoy naiui ethaeiui a iieiii niunea neiaa. Enaae aue
aua?ai yoei noauaeoii ia oieueei iioiio, /oi yaeye niaie naioth
aei?iaoth nianoaaiiinoue Aa?aaia; ii e oiio aea aue e niaoeeaeueiui
Aiaeueei aea?ii (a niioaaonoaee n Caaaoii) e, iiaeiaii anaio, /oi Aia
aea?iaae /aeiaaeo, i?eiaaeeaaeae Aiao. Oai naiui iiae/a?eeaaeanue naia
oeaeue aea?oaii?eiioaiey: neiaiee/anee iaiiiieoue, /oi ana, /ai /aeiaae
iaeaaeaao, i?eiaaeeaaeeo Aiao e iiaeeaaeeo aica?aoo. Eiaiii iiyoiio
Aa?aai iacuaae ianoi yoiai aeoa iieiaeoaai iiaeiiaaiey ai?ie Eaaiau,
Neiaeneiai i?aaeciaiaiiaaiey e Aaeeeiai Caaaoa. Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi
eiaiii a yoii ianoa a Aeaeee a iaauaieyo Aiaa cao/eo iioea
oieaa?naeueiinoe. Ii ia oieueei aa?aony i?eoiiiaeeoue iioiinoai Aa?aaia,
ii e aeiaaaeyao: «E aeaaineiayony a naiaie oaiai ana ia?iaeu caiee».

Eca?aiiinoue ia?iaea

Oaia?ue iu i?eaeeaeaainy e iiiyoeth «eca?aiiiai ia?iaea». Aaaeii
iiiyoue, /oi a Aaooii Caaaoa ?a/ue eaeao ia i?inoi i ni?aaaaeeeainoe eae
aano?aeoiie eiioeaioeee, ii i ni?aaaaeeeainoe Ainiiaea, eioi?ay
aeaiiino?e?oaony Ainiiaeieie aeoaie auai?a. A Eieaa Auoey iu ano?a/aainy
n ianeieueeeie i?eia?aie «i?aaaaeiiai /aeiaaea», i?e/ai ii ia?aaeei
ieacuaaaony aeaaea aaeeinoaaiiui i?iiiaaaeieeii. Caeanue e enoi?ey Iiy e
Aaeeeiai iioiia, e enoi?ey i ?ac?ooaiee Niaeiia. Aa?aai oiaea
i?aaaaeiee, ii ieaaea ia aiai?eony, /oi ii aue eca?ai Aiaii eae
aaeeinoaaiiue a naiai ?iaea e aneaaenoaea aai aeinoieinoa. Aeaeey ia
yaeyaony naiaeii eiae/aneeo a?aoiaioia; yoi enoi?e/aneee o?oae, aaea
?a/ue eaeao i niauoeyo, eioi?ua aeey ian iaiauynieiu e caaaaei/iu. Iia
iinayuaia aaaeiaeoei auai?ai, eioi?ua Ainiiaeue niecaieee i?iecaanoe.
Aeey iiieiaiey enoi?ee aa?aaa i/aiue aaaeii i?i/oanoaiaaoue cia/aiea,
eioi?ia aa?ae anaaaea i?eaeaaaee iaia?aie/aiiiio i?aao nianoaaiiinoe
Aiaa ia aai oai?aiey. Iiiaea i?aaeaiey aa?aaa niaoeeaeueii
noi?ioee?iaaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ae?aiaoece?iaaoue yoi
aeaaainoaothuee oaeo. E iiiyoea aiaieca?aiiinoe ia?iaea auoaeaao ec
no?aieaiey Ainiiaea iiae/a?eiooue oi, /oi a aai aeanoe iaoiaeyony ana
aai oai?aiey. A aeaiiino?aoeee yoiai oeao?a Aa?aaia yaeyaony eeth/aaie.
Aa?aeneea ioae?aoeu o/eee: «Ii, eoi aeaaineiaai, aeaaeaao iyoueth
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuie Ei aeey naay aauaie. Yoi Oi?a, iaai e caiey,
Aa?aai, Ec?aeeue e Nayuaiiay Iaeoaeue». Ioae?aoeu aa?eee, /oi Aia iia
uaae?i aeaeeoueny naieie oai?aieyie, ii nio?aiye i?e oii naith aeanoue
iaaei anai, a iniaaiiinoe iaae ?yaeii eca?aiiuo yeaiaioia. Auaeyaeeo yoi
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

«Oio, eoi aeaaineiaai, nicaeae aeie e acye naaa noaaioo; ii nicaeae
ianyoeu e acye naaa naaa i?acaeieee; ii nicaeae aiaeu e aua?ae aeey naay
aiae thaeeaeiue; nicaeaa ia?iaeu, ii aua?ae aeey naay Ec?aeeue… Nicaeaa
caiee, ii aician iaae ieie aeey naay caieth Ec?aeey, eai neacaii: «Caiey
– Aiaiaa, ?aaii eae e ana, /ai iia iieieony».

Eca?aiea Aiaeueei i?iiuneii Aa?aaia e aai iioiieia aeey auiieiaiey
iniaiai i?aaeiacia/aiey e aea?iaaiea ei caiee ia?acaeaeeiu a aeaeaeneie
o?aeoiaea enoi?ee. I?e yoii iaa aea?a ieniineaiu ia ai aeaaeaiea, a ai
a?aiaiiia iieueciaaiea: aa?ae eca?aiu, caiey ei aea?iaaia ieeinoueth
Aiaeueae, ii i?aaa yoe iiaoo auoue e ioiaiaiu. Aa?aai iaeiia?aiaiii
yaeyaony e aeeaui i?eia?ii, e aa/iui neiaieii aaniieiyuae aa?aaa
o?oieinoe, a?aiiinoe eo aeaaeaiey. Ii «i?eoaeaoe e iinaeaiaoe» e
inoaaony oaeiaui, aeaaea aoaeo/e eca?ai Aiaii, aeaaea iinea oiai, eae ei
n niaethaeaieai anao oea?aiiiee auea i?eia?aoaia iaua?a Iaoiaea. Eae
iinoiyiii iaiiieiaao iai Aeaeey, yoo cuaeinoue aeaaeaiey oianeaaeiaaee e
ana aai iioiiee. Ainiiaeue aiai?eo ec?aeeueoyiai: «E caieth ia aeieaeii
i?iaeaaaoue iaanaaaea; eai Iiy caiey; au i?eoaeueoeu e iinaeaioeu o
Iaiy»; e naie ethaee i?eciathony a oii, /oi iie i?eoaeueoeu e no?aiieee
o Aiaa, iiaeiaii naiei i?aiooeai; e a iaeiii ec inaeiia oea?ue Aeaaeae
aiai?eo: «Eai no?aiiee y o oaay i?eoaeaoe, eae e ana iooeu iie».

Oai ia iaiaa, iaauaiea caiee Aa?aaio iineo aeiaieueii niaoeeoe/aneee
oa?aeoa?, i?e/ai ioiineony e ae?aaiaeoae /anoe Aeaeee: «Iioiinoao oaiaio
aeath ss caieth neth, io ?aee Aaeiaoneie aei aaeeeie ?aee, ?aee Aao?aoa:
Eaiaaa, Eaiacaaa, Eaaeiiiaaa, Oaooaaa, Oa?acaaa, ?aoaeiia, Aii??aaa,
Oaiaiaaa, Aa?aanaaa e Eaaonaaa». I?aaaea a aii?ina i a?aieoeao
nouanoaoao iaeioi?ay iooaieoea, eai iicaeiaa Ainiiaeue iaauaao eeoue
/anoue auoaoeacaiiie oa??eoi?ee: «E aeai oaaa e iioiieai oaiei iinea
oaay caieth, ii eioi?ie ou no?ainoaoaoue, anth caieth Oaiaaineoth». N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii iiaiaeo aoi?iai aa?eaioa aea?aiey eniieuecoaony
oa?iei «ai aeaaeaiea aa/iia». Yoi iieiaeaiea, ano?a/athuaany e caeanue e
iicaeiaa, icia/aao, /oi eca?aiiinoue Ec?aeey iineo iaia?aoeiue oa?aeoa?,
oioy aai aeaaeaiea e iiaeao auoue a?aiaiii i?a?aaii ethaeneei
iaiiaeiiaaieai Aiao. Iaeiaei, iineieueeo iaauaiey Aiaa iinyo
iaiouaieaiue oa?aeoa?, yoa caiey aa?iaony e Ec?aeeth, aeaaea anee ii
iioa?yaoa ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy. Iiiyoea «Iaaoiaaiiay Caiey» yaeyaony
iniaaiiinoueth eoaeaenoneie ?aeeaee, e aeey ec?aeeueoyi, e aeey aa?aaa
aiiaua, iii auei aa aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii. Aaaeii oi, /oi aa?ae naeaeaee
iyoue ia?auo eiea Aeaeee, Iyoeeieaeea, iniiaie naiae Oi?u, eee aa?u,
iineieueeo eiaiii yoe eieae iinayuaiu aii?inai caeiia Aiaeueaai,
iaauaieth caiee e auiieiaieth yoiai iaauaiey. Aieaa iicaeiea eieae,
ianiio?y ia ana eo aaeeeieaiea e oe?ioo ioaaoa, ieeiaaea ia i?eia?aoaee
noieue eeth/aaiai cia/aiey. Iie oaea ia noieueei ioe?iaaiea, neieueei
aai oieeiaaiea, e caeanue i?aiaeaaeaao oaia eniieiaiiiai caaaoa. A naiia
aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao nianoaaiii Caiey.

Anee Aa?aai o/anoaiaae a oi?ie?iaaiee yoeo iniiaiiieaaathueo i?eioeeiia,
oi aai aioeo Eaeiao (aoi?ia eiy – Ec?aeeue) i?aaenoiyei caaea/ue aeeciue
eiie?aoiiai ia?iaea, Ec?aeey, iinea /aai aai eiy e iacaaiea ia?iaea
noaee ia?ac?uaii naycaiu. Enoaoe, anaaaea nouanoaiaaea i?iaeaia, eae
i?aaeeueii iacuaaoue yoo iaoeeth. Oa?iei «aa?ae», no?iai aiai?y, iaeuecy
n/eoaoue oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui, oioy aai /anoi i?eoiaeeony
eniieueciaaoue; aeaei a oii, /oi iaeiaiiaaiea «oaae?o», io eioi?iai
neiai «aa?ae» i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii i?ienoiaeeo, icia/aei nei?aa ia?ac
aeecie, /ai ii?aaeaeaiioth ?aniaoth a?oiio. Aieaa oiai, iii iineei
oie/eaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oa?iei «aa?ae» iiaeii ano?aoeoue a
Iyoeeieaeee, aaea ii icia/aao «aeaoe Ec?aeey», ii oieueei a oii neo/aa,
anee aai oiio?aaeytho aaeioyia eee naie ec?aeeueoyia, ii a i?enoonoaee
aaeioyi. I?eia?ii ni II aaea aei i.y. n eaaeie ?oee Aai-Ne?u oa?iei
«aa?aeneee» noae eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey ycuea Aeaeee, a
oaeaea anao iineaaeothueo ?aaio, iaienaiiuo ia oii aea ycuea. I?e yoii
neiai iinoaiaiii iioa?yei naie oie/eaeeoaeueiue iooaiie, oae /oi naie
aa?ae e neiiaoece?othuea ei i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae
naie ca/anooth noaee ioaeaaaoue aio i?aaeii/oaiea ia?aae oa?ieiii
«eoaeae» aeey iaicia/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Ii a oeaeii
iioiiee eoaeaaa noa?aeenue ia iacuaaoue naay aa?ayie. Ii ia?a oiai eae
e?aiei eo iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea, iie noaee iieueciaaoueny eae
ii?iaoeaiui aeaeaeneei oa?ieiii «ec?aeeueoyia», eee «aeaoe Ec?aeey».

*?acau/aeii aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey yaiethoeee ?aeeaeiciie e yoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u iaoeee eiae yoai a?aiaiiiai i?aauaaiey e enoiae ec Aaeioa, a
oaeaea iineaaeothuea aeoaeaeaiey ii ionouia. Iaoiaeynue a Aaeioa,
ec?aeeueoyia anaaaea ciaee, /oi o ieo anoue ?iaeeia, eoaea iiaeii
aa?iooueny e aaea /anoue ianaeaiey e yaeyaony eo anoanoaaiiuie
nithcieeaie. Ec aeaeaeneiai iiaanoaiaaiey, aaea Eieaa Auoey
caeai/eaaaony nia?oueth Eineoa, neaaeoao, /oi a Aaeiao ioi?aaeeanue any
iaoeey. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi a Oaiaaia inoaaaeanue cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue ec?aeeueoyi, iineieueeo nouanoaoao iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea eo
aieinoaaiiinoe e aeoeaiinoe. I?aaeaea anaai ?a/ue eaeao i Oaoaia. Yoi
ia?aue e?oiiue ai?iae, caaiaaaiiue nuiiaueyie Eaeiaa, e ii aiieia iia
noaoue ia?aui ianoiiaoiaeaeaieai iaoeeiiaeueiiai Aiaa. Oaoai iaoiaeeeny
iiae eiio?ieai ec?aeeueoyi-aa?aaa ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai i?aauaaiey eo
ni?iaee/ae a aaeiaoneii ?aanoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, a?aiaiiia i?aauaaiea e enoiae ec Aaeioa, a oaeaea
iineaaeothuea aeoaeaeaiey ii ionouia cao?aaeaaee eeoue /anoue
ec?aeeueneie iaoeee. Yoi, ii nooe, eeth/aaie iiiaio a eo enoi?ee, e
aa?ae anaaaea i?eciaaaee aai oaeiaui, iineieueeo eiaiii oiaaea aia?aua
auea ai anai aaee/ee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaia aiey aaeeiiai Aiaa, eioi?iio
iie iieeiiyeenue, aai niiniaiinoue auaanoe eo ec aaee/aeoae eiia?ee e
aea?iaaoue ei iaaoiaaiioth caieth. Iaeiia?aiaiii auei
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii e iiiaiia?acea o?aaiaaiee Aiaa, eioi?ui iie aeieaeiu
auee ioaa/aoue. Aei oiai eae iie iai?aaeeenue a Aaeiao, ec?aeeueoyia
auee iaaieueoei ia?iaeii n?aaee aio iiaeiaiuo, oioy ia?aae ieie e
iay/eei aiaeanoaaiii iaauaiea aoaeouaai aaee/ey. Iinea aica?auaiey iie
i?aa?aoeeenue a iaoeeth, iaaeaeaiioth oeaeueth e i?ia?aiiie aeaenoaee,
eioi?ie auei /oi neacaoue ie?o.

A ia/aea e a eiioea yoiai ia?eiaea noiyo aeaa iaeaieaa aeiiioe/aneea
ee/iinoe a enoi?ee aa?aaa – Eineo e Iienae. Iaa auee ieaaeoeie
nuiiaueyie a naiuea. Aeaeey iieacuaaao, /oi aieueoeinoai ethaeae ia
?iaeaeaeinue ia aunieii iinoo e ia iaeaeaeinue aeanoueth io ?iaeaeaiey,
a ia?aoaee eo nianoaaiiuie noa?aieyie, naie aoaeo/e iauaeoii
aiaeanoaaiiiai i?iiunea. Iaiei auee aea?iaaiu Aiaii ea/anoaa, aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ui eo noa?aiey ioe?uee ei iooue e aaee/eth. Ooo io/aoeeai
i?ineaaeeaaaony ia?aeeaeue. Iiaeiaii oiio, eae ieaaeoee, aieaa neaaue
nui iieo/aao iooeianeia ianeaaenoai (noaiiaeony I?i?ieii, nayuaiieeii,
oea?ai), iaei/eneaiiue e neaaue ia?iae noaiiaeony o?aieoaeai Caaaoa n
Aiaii, iieo/ay Aiaeuea aeaaineiaaiea. Noauaeou ia yaeyeenue oai, /ai iie
eaaeoony, – oaeiai iieiia iaaeaaeaeu ioe?iaaiea, eioi?ia iieo/aee aa?ae
ia i?ioyaeaiee anae naiae enoi?ee. Yoa iaaeaaeaea, ieoaaiay aa?ayie a
o?oaeiue aeey anaai ia?iaea /an, i?ioiaeeo e?aniie ieoueth e ii ae?oaei
aeaeaeneei nthaeaoai.

Eineo aue e?oiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui aeayoaeai – ieieno?ii i?e /oaeii
i?aaeoaeai. Eae neacae aio oa?aii: «Iao noieue ?acoiiiai e ioae?iai, eae
ou». Eineoo oaeaeaii cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a Eieaa Auoey.

Iienae aue eeth/aaie oeao?ie a aa?aeneie enoi?ee. Iienae aue
niceaeaoaeueiie neeie , oi?ie?iaaaoae aa, eiaiii iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii
e aeaaiaea?y aio iie ieii/aoaeueii auaeaeeeenue a ea/anoaa ia?iaea, o
eioi?iai eiaaony aoaeouaa. Iienae aue iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiui aa?aai a
aeio?enoeaineea a?aiaia. Iienae ia?aaeaao naith aeanoue a ?oee Eenona
Iaaeia – i?aaiieea, eca?aiiiai Aiaii ia?aae anai Ec?aeeai.

Enoiae ec Aaeioa neoaeeo iiaeaeueth aeey anao ecaaaeaiee a aoaeouai.
I?i?iee a?aiai aaaeeiineiai ieaia iinoiyiii ia?auathony e Enoiaeo i?e
iienaiee aoaeouaai ecaaaeaiey Ec?aeey. Enoiae neiaieece?oao e Aiaeueth
caueoo Ec?aeey, e iaycaoaeuenoaa iineaaeiaai ia?aae Ainiiaeii. Yoi
onoie/eaia ni/aoaiea eca?aiiinoe e iaycaoaeuenoa ninoaaeyao iniiaioth
/anoue aeaoo ae?oaeo oeaio?aeueiuo iiiaioia Oi?u: Caaaoa e Caeiia.
Aaaeiaeoee Caaao Aiaa n Ec?aeeai aue caeeth/?i ia ai?a Neiae. Ii
ioee/aaony io i?aaeieo aeiaiai?ia oai, oi ia aa?aaa iaeeaaeuaathony
ii?aaeaeaiiua iaycaoaeuenoaa – yoi aeiaiai?, nii?iaiaeaeaaiue oneiaeyi.
I?iaeeaiea noaoona ia?iaea Aiaeueaai e aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoueny
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii Aiaa a aeaeueiaeoai oaia?ue iai?yioth oaycuaathony n
ii?aeueth aa?aaa, eo iiaaaeaieai i?e ioi?aaeaiee eoeueoa e a
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Oieeaeueiui ioee/eai aeaiiiai caaaoa io
i?aaeuaeoueo yaeyaony oi, /oi ii caeeth/?i iaaeaeo aiaii e anai
aa?aeneei ia?iaeii. Oaeei ia?acii, auaeeaaiea aa?aeneiai ia?iaea nae/an
e a aoaeouai caaeneo io aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee n aiaii e io auiieiaiey
acaeiiuo iaycaoaeuenoa, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caaaoii. Oaeei ia?acii, Enoiae
aue aeoii iieeoe/aneiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey e nii?ioeaeaiey, ii ii aue
oaeaea ?aeeaeiciui aeoii. Aeaei a oii, /oi ec?aeeueoyia anaaaea auee
iniauie e aaeioyia aeaeaee eo iniainoue e aiyeenue a?. Oeoe icia/aei
aeey ieo ii?aaoue ia oieueei n oece/aneei ?aanoaii, ii e n eeoaiiie
aicaeooa aeooiaiie oth?ueiie.

Aiaeanoaaiiia ecaaaeaiea aa?aeneiai ia?iaea io aaeiaoneiai ?aanoaa,
iienaiiia a Enoiaea (Oiio), aa?iyoii, yaeyaony aa?oeiie anaai
iiaanoaiaaiey Oi?u. A Eieaa Enoiae ia ec?aeeueoyiao aia?aua aiai?eony
eae i oeaeii ia?iaea, a ia ia ioaeaeueiie, oioy e ?acaaoaeaiiie, naiuea.

Ia?aoiae e iiiioaecio e e aaeeiiio e anaiiaouaio Aiao icia/ae
iaeiia?aiaiii ia?aoiae e iiaui yoe/aneei i?eioeeiai e iaoiaee/iiio
i?eeiaeaieth eo e /aeiaa/aneei nouanoaai. Ana aianoa yoi ciaiaiiaaei
iaeei ec aaeeeeo iiai?ioiuo iiiaioia a enoi?ee.

Aa?aeneay Aeaeey

Aiaeec enoi?ee ae?aaieo aa?aaa, eae iia o?aeooaony Aeaeeae, e a
/anoiinoe i?ienoiaeaeaiey eo «aiaieca?aiiinoe», eiae/anee o?aaoao
aaaaeaiey aeaau, iinayuaiiie yoiio aaieaeueiiio e aannia?oiiio
oai?aieth.

Aa?aeneay Aeaeey, eiaioaiay oaeaea Aaooei Caaaoii e OAIAOii, – eieaa,
eioi?oth oeaiyo e ii/eoatho ethaee, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e naiui ?aciui
?aeeaeiciui e yoie/aneei iauiinoyi. Iniaaiiinoue Aeaeee caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi iia nio?aieeanue eae aeeaia ianeaaeea aeeaiai ia?iaea, nuiu
eioi?iai caieiaeenue ath e eco/aee aa ouny/aeaoeyie. *a?ac iin?aaenoai
yoiai ia?iaea Aeaeey noaea aeinoiyieai anaai /aeiaa/anoaa.
Iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea aa?aeneiai oai?/aneiai aaiey, niaea?aeauaa
?aeeaeiciia iuoeaiea aa?aaa, eo iauanoaaiiua eaeaaeu, eo ae?aaiee yiin e
ee?e/aneoth iiyceth, i?aa?aoeeinue a ooiaeaiaioaeueiue aeeaae a ie?iaoth
eoeueoo?o e noaei oai?aieai, eiathuei oieaa?naeueiia cia/aiea. Ioeaiea
Aeaeee iaiyeanue a ?acee/iua enoi?e/aneea yiioe, ia/eiay n oiai a?aiaie,
eiaaea aa ?anniao?eaaee eae Aiaeanoaaiiia ioe?iaaiea, e eioi?iio ia
oieueei cai?auai e?eoe/aneee iiaeoiae, ii e aaea neaaeoao ioiineoueny
eae e nayouia e eaaeaeiio neiao, aieioue aei e?aia io?eoeaoaeueiiai
iiaeoiaea iiaa?oiinoiuo ?aoeeiiaeenoia – «aieueoa?ueyioeaa» – XVIII a. a
eo ai?ueaa i?ioea aeeyiee oea?eae.

Aeaeaeneea oaenou nicaeaaaeenue ia i?ioyaeaiee nioai eao e n oa/aieai
a?aiaie i?eiyee oi?io ioaeaeueiuo eiea. Ionthaea eo iacaaiea «aeaeey»,
/oi icia/aao ii-a?a/anee «eieae» (ai iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea). Naii
iacaaiea «Aaooee» Caaao iiae?acoiaaaao nouanoaiaaiea «Iiaiai» Caaaoa.
Yoi aiaineianeia iieiaeaiea eaaeeo a iniiaa o?enoeainoaa. Ii?yaeie
?aniieiaeaiey eiea o?enoeaineiai Aaooiai Caaaoa iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yoo
oaieiae/aneoth iinueeo. A oeaeii iie ?aniieiaeaiu a o?iiieiae/aneii
ii?yaeea eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho eeoue i?i?i/aneea eieae – ana iie
iiiauaiu a eiioea, /oiau iiae/a?eiooue o?enoeaineia i?i/oaiea i?i?ieia,
niaeanii eioi?ie iineaaeiea i?aaeaauaee i?eoanoaea O?enoa. Oa?iei
«aa?aeneay Aeaeey» ioiineony e oai aea eieaai, ia ?aniieiaeaiiui a
o?aaeeoeeiiiii aeey eoaeaecia ii?yaeea.

Aa?aeneee oa?iei OAIAO – ia /oi eiia, eae ae?iiei, ninoiyuee ec ia?auo
aoea iacaaiee ia?aiia/aeueiuo ?acaeaeia Aa?aeneie Aeaeee, ioee/iuo i
oao, /oi i?eiyou a o?enoeainoaa. Aa?aeneay Aeaeey ninoieo ec neaaeothueo
?acaeaeia: «Iyoeeieaeea» (Oi?a, aoea. «O/aiea»_), «I?i?iee» (Iaaeei) e
«Ienaiey» (Eooaei). Aeaeaeneee eaiii aue ieii/aoaeueii ooaa?aeaeai ieiei
ia/aea iaoae y?u. Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ana iaienaiiia a eaiiie/aneeo
eieaao auei iauyaeaii nayuaiiui, oaeno Aeaeee nio?aieeny a iniiaiii aac
eciaiaiee e aue oaa?aaeai io eneaaeaiee e aeiaaaie eiiiaioaoi?ia. Aeaeey
niaea?aeeo ia oieueei ?acii?iaeiua ycueiaua e noeeenoe/aneea neie, ii e
?acee/iua, ii?ie i?ioeai?a/eaua iauanoaaiiua e aeooiaiua oaiaeaioeee.
Ianiio?y ia yoi, a aeaeaeneii eiiieaena eiaaony aaeeinoai ie?iiiieiaiey,
yaeythuaany ia oieueei ?acoeueoaoii oneeee niae?aoaea aeaeaeneeo
oaenoia, ii e au?aaeaieai iniiaiiai iai?aaeaiey, ii eioi?iio oei
aeooiaiia ?acaeoea aa?aeneiai ia?iaea io ia?auo aeiae ieaiaiiiai
iauanoaa aei oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea auee nicaeaiu iineaaeiea eieae Aeaeee.

Aeaeey yaeyaony o?aieeeuai ianeaaeey ?acee/iuo yiio, ioaeaeaiiuo ae?oa
io ae?oaa nioiyie eao. Aa aunoee eiia?aoea – «E ni?aaaaeeeainoe, e
ni?aaaaeeeainoe no?aienue» (Aoi?icaeiiea XVI, 20). Yoa oaiaeaioeey
aeaeeo a no?aieaiee e ni?aaaaeeeainoe aa?oeio i?aanoaaiiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie, a oaeaea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiie
ee/iinoueth e eieeaeoeaii, a eioi?ii iia aeeaao.

Aeaeey eae nayuaiiia ienaiea neoaeeea ai ana a?aiaia enoi/ieeii
?aeeaeiciiai aaeioiiaaiey aeey ieeeeiiia aa?othueo ethaeae aeaaiaea?y
iiuiinoe ?aeeaeiciiai /oanoaa, eioi?ui iia i?iieeiooa, aeaaiaea?y oiio,
/oi a iae iiae/a?eeaaaony oeaiiinoue /aeiaaea, eae i?aanoaaiiie
ee/iinoe, ioaaonoaaiiie ca naie iinooiee, a oaeaea aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi
iia eaaea a iniiao o?ao ie?iauo ?aeeaee: eoaeaecia, o?enoeainoaa e
eneaia.

A /ai aea ninoieo eoeueoo?iia e enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea Aeaeee aeey
nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea?

1. Aeaeey yaeyaony eeanne/aneei eeoa?aoo?iui i?iecaaaeaieai,
aeeth/athuei a naay iiaanoaiaaoaeueioth i?ico, yie/aneoth e ee?e/aneoth
iiyceth aa?aeneiai ia?aea a ae?aaiinoe, a oaeaea nai?ieee ec?a/aiee e
iineiaeoe, a eioi?uo au?aaeaiu aeeoaeneay ioae?inoue ia?iaeiuo iann e
/ayiey e eneaiey eiaeeaeaea. Yoi iiioiaioaeueiia eeoa?aoo?iia oai?aiea
auei ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii a aic?iaeaeaiee ycuea ea?eo e iiaie
iaoeeiiaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u ia ea?eoa, eioi?ia nii?iaiaeaeae
iaoeeiiaeueiia i?iaoaeaeaiea aa?aeneiai ia?iaea e aai aica?auaiea ia
ae?aaithth ?iaeeio, i?eaaaeoaa a aai iacaaeneiinoe a ainoaea?noaa
Ec?aeeue.

2. Aeaeey yaeyaony enoi/ieeii eaeaeiiai oai?/anoaa aa?aeneiai ia?iaea,
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iui au?aaeaieai eioi?iai auee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ii?aeue
e nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneea caeiiu. ss eiath a aeaeo eiiieaen nioeeaeueiuo
onoaiiaeaiee, i?eiaaeeaaeauee e ae?aaiaeoei naiaeai caeiiia oaeiai
?iaea. A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yoe i?eioeeiu eaaee a iniiao ?acaaoaeaiiie
nenoaiu, iai?eia? ni?aaaaeeeaia ioiioaiea e iiiiuue /oaeano?aioeo e
i?eoaeueoeo a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aeene?eieiaoeee /oaeano?aioeaa a
aieueoeinoaa ae?aaieo iauanoa.

3.Aeaeey yaeyaony oaeaea enoi/ieeii iniaiai enoi?e/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey,
niaeanii eioi?iio aiaiiay iiuue e iieeoe/aneee oniao, aeaaea anee iie
i?eaaee e nicaeaieth iiaouanoaaiiie eiia?ee e aeaaeu/anoao iaae
ii?aaiuaiiuie ia?iaeaie, ie a eiae ia?a ia yaeythony e?eoa?eai
enoi?e/aneie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Eiaiii neaaue ia?iae, ii?aaiuaiiue
ae?oaeie, iiaeao auoue iineoaeai eaeae aoiaiiinoe e ni?aaaaeeeainoe.

Eneeth/eoaeueiia aieiaiea neaaeoao ia?aoeoue ia aeaeaeneoth eaeath
iniaaiiinoe aa?aeneiai ia?iaea («oea?noai nayuaiieeia, ia?iae nayoie»),
eioi?ay a iaiaeie ia?a auea eneaaeaia aioenaieoaie anao a?aiai.

Iniiaiay oeaeue eaiiiecaoeee oaenoa e ninoaaa Aeaeee caeeth/aeanue a
oii, /oiau nicaeaoue aa?aeneiio ia?iaeo e?aieea e onoie/eaua ?aiee –
?aeeaeiciua, ii?aeueiua e i?aaiaua – aeey aai naiiauoiiai nouanoaiaaiey.
Iaeiaei yoe ?aiee ia eiaee a naaa ieeaeiai yeaiaioa iainiaeaiiinoe e
naia?aoecia eee iaiaaenoe e ae?oaei ia?iaeai.

Yoe iniiau aeieaeiu auee neoaeeoue aeooiaiui eaeaaeii anaio ia?iaeo, eae
eieeaeoeao, e eaaeaeie aaeeie/iie ee/iinoe, e yoi eiaiii a yiioo
ainoi/iuo aeaniioee, a eioi?uo ?yaeiaie /aeiaae n/eoaeny eeoue ?aai/ae
neeie, ianeoaeeaathuae i?aayuee eeann e ie a eiai neo/aa ia iia auoue
iineoaeai aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae.

Eaeay «eca?aiiinoe», eneeth/eoaeueiay aeey aa?aeneiai ia?iaea,
aiceaaathuay ia iaai oyaeaeua iaycaiiinoe, inoaaeea naie ioia/aoie ia
anae Aeaeee. Iia i?eaeaao iaeioi?oth oaiaeaioeeiciinoue aeaaea aa
enoi?eia?aoe/aneei /anoyi. Iaeiaei eiaiii yoa oaiaeaioeeiciinoue
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aeaeaeneea enoi?eia?aou ia ioeaieaatho oea?ae ii
eo aiaiiui eee iieeoe/aneei oniaoai, a ii eo aa?iinoe
?aeeaeicii-ii?aeueiui i?eioeeiai. Oae, aianoi iaiaeanoaeaiey oea?noaa e
aeanoe, iauai?eiyoiai a ainoi/iuo aeaniioeyo, nicaeaoaee Aeaeee aicaaee
?aeeaeicii-ii?aeueiue e?eoa?ee ca iueaaeanoae iaeaunoaai eaeaaea.

Ai?oeaie ca inouanoaeaiea yoeo eaeae a Ec?aeea a aeaeaeneea a?aiaia auee
i?i?iee. A aa?aeneii ia?iaea i?i?i/anoai ?acaeeinue e aicauneeinue aei
noaiaie iieeoe/aneie, nioeeaeueiie e i?aanoaaiiie iennee. I?i?i/anoai
au?aaeaao iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiua iauanoaaiiua, ?aeeaeiciua e ii?aeueiua
eaeae, eioi?ua nic?aee a ae?aaiaaa?aeneii iauanoaa a oeaeii. I?i?iee,
oae aea eae ae?aoeu, AUNOOIAEE IO EIAIE Aiaa Ec?aeeaaa, ii ii?aeueiua e
nioeeaeueiua caeiiu, i?iaicaeaoaiiua eie io aai eiaie, ia auee
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey oiai, /oiau io?aiyoue i?eaeeaaee nayuaiie/aneiai
nineiaey, a, iai?ioea, aeey ai?ueau i?ioea i?aayueo eeannia, i?ioea
ae?aoeia, oea?ae e oea?aaeai?oeaa.

Aanueia oa?aeoa?iu, iai?eia?, neiaa Enaee, ia?auathuaainy e ia?iaeo io
eiaie Aiaa a VIII a. aei i.y.: «E /aio iia iiiaeanoai aea?oa aaoeo?
–aiai?eo Ainiiaeue- ss i?anuuai ananiaeaeaieyie iaiia…Iiieoanue,
i/enoeoanue; oaeaeeoa ceua aeayiey aaoe io i/ae iieo; ia?anoaiueoa
aeaeaoue cei. Iao/eoanue aeaeaoue aeia?i; eueoa i?aaaeu; nianaeoa
oaiaoaiiiai; caueuaeoa ne?ioo; anooiaeoanue ca aaeiao».

Iao niiiaiey a oii, /oi yoe eaeaaeu, iaoaaeoea naia au?aaeaiea a
aeaeaeneeo eieaao, a a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a neiaao i?i?ieia, noaee oai
oaeoi?ii, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio aue?enoaeeeciauaaeinue naiiniciaiea
aa?aeneiai ia?iaea, e, iiaeao auoue, yoi e eiae a aeaeo Aai?eo Aaeia,
iacaaa Aeaeeth «ii?oaoeaiie ?iaeeiie» aa?aeneiai ia?iaea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iainii?eiui enoi?e/aneei oaeoii yaeyaony oi, /oi
aa?aeneee ia?iae – yoi aaeeinoaaiiue ec ia?iaeia ae?aaiaai Ainoiea,
eioi?ue ia aue iiaeiuai ae?oaeie e ia en/ac n eeoea caiee iinea iioa?e
naiae iacaaeneiinoe (a 586 a. aei i.y.), a nio?aiee naie ycue e naith
iaoeeiiaeueioth eoeueoo?o e ?aeeaeicioth naiiauoiinoue – e, aica?aoynue
ia ?iaeeio ec aaaeeiineiai ieaiaiey iinea 538 aiaea, ia/ae caeeaaeuaaoue
ooiaeaiaio aeey aiciaiiaeaiey naiaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey, oioy
e a iiauo oneiaeyo e iiauie oai?/aneeie iooyie, ioee/iuie io aeaeaeneeo.

Ioiioaiea e aa?ayi ni noi?iiu ianaeaiey ?eineie eiia?ee

A iineaaeiae aeaaa naiae ?aaiou y oi/o i?eaanoe eioa?aniua ia iie
acaeyae aeaiiua, ii/a?iiooua iiie ec eieae A.Othiaiaaa «Aa?ae a
ae?aaiinoe e a n?aaeiea aaea» 1922 aiaea. Yoe oaeou eanathony ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo aa?aeneie aeeanii?ie e oocaiiui ianaeaieai oao ianoiinoae, ia
eioi?ua aa?aeneay aeeanii?a ?ani?ino?aiyeanue. Oioy yoa eioi?iaoeey ia
ia?aue acaeyae ia ioiineony iai?yioth e oaia iiae ?aaiou, ii ana aea y
n/eoath aa aaaeiui aeey iiieiaiey enoieia i?ioeai?a/eaiai ioiioaiey e
aa?ayi, aiieeooaea eioi?iai eieaaeaony io iaiieieaaeiie aa?u a aai
oieeaeueiinoue aei aeoaieie iaiaaenoe.

Ii ia?a iianaianoiiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey aa?aaa ca?iaeaeaeanue a?aaeaea e
iaiaaenoue, /oanoai aeoaieie iai?eycie e eiicaioeai. Aua ieiei iieiaeiu
aoi?iai noieaoey aei iaoae y?u aeaenaiae?eeneay neaeeea aiai?eo i
iianaianoiie a?aaeaea e iei.

«Ana caiee e ii?y eniieiaiu oiaith.

Ana iaeeiaeiai a?aaeaeaaii ioiinyony e oaaa», – n oaeeie neiaaie
ia?auaaony aaoi? iaeiiai ec oae iacuaaaiuo neaeeeeiuo noeoioai?aiee e
aa?aeneiio ia?iaeo. Eae ie ii?aaeaeaiiu noaeaeaiey ?eineeo ienaoaeae i
aa?ayo, iieaaaoueny ia ieo ia noieo. Eo iinoiyiiia iiae/a?eeaaiea
ioa?aoeoaeueiinoe ?aeeaeiciuo ia?yaeia aa?aaa e eo ?aeeaeiciie
eneeth/eoaeueiinoe ioia/atho eeoue neiioiiu iai?eycie, i?iyaeythuaeny
i?aaeaea anaai a eaeaieiae/aneie, o.a. ?aeeaeiciie oi?ia, ii ia iiaoo
neoaeeoue iniiaaieai i?e auyniaiee i?e/ei yoie iai?eycie. I?ioea
nianoaaiii ?aeeaeiciuo i?e/ei a?aaeaeaaiuo ioiioaiee e aa?ayi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ?yae i?e/ei: ia a?a/aneii Ainoiea, aaea
a?aaeaeaaiinoue i?iyaeeanue a iniai ino?uo oi?iao, ia?aui noieeiiaaieyi
i?aaeoanoaiaae iaithaeiua iiiuoee naeeaeaiey eiaiii ia ?aeeaeiciie
ii/aa. Oaeaea yoa a?aaeaea aicieeaea iianthaeo a ianoao ?ani?ino?aiaiey
aeeanii?u ni noi?iiu ia?iaeia n naiuie ?aciiia?aciuie ?aeeaeiciuie
iau/ayie e i?aaenoaaeaieyie. I/aaeaeii, i?e/eiu oaeie eneeth/eoaeueiie e
ia eiathuae naaa aiaeiaee a enoi?ee a?aaeaeu e aa?ayi neaaeoao eneaoue
ia noieueei a ?aeeaeiciie iaoa?ieiinoe ii ioiioaieth e iei, yaeythuaeny
eeoue eaeaieiae/aneei au?aaeaieai yoie a?aaeaeu, neieueei a oao iniauo
oneiaeyo, a eaeeo i?ioaeaea aeeciue aa?aaa aeeanii?u, e a oao iniauo
ioiioaieyo, a eaeea iie auee iinoaaeaiu e ie?oaeathuaio ianaeaieth.

I?aaeaea anaai yoi oneiaey niaoeeaeueii ai?iaeneie aeecie, i?aa?aoeaoea
aa?aaa aeeanii?u a ai?iaeneeo aeeoaeae. Iaaeaaii?eyoiia iieiaeaiea
aa?aaa a ea/anoaa «i?e?iaeaeaiiuo /oaeacaioeaa» a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
oooaeoaeinue oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi iie ia?aciaaee iaoeeth ai?iaeai,
o?aouea nineiaea a oneiaeyo aeecie ae?aaiinoe, eiaaea ia i?iecioei
?aceiai ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo ai?iaeii e aea?aaiae. I?e oaeeo oneiaeyo aa?ae
ii ioiioaieth e iannai i?i/aai ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ninoaaeyee ia
oieueei /oaeaeia, ia e /oaea?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea, a yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
oaaee/eaaei iaiiieiaiea e /oanoai iai?eycie. Yoa iai?eyciue
iaoneaaeeaaeanue i?aaeaea anaai iianaieai aiciiaeiie n eo noi?iiu
eiieo?aioeee ia iii?eua oi?aiaie e ?aianeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a aaaeue
eiaiii aa?ae iieieaieyie ?acaeaaee neeiiiinoe e ?aciiai ?iaea
niaoeeaeueii ai?iaeneei i?ioanneyi.

*oi aea eanaaony aeecie naiie aa?aeneie aeeanii?u, iiaeii ioiaoeoue
neaaeothuaa. Aaeeiiia?acea oneiaee e i?eau/ae aeecie, oiaeaeanoai
eioa?ania oe?aieyei e oi?i/eaaei naycue ia oieueei iaaeaeo /eaiaie
iaeiie iaueiu, ii e iaaeaeo iaueiaie, ?annayiiuie ii ?acee/iui ai?iaeai,
e, oaeei ia?acii, ia aeaaaei aa?aai aeeanii?u ?anoai?eoueny a ianna
i?i/aai ianaeaiey.

ss n/eoath, /oi oaeia oieeiaaiea iaaaoeaiiai ioiioaiey e aa?ayi,
ca?iaeeaoaainy aua a ae?aaiinoe, oioy e ia yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei aeey
iiieiaiey iaaaoeaiiai ioiioaiey e iei e a iaoe aeie, ii eiaao iniiaaiey
e iiaeoaa?aeaeaao ecaanoiue oaeo. Ai ana a?aiaia neeueiui ee/iinoyi, a a
aeaiiii neo/aa neeueiiio yoiino i?eoiaeeeinue ionoaeaaoue naie
iacaaeneiue acaeyae, naith oieeaeueiinoue a i?ioeaiai?noaa n
ie?oaeathuei ie?ii. Ai?ueaa yoa iiaeao i?ioiaeeoue ia oieueei a oi?ia
i?yiiai i?ioeainoiyiey, ii a ionoaeaaiee naieo eaeaaeia, oeaiiinoae,
i?eioeeiia. A yoii niunea aa?aeneee ia?iae yaeyaony oaeeaeoaeueiui e
aaeioiiaeythuei i?eia?ii noieeinoe e aa?iinoe naiei eaeaaeai.

Caeeth/aiea

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ouny/aeaoee iiiaea aa?ae e iaaa?ae ni?aoeaaee naay, a /ai
caeeth/aaony oaeia nouanoaiaaiey, aeieaiaa/iinoe e iaiiaeaiey aa?aeneiai
ia?iaea. Ii/aio aieaa e?oiiua yoie/aneea e iauanoaaiiua a?oiiu e ia
iaiaa ?acaeoua e iiao/ea eoeueoo?u e oeeaeeecaoeee nioee n enoi?e/aneie
a?aiu, en/acioa niaa?oaiii, neeaoenue n ae?oaeie eee ?anoai?eaoenue a
ieo, eae iai?eia?, ia?nu a ionoeueiaineie eoeueoo?a, a?aee a
?einei-aecaioeeneie, a aa?ae inoaeenue aa?ayie. A naiai nianoaaiiii
naiiniciaiee e a niciaiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iie «nuiu Aa?aaia, Enaaea
e Eaeiaa». Yoa iai?a?uaiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai nouanoaiaaiey auea naia ii
naaa i?e/eiie ecoieaiey, iaiaeaiey, iianaiey e iaiaaenoe, iaaiaeiaaiey e
caaenoe. Aeey iaeiiai ec i?eaeai?iuo i?onneiai ei?iey O?eae?eoa II iia
auea aeieacaoaeuenoaii Aiaeanoaaiiiai I?iaeaeaiey, a aeey iiiaeo
nicaeaoaeae enoi?einioneeo eiino?oeoeee eaiiai i?aoeiiaaiey. Aieueoay
/anoue eo iii?inoo eaii?e?iaaea aa, iauyaea, /oi nouanoaiaaiea aa?aaa
eeoaii enoi?e/aneiai niunea («i?iaeieaeathuay aeeoue ieaiaiaeinoue», ii
au?aaeaieth aiaeeeneiai enoi?eea Oieiae), ii-aeaeeiiio, a niioaaonoaee n
ecaanoiui iaoiaeii, ii eioi?iio neaaeoao n/eoaoue ianouanoaothueie
oaeou, ia aiauathueany a ?aiee eaeie-eeai nenoaiu enoi?e/aneeo
i?aaeiinueie. Iaeioi?ua aeiaiaoeee aeioee aei aano?aea – io?eoeaiey
nouanoaiaaiey ae?aaiaeoae a ie?a enoi?e/aneie iaoeee, aeieacaaoae
eneeth/eoaeueioth aeecianiiniaiinoue. Iiiuoee aea iauynieoue
aeieaiaa/iinoue nouanoaiaaiey aa?aaa ?aciiia?aciu e iaiyeenue ia
i?ioyaeaiee aaeia a caaeneiinoe io ainiiaenoaothuae eaeaieiaee. A oeaeii
yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ie iaeei ae?oaie ia?iae ia i?eeiauaae e
naaa noieue i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey a ?aciua yiioe. Eaeiaa aea ?ieue
aa?aaa a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa? *oi yaeyaony eo aeaeaeouae neeie e a /ai
eo aeeaae a ie?a?

A naieo «Eoaeaeneeo ae?aaiinoyo» Eineo Oeaaee iienuaaao Aa?aaia eae
«/aeiaaea aaeeeie i?ici?eeainoe», eioi?ue iaeaaeae «aieaa aunieeie
iiiyoeyie i aeia?iaeaoaee, /ai nia?aiaiieee». E iiyoiio ii «?aoee
iieiinoueth eciaieoue acaeyaeu, eioi?ua a oi a?aiy ana eiaee i Aiaa». ss
caaeathnue aii?inii: a /oi i?iecioei au n /aeiaa/aneei ?iaeii, anee au
Aa?aai ia aeiian naie aunieea eaeae e ieeaeiai niaoeeoe/aneiai
aa?aeneiai ia?iaea ia aicieeei? Ianiiiaiii, ie? ioee/aeny au io
iuiaoiaai ?aaeeeaeueiui ia?acii. Aeoiath, /aeiaa/anoai aeioei au aei
anao aa?aeneeo ioe?uoee a eiia/iii eoiaa. Ii a yoii iao iieiie
oaa?aiiinoe. Ana aaee/aeoea eiioeaiooaeueiua ioe?uoey ?acoia
i?aaenoaaeythony iai i/aaeaeiuie e iaecaaaeiuie, eiaaea iie oaea
naeaeaiu, ii iaiaoiaeeii i?enoonoaea aaiey, /oiau noi?ioee?iaaoue eo a
ia?aue ?ac. Aa?ae iaeaaeaee yoei aea?ii. Ei iu iaycaiu eaeaae ?aaainoaa
ia?aae caeiiii, eae aiaeanoaaiiui, oae e /aeiaa/aneei; nayoinoe aeecie e
aeinoieinoaa /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai niciaiey e iioiio
ee/iiai eneoieaiey; eieeaeoeaiiai niciaiey e iioiio ee/iiai eneoieaiey;
eieeaeoeaiiai niciaiey e auoaeathuae ionthaea nioeeaeueiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe; ie?a eae aano?aeoiiai eaeaaea e ethaae eae ooiaeaiaioa
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, a oaeaea iiiai ae?oaeo eaeae, nicaeathueo iniiao
ii?aeueiiai aaaaaea, a eioi?ii nouanoaoao /aeiaa/aneia niciaiea.

Ii naiia aeaaiia, /oi aa?ae iao/eee ian ?aoeeiiaeece?iaaoue iaiiciaiiia.
?acoeueoaoii yoiai yaeeny iiiioaeci e o?e aaeeeea ?aeeaee, eioi?ua aai
eniieuecotho. Eo eioaeeaeooaeueiia i?iieeiiaaiea a iaeanoue iaecaanoiiai
ia ia?aie/eeanue eaeaae iaeiiai Aiaa. Iiiioaeci iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue e
eae yoai ia iooe, eioi?ue aaaeao ethaeae e oiio, /oiau ecaaaeoueny io
eaeae Aiaa. Aa?ae ia?auie naaee iaioaii eaeieia e iaeiiio Aunoaio
Nouanoao. Aneaae ca yoei ia/aeny i?ioeann ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee aai aieioue
aei iieiiai en/aciiaaiey.

Aa?ae auee ia i?inoi iiaaoi?aie. Iie auee oaeaea eeoeii anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa, aunaa/eaay a /enoii e aicauoaiiii aeaea ana aeeeaiiu,
iaecaaaeii anoathuea ia?aae /aeiaaeii. Iie auee aiieiuaiiuie
«i?eoaeueoeaie e no?aiieeaie». Aa?ae auee neiaieii aacaeiiiiai e
oycaeiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. Iie auee y?inoiuie eaeaaeenoaie, ai?iaoeieny ca
niaa?oainoai. Iie oioaee iiaeiiaaoueny Aiao e a oi aea a?aiy inoaoueny a
aeeauo. E aeeeaiia aa?aeneiai iauanoaa a ae?aaiinoe ninoiyea a oii,
/oiau iiiuoaoueny ni/aoaoue ii?aeueiia i?aainoiaenoai oaie?aoee n
i?aeoe/aneeie ioaeaeaie ainoaea?noaa, niiniaiiai caueoeoue naay. Yoa
aeeeaiia aic?iaeeeanue a iaoe aeie a oi?ia ainoaea?noaa Ec?aeeue,
iniiaaiiiai aeey oiai, /oiau aiieioeoue aoiaiiua eaeaaeu. ss aeoiath,
/oi ana /aeiaa/anoai no?aieony nicaeaoue naie Ea?onaeei, naie
eaeaaeueiue ie?, ii aiiaue neaouaaaony e eiioeeeoai e aieiai. ?ieue
aa?aaa aeaeeony iia a oii, /oiau noieone?iaaoue e ae?aiaoece?iaaoue yoio
iauee iiuo /aeiaa/anoaa, ia?aoea naith nianoaaiioth noaeueao ai
anaiauoth ii?aeue.

A noaeueaa aa?aeneiai ia?iaea iiaa?ioeanue oaeei ia?acii, /oi ia aeieaea
noieaoey iie oo?aoeee naith ?iaeeio. Ii nouanoao, eaaeaeue aa?ae, e?iia
aeeoaeae ainoaea?noaa Ec?aeeue, iniiaaiiiai eeoue a na?aaeeia XX aaea,
aeee e aeeaao a aeaoo ieineinoyo: eae eioaa?aeueiay /anoue iauanoaa e
ainoaea?noaa, a eioi?ii ii i?iaeeaaao, i?eieiay aeoeaiia o/anoea a aai
iieeoe/aneie, iauanoaaiiie, yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea a aai
iao/iii e eoeueoo?iii oai?/anoaa; a oi aea a?aiy eae i?iaeieaeaoaeue
iiiaiaaeiaiai aeooiaiiai eoeueoo?iiai enoi?e/aneiai ianeaaeey aa?aenoaa,
naycaiiiai iaaeaeeiuie aeooaaiuie ocaie ni anai aa?aeneei ia?iaeii.

Yoe aeaa oaiaeaioeee oa?aeoa?ecotho anth enoi?eth aa?aeneiai ia?iaea.
Aa?aeneee ia?iae ia canoue e ia ieaiaiae ia i?ioyaeaiee naiae
aeieaieaoiae enoi?ee, iioiio /oi aii?aee ?acee/iui enoi?einioneei
eiino?oeoeeyi ii ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoi?e/aneee iaiyoiee eee
ia?aaeeoie i?ioeiai, a aeeaie iauanoaaiiue i?aaieci, niciaoaeueii
ai?thueeny ca i?aai ia nouanoaiaaiea e ?acaeoea. Ii anaaaea aue aioia
nii?eeanaoueny n ae?oaeie ia?iaeaie, ai?ynue n eo aeeyieai e
iaeiia?aiaiii aieouaay a naith eoeueoo?o eo oeaiiinoe. Aiaeec ?acee/iuo
neiaa aa?aeneiai ycuea (ea?eoa) eee i?aaiauo iiiyoee e iauanoaaiiuo
oi?i, nicaeaiiuo aa?ayie a oa/aiee iiiaeo iieieaiee, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yoe
oaeou. Ii ?aoathuei oaeoi?ii yaeyaony enoi?e/aneay i?aainoaaiiinoue a
aani?a?uaiii niciaoaeueiii nouanoaiaaiee aa?aeneiai ia?iaea.

Ana yoi naii ii naaa i?aa?auaao aa?aeneee ia?iae a eneeth/eoaeueiia, ec
?yaea aii auoiaeyuaa enoi?e/aneia yaeaiea, ia aiauathuaany a ?aiee
ooaiiiaaiiuo inaaaei?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo eiino?oeoeee. Aeinoiaaneee,
eioi?iai o?oaeii caiiaeic?eoue a neiiaoeyo e aa?ayi o eioi?ue n/eoae eo
ainoaea?noaii a ainoaea?noaa, iuoaynue i?iieeiooue a oaeio aa?aeneiai
nouanoaiaaiey e iauoiaoue aai aeaeaeouoth neeo, ienae:

«…i?eienuaaoue status in statu iaeiei eeoue aiiaieyi e /oanoao
naiinio?aiaiey – iaaeinoaoi/ii. Aea e ia oaaoeei au oii?noaa a
naiinio?aiaiee ia ni?ie aaeia, iaaeiaei au e nio?aiyoue naay oaeie n?ie.
E neeueiaeoea oeeaeeecaoeee a ie?a ia aeinoeaaee e aei iieiaeiu ni?iea
aaeia e oa?yee iieeoe/aneoth neeo e ieaiaiiie iaeee. Ooo ia iaeii
naiinio?aiaiea noieo aeaaiie i?e/eiie, a iaeioi?ay eaeay, aeaeaeouay e
aeaeouay, ia/oi oaeia ie?iaia e aeoaieia, i /ai, iiaeao auoue,
/aeiaa/anoai aua ia a neeao i?iecianoe iineaaeiaai neiaa»5.

Aa?ae aa?eee a oi, /oi yaeythony iniaaiiui ia?iaeii oae aaeeiiaeooii e
oae no?anoii e ia i?ioyaeaiee noieue aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, /oi noaee
ei. Iie ea?atho naith ?ieue iioiio, /oi naie iaienaee aa aeey naay. E a
yoii, iiaeaeoe, eeth/ e eo iiieiaieth.

Enoi/ieee e eeoa?aoo?a.

Eineo Oeaaee. Eoaeaeneea ae?aaiinoe. O.1.– ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: Ecae-ai
«Oaieen», 2000 – 640 n.

Eineo Oeaaee. Eoaeaeneea ae?aaiinoe. O.2. – ?inoia-ia-Aeiio: Ecae-ai
«Oaieen», 2000 – 640 n.

Aaaeoeaoeiia ?.A. Yoiiiieeoieiaey. – NIa.: Ieoa?, 2004. – 313n. – (Na?ey
«O/aaiia iiniaea»).

Aeaeiinii Iie. Enoi?ey aa?aaa. – I.: Ecae-ai «Aa/a», 2006. – 480 n.

Enoi?ey aa?aeneiai ia?iaea. ?aaeaeoi? Yooeiaa?. I.: Iino eoeueoo?u,
2001. – 660 n.

E?unueei A.A.Yoiiineoieiaey e iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey. – I.:
Ecae-ai «Yecaiai», 2002. – 449 n.

E?unueei A.A. Yoie/aneay ineoieiaey. – I.: Ecae. Oeaio? «Aeaaeaiey»,
2004. – 320 n.

Eo?uea N.A. Enoi?e/aneay yoiieiaey. I.: Aniaeo i?ann, 1997. – 448 n.

Ieeieueneee E. Ae?aaiee Ec?aeeue iiioey?iua i/a?ee ii enoi?ee aa?aaa a
iao/iii inaauaiee. I., Ciaiaiea, 9.

Io Aa?aaia aei nia?aiaiiinoe. Eaeoeee ii aa?aeneie enoi?ee e eeoa?aoo?a.
I., 2002. – 390 n.

Ieeeeiaoii N.I. Eoaeaeci. I.: OAE?-I?ANN, 2002. – 400 n.

Othiaiaa A. Aa?ae a ae?aaiinoe e a n?aaeiea aaea. Iaoa?ao?a: Ain.
Ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1922.

I?eia/aiey

1. Ni. Aeaeiinii I. Enoi?ey aa?aaa., n. 7.

2. Aaaeoeaoeiia ?.A. Yoiiiieeoieiaey., n. 52.

3. Eineo Oeaaee. Eoaeaeneea ae?aaiinoe, o.1, n.39.

4. Oai aea, n.40

5. Enoi?ey aa?aeneiai ia?iaea iiae ?aae. Yooeiaa?a., n. 315.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020