.

Русско-турецкая война 1877-78 годов

Язык:
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 977
Скачать документ

?aoa?ao

?onnei-oo?aoeeay

aieia

1877-1878 aa.

Auiieiai

o/aieeii IX
eeanna A

iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie

ycueiaie
aeiiacee

ei. A. A.
Eieueoeiaa

Ieeieaaaui
Aeaaeeie?ii

?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Iiaeaieioiaa Ieia
Iaaeiaia

Ai?iiaae

1997 a.

?onnei – oo?aoeeay aieia 1877-1878 auea aucaaia iiaeuaiii
iaoeeiiaeueii – inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey ia Aaeeaiao e iaino?aieai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?ioeai?a/ee ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. Ainnoaiey i?ioea
oo?aoeeiai eaa a Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeia (1875a) e Aieaa?ee (1876a)
aucaaee oe?ieia iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?innee a iieueco a?aoneeo
neaayineeo ia?iaeia. I?ioea Oo?oeee aunooieee Na?aey e *a?iiai?ey. A
1876a ai a?aiy na?ai-/a?iiai?nei-oo?aoeeie aieiu a Na?aeth iai?aaeeinue
aei 5 ouny/ ?onneeo aeia?iaieueoeaa, na?aai e aieaa?ai ia?aaiaeeeenue
aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, iinueaeenue iaaeeeaiaiou e ae?oaea iaiaoiaeeiua
aaue, caeoieaiiua ia aeia?iaieueiua iiaea?oaiaaiey. Auaeathueeny ?onneee
oe?o?a I.A. Neeeoinianeee aicaeaaee ?onneea naieoa?iua io?yaeu a
*a?iiai?ee, a ecaanoiue a?a/-oa?aiaao N.I. Aioeei – a Na?aee.Aeaenaiae?
II, caoaa/aiiue iauei aeaeaeaieai, aian 10 ouny/ ?oaeae a iieueco
ainnoaaoeo. Oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai, i?aneaaeoy caoaaoie/aneea oeaee,
aunooieei iiae eicoiaii «caueou a?aoueaa-neaayi».

Iu iiiiei Aueaoiai, eiioeeeo Ec?aeey n Aaeioii, e au? iiiai,
iiiai aii?oaeaiiuo eiioeeeoia, ?iaeieo eioi?ua iaeii : auyniaiea, /uey
a?iey eo/oa, aiaeeeeay (aia?eeaineay) eee ?inneeneay (niaaoneay).
Oo?aoeeie aieiie, aeeciyie nieaeao e ioeoea?ia eiiaiaeiaaiea aeieacuaaei
naaa i?aainoiaenoai naieo aii?oaeaiiuo nee, iiaeieiay iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
aaoi?eoao. Yoi auei ( ?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia), anoue (Aueaoiai,
Aoaaienoai,) e aoaeao ( )…

OeAEE IIEEOEEE ?INNEE IA AEEAEIAI AINOIEA. IIEIAEAIEA AAEEAINEEO
IA?IAeIA A NINOAAA

INIAINEIE EIIA?EE

Iinea ioiaiu iaeo?aeecaoeee *a?iiai ii?y a 1871 aiaeo ?inney
aeiaieueii oniaoii ainnoaiaaeeaaea naia aeeyiea ia Aaeeaiao. Naith
caaea/o ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia?aie/eei io?aiie iiaenooiia e
Eiinoaioeiiiieth iooai iieeoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai i?iieeiiaaiey ia
Aaeeaiu. Inaiaieai thaeiuo ?aeiiia ?innee, ?anoe?aiea aiaoiae oi?aiaee
aeaeaee Ainoi? e Aea?aeaiaeeu iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo eiiia?/aneeo
iaaeno?aeae.

E 70-i aiaeai XIX a. oneeeeanue caaeneiinoue Iniaineie eiia?ee io
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai, i?aeiouanoaaiii aiaeeeneiai, eaieoaea, /oi
aucuaaei iaaeiaieuenoai iieeoeeie noeoaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a naiie
Oo?oeee. Oneeeeenue i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo aaaeoueie aea?aeaaaie Aa?iiu a
ai?ueaa ca ?acaeae ie?a. Iaauaaeiai ?aciaoa aeinoeaei aeinoeaei
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea i?ioea oo?aoeeiai eaa. Ana
yoi neacuaaeinue ia ninoiyiee Iniaineie eiia?ee, onei?yy aa oiaaeie.

A ai?iaeao Aieaa?ee, Na?aee, Ainiee, Aa?oeaaiaeiu aicieeaee
?aaiethoeeiiiua eiieoaou, inouanoaeyaoea ?oeiaiaenoai iaoeeiiaeueiui
aeaeaeaieai, i?aaei?eieiaeenue oneeey ii iauaaeeiaieth neaayineeo
ia?iaeia aeey ai?ueau n oo?aoeeie iaaieae.

Ii?oa, eniieuecoy i?ioeai?a/ey aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa ia Aeeaeiai
Ainoiea, ia i?iaaea iaauaiiua au? a 50-a aiaeu XIX a. ?aoi?iu ii
o?aaiaieth iieiaeaiey o?enoeai n ionoeueiaiaie. O?enoeaia ii-i?aaeiaio
ia eiaee i?aa ia caiaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue; iie ia i?ecuaaeenue a
a?ieth, ii auee iaycaiu ieaoeoue niaoeeaeueiue iaeia ( aaaeaeue ) ca
inaiaiaeaeaiea io aiaiiie neoaeau. A 1873 a. noeoai ecaeae ianeieueei
iinoaiiaeaiee, ia?aie/eaaaoeo aeinooi o?enoeai a Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeia e
ia?aciaaieth. Oeacu, o?acuaaaoea aaoiiiieth o?enoeai – ainiyeia e
aa?oeaaiaeioeaa, aucuaaee a?iaeaiey a yoeo i?iaeioeeyo. Ii?oa, a naith
i/a?aaeue, ia?aoea e ianniaui a?anoai o?enoeai, iaaeiaiiuo a caaiai?a. A
1874-1875 aa. oo?aoeeia i?aaeoaeuenoai oneeeei yeiiiie/aneia ianooieaiea
ia o?enoeai. Iii oaaee/eei iaeiae n ianaeaiey, ia iin/eoaaoenue n
iao?iaeayie oao eao. Nai?ueee iiaeaoae, i?eaaaay e ?ai?anneyi e e iiiiue
aienea, aueiea/eaaee iaeiae o aeeoaeae Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu. Yoi e
iineoaeeei iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oie/eii e ainnoaieth.

IAOeEIIAEUeII-INAIAIAeEOAEUeIIA AeAEAEAIEA IA AAEEAIAO. IIEEOEEA
?INNEE E AINOAeA?NOA

CAIAAeA

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, ia/aaoaany aaniie 1875 a. a
Aa?oeaaiaeia e Ainiee, anei?a ioaaoeei i?iaeioeee Iniaineie eiia?ee ia
Aaeeaiao e i?eia?aei iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cia/aiea.

?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai, iieo/ea a ethia 1875 a. niiauaiea i
niauoeyo ia Aaeeaiao, iiiuoaeinue aeeieiiaoe/aneei niiniaii
o?aaoee?iaaoue ?ac?aceaoeeny e?ecen. Aeaenoaoy a niaeanee n ae?oaeie
ainoaea?noaaie, i?aaeaea anaai n nithcieeaie ii eiaeeoeee o?ao
eiia?aoi?ia – n Aano?eae e Aa?iaieae, ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai
?ann/eouaaei i?eie?eoue Ii?oo e ainnoaaoeo. Iii ia oioaei aieiu, eai
?inney ia auea e iae aioiaa: ?aoi?iu aioo?e no?aiu o?aaiaaee aieueoeo
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao; ia?aaii?oaeaiea a?iee ia caeii/eeinue; a no?aia
oneeeaaeinue ia?iaeie/aneia e ?aai/aa aeaeaeaiea.

Iaeiaei e a yoio ia?eiae a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa,
i?aaeeaaaaoeo ia?aie/eoueny eeoue ?aoi?iaie a ainnoaaoeo i?iaeioeeyo
Oo?oeee, ?inney ionoaeaaea aaaaeaiea aaoiiiiee, oioy e auioaeaeaia auea
eaeoe ia iinooiee naiei nithcieeai.

30 aeaeaa?y 1875 a. ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae Aano?i-Aaia?ee Ae.
Aiae?aoe io eiaie o?ao aea?aeaa – ?innee, Aa?iaiee e Aano?i-Aaia?ee –
ia?aaeae noeoaio i?ia?aiio ?aoi?i aeey aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia. O?e
i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeeaaaee noeoaio aaanoe naiaiaeo aa?ieniiaaaeaiey aeey
o?enoeai, eeeaeaee?iaaoue ioeoiioth nenoaio aceiaiey iaeiaia; oeo/oeoue
iieiaeaiea naeueneiai ianaeaiey; ?anoiaeiaaoue aceiaaiua n ianaeaiey
Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu i?yiua iaeiae oieueei ia ioaeaeu yoeo iaeanoae. Ii
a iioa ia niaea?aeaeinue noaoae, eioi?ua aa?aioe?iaaee au auiieiaiea
yoeo oneiaee, /oi aini?eieiaeinue ainnoaaoeie eae nio?aiaiea i?aaeiaai
ainiiaenoaa Oo?oeee, iiyoiio auei eie ioaa?aiooi. Ii?oa oaeaea
ioeacaeanue i?eiyoue yoo i?ia?aiio oeaeeeii. A /anoiinoe, iia ia
niaeaneeanue n ioieoii i ?anoiaeiaaiee n?aaenoa, niae?aaiuo n ianaeaiey
Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu ia ioaeaeu e?ay.

I?aaeoaeuenoaa Aa?iiu ia auee aaeeiiaeooiu, /oi iaeaa/aei
noeoaio aiciiaeiinoue /eieoue ?ani?aao iaae ainnoaaoeie. Aiaeey, ia
aeiaa?yy ?innee, oeeiieeanue io aeoeaiiai o/anoey a aa?iiaeneeo
ia?aaiai?ao. Aa?iaiey, oi?iaeueii aeaenoaoy a Nithca o?ao eiia?aoi?ia,
eioa?aniaaeanue ia noieueei niauoeyie ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea, neieueei
aa?iiaeneeie aeaeaie. Aano?i-Aaia?ey, iaei caaioynue i noaeueaa
ainnoaaoeo, no?aieeanue inouanoaeoue ?oeiaiaeyuoth ?ieue ia Aaeeaiao.
?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai , aaeeinoaaiiia, eioi?ia aeaeaei iioooeoue
?acai?aaoaany ieaiy eiioeeeoa e ieacaoue iiiiuue ainnoaaoei, ia eiaei
neieueei-ieaoaeue ii?aaeaeaiiiai ieaia aeaenoaee.

C?aaee iieeoe/aneeo aeayoaeae aaeenue nii?u i oaeoeea e auai?a
nithcieeia. Ianeaaeiee i?anoiea ( aoaeouee Aeaenaiae? III ) e iinie a
Eiinoaioeiiiiea I. I. Eaiaoueaa noiyee ca aeoeaiua aeaenoaey ia Ainoiea.
Eaiaoueaa aue i?ioeaieeii nithca n Aano?i-Aaia?eae e i?aaeeaaae
?ac?aoeoue eiioeeeo aeaonoi?iiieie ?onnei-oo?aoeeeie ia?aaiai?aie. A. I.
Ai?/aeia e ieieno? oeiainia I. O. ?aeoa?i, aiynue iiaoi?aiey «e?uineie
neooaoeee», ia ?aoaeenue ii?aaoue n Nithcii o?ao eiia?aoi?ia.
Oea?ueoaeaea noiye ca aeeieiiaoe/aneia o?aaoee?iaaiea eiioeeeoa.

Ana neie ?onneiai iauanoaa aunooiaee ca aeaenoaaiioth iiiiuue
neaayiai, ii?eoeaee aeanoieea iaoiaeu oo?aoeeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua
i?eaaee e ainnoaieth, i?ecuaaee ii?aaoue n Nithcii o?ao eiia?aoi?ia,
i?aaeaea anaai n Aano?i-Aaia?eae, i?ioeaieoeae neaayinoaa.
Ia?iaeie/aneay i?anna ia ia?aii yoaia ainoi/iiai e?ecena ioeaieea
aeaeaeaiea ia Aaeeaiao eae « ianoiyuoth nioeeae-?aaiethoeeiiioth ai?ueao
»

e n/eoaea oeaeaniia?aciui iai?aaeoue ooaea iiaee?aieaiey ia iiiiuue
ainnoaaoei.

Ae?oaei aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, aeeyaoei ia iieeoeeo ?onneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aue oa?aeoa? iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a oeaeii, e a
/anoiinoe ai?aeueneiai ainnoaiey 1876 a. a Aieaa?ee. Yoi ainnoaiea ii
naiae i?aaieciaaiiinoe e aiooeoaeueiinoe auei iaeaieaa aiooeoaeueiui ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie aunooieaieyie aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia. ?onneay
iauanoaaiiinoue iaiaaeeaiii ioeeeeioeanue ia ainnoaiea, ni?aaaaeeeai
oniao?eaay aai i?e/eiu a iaoeeiiaeueiii e nioeeaeueiii aiaoa ni noi?iiu
iniaiia. Ai?aeueneia ainnoaiea i?eaeaei iiaua neeu inaiaiaeeoaeueiiio
aeaeaeaieth a ae?oaeo i?iaeioeeyo.

A yoeo oneiaeyo ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai aiiaue iiiuoaeinue ?aoeoue
ainoi/iue aii?in n iiiiuueth naieo nithcieeia. Yoie oeaee neoaeeea
ano?a/a a Aa?eeia, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie a iaa 1876 a. iaaeaeo ?inneae,
Aa?iaieae e Aano?i-Aaia?eae aue iiaeienai Aa?eeineee iaii?aiaeoi. Ii
yoiio aeieoiaioo o?e aea?aeaau niaeaoaeenue ieacaoue aeaaeaiea ia Ii?oo,
/oiau iiaoaeeoue a? i?enooieoue e auiieiaieth iaycaoaeuenoa, aeaiiuo ath
a Aa?iia au? a 1856 a. O?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeeaaaee noeoaio
i?einoaiiaeoue ia aeaa ianyoea aiaiiua aeaenoaey e ia/aoue ia?aaiai?u n
aeaeaaaoaie io Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu ia iniiaaiee iiaeaeaiee iineaaeieo.

Iaii?aiaeoi aue /anoe/iui iiaoi?aieai i?aaeeiaeaiee,
niaea?aeaaoeony a aeaeaa?ueneie iioa 1875 a. Ii a iai eiaeenue e
nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey, aianaiiua ii ianoiyieth ?innee: a a iioa ?aoi?iu
eeoue aeaeea?e?iaaeenue e ia niaea?aeaeinue aa?aioee eo i?iaaaeaiey. A
Aa?eeineii aea iaia?aiaeoia oeacuaaeinue, /oi, anee au n?ie ia?aie?ey
enoae aei aeinoeaeaiey «iaia/aiiie oeaee», o?e aea?aeaau iiaee?aieee au
naie aeeieiiaoe/aneea oaae i?eiyoeai «aeaenoaaiiuo ia?» aeey i?ana/aiey
cea. Niiinoaaeaiea iiou 1875 a. n Aa?eeineei iaii?aiaeoiii aiai?eo i
oii, /oi a 1876 a. ?inney oioy e aeaenoaiaaea a ?aieao Nithoa o?ao
eiia?aoi?ia, ii aunooiaea aieeaa aeoeaii, iaaeaee a ia/aea e?ecena.
Iaii?aiaeoi iiaeaea?aeaee O?aioeey e Eoaeey, ii ioaa?aea Aiaeey iiae oai
i?aaeeiaii, /oi ii cao?aaeaae «i?anoeae noeoaia». Ca yoie «caaioie» i
naaa?aiiuo i?aaao noeoaia noiyei aeaeaiea nio?aieoue ainiiaenoaothuaa
iieiaeaiea Aaeeeia?eoaiee a Iniaineie eiia?ee. Ii ia?a oaeoaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey ia Aaeeaiao aieaa
i?eie?eoaeueiie ii ioiioaieth e Ii?oa noaiiaeeanue iieeoeea Caiaaea e
aieaa aeaenoaaiiie – iiiiuue ?innee aaeeaineei ia?iaeai.

Nia?aa neeu, iniaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeanoiei iiaeaaeei
ainnoaiea a Aieaa?ee. Caa?noaa iniaiia auee aani?eia?iuie: iie au?acaee
noa?eeia, aeaiuei, aeaoae, naeeaaee naeaiey e iinaau. AEanoieia
iiaeaaeaiea aieaa?neiai ainnoaiey aucaaei aiciouaiea anae aa?iiaeneie
iauanoaaiiinoe. N e?eoeeie i?ioo?aoeeie eeiee Eiiaeiineiai eaaeiaoa
aunooieea aiaeeeneay iauanoaaiiinoue. Iiaeaea?aeeo ainnoaaoei ieacuaaei
ana ianaeaiea ?innee, neaayiioeeneea e?oae aicaeaaeee nai?
iiaea?oaiaaiee a iieueco ainnoaaoeo. Ia aaeeaiu ioi?aaeyeenue ?onneea
aeia?iaieueoeu – nieaeaou, ioeoea?u, iaaenano?u, a?a/e, a eo /enea I. A.
Neeeoinianeee, N. I. Aioeei, ienaoaeue A. E. Oniaineee ooaeiaeieee A.
Ae. Iieaiia, E. A. Iaeianeee e iiiaea ae?oaea.

A ethia 1876 a. aieio Oo?oeee iauyaeea Na?aey e *a?iiai?ey; ai
aeaaa na?aneie a?iee noae ?onneee aaia?ae I. A. *a?iyaa, aeia?iaieueii
ioi?aaeaoeeny ia Aaeeaiu.

A ia/aea ieoya?y 1876 a. eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? II i?iaae a
Eeaaiaeee ianeieueei niaauaiee ii aii?inai, naycaiiui n ianoaiiaeie ia
Aaeeaiao. A yoiaa ianoaeaeaiey auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i naiinoiyoaeueiuo
aeaenoaeyo ?innee ia Aaeeaiao. I iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey aieaa?neiai
iiie/aiey ai aeaaa eioi?iai i?aaeeaaaeinue iinoaaeoue aaia?aea I. A.
Noieaoiaa. ?onneiio iineo a Oo?oeee I. I. Eaiaoueaao i?aaeeaaaeinue
aeiaeoueny niaeaney noeoaia ia nicua eiioa?aioeee a Eiinoiioeiiiiea, a a
neo/aa ioeaca – ii?aaoue aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey e ia/aoue aieio
iaiaaeeaiii. Oaeia eaoaai?e/aneia ?aoaiea auei naycaii n niiauaieai i
ii?aaeaiee na?aneie a?iee e ia oa?ica acyoey oo?eaie Aaea?aaea.

19 ieoya?y 1876 a. ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai a oeueoaiaoeaiie oi?ia
iio?aaiaaei io Ii?ou a oa/aiea 48 /ania caeeth/eoue n Na?aeae
oanoeiaaeaeueiia eee aeaooiany/iia ia?aie?ea, oa?iaeay a ii?oeaiii
neo/aa aieiie. Noeoai i?eiye oneiaey ?innee e niaeaneeny ia nicua
Eiinoaioeiiiieueneie eiioa?aioeee. Oeueoeiaooi ?innee nian na?aneoth
a?ieth io ?aca?iia.

A eiioea iiya?y – ia/aea aeaeaa?y 1876 a. a Eiioaioeiiiiea a
caeaiee ?onneiai iinieuenoaa i?ioiaeeee canaaeaiey aa?iiaeneeo
aeaeaaaoeee ii au?aaioea oneiaee niaeaoaiey n Oo?oeeae. Ii yoei oneiaeyi
Na?aey nio?aiyea i?aaeithth aaoiiiieth; *a?iiaiaey iieo/aea iaaieueoea
oa??eoi?eaeueiua onooiee; Ainiey e Aa?oeaaiaeia iauaaeeiyeenue a iaeio
iaeanoue, Aieaa?ey aeaeeeanue ia aeaa /anoe – ainoi/ioth ni noieeoeae a
Ou?iiaa e caiaaeioth ni noieeoeae a Nioee.

11 aeaeaa?y 1876 a., eiaaea iiaeo aue i?eiyo aa?iiaeneeie
aea?aeaaaie-aa?aioaie, ia canaaeaiey eiioa?aioeee aue i?eaeaoai
oo?aoeeee aeaeaaao, eioi?iio aue a?o/ai i?iaeo aoaeouaai aeiaiai?a Ii?ou
n aaeeaineei eiyaeanoaii. Ii iooa/iue caei, iaiaeeaeaiiue aeey
aieueoeinoaa aeaeaaaoia, ecaanoee ia iaia?iaeiaaiee noeoaiii
eiinoeoooeee, ooaa?aeaeaaoee ?aaainoaa o?enoeai n ionoeueiaiaie.
I?iaicaeaoaiiua a eiinoeoooeee i?aaa a?aaeaeai – anaiauaa ?aaainoai
ia?aae caeiiii – oi?iaeueii aeaeaee eceeoiae ?aaioo eiioa?aioeee,
iai?aaeaiiie ia caueoo i?aa ainnoaaoeo. Iaeiaei au? a oa/aiea ianyoea
aaeenue ia?aaiai?u a Eiinoaioeiiiiea i aa?aioee ni noi?iiu noeoaia a
i?iaaaeaiee iaauaiiuo ei ?aoi?i. Ii?oa, oaa?aiiay a naiae neea e
iiaeaea?aeea Aiaeee, ioeacaeanue i?eiyoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aa?iiaeneeo
ainoaea?noa.

Aieia noaiiaeeanue iaecaaaeiie. *oiau ia aeiionoeoue ia?aciaaiea
a?aaeaeaaiie ?innee eiaeeoeee, Iaoa?ao?aneee eaaeiao au? ?ac ia?aoeeny e
Aano?i-Aaia?ee, aeiaeaaynue a? iaeo?aeeoaoa a aoaeouae aieia. Iinea
aeeeoaeueiuo ia?aaiai?ia a Aoaeaiaooa 3 yiaa?y 1877 a. auea iiaeienaia
oaeiay ?onnei-aao?eeneay eiiaaioeey, ii eioi?ie Aano?i-Aaia?ey
iaycuaaeanue niaethaeaoue ii ioiioaieth ?innee iiceoeeth
aeaaiaeaeaoaeueiiai iaeo?aeeoaoa e «ia?aeeciaaoue» iooai
aeeieiiaoe/aneiai aicaeaenoaey iiiuoee aiaoaoaeuenoaa ae?oaeo aea?aeaa a
neo/aa ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu. Yoi oneiaea Aoaeaiaooneie eiiaaioeee
eiaei aaaeiia cia/aiea ia oieueei aeey ?innee, ii e aeey aaeeaineeo
ia?iaeia, oae eae i?aaeinoaaeyei ecaanoiua aa?aioee io a?aaeaeaaiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Caiaaea.

12 ai?aey 1877 a. a noaaea ?onneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey a ai?iaea
Eeoeiaaa Aeaenaiae? II iiaeienae iaieoano i aieia n Iniaineie eiia?eae.

?ONNEI-OO?AOeEAss AIEIA.

NIIOIIOAIEA NEE E IEAIU NOI?II

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, oea?neia i?aaeoaeuenoai no?aieeinue
ecaaaeaoue aieiu. Aiaiiua i?aia?aciaaiey, ia/aoua a 60-o aiaeao, ia auee
caaa?oaiu. A?iey, n 1874 a. oi?ie?iaaaoayny ia ia/aeao anaiauae aieineie
iiaeiiinoe, au? ia eiaea aieueoiai iao/aiiiai ?aca?aa. No?aeeiaia
i?oaeea eeoue ia iaeio o?aoue ioaa/aei nia?aiaiiui ia?acoeai. Aunoee
eiiaiaeiue ninoaa ia aue iiaeaioiaeai e iiaui oneiaeyi aieiu, ioee/aeny
einiinoueth acaeyaeia e eiina?aaoeciii. Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee ?onneie
Aeoiaeneie a?ieae aaeeeee eiycue Ieeieae Ieeieaaae/ (noa?oee),
naiioaa?aiiue, ia eiaaoee aiaiiiai iiuoa /aeiaae, e ia/aeueiee
Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa a?iee aeeceee e Ieeieath Ieeieaaae/o aaia?ae A. A.
Iaiieie/eoeeee, ia niiniaiue e iia?aoeaiie ?aaioa, i?ioeaeeenue
aaaaeaieth oaeoeee ?annuiiiai no?iy, ?acaeoeth eieoeeaoeau nieaeao e
ioeoea?ia, ianoaeaaee ia nio?aiaiee i?aaeiaai eeiaeiiai e niieiooiai
no?iy. Iaeiaei a ?onneie a?iee eiaeinue iaiaei ioeoea?ia, iiieiaaoeo
iaiaoiaeeiinoue na?ueaciuo aiaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee, – yoi aiaiiue ieieno?
Ae. A. Ieethoei, aaia?aeu I. E. Ae?aaiie?ia, E. A. Ao?ei, I. Ae.
Neiaaeaa, I. A. Noieaoia, O. O. ?aaeaoeeee e ae?. Iie noiyee ca ia?aoiae
e iaiaa?aiiinoe e ?annuiiiio no?ith, ca naiinoiyoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee
nieaeao a aith, aeiaeaaeenue aunieie iiaeaioiaee ioeoea?neiai ninoaaa.

Ia?ano?ieea a?iee aaeanue oaea a oiaea naiie aieiu, i?e oii?iii
nii?ioeaeaiee aaia?aeeoaoa ieeieaaaneie oeieu. ?onneee nieaeao, eae
anaaaea, ioee/aeny noieeinoueth, auiineeainoueth, eieoeeaoeaie.

Oo?aoeeay a?iey, ii aieueoae /anoe iao/aiiay aiaeeeneeie
ioeoea?aie, auea iniauaia iiaaeoei no?aeeiaui i?oaeeai, i?aainoiaeeaoai
?onneia ii nei?ino?aeueiinoe e aeaeueiiaieiinoe i?eoeaeueiiai iaiy, ii
oo?aoeeay a?iaeneay a?oeeea?ey ieacaeanue neaaaa ?onneie. O?iaaiue
aiaaie iiaeaioiaee oo?aoeeeo nieaeao e ioeoea?ia aue ieceei. Oo?aoeeay
a?iey, ia aioiaay e ianooiaoaeueiui iia?aoeeyi, i?aaeii/eoaea
iai?iieoaeueiua aeaenoaey. ?onneee oeio, ii /eneaiiinoe onooiaaoee
oo?aoeeiio, eiae ieiu, eioi?uo ia auei o oo?ie, /oi iicaieyei
oie/oiaeaoue ei?aaee i?ioeaieea.

Ii ieaio ?onneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey, aieia i?aaeiieaaaeanue
ianooiaoaeueiay e auno?ay, /oiau i?aaeoi?aaeeoue iianiinoue
aiaoaoaeuenoaa Aiaeee e Aano?i-Aaia?ee. E?iia oiai, a? caoyaeea a?iceea
oneeeoue ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a no?aia. ?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia,
eioi?oth ia?iae aini?eieiae eae aieio ca inaiaiaeaeaiea neaayi, auea
iiioey?ia a ?innee. I?e oniaoiii a? caaa?oaiee ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai
iaaeayeinue ooaa?aeeoue naia aeeyiea ia Ainoiea, ineaaeoue aioo?aiiaa
iaaeiaieuenoai iieeoeeie naiiaea?aeaaey. Aaeeaineea ia?iaeu n aieueoie
iaaeaaeaeie ano?aoeee niiauaiea ia iauyaeaiee ?inneae aieiu Oo?oeee,
aeaey a iae ecaaaeaiea io iniaineiai aiaoa.

Ii ieaio Ii?ou, ninoaaeaiiiio iaeaioia ?ac?uaa aeeieiiaoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee, i?aaeiieaaaeinue caaea/ue ?onneeo a aeoaue no?aiu, a caoai
aeaoue ei aaia?aeueiia n?aaeaiea. I?e ethaii enoiaea oo?aoeeia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ?ann/eouaaei ia i?iionoeoue ?onneoth a?ieth aeaeaa eeiee
?ouoe – Ooiea – Aa?ia – Neeeno?ey. Yoio ieai no?ieeny ia nenoaia
iai?iieoaeueiuo e?aiinoae a ?an/aoa ia eciaouaaiea nee i?ioeaieea e ia
iiaeaea?aeeo Caiaaea.

AIAIIUA AeAENOAEss

Aiaiiua aeaenoaey ?acaa?ioeenue iaeiia?aiaiii ia aeaoo oaao?ao –
Aaeeaineii e Caeaaeacneii: ec 450 oun. aiene oo?aoeeie a?iee 338 oun.
iaoiaeeeinue ia Aaeeaiao e ieiei 70 oun. – a Iaeie Acee; ?onneia
eiiaiaeiaaiea nauoa 250 oun. iai?aaeei ia Aaeeaiu e 55 oun. – ia Eaaeac.
?inney ia/aea aieio aac nithcieeia: Na?aey, iioa?iaa aiaiiia ii?aaeaiea,
a oaa?aea 1877 a. caeeth/eea ie? n Oo?oeeae; ?oiuiey anooieea a aieio
iinea i?iaicaeaoaiey naiae iacaaeneiinoe a iaa 1877 a. ( yoo aeoeeth
?oiuineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?eciaea eeoue ?inney ).

Ia?aeaey ?aeo I?oo, ?onneea aienea anooieee ia oa??eoi?eth ?oiuiee.
A iaa-ethia 1877 a. ?onneay a?iey, niaianoii n aieaa?neeie iiie/aioeaie,
i?aiaeieaaay neeueiue iaiiue iai?eyoaey iaaeaeo Ceiieoeae (ia eaaii
aa?aao) e Nenoiaii (ia i?aaii), oi?ne?iaaea Aeoiae. Yoi auea
o?oaeiay e aeanoyua i?iaaaeaiiay iia?aoeey. I?e ia?ai?aaa /a?ac Aeoiae
iniaaiii ioee/eeenue nieaeaou e ioeoea?u iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aeia
Ae?aaiie?iaa e ?aaeaoeeiai.

Iinea oi?ne?iaaiey Aeoiay ?onneea aienea auee ?acaeaeaiu ia o?e
io?yaea. Io?yae iieiaeiai aaia?aea Ao?ei aianoa n aieaa?neeie
aeia?iaieueoeaie (15 oun. /aeiaae) iieo/ee naiia neiaeiia caaeaiea –
ia?aeoe Aaeeaiu e caeoe a oue oo?aoeeie a?iee a ?aeiia Aiae?eaiiiiey.
Io?yae aaia?aea I. I. E?eaeaia?a aeieaeai aue caiyoue ai?iaea
Ieeiiieue, Ieaaio, iaania/ea i?aaue oeaia anae a?iee. Naiiio
iiiai/eneaiiiio ?ouooneiio io?yaeo iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai ianeaaeieea
i?anoiea Aeaenaiae?a Aeaenaiae?iae/a neaaeiaaei iaeaaeaoue e?aiinoueth
?ouoe e iaania/eoue eaaue oeaia. Oaeia ?aniieiaeaiea aiene
?ann?aaeioa/eaaei neeu a?iee ia cia/eoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee, aieaa iieiaeiu
eo iaoiaeeeinue ia oeaiaao, a aeey ianooiaoaeueiuo aeaenoaee inoaaaeny
iaeei io?yae Ao?ei, eioi?ue aeieaeai aue ia?aeoe Aaeeaiu e iaianoe oaea?
ii Aae?eaiiiieth. Auiieiyy ieai eiiaiaeiaaiey, Ao?ei iaeaaeae ae?aaiae
noieeoeae Aieaa?ee ai?iaeii Ou?iiai, iinea /aai i?aaenoiye o?oaeiaeoee
ia?aoiae /a?ac Aaeeaiu, o?aaiaaaoee oii?noaa e ioaeanoaa nieaeao.

« Ianoiinoue, ii eioi?ie i?eoiaeeeinue eaceoue no?aeeai, – ienae
o/anoiee iioiaea *e/aaia, – e?ooua iiaeuaiu a 30(; no?aoiay aea?a,
ionoonoaea aiaeu, ea?aaeaiuea ii aeuaai eaiiae aeaeaee iooue iaeiiaa?ii
o?oaeiui ».

A ethea 1877 a. /a?ac Oaeieeieneee ia?aaae io?yae Ao?ei
i?aiaeieae Aaeeaiu e iaia?eaaeny aoaeiaaoue Oeieo n thaa, a oi a?aiy eae
ae?oaea /anoe a?iee aeieaeiu auee iiaeieoe e Oeiee n naaa?a. Oeiea eiaea
eneeth/eoaeueiia cia/aiea a oiaea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee: iia naycuaaea
Naaa?ioth Aieaa?eth n THaeiie, /a?ac Oeieo oae e?ao/aeoee iooue e
Aae?eaiiiieth. E?iia oiai, Oeieeineee ia?aaae aue oaeiaai aeey i?ioiaea
aiene n a?oeeea?eae.

Aiynue ie?oaeaiey, oo?ee aac aiy i/enoeee Oeieo. Inoaaea
iaaieueoie io?yae ia Oeiea, Ao?ei iai?aaee naie iniiaiua neeu e thao io
ia?, e Ynee-Caa?o (iuia Noa?a-Caai?a), aaea iaoiaeeeanue oo?aoeeay
a?iey. I?ioeaiee, ainiieueciaaaoenue /eneaiiui i?aainoiaenoaii, iuoaeny
ioa?ineoue ?onneeo e aieaa? ca Aaeeaiu. A yoii n?aaeaiee, eae e a
iineaaeothueo aiyo, aieaa?neea iiie/aioeu iieacaee naay aanno?aoiuie
aieiaie, i?aaeaiiuie naiae ?iaeeia. Ii neeu auee ia?aaiu. ?onneay a?iey
a iyoue ?ac onooiaea a?iee i?ioeaieea ii /eneaiiinoe. A yoeo oneiaeyo
?onneea e aieaa?u, inoaaea ?yae ai?iaeia a THaeiie Aieaa?ee, auee
auioaeaeaiu ioieoe ia naaa?, e Oeiea. Aianoa n a?ieae, aiynue ianeeey
iniaiia, ionooiaei e aieaa?neia ianaeaiea. Oai a?aiaiai e Oeiea
iai?aaeyeny 27-ouny/iay a?iey Noeaeiaia-iaoe, eioi?ie i?ioeainoiye
?onnei-aieaa?neee io?yae a 5 oun. /aeiaae. Ianiio?y ia iyoee?aoiia
i?aaanoiaenoai, oo?eai ia oaeaeinue ie?oaeeoue i?ioeaieea e iaeaaeaoue
Oeieie. Iiaeioaaeoay ia iiiiuue caueoieeai inaiueth 1877 a. no?aeeiaay
a?eaaaea e aeeaecey Ae?aaiie?iaa canoaaeea oo?ie ionooieoue ia thaeiua
neeiiu Oeieeineiai ia?aaaea. Ia/aeinue oae iacuaaaiia ceiiaa «neaeaiuea»
?onneeo e aieaa? ia Oeiea, iieacaaoaa eo ioaeanoai, noieeinoue. Caia?cay
a ieiiao ec eueaea e niaaa, aa?ie-nieaeaou caueuaee yoo eeth/aaoth
iiceoeeth. Iai?iia Oeiee i?aa?aaeeea iooue oo?eai a Naaa?ioth Aieaa?eth,
i?aaeioa?aoeea eno?aaeaiea aieaa?neiai ianaeaiea iniaiaie. Iai?iia Oeiee
iiiiaea caaa?oaieth aiaa, ia/aouo eaoii 1877 a. ca Ieaaio, e a
aeaeueiaeoai – ia?aoiaeo /a?ac Aaeeaiu

AI?UeAA CA IEAAIO

Caiaaeiay a?iey E?eaeaia?a iinea caiyoey Ieeiiiey iai?aaeeanue e
Ieaaia – iiuiiio oe?aieaieth, eoaea noiaeeeenue iooe io ?ouoea, Nenoiaa,
Nioee, Eia/e. Ionthaea oae iooue ia Oeieeineee ia?aaae. Ieaaia,
?aniieiaeaiiay o ?aee A?eaeoea, ia oieiao, ia?ana/aiiuo ia?aaaie, auea
oaeiaia aeey iai?iiu e iaauaiaeia aeey ianooieaiey.

E Ieaaia auno?ui ia?oai iiaeoiaeee io?yae oaeaioeeaiai oo?aoeeiai
aiaia/aeueieea, aiaaiai ia/aeueieea Iniaia-iaoe. Iaaeeeoaeueiinoue
E?eaeaia?a oo?ee eniieueciaaee aeey oe?aieaiey e?aiinoe e iiaeoyaeaaiey
iiauo nee. ?onneay ?acaaaeea auea iinoaaeaia ieioi e naaaeaiee i
/eneaiiinoe i?ioeaieea auei iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ia?aia noieeiiaaiea iaeiie ec
a?oiie?iaie E?eaeaia?a (9 oun.) n oo?eaie (15 oun.) 8 ethey

1877 a. caeii/eeanue ii?aaeaieai ?onneeo. Ia ?acia?aaoenue a ianoaiiaea
e ia naeaeaa iaiaoiaeeiuo i?eaioiaeaiee e aith, 18 ethey 1877 a.
E?eaeaia? aiiaue aoaeiaae Ieaaio naieie iniiaiuie neeaie, iai?aaea
aeaaiue oaea? ia ainoi/iua e thai-ainoi/iua oe?aieaiey ai?iaea, oioy
e?aiinoue auea neaaaa caueuaia n thaa e n caiaaea. Yoa aoi?ay aoaea
caeii/eeanue iaoaea/ae. Iioa?ya 7 oun. oaeouie e ?aiaiuie, ?onneea
ionooieee. Nicaeaeanue oa?ica, /oi ?onneay a?iey aoaeao io?acaia io
oueia a ?oiuiee e ?innee. Yoa iaoaea/a i?iecaaea oyaeaeia aia/aoeaiea ia
?onneia eiiaiaeiaaiea e iauanoai.

Iinea aoi?iai ooo?ia Ieaaiu noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi iniiaiua neeu
Aeoiaeneie a?iee ia iiaoo iaiaaeeaiii ia?aeoe Aaeeaiu aeey iiaeaea?aeee
io?yaea Ao?ei, eae ieaie?iaaeinue ?aiaa. Iieo/ea iiaee?aieaiea ec ?innee
e aeinoeaioa aeiaiai?aiiinoe n ?oiuineei eiycai Ea?eii, ?onneia
eiiaiaeiaaiea ?aoeei ooo?iiaaoue Ieaaio a o?aoee ?ac. Ianooieaiea auei
i?eo?i/aii e 30 aaaonoa – aeith eiaiei Aeaenaiae?a II. Aianoa n ?onneeie
a aiyo o/anoaiaaee ?oiuineea /anoe. Iauaaeeiaiiay ?onnei-?oiuineay a?iey
ian/eouaaea 84,1 oun. (52,1 ?onneeo, 32 oun. ?oiui) e 424 i?oaeey. O
oo?ie auei 32,4 oun. /aeiaae e 70 i?oaeee. Iauaa eiiaiaeiaaiea a
o?aoueai ooo?ia inouanoaeye ?oiuineee eiycue Ea?ie (Ea?e) Aiaaioeieea?i
e ?onneee aaia?ae I. Ae. Cioia. ?onnei-?oiuineia eiiaiaeiaaiea ?aoeei
iiaeaa?aiooue aiiai?aee?iaea iiceoeee oo?ie, a caoai ia/eiaoue ooo?i. Ii
a?oeeea?ee ia oaeaeinue ?anno?ieoue iai?iio i?ioeaieea. Iaeioi?ua oniaoe
auee aeinoeaioou ?oiuineei aieneii ia?aae oe?aieaieai oo?ie o A?eaeoeu.

A aiyo ca e?aiinoue ioee/eeny aaia?ae I. Ae. Neiaaeaa, /aeiaae
aieueoie o?aa?inoe e aiaaiai iiuoa. Aai aienoea, n?aaeaaoeany ia eaaii
oeaiaa, aeaenoaoy yia?ae/ii e no?aieoaeueii, i?i?aaeenue ia thaeiua
ie?aeiu, ii, ia iieo/ea iiaeaea?aeee ae?oaeo /anoae, auee auioaeaeaiu
ioieoe ia ia?aaeiee iiceoeee.

Iaoaea/a o?aoueaai ooo?ia Ieaaiu aucaaea ?anoa?yiiinoue a
?onneii aaia?aeueiii ooaaa, auneacuaaeenue aeaaea i?aaeiieiaeaiey ia
ionooieaiee ca Aeoiae. Ii ianoiyieth aiaiiiai ieieno?a Ae. A. Ieethoeia
auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea ia eciaiaiee oaeoeee: io ooo?ia e?aiinoe ia?aeoe e
a? aeieaaea. Ec Iaoa?ao?aa aue aucaai aaia?ae Y. E. Oioeaaai, ecaanoiue
naiei eiaeaia?iui ianoa?noaii au? ii iai?iia Naaanoiiiey. Aeoeaiua
aiaiiua aeaenoaey auee i?ae?auaiu. ?onneea, ?oiuineea e aieaa?neea
nieaeaou i?enooieee e ?uoueth iiauo e oe?aieaieth noa?uo ieiiia;
eieueoei ie?oaeaiey i?ioeaieea iinoaiaiii naeeiaeinue. A ?acoeueoaoa
oaeeo aeaenoaee oaeaeinue io?acaoue iooe iiaeoiaea oo?aoeeeo
iiaee?aieaiee e Ieaaia. A?iey Iniaia-iaoe ia/aea aieiaeaoue. Iieiiio
ie?oaeaieth oo?ie a Ieaaia iiiiaee oniaoiua aie ca ai?iaea e naeaiey,
eaaeaaoea ia iooe ec Ieaaiu a Nioeth. A yoeo n?aaeaieyo niiaa i?iyaee
naay aaia?ae E. A. Ao?ei, eniieueciaaaoee iiaoth oaeoeeo: ?annuiiie
no?ie, a?oeeea?eth, iiiu?yaoee eieoeeaoeao e iaoiae/eainoue nieaeao.

A oiaea aieiu eiiaiaee?u ieeieaaaneie oeieu auioaeaeaiu auee
ioeacaoueny io noa?uo iaoiaeia aaaeaiey aiy: eiaiauo aoae, ianooieaiey
eieiiiaie, ia?aaeaeaeaiea ia?aaeiui oaaii. Iaiaa?aiiinoue, oaniay
acaeiinacynue /anoae, a?oeeea?ey iinoaiaiii caaiaaaee i?eciaiea
aaia?aeeoaoa.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiaaae ?onneeo e aieaa? i?e Ai?iii Aeoaieea e
Oaeaoa oo?aoeeia eiiaiaeiaaiea ia?aoei e iai?iia Aaeeaineeo ia?aaaeia e,
ii nouanoao, i?ae?aoeei iiiuoee i?i?aaoueny e inaaeaaeaiiui. A eiioea
iiya?y 1877 a. Iniai-iaoa ?aoee aua?aoueny ec inaaeu e i?i?aaoue
eieueoei. A enoiaea aiy oo?ee auee ioa?ioaiu ?onnei-?oiuineeie
niaaeeiaieyie. Iinea yoie iineaaeiae iaoaea/e Iniai-iaoa ioaeae i?eeac i
eaieooeyoeee. 10 aeaeaa?y 1877 a. nauoa 40 oun. nieaeao e ioeoea?ia
naeaeenue a ieai nithciui aieneai.

Aie ca Ieaaio iieacaee aunieee aiaaie aeoo ?onneeo, ?oiuineeo e
aieaa?neeo aieiia, i?aeiouanoai iiaie oaeoeee aaaeaiey aiy. Ai a?aiy
aiaa ca Ieaaio ?onneay e ?oiuineay iioa?yee aei 40 oun. /aeiaae, iniaiu
– 20 oun. eo/oae a?iee n a? aiaia/aeueieeii Iniai-iaoie.

Acyoea Ieaaiu auei ?aoathuae iiaaaeie a oiaea aieiu, n
aiiaeooaaeaieai e iaaeaaeaeie a? aini?eiyee aaeeaineea ia?iaeu.

IA?AOIAe *A?AC AAEEAIU

I?ioea Oo?oeee aiiaue aunooieee Na?aey e *a?iiai?ey, ?aiaa
i?ae?aoeaoea aeoeaiua aiaiiua aeaenoaey. Iiiuoea noeoaia caeeth/eoue
naia?aoiue ie? n aaeeaineeie ia?iaeaie e eniieueciaaoue eo aeey ai?ueau
n ?inneae iioa?iaea iaoaea/o.

Aeey cae?aieaiey oniaoa e ieii/aiey aieiu ?onneia eiiaiaeiaaiea
i?eiyei ?aoaiea ia?aeoe /a?ac Aaeeaiu ceiie. Aeaeueiaeoay caaea?aeea
iiaea iiaeeyoue ia i?anoeae naiiaea?aeaaey, oneeeoue aioo?aiiaa
a?iaeaiea a no?aia, aeoeae?iaaoue a?aaeaeaaiua aeaenoaey i?aaeoaeuenoa
Caiaaea. ?aoaiea i auno?aeoai caaa?oaiee aieiu aucuaaeinue oaeaea
o?oaeiinoyie, naycaiiuie ni niaaaeaieai a?iee, iaaeinoaoi/ii
ia?aieciaaiiie naieoa?iie neoaeaie, aieaciyie.

Ia?aoiae /a?ac iie?uoua niaaii aaeeaineea ia?aaaeu, iai?iiyaiua
oo?eaie, aue iaaa?iyoii o?oaeiui. Ia?ai?aaa i?iecaiaeeeanue o?aiy
a?oiiaie. Aaia?ae Ao?ei ii A?aaaeneiio ia?aaaeo aeaeaaeny e Nioee e
Aae?eaiiiieth. Neeueiay aieieaaeeoea iaoaea aeaeaeaieth, iniaaiii
oyaeaeiio i?e nionea; aaoa? e niaa neaieee aeaca, iaeaaeaea eaaeaiaea.
Iiiiaaee iiaeaea?aeea e o/anoea ianoiiai ianaeaiey: aieaa?u neoaeeee
i?iaiaeieeaie, ?acaaae/eeaie, ?an/euaee aei?iae, niaaaeaee
i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. 4 yiaa?y 1878 a. ?onneay a?iey e aieaa?neea
iiie/aioeu anooieee a Nioeth.

Ae?oaay a?oiie?iaea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea I. I. Ea?oeiaa
ia?aoiaeeea Aaeeaiu /a?ac O?iyineee ia?aaae, aienea O. O. ?aaeaoeeiai –
a ?aeiia Oeiee, aaea o aea?aaie Oaeiiai iaoiaeeeanue 30-ouny/iay a?iey
Aannaeue-iaoe. Caeanue auee nin?aaeioi/aiu aienea aaia?aeia O. O.
?aaeaoeeiai

I. Ae. Neiaaeaaa, I. Ae. Nayoiiieea-Ie?neiai e aieaa?neea iiie/aioeu. A
aeanoieeo aiyo ca Oeieo e Oaeiiai ?onneea acyee a ieai ii/oe anth
oo?aoeeoth a?ieth Aannaeue-iaoe. Oa??eoi?ey Aieaa?ee auea inaiaiaeaeaia
io caoaao/eeia. A n?aaeaieyo iiae Oeieie e Oaeiiai iiaeaei 5000 ?onneeo
e aieaa?neeo nieaeao. E?iia oiai, ai a?aiy iai?iiu Oeiee io ii?icia,
aieiaea e aieaciae oia?ei nauoa 10 000 ?onneeo nieaeao. Aaee/anoaaiiue
iaiyoiee ia Oeiea, nii?oaeaiiue ?inneae e Aieaa?eae noae neiaieii
?onnei-aieaa?neie ae?oaeau.

Oniaoiua aeaenoaey ?onneeo e aieaa?neeo aiene o Nioee, ia Oeiea,
iicaieeee ia/aoue oe?ieia ianooieaiea ii anaio o?iioo. A ia/aea yiaa?y
1878 a. Ao?ei ?acaee oo?ie iiae Oeeeiiiiieai ( ai?iae Ieiaaeea ); 8
yiaa?y a?iey Neiaaeaaa caiyea Aae?eaiiiieue.

EAAEACNEEE OAAO? AIAIIUO AeAENOAEE

Ia Eaaeacneii o?iioa aeaenoaey ?onneeo aiene auee oniaoiuie. A iaa
1877 a. i?e aeoeaiie iiiiue ianaeaiey Eaaeaca auee acyou e?aiinoe
A?aeaaai e Aaycao, a eiioea aaaonoa – ai?iae Noooie. Aaoacey auea
i/euaia io aiene iai?eyoaey. N inaie ia/aeanue iiaeaioiaea e ooo?io
Ea?na, ia?aieeanniie e?aiinoe a Iaeie Acee. 18 iiya?y 1877 a. iinea
ii/iiai ooo?ia e?aiinoue iaea. A n?aaeaiee ca ai?iae ioee/eeenue ?onneea
e eaaeacneea ioeoea?u e nieaeaou. Aeaaanoaineee iiee, o/aanoaiaaaoee a
aiyo, iieo/ee ca acyoea Ea?na Aai?aeaaneia ciaiy.

IA?AIE?EA

Oniaoe ?innee aucuaaee o?aaiao o ainoaea?noa caiaaea. A Eiiaeiia
oneeeeenue aiaiiua i?eaioiaeaiey; aiaeeeneee oeio aioia aue aieoe a
Aea?aeaiaeeu. Ii noeoai, iianaynue, /oi aeaenoaey aiaee/ai i?eaaaeoo e
caoaaoo ?onneeie Eiinoaioeiiiiey, ioeacae Eiiaeiio a aai i?inueaa aieoe
aiaeeeneiio oeioo a i?ieeau. A oo?aoeeie a?iee ?inei aeaca?oe?noai;
oneeeeenue ?aciiaeaney a oo?aoeeii i?aaeoaeuenoaa; oe?eeinue
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea ia Aaeeaiao. A yoeo oneiaeyo
noeoai aue auioaeaeai i?aaeeiaeeoue Aeaenaiae?o II i?ae?aoeoue aiaiiua
aeaenoaey e anooieoue a ia?aaiai?u.

A?aaeaeaaiay iiceoeey i?aaeoaeuenoa caiaaea canoaaeea
Iaoa?ao?aneee eaaeiao – aei iieiiai ?aca?iia iniaineie a?iee –
niaeaneoueny ia iiaeienaiea ia?aie?ey, a caoai – i?aeeiea?iiai aeiaiai?a
n Ii?oie. Ia?aie?ea auei iiaeienaii a Aae?eaiiiiea 19 yiaa?y 1878 a. Ii
aai oneiaeyi Aieaa?ey iauyaeyeanue aaoiiiiiui eiyaeanoaii; ?oiuiey,
Na?aey, *a?iiai?ey, ?aiaa iieo/eaoea aaoiiiieth, noaiiaeeenue
iacaaeneiuie; Ainiey e Aa?oeaaiaeia i?iaicaeaoaeenue aaoiiiiiuie
iaeanoyie. ?inney ca iioa?e, iiianaiiua a oiaea aieiu, aeieaeia auea
iieo/eoue eeai eiio?eaooeeth, eeai oa??eoi?eaeueiia aiciauaiea. I oi?iao
yoiai aiciauaiey i?aaeiieaaaeinue aeiaiai?eoueny iniai.

Oneiaey ia?aie?ey aucuaaee i?ioano ?yaea i?aaeoaeuenoa.
Aano?i-Aaia?ey cayaeea i ia?ooaiee oneiaee ?aeoooaaeoneie e
Aoaeaiaooneie eiiaaioeee, Aiaeey oniio?aea a oneiaeyo ia?aie?ey
iinyaaoaeuenoai ia Ia?eaeneee aeiaiai? e oeaeinoiinoue Oo?oeee. Iaeiaei
«caaiou» i oeaeinoiinoe Iniaineie eiia?ee ia iaoaee Aaeeeia?eoaiee
?anoe?eoue naith yeniaineth a ?aeiia Noyoeeiai eaiaea, i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
oa??eoi?eth Aaeioa, Eei?a. A 70-o aiaeao XIX a. Aiaeey ioeacaeanue io
iieeoeee noaoon-eai e ?ac?aaioaea i?ia?aiio ii ?acaeaeo Oo?oeee.
Ninoaaiuie a? /anoyie auee caoaao Aaeioa e Eei?a.

1 oaa?aey 1878 a. aiaeeeneea ei?aaee aioee a I?aii?iia ii?a e
inoaiiaeeenue o I?eioeaauo ino?iaia. Aano?i-Aaia?ey i?iecaaea
iiaeeecaoeeth aiene a Ea?iaoao. ?inney a ioaao ia iiyaeaiea aiaeeeneeo
ei?aaeae iai?aaeea naie aienea e Eiinoaioeiiiieth.

NAI-NOAOAINEEE IE?IUE AeIAIAI?.

AA?EEINEEE EIIA?ANN

19 oaa?aey 1878 a. a ianoa/ea Nai-Noaoaii, a 12 ei. Io noieeoeu
Iniaineie eiia?ee, aue iiaeienai i?aieaeueiue ?onnei-oo?aoeeee aeiaiai?,
noi?ioee?iaaaoee iiaoth i?ia?aiio ?innee a aaeeaineii aii?ina. A ioee/ea
io i?aaeieo ieaiia ?onneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?aaeoniao?eaiaaaoeo
aaoiiiieth aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia, a Nai-Noaoaii auei auaeaeiooi o?aaiaaiea
eo iacaaeneiinoe. Niaeanii aeiaiai?o, Na?aey, *a?iiai?ey e ?oiuiey
inaiaiaeaeaeenue io aannaeueiie Oo?oeee e iieo/aee iacaaeneiinoue.
Aieaa?ey noaiiaeeanue aaoiiiiiui eiyaeanoaii. A? nayce n Ii?oie
ia?aie/eaaeenue oieaoie aeaie. Oo?aoeeea aienea i/euaee a? caiee, a
oo?aoeeea e?aiinoe n?uaaeenue. Aeey iaaethaeaiey ca eniieiaieai Oo?oeeae
aeiaiai?a a eiyaeanoai n?ieii ia aeaa aiaea (aei ia?aciaaiey iiaiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa) aaiaeeeenue ?onneea aienea a eiee/anoaa 50 oun. /aeiaae.
Ii?oa iaycuaaeanue i?iaanoe ?aoi?iu a Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeia e a ae?oaeo
caieyo, aoiaeeaoeo a ninoaa Oo?oeee, a oaeaea n?uoue oo?aoeeea e?aiinoe,
?aniieiaeaiiua ii Aeoiath. ?innee iooiaeeea Aeia?oaeaea. Ae?oaay a?oiia
aii?inia eanaeanue eciaiaiee a Iaeie Acee. Oai ?inney iieo/eea ai?iaea:
A?aeaaai, Ea?n, Aaycao, Aaooi e oa??eoi?eth aei Naaaieoea. Aeeth/aiea
yoeo oa??eoi?ee a ninoaa ?innee niaeaenoaiaaei oi?aiaiio e i?iiuoeaiiiio
?acaeoeth Caeaaeacuey e eiaei aaaeiia no?aoaae/aneia cia/aiea. E?iia
oiai, iii auei ecaanoiie aa?aioeae aeey a?iyi e ae?oaeo ia?iaeia io
aoi?aeaiee iie/eu aaoeaocoeia.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu 1877 – 1878 aa. iiiaea
aaeeaineea ia?iaeu iieo/eee iacaaeneiioue; ia?iaeu, inoaaoeany a ninoaaa
Oo?oeee, iieo/aee ?yae i?aa e aeey ieo ioe?uaaeenue aiciiaeiinoe
yeiiiie/aneiai e eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey. Oneiaey aeiaiai?a i?aaenoaaeyee
ianiiiaiiua auaiaeu aeey ?innee. Iie oe?aieyee ?onneia aeeyiea ia
Ainoiea, iiaei?aaiiia E?uineie aieiie.

Iniaia cia/aiea i?e iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoa aeiaiai?a ?onneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eaeaaaei nicaeaieth «Naiioi?aaeythuaai eiyaeanoaa
Aieaa?ee n o?enoeaineei i?aaeoaeuenoaii e caineei aieneii, eiycue
eioi?iai ecae?aeny ianaeaieai Aieaa?ee, ooaa?aeaeaeny Ii?oie n niaeaney
aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa». Au?aaioea noaoona iiaiai eiyaeanoaa aeieaeia auea
i?iaiaeeoueny iiae iaaethaeaieai ?onneiai eiienna?a, /oi aeaaaei
aiciiaeiinoue aeeyoue ia iieeoeeo aieaa?neiai eiyaeanoaa, aeeaea ae?oaeo
?aniieiaeaiiiai e Eiinoaioeiiiieth e i?ieeaai.

Iinea iiaeienaiey Nai-Noaoaineiai aeiaiai?a ainoi/iue e?ecen
anooiee a naith iineaaeithth, caeeth/eoaeueioth noaaeeth.
Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea i?aaeoaeuenoaa au?aceee i?ioano i?ioea oneiaee
Nai-Noaoaii. Iniaaiii iie iaaiaeiaaee ii iiaiaeo nicaeaiey eiyaeanoaa
Aieaa?ee n auoiaeaie a *a?iia e Yaaeneia ii?a. Aiaeey e Aano?i-Aaia?ey
ia i?eciaee aeiaiai?a, n/eoay aai ia?ooaieai oneiaee Ia?eaeneiai
aeiaiai?a. Iie iio?aaiaaee nicuaa eiia?anna aeey ianoaeaeaiey anao
noaoae i?aeeieia?ey.

A Aea?aeaiaeeu iai?aaeeenue iiaua aiaeeeneea ei?aaee yeiau aeey
ieacaiey iiiiue noeoaio. Aeaaa Eiiaeiineiai eaaeiaoa Aeeiinoeeae
aunooiee a iaeaoa ei?aeia n i?ecuaii ieeoie?iaaoue aiaeeeneeie aieneaie
Eei?, ?anniao?eaay aai eae eeth/ e Ainoieo. Ia i?aie?eaoenue n
ii?aaeaieai, ?acaeaeyea aieinoaaiiia iano?iaiea Eiiaeiia e Oo?oeey.

Ia?aae ?inneae anoaea ?aaeueiay oa?ica iiaie aieiu, e eioi?ie iia
ia auea aioiaa. Yeiiiie/aneea e aiaiiua ?ano?nu no?aiu enoiueeenue;
ia?anoaei ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea – a ?innee iac?aaaea iiaay
?aaiethoeeiiiay neooaoeey (1879-1881). ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei
auioaeaeaii niaeaneoueny ia nicua iauaaa?iiaeneiai eiia?anna. Ianoii aai
eca?aee Aa?eei, noieeoeo ainoaea?noaa, aeaaa eioi?iai – Aenia?e – aiaoia
ia i?iyaeye caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a aeaeao Ainoiea. Ii neiaanoii cayaeye i
naiae ?iee «/anoiiai iaeea?a».

Aei ioe?uoey eiia?anna ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai no?aieeinue
aeeieiiaoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie ?aneieioue aiaei-aao?eeneee aeie e
i?aaeioa?aoeoue ecieyoeeth ?innee. N yoie oeaeueth iii iioei ia
naia?aoiua ia?aaiai?u n iaeaieaa iianiuie i?ioeaieeaie – Aano?i-Aaia?eae
e Aiaeeae. Ia?aaiai?u a Aaia ia aeaee iieiaeeoaeueiiai ?acoeueoaoa. A
Eiiaeiia iie (oeaiie onooiie ?innee) caeii/eeenue iiaeienaieai 18 iay
1878 a. nae?aoiiai aiaei-?onneiai niaeaoaiey. Ia?aua aai noaouee
eanaeenue Aieaa?ee. Iaoa?ao?aneee eaaeiao aue auioaeaeai niaeaneoueny ia
i?aaeeiaeaiea Eiiaeiia i ?acaeaea Aieaa?ee ia THaeioth e Naaa?ioth;
Naaa?iay Aieaa?ey iieo/aea naiinoiyoaeueiia oi?aaeaiea, THaeiay –
aaeieieno?aoeaioth aaoiiiieth, aoaa?iaoi?a ec o?enoeai, ecae?aaiiai n
niaeaney aa?iiaeneeo i?aaeoaeuenoa. A Aiaoieee (Iaeie Acee) ?inney
onooiaea Oo?oeee Aaycao e Aeaeoa?neoth aeieeio.

Aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai aunooiaei a ia?aaiai?ao n ?inneae a ?iee
«caueoieea» Ii?ou e o?aaiaaei io noeoaia eiiiainaoeee ca yoi. ?a/ue oea
ia ino?iaa Eei? – aaaeiie no?aoaae/aeie aaca e o?aiceoiii oeaio?a
Ainoi/iiai N?aaeecaiiiii?uey. Ieeoiaoeey Eei?a aaea e oe?aieaieth
iiceoeee Aiaeee a Aceaoneie Oo?oeee, ia iooyo e Aaeioo e Ia?neaeeiio
caeeao e a oi aea a?aiy ineaaeyea aeeyiea ?innee a Iaeie Acee.
Inouanoaeoue ieeoiaoeeth Eei?a Aiaeey no?aieeanue inooanoaeoue n
iiiiuueth e niaeaneai noeoaia. N yoie oeaeueth Eiiaeii i?aaeeiaeee Ii?oa
iiaeienaoue oaeioth aiaei-oo?aoeeoth eiaaioeeth, niaea?aeaiea eioi?ie
naiaeeeinue e caueoa yeiau aeaaeaiee Oo?oeee io caoaaoa eo ?inneae. Ca
yoo «iiiiuue» noeoai ia?aaeaaae Eei? Aiaeee. 4 ethiy 1878 a. eiiaaioeey,
iieo/eaoay a enoi?ee iacuaaiea «Eei?neay», auea iiaeienaia. Aneaae ca
yoei niaeaoaieai 6 ethiy 1878 a. Aiaeey caeeth/eea nithc n
Aano?i-Aaia?eae, nooue eioi?iai naiaeeeanue e niaianoiui aeaenoaeyi
aeaoo aea?aeaa a aieaa?neii aii?ina e e iiaeaea?aeea Aiaeeae ieaiia
Aano?i-Aaia?eae, no?aieaoaeny e ieeoiaoeee Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu.
Aiaeeeneay aeeieiiaoey iaea?aeaea iiaaaeo. Iia i?eaycaea e eieanieoea
naiae iieeoeee ia oieueei Oo?oeeth, Aano?eth, ii e ?inneth.

13 ethiy 1878 a. a Aa?eeia iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenaii Aenia?ea
ioe?ueny eiia?ann, a ?aaioa eioi?iai o/anoaiaaee ainoaea?noaa,
iiaeienaaoea Ia?eaeneee o?aeoao 1856 a. Oeaeue eiia?anna aeey
i?aaeoaeuenoa caiaaea naiaeeeanue e oiio, /oiau i?eoiaiueoeoue cia/aiea
iiaaaeu ?innee a ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia e ooaa?aeeoue nianoaaiiia
aeeyiea ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei iie aeiaeaaeenue
ineaaeaiey neaayineeo ainoaea?noa ia Aaeeaiao, i?aaeaea anaai Aieaa?ee.

N ia?auo aeiae ?aaiou eiia?anna iaia?oaeeeanue iieiay ecieyoeey
?innee. Aiaeey, aii?aee oneiaeyi aiaei-?onneiai niaeaoaiey, aiceeaaeea
aioe?onneee aeie ainoaea?noa. Eiiaeii iiaeaea?aeeaae i?eoycaiey
Aano?i-Aaia?ee ia oa??eoi?eth Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu, a? ieaiu ii
auoaniaieth ?innee n Aaeeai. Aenia?e, eeoue ia neiaao aunooiay
iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo aiaei-aano?eeneei aeieii e ?inneae, oaeoe/anee
iiiiaae Eiiaeiio e Aaia. O?aioeey, ia i?iyaeyaoay iinea o?aiei-i?onneie
aieiu aieueoiai eioa?ana e ainoi/iiio aii?ino, ia eiia?anna
iiaeaea?aeeaaea Aiaeeth e Aano?i-Aaia?eth. Iianaynue ca naie eaieoaeu a
Oo?oeee, iia, ii nouanoao, ia aeaeaea naiinoiyoaeueiinoe aaeeaineeo
ainoaea?noa.

Aii?inii, aucaaaoei iaeaieueooth iieaieeo, aue aieaa?neee.
?a/ue oea ia oieueei i a?aieoea, ii e iieeoe/aneii noaoona iaaeo /anoae
Aieaa?ee. Oiaiueoaiea oa??eoi?ee e i?aa Aieaa?neiai eiyaeanoaa aeaeei ca
niaie oneeaiea aiaei-aano?eeneiai aeeyiey e ineaaeaiea aeeyiey ?innee.
I?aaeeiaeaiea ?onneie aeaeaaaoeee (?inneth i?aaenoaaeyee ieieno?
eiino?aiiuo aeae A. I. Ai?/aeia e iinie a Eiiaeiia I. A. Ooaaeia) i
i?aaeinoaaeaiee oe?ieeo aaoiiiiiuo i?aa ia oieueei Naaa?iie, ii e
THaeiie Aieaa?ee auee ioaa?aioou Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie e Ii?oie. Ieacaaoenue
a ecieyoeee, iianaynue aiciiaeiie aieiu n iauaaeeiaiiie Aa?iiie e
Oo?oeeae a oneiaeyo ?aaiethoeeiiiiai a?iaeaiey a no?aia, ?onneay
aeaeaaaoeey auea aanneeueia ionoiyoue oneiaey Nai-Noaoaineiai aeiaiai?a.

13 ethey 1878 a., nionoy ianyoe iinea ia/aea ?aaiou eiia?anna, aue
iiaeienai Aa?eeineee o?aeoao, aeaaiua ?aoaiey eioi?iai inoaaaeenue a
neea aei aaeeaineeo aiei 1912-1913 aa. Eiia?ann a oua?a ?innee e thaeiui
neaayiai eciaieee oneiaey Nai-Noaoaineiai aeiaiai?a. Ii iniiaiia aai
?aoaiea iiaeoaa?aeeeinue: inoaaaeenue a neea noaouee i iacaaeneiinoe
?oiuiee, Na?aee, *a?iiai?ee.

Aieaa?ey ii Aaeeaineiio o?aaoo aeaeeeanue ia aeaa /anoe –
naaa?ioth e thaeioth. Naaa?iay auea i?eciaia aannaeueiui io Oo?oeee
eiyaeanoaii ni naiei i?aaeoaeuenoaii, iaoeeiiaeueiie a?ieae, ii a?
oa??eoi?ey nie?auaeanue ia 2/3. N?ie i?aauaaiey ?onneie a?iee ia
oa??eoi?ee Aieaa?ee nie?auaeny n aeaoo eao aei aeaayoe ianyoeaa. THaeiay
Aieaa?ey iiae iacaaieai «Ainoi/iay ?oiaeey» iauyaeyeanue aaoiiiiiie
oo?aoeeie i?iaeioeeae n aoaa?iaoi?ii ec o?enoeai, iacia/aaiui noeoaiii.
Aano?i-Aaia?ey iieo/eea i?aai ieeoie?iaaoue Ainieth e Aa?oeaaiaeio (n?ie
ieeoiaoeee ia oeacuaaeny), aea?aeaoue oai aienea e no?ieoue aeaeaciua
aei?iae. Iia noaiiaeeanue oaeoe/anee oicyeiii caiaaeiie /anoe
Aaeeaineiai iieoino?iaa. Aii?in i noaeioiaenoaa ii Aeoiath oaeaea aue
?aoai a iieueco Aano?i-Aaia?ee, eioi?ie ii?o/aeinue ?oeiaiaenoai
oi?aiaeae ii yoie ?aea. ?oiuiey, iieo/ea aeaeueoo Aeoiay e Aeia?oaeaeo,
oaeaea iiiaea a caaeneiinoue io Aano?i-Aaia?ee.

Caiaaeiui aea?aeaaai oaeaeinue eciaieoue ?aoaiey
Nai-Noaoaineiai i?aeeieia?ey e a ioiioaiee aceaoneeo aeaaeaiee Iniaineie
eiia?ee. Aeiaeaoenue aica?auaiey Oo?oeee Aaycaoa, Aiaeey oe?aieyea naie
iooe ia N?aaeiee Ainoie. Ca yoi «niaeaenoaea» Ii?oa noeoai niaeaneeny ia
ieeoiaoeeth Aaeeeia?eoaieae ino?iaa Eei?. Oioy Aaooi inoaaaeny ca
?inneae, ii iauyaeyeny «ii?oi-o?aiei» (naiaiaeiui aeey aaniioeaiiie
oi?aiaee ii?oii), /oi ia?aie/eaaei i?aeiouanoaa, iieo/aaiua io aeaaeaiey
yoei /a?iiii?neei ii?oii. ?inney iieo/aea oaeaea e?aiinoe Ea?n e
A?aeaaai. Ii i?ioiaeu /a?ac Niaaieoeneee o?aaao, aaaeouea e Y?ca?oio,
ia?aoiaeeee e Oo?oeee, /oi cao?oaeiyei i?iaeaeaeaiea e Ainoi?o /a?ac
oa??eoi?eth Iaeie Acee.

Iniiaiua yeiiiie/aneea e iieeoe/aneea auaiaeu io /anoe/iiai
?acaeaea Oo?oeee iieo/aee Aiaeey e Aano?i-Aaia?ey. Ieeoiaoeey Eei?a
noaaeea iiae eiio?ieue Aiaeee aa aeaaeaiey a N?aaeecaiiiii?uea; caoaao
Aano?i-Aaia?eae Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeiu e aa eiio?ieue iaae noaeioiaenoaii
ii Aeoiath i?aaeinoaaeyee ae aieueoea i?aeiouanoaa ia Aaeeaiao.

Aa?eeineee eiia?ann yaeeny iiaaaeie aiaei-aano?eeneiai aeiea,
inouanoaeaiiie ia aac niaeaenoaey Aa?iaiee. Iaeiaei aai iinoaiiaeaiey ia
oaeiaeaoai?yee ie iiaaaeeoaeae, ie iiaaaeaeaiiuo. Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea
?innee auei iaaeiaieueii ?aoaieyie eiia?anna. Aeiaiai? ia oaeiaeaoai?ye
e Ii?oo. Iiceoeee ia Aaeeaiao auee ath oo?a/aiu. Aaeeaineea ia?iaeu,
aeaaea oa, eioi?ua iieo/eee iacaaeneiinoue, auneacuaaee
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue nie?auaieai eo oa??eoi?ee e ia?aie/aieai i?aa
n?aaieoaeueii n i?aeeieia?eyie. Aiaeey e Aano?i-Aaia?ey, oioy iie e
auea?aee aeeieiiaoe/aneia «n?aaeaiea» n ?inneae, ia /oanoaiaaee naay
oicyaaaie Ainoiea. Ieeoiaoeey Aiaeeae Eei?a, Aano?i-Aaia?eae – Ainiee e
Aa?oeaaiaeiu naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea ia iooiaea yoeo ainoaea?noa io
i?eioeeia noaoon-eai. Yoe caoaaou eeoaee Eiiaeii e Aaio oiai oe?ieiai
aeiaa?ey, eioi?ia iie ?aiueoa eiaee o noeoaia. Aia «e?eoeee» ni noi?iiu
oo?aoeeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa inoaaaeanue iaeia Aa?iaiey. Neiaaniuie
cayaeaieyie i iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoe a aeaeao Ainoiea e iin?aaeie/aneie
?ieueth, eioi?oth ea?ae Aenia?e ia eiia?anna, aa?iaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?eia?aei aieueoia aeeyiea ia iieeoeeo Ii?ou.

?aoaiey Aa?eeineiai eiia?anna iaino?yee aano?i-?onneea
i?ioeai?a/ey ia Aaeeaiao, iieacaee oaoeinoue Nithca o?ao eiia?aoi?ia e
onei?eee aa?iaii-aano?eeneia naeeaeaiea, iaiaoeaoaany aua iinea
o?aiei-i?onneie aieiu.

Iaeiaei aioe?onneay e aioeneaayineay aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaenoaaeoaeae Aiaeee, Aano?i-Aaia?ee e Oo?oeee ia eiia?anna ia iiaea
ca/a?eiooue iieiaeeoaeueiiai cia/aiey aieiu aeey aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia.
?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia caaa?oeea iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueioth
ai?ueao yoeo ia?iaeia eo inaiaiaeaeaieai io oo?aoeeie oe?aiee. Aeey
ianaeaiey, aua inoaaoaainy iiae aeanoueth iniaiia, auee ioe?uou iooe
aeey aeinoeaeaiey iacaaeneiinoe. Ii naiei iauaeoeaiui ?acoeueoaoai
i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeeaoea a 70-a aiaeu O1O a. ia Aaeeaiao, auee
?aaiicia/iu ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee.

Aaeeaineea ia?iaeu /ooo iaiyoue oao, eoi naiae e?iaueth ionoaeaae
eo naiaiaeo. Aaeaaiaeii 19 oaa?aey (3 ia?oa) (aeaiue iiaeienaiey
Nai-Noaoaineiai aeiaiai?a) aieaa?neee ia?iae i?acaeioao aiaeiaueio
inaiaiaeaeaiey naiae no?aiu io oo?aoeeie iaaiee. Aaee/anoaaiiua
iaiyoieee ia Oeiea, a Ieaaia, a Iineaa, iacaaiey oeeoe, ieiuaaeae e
aoeueaa?ia, ia?iaeiua i?aaeaiey – naeaeaoaeuenoaa a?aoneie aeecinoe
ia?iaeia ?innee e aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020