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Россия в 1825-1855 гг. Царствование Николая I (Контрольная)

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Yiioa ?aaeoeee, ianooieaoay iinea ?aca?iia aeaeaa?enoia, auea ia?ac?uaii
naycaia n ee/iinoueth iiaiai eiia?aoi?a.

A 1796 aiaeo, a iineaaeiee aiae oea?noaiaaiey Aeaoa?eiu II, o iaa
?iaeeeny o?aoee aioe, eioi?iai ia?aeee Ieeieaai. Ii ?in caei?iaui e
e?aieei ?aaaieii, auaeaeyynue n?aaee naa?noieeia aunieei ?inoii. Iooea,
eioi?ue i/aiue aai ethaee, ii iioa?ye a /aou?a aiaea. Ni noa?oeie
a?aoueyie o iaai ia neiaeeeinue aeeceeo ioiioaiee. Aeaonoai ii i?iaae a
aaneiia/iuo aiaiiuo ea?ao n ieaaeoei a?aoii Ieoaeeii. Aeyaey ia iaai,
Aeaenaiae? 1 n oineie aeoiae i oii, /oi yoio ianoieaiiue, oaeiaaoue
iaeue/ee ni a?aiaiai, iaaa?iia, caeiao aai o?ii.

O/eeny Ieeieae ia?iaii. Iauanoaaiiua iaoee eacaeenue aio neo/iuie.
Iaiai?io, e oi/iui e anoanoaaiiui iaoeai ii eniuouaae oyaioaiea, a
aiaiii-eiaeaia?iui aeaeii ii ianoiyuaio oaeaeaeny. I?enoaaeai aue e
iieiaeui eiycueyi a?oaue e iaaaaeanoaaiiue nieaeao Eaicaei?o, eioi?ue e
iao/ae Ieeieay, eioi?iio i?aaeeanue oieueei aiaiiay iaoea. Iaiaoeeea
ioeoea?u oaeeaeyeenue oiio, eae oi?ioi ii ciaao i?onneee aiaiiue onoaa.
Ieeieae anooiee a aeeciue ii/oe ie/aai ia ciay e oi?yii ia oioae
i?eciaaaoue naiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe o/aiuey.

19 iiya?y 1825 aiaea aaeaee io noieeoeu a Oaaai?iaa, oia? Aeaenaiae? 1.
Aa/a?ii a Ceiiai Aeai?oea Ieeieae ociaao, /oi Eiinoaioei ieii/aoaeueii
ioeacaeny io ei?iiu e /oi nouanoaotho ioeoeeaeueiua aeou, ia?aaeathuea
?onneee i?anoie Ieeieath. Ia/aeinue iaaeaeooea?noaea. Ii ie Ieeieae, ie
Eiinoaioei ia ciaee aua, /oi a noieeoea c?aao aaaeiue caaiai? e oaeiay
aeaeaa?enoneay i?aaiecaoeey, nouanoaothuay oaea 9 eao, aioiaa aio-aio ai
anaoneuoaiea cayaeoue i naieo iaia?aieyo eciaieoue iieeoe/aneee e
nioeeaeueiue no?ie no?aiu.

Aienea, i?enyaioaoea Eiinoaioeio, aunooieee ia Naiaoneie ieiuaaee 14
aeaeaa?y. Ii auee ?anno?aeyiu a oii? ec iooae. A yoio aea aeaiue
ia/aeenue a?anou oaeiuo iauanoa. O/anoea a i?ioeanna aeaeaa?enoia, noaei
aeey Ieeieay 1 ia?aui iiuoii ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Ii ee/ii
ioaeaaae i?eeacaiey ia a?anoao e ?anii?yaeaiey ia oneiaeyo niaea?aeaiey
aeaeaa?enoia a e?aiinoe e ia aaoioaaooa. 5 aeaeaa?enoia auee eaciaiu.

Anooiay ia i?anoie, Ieeieae ii aiieia iiiyoiui i?e/eiai ia eiae yniiai e
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey, eaeie au ii oioae aeaeaoue ?inneeneoth
Eiia?eth. I?eioeeiu Ieeieaaaneie nenoaiu neeaaeuaaeenue eniiaeaieue,
iinoaiaiii.

Iinea oiueuo e a?a/iuo iineaaeieo eao oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a 1,
aioea?aiea Ieeieay aianei yaiia iaeeaeaiea a aeeciue no?aiu. Aeiaieueii
nei?i iiaue eiia?aoi? noiae caaiaaaoue neiiaoee naaoneiai iauanoaa. Aea
e ia oieueei aai. Ianiio?y ia ?aiooaoeee ia?aie/aiiiai nieaeaoiia,
eioi?oth Ieeieae caneoaeee aoaeo/e aaeeeei eiycai, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo i
iai, eae i iiaii Iao?a, auei aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii a ia?aua
aiaeu aai oea?noaiaaiey. Yoiio ai iiiaii niinianoaiaaei no?aieaiea
iiaiai eiia?aoi?a iaeeaeoue ainoaea?noaaiioth aeeciue, eeeaeaee?iaaoue
ceioiio?aaeaiey, eioi?ua aeinoaeenue aio a ianeaaenoai io i?aaeiaai
i?aaeaiey, ainnoaiiaeoue caeiiiinoue e ii?yaeie, i?iaanoe ?aoi?iu. Aai
aeaai?iaeiay iaia?a iiaaaeaiey, ionoue e iieaciay, i?iecaiaeeea ianiio?y
ie ia /oi, aanueia neeueiia aia/aoeaiea. Eiiiie?iaaea iauanoao e
aiaoiinoue eiia?aoi?a. Ieeieae a iieiaeinoe auaeaeeeny ioee/iie oeao?ie
i noaoueth, aue aunie ?inoii e e?anea, oioy e?anioa aai anaaaea
ioee/aeanue eaeie-oi oieiaeiinoueth. Aaee/anoaaiiinoue Ieeieae nio?aiye
ia i?ioyaeaiee anae naiae aeecie. Io /aai e auno?i aienaeny a
ainoaea?noaaiioth nenoaio, eioi?oth nicaeaaae o?e aeanyoeeaoey, nai
yaeyynue aa iaaeyaeiui aiieiuaieai.

Ieeieae no?aieeny iiae?aaeaoue oai /a?oai ee/iinoe Iao?a, eioi?ua e oiio
a?aiaie neiaeeeenue oaea a i?i/ioth eaaaiaeo. Ii iieeiiyeny ciaiaieoiio
i?aaeeo, n thiinoe auaoaio aai eoie?ii. Naeeaeaea n Iao?ii iiaiai
eiia?aoi?a e iieiay iai?eoioeeainoue a auoo. Ieeieae i?aaeii/eoae niaoue
ia i?inoie iioiaeiie e?iaaoe, oe?uaaynue oeiaeueth. Ieeieae aue oia?ai a
aaea, e , a ioee/ea io naiaai i?auo?a, ii/oe ia oiio?aaeye nie?oiiai.
Iaeiaei, ee/iay iai?eoycaoaeueiinoue Ieeieay ioithaeue ia iiiaoaea aio
nicaeaoue iaeei ec naiuo aeenoaoaeueiuo e ?ineioiuo aeai?ia a Aa?iia.
Ethaiiuoii, /oi e?ani/iinoue, aeeaiieniinoue Iaoa?ao?aneeo i?eaeai?iuo
oea?aiiiee ai iiiaii nicaeaaaeenue ia oieueei aiaaouie oe?aoaieyie aeai,
ii e aeaneii aiaiiuo ioiaee?ia, eioi?ua ainiiaenoaiaaee ai aeai?oeao.
Ia?ac aaee/anoaaiiiai eiia?aoi?a, ia /oaeaeiai i?inoui ?aaeinoyi e
?acaea/aieyi , n naiiai ia/aea a i?aaenoaaeaiee i?eaeai?iiai iauanoaa
noae niaaeeiyoueny n ia?acii /aeiaaea, iieiiai aunieiai aeaai?iaenoaa.
Eiia/ii, aeanoieay ?ani?aaa n aeaeaa?enoaie, eaciue iyoe ec ieo, iinea
iaauaiee oaeeaeoue Aa?iio naiei ieeina?aeeai neeueii iia?aaeeee
?aiooaoeee Ieeieay, e ieeiaaea ia iiaee auoue caauou. Ii ni a?aiaiai
eiua iinooiee a aeacao iiiaeo niinianoaiaaee oi?ie?iaaieth ia?aca
eaeaaeueiiai ainoaea?y. Iai?eia?, ciaee i oii, /oi Ieeieae i?iuae anao
a?anoiaaiiuo e inoaeaeaiiuo ca ioaee/iia inei?aeaiea aai aeinoieinoaa.
Oe?aieaieth ia?aca aeaai?iaeiiai e anaiiieiathuaai i?aaeoaey, aannii?ii
neoaeee ecaanoiue yieciae n aoaeeaioeeae, eioi?oth Ieeieae aeae Iooeeio,
iiaeueiiio iiyoo, a Iineaa 8 naioya?y 1826 aiaea, aa?iooue aai ec
Ieoaeeianeie nnueee. A ia?aua aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey Ieeieay, eacaeinue,
/oi iieiaeie eiia?aoi?, aua iieiue nee e yia?aee, niiaeao na?ueacii
caiyoueny ?aoi?ie?iaaieai ?innee. E aeey yoiai auee aiieia ?aaeueiua
iniiaaiey. A eiioea 1926 aiaea ec aeaeiaeoeo naiiaieeia eiia?ee, aue
nicaeai Nae?aoiue eiieoao. Aai oeaeueth auei eco/aiea iaeaeaiiuo a
eaaeiaoa iieieiiai Aeaenaiae?a 1 iiiai/eneaiiuo i?iaeoia, eanaaoeony
eciaiaiee a ?acee/iuo /anoyo ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e au?aaioee ia
eo iniiaa i?iaeoia ?aoi?i. I?e o/anoee Nia?aineiai auee ?ac?aaioaiu
i?iaeou i?aia?aciaaiey oeaio?aeueiuo e ianoiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee. I?aaeiieaaaeinue inouanoaeaiea ao?aeoaciiai i?eioeeia
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Ana yoe i?aaeeiaeaiey iieo/eee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia
iaeia?aiea Ieeieay 1, eioi?ue a?aiy io a?aiaie niaa?oae einiaeoeeiiiua
iniio?u aunoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e ee/ii oaaaeaeaeny a eo
iaaeaaniiniaiinoe. Iaeiaei iaeia?aiea ia eiaei ieeaeeo ?acoeueoaoia.

A 1833 aiaeo auei iiaeaioiaeaii 15 oiiia Naiaea caeiiia. 17 yiaa?y 1833
aiaea ninoiyeinue iauaa nia?aiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa, eioi?ia
i?eciaei Naiae caeiiia aaeeinoaaiiui iniiaaieai aeey ?aoaiey anao aeae e
onoaiiaeei, /oi ii aaiaeeony a aeaenoaea n 1 yiaa?y 1839 aiaea. Aunooiay
ia canaaeaiee, Ieeieae niaoeeaeueii iiae/a?eioe, /oi ono?ienoai
i?aainoaeey auei aeaaiie aai caaioie iinea anooieaiey ia i?anoie.
Ainnoaiea ia Naiaoneie ieiuaaee ieacaei iiuiia aicaeaenoaea ia ia?ac
iuneae e aeaenoaee Ieeieay. caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ioi?ieaiea i?eioeeiia
iaia?aie/aiiiai naiiaea?aeaaey oei ?oea ia ?oeo n ?iaeeie iiiuoeaie
iiaeaioiaee ioaeaeueiuo ?aoi?i. Oaeaea ainnoaiea yaeeinue aeey iaai
enoiaeiui ioieoii ?aoeoaeueiiai io?eoeaiey caiaaeiiai iooe, ianouaai a
naaa ?aaiethoeeiiiie “ca?acu”. A 1831 aiaeo oaaaeaeaiey, /oi caiaaeiia
ainieoaiea iiae?uaaao iniiau ?onneie aeecie, e /oi n yoei iaiaoiaeeii
eae iiaeii auno?aa iieii/eoue, i?eia?aei ii aeaeaieth Ieeieay 1
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i/a?oaiey. Ia ?anniio?aiee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa ii
aai ?anii?yaeaieth auea aianaia caienea “I iaeioi?uo i?aaeeao aeey
ainieoaiey ?onneeo iieiaeuo ethaeae e i cai?auaiee ainieouaaoue eo ca
a?aieoeae.” Aiiaua 1830-31aa. i?eianee Ieeieath iiiai aieiaiee. A
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi auei naycaii n iiaeuaiii ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
aeaeaeaiey a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Iniaaiii o?aaiaeii auei a Iieueoa.
Aniuoioaoaa a 1830 a. ainnoaiea i?eaaei e aaanoao Eiinoaioeia Iaaeiae/a
e auaiaeo anao ?onneeo aiene. Ii ?onneie a?iee oaeaeinue acyoue ooo?iii
Aa?oaao e iiaeaaeoue ainnoaiea. Ioiineoaeueiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
Iieueoe auea eeeaeaee?iaaia. Ia i?ioyaeaiee 30 eao oea?noaiaaiey a
oeaio?a aieiaiey Ieeieay 1 aue e?anoueyineee aii?in. Ia?aui oaaii a yoii
iai?aaeaiee aeieaeia auea noaoue ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie
aea?aaiae. A 1837 aiaeo auei nicaeaii Ieienoa?noai ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiouanoa. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey ?yaea ia?, oaeaeinue oii?yaei/eoue
oi?aaeaiea e?anoueyiaie, aceiaiey n ieo iiaeaoae e iaai? ?ae?ooia. A
aea?aaia noaee ioe?uaaoueny oeieu, aieueieoeu. Iaeicaiaeueiua naeueneea
iauanoaa ia?anaeyeenue a ae?oaea aoaa?iee ia naiaiaeiua caiee. Iiiaueee
aea auee iaaeiaieueiu ?aoi?iie, iie n/eoaee, /oi iiiuoee oeo/oeoue auo
e?anoueyi oneeyo oyaioaiea e?aiinoiuo e ia?aoiaeo a eacaiiia aaaeiinoai.

I.Ae.Eenaeaa, aeaaa Ieienoa?noaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa, i?iaiaeeaoee
?aoi?iu, n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui i?iaanoe ee/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi io
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, auaeaeeoue ei iaaieueoea caiaeueiua iaaeaeu e
oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue ?acia?u aa?ueiu e ia?iea. Ii Ieeieae 1 iiieiae, /oi n
ia/aeii ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa i?eaeoo a aeaeaeaiea ana eeannu e
nineiaey ia?iiiie no?aiu e aiyeny yoiai aieueoa anaai. A 1842 aiaeo ia
canaaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa ii neacae: “Iao niiiaiey, /oi
e?aiinoiia i?aai a iuiaoiai aai iieiaeaiee o ian, anoue cei, aeey anao
iuooeiia e i/aaeaeiia, ii i?eeanaoueny e iaio oaia?ue auei au aeaeii aua
aieaa aoaeoaeueiui”. ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey aea?aaiae auea ana aea
cia/eoaeueiui ia?ii?eyoeai Ieeieaaaneiai oea?noaiaaiey. I?e Ieeieaa 1
auea i?iaaaeaia aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia. Aa i?iaiaeee oiaaeaoiee Ieieno?
Oeiainia A.O.Eaie?ai. Ii no?aieeny ia?aie/eoue ainoaea?noaaiiua
?anoiaeu, inoi?iaeii iieueciaaeny e?aaeeoii e iaeaaae aunieeie iioeeiaie
aaiaeeiua a ?inneth oiaa?u. Aeaaiie caaea/ae Eaie?ai n/eoae iaaaaeaiea
ii?yaeea a aeaiaaeiii ia?auaiee. A 1939 aiaeo aai iniiaie noue
na?aa?yiue ?oaeue. Aeaiaaeiay ?aoi?ia Eaie?aia ieacaea iaeii?eyoiia
aicaeaenoaea ia yeiiiieeo ?innee. Oii?yaei/eeinue aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea,
au?inea aioo?aiiyy e aiaoiyy oi?aiaey.

E?aiinoiia oicyenoai ?innee auei iaeiaeioiaeiui. N?aaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua
aeey eaeeo-eeai e?oiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee iaeaieeaaeenue
iaaeeaiii. Ii Ieeieae 1 n oa/aieai a?aiaie ana iaiueoa n yoei n/eoaeny.
Iaea?aeaa iiaaaeo iaae Iieueneeie iianoaioeaie, ii aiciiiee naay aeaaiie
neeie a ai?ueaa n aa?iiaeneie ?aaiethoeeae. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii i?iaiaeee
aeoeaioth iieeoeeo ia Ainoiea e ia Eaaeaca, eioi?ay o?aaiaaea ana
aieueoa aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia. Aiaiiue eiioeeeo ia Eaaeaca eiae aeaaithth
enoi?eth. Iinoaiaiii oea?neei aeanoyi oaeaeinue ia?aoyiooue ia naith
noi?iio iaeioi?uo ai?neeo eiycae, a iaiiei?iuo auoanieoue ec eo
aeaaeaiee, caiaiea naieie noaaeaiieeaie. A eiioea eiioeia a 1859 aiaeo
Eaaeacneay aieia, i?iaeieaeaaoayny 40 eao caaa?oeeanue.

A oaa?aea 1848 a. ai O?aioeee, iinea iiaaaeiiiniiai ainnoaiey
(ia?iaeiiai), auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeea. Ieeieae 1 ai?ae aeaeaieai
aiaoaoueny a niauoey. Ii anei?a ?aaiethoeey ia?aeeioeanue ia Aa?iaieth,
Aano?eth. A Aaia?ee ia/aeanue ?aaiethoeey. Aano?eeneee eiia?aoi? O?aioe
Eineo iii?inee iiiiue o Ieeieay 1. A iaa 1849 a. oea?neea aienea
aoi?aeenue a Aaia?eth, /oiau ainnoaiiaeoue aeanoue aano?eeoeaa. A
aaaonoa ainnoaiea auei iiaeaaeaii. Ia?iiiua n?aaenoaa ia aiaiiua ioaeaeu
?anoiaeiaaeenue ia?aoeeiiaeueii. Iaaeaeo oai, n ia/aea 40-o aiaeia
aa?iiaeneea a?iee noaee ia?aoiaeeoue ia nei?ino?aeueiia aii?oaeaiea, a
aiaiii-ii?neea neeu ia ia?iaua aeaeaaoaee. Ieeieae 1, aeeaoee
i?aaenoaaeaieyie yiioe iaiieaiiianeeo aiei, ia caia/ae ?anoouae aiaiiie
ionoaeinoe ?innee. Ia aeaeae ii e oiai, /oi eiia?ey noieo ia ii?iaa
aeanoieiai e?ecena.

E?UINEAss AIEIA.

Eiaaea ioa?aiaee aa?iiaeneea ?aaiethoeee 1848-49aa., .Ieeieae 1 ?aoee
oi?i/eoue no?aoaae/aneia iieiaeaiea naiae eiia?ee. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
eiia?aoi? oioae ?aoeoue i?iaeaio /a?iiii?neeo i?ieeaia. Ii
aeaenoaiaaaoei oiaaea niaeaoaieyi, ?onneee aiaiiue oeio iia i?ioiaeeoue
/a?ac i?ieeau Ainoi? e Aea?aeaiaeeu. E?iia oiai, Ieeieae 1 no?aieeny
oe?aieoue iieeoe/aneia aeeyiea ?innee ia Aaeeaineii iieoino?iaa. Ii
oioae eniieueciaaoue inaiaiaeeoaeueioth ai?ueao aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia
i?ioea oo?aoeeiai eaa. Eiioeeeo a Iaeanoeia aiciee iaaeaeo i?aaineaaiui
e eaoiee/aneei aeooiaainoaii i oii, eoi aoaeao aethnoeoaeai iniai /oeiuo
o?aiia a Ea?onaeeia e Aeoeaaia. Iaeanoeia oiaaea aoiaeeea a ninoaa
Iniaineie eiia?ee. Iiae aeaaeaieai O?aioeee, oo?aoeeee noeoai ?aoee
aii?in a iieueco eaoieeeia. Yoi aucaaei iaaeiaieuenoai a Iaoa?ao?aa.
Ainiieueciaaaoenue nii?ii ec-ca nayouiue, Ieeieae 1 oneeee iaaeei ia
Oo?oeeth. Aeey ia?aaiai?ia a Eiinoaioeiiiieue aue iineai ethaeiaoe
Ieeieay 1 – A.N.Iaiueoeeia. Ii ii naiei iiaaaeaieai oieueei iaino?ee
neooaoeeth. Ieeieae 1 iiiuoaeny ca?o/eoueny iiaeaea?aeeie Aiaeee, ii
iieo/ee ioeac. Ieeieae 1 i?iaeieaeae iaaeei ia Oo?oeeth, o?aaoy io
noeoaia i?eciaoue aai iie?iaeoaeai anao i?aaineaaiuo, aeeaoueo a
Oo?oeee. A iiaee?aieaiea yoeo neia auee aaaaeaiu ?onneea aienea ia
oa??eoi?eth Iieaeaaee e Aaeaoee, iaoiaeeaoeony a aannaeueiie caaeneiinoe
io Oo?oeee. A ioaao aiaeeeneay e o?aioeocneay yneaae?u aioee a I?aii?iia
ii?a. Iaiae?aiiue yoei, oo?aoeeee noeoai a ieoya?a 1853 aiaea iauyaee
?innee aieio.

Iniiaiie oaea? Oo?oeey iaia/aea iaianoe a Caeaaeacuea. Ii yoio caiunae
ni?aaee ?aoeoaeueiua aeaenoaey ?onneiai oeioa. Oo?aoeeay yneaae?a,
noiyaoay a Neiiineie aoooa e aioiaeaoayny i?iecaanoe aeanaio, auea a
oii? ?anno?aeyia ?onneie yneaae?ie, anaai ec 8-ie ei?aaeae, .eioi?ay
ianiio?y ia caa?aaeeoaeueiue iaiiue aa?aaiauo aaoa?ae i?inei/eea a
aoooo. Yneaae?ie eiiaiaeiaae aeoea-aaeie?ae Iaaae Noaiaiiae/ Iaoeiia.
Neiiineee aie aioae a enoi?eth eae iineaaeiaa n?aaeaiea yiioe ia?oniiai
oeioa.

A iineaaeothuea ianeieueei ianyoeaa ?onneea aienea iaianee ?yae
ii?aaeaiee oo?eai a Caeaaeacuea. Nianea Oo?oeeth io iaieioaiie aeaaee,
aiaei-o?aioeocneay yneaae?a, a yiaa?a 1854 a. aioea a *a?iia ii?a.

A ia?oa 1854 a. ?onneea aienea ia?aoee /a?ac Aeoiae. ?onneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ioaa?aioei oeueoeiaooi Aiaeee e O?aioeee ia inoaaeaiee
Iieaeaaee e Aaeaoee. Oiaaea Aiaeey e O?aioeey iauyaeea aieio ?innee.
Nithcieeai ia oaeaeinue nicaeaoue iauaaa?iiaeneoth eiaeeoeeth i?ioea
?innee. Ii Aano?ey nin?aaeioi/eea naie aienea ia a?aieoea aeoiaeneeo
eiyaeanoa. ?onneea aienea auee auioaeaeaiu ioieoe nia/aea ca Aeoiae, a
caoai ca I?oo. ?acaeinaaeiaaiiue Ieeieae iaaeiee a “iaaeaaiaea?iinoe”
aano?eeneiai eiia?aoi?a O?aioea Eineoa.

Oai a?aiaiai aiaei-o?aioeocneay yneaae?a iiyaeeanue a Aaeoeeneii ii?a,
aeiee?iaaea E?iiooaaeo e Naaaai?a, ii ia ?aoeeanue eo aoaeiaaoue.
Aiaeeeneea aiaiiua ei?aaee aioee a Aaeia ii?a. Ia enoiaea eaoa aue
niaeaeai ?onneee ai?iae Eiea ia Io?iaineii iiaa?aaeuea. Oiaaea aea
aiaei-o?aioeocneay yneaae?a iiyaeeanue ia?aae
Iao?iiaaeianeii-Eai/aoneei. Iaaieueoie ?onneee aa?iecii iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai A.N.Caaieei ieacae aa?ie/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea: aeaaaeaeu
na?anuaae a ii?a iai?eyoaeueneee aeanaio e auioaeee i?ioeaieea oeoe.

N eaoa 1854 a. ia iiaa?aaeuea Aieaa?ee noaea nin?aaeioa/eaaoueny
aiaei-o?aioeocneay a?iey. A oiaea ?aoeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee iia
aunaaeeeanue ia ionouiiua ieyaee a ?aeiia Aaiaoi?ee e n?aco aea
aeaeioeanue ia Naaanoiiieue. 8 naioya?y 1854 aiaea 60 ouny/iay a?iey
nithcieeia ano?aoeeenue ia ?oaaaea ?aee Aeueiu n 35 ouny/iie ?onneie
a?ieae iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai Iaiueoeeiaa. Iaiiue aiaei-O?aioeocneie
yneaae?u iicaieee nithcieeai iaieoe ?onneea aienea n oeaiaa e
i?iaeieaeeoue aeaeaeaiea ia Naaanoiiieue.

Aeaaiay aaca ?onneiai *a?iiii?neiai oeioa ia eiaea nooiiooiuo
oe?aieaiee, ii ainiieueciaaaoenue ia?aaeuoeie, naycaiiie ni nia?oueth
eiiaiaeothuaai aiaei-o?aioeocneie a?ieae, aa?iecii e ianaeaiea ai?iaea
auee iiaeeeciaaiu ia no?ieoaeuenoai oe?aieaiee.

Oo?ii 5 ieoya?y aienea nithcieeia ia/aee aiiaa?aee?iaeo Naaanoiiiey,
eioi?ay iaianea aieueoea iioa?e caueoieeai ai?iaea. Ii ana aea ia
oaeaeinue iiaeaaeoue ?onneoth a?oeeea?eth. E iioiio, ooo?i aneaae ca
aiiaa?aee?iaeie ia ninoiyeny. 13 ieoya?y ?onneay a?iey ia?aoea a
ianooieaiea iiae Aaeaeeaaie. A yoii n?aaeaiee aue ?acaeo ioai?iue iiee
eaaeie eaaaea?ee, a eioi?ii neoaeeee i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?aaiaeoeo ?iaeia
Aiaeee. Ii ?onneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ia eniieueciaaei oniao iiae Aaeaeeaaie.
*a?ac ianeieueei aeiae i?iecioea iiaia n?aaeaiea iiae Eiea?iaiii.
Aieueoea iioa?e ?onneei aieneai i?e/eiyei iiaaeoaa ia?aciia no?aeeiaia
i?oaeea nithcieeia. ?onneea ioee ec aeaaeeinoaieueiuo ?oaeae ia
aeieaoaee aei iai?eyoaey. N?aaeaiea iiae Eiea?iaiii caeii/eeinue
ii?aaeaieai. Aieia i?eia?aea caoyaeiie oa?aeoa?. Nithcieee iinoaiaiii
ia?aueaaee naie neeu, ?aaoey?ii iieo/ay ii ii?th aiai?eianu e
iiaee?aieaiey. Aeey ?onneie a?iee i?iaeaia aiai?eiania noaiiaeeanue aua
ino?aa. Iaeiiiuiay ?onneay aiaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia ni?aaeyeanue n
aic?inoeie caaeaieyie, aieiauee iiaicee n ii?ioii, yae?aie e naeioeii
aycee ia ?aciuouo thaeiuo aei?iaao. ?onneei a?oeeea?enoai i?eoiaeeeinue
ioaa/aoue iaeiei auno?aeii ia o?e-/aou?a iai?eyoaeueneeo. Iinea
ii?aaeaiey iiae Eiea?iaiii noaei ynii, /oi ii?aaeaiea ?innee a yoie
aieia iaieioaii.

18 oaa?aey 1855 a. oia? Ieeieae 1. Iineaaeiei aai ?anii?yaeaieai auei
iono?aiaiea io eiiaiaeiaaiey Iaiueoeeiaa e iacia/aiea ia aai ianoi
I.Ae.Ai?/aeiaa. Caiaia aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai ia aianea ia?aeii a oiae
aieiu, ceiie nithcieee auioaeaeaiu auee iaiiiai ionooieoue iiae
Naaanoiiieai. Ii aaniie aiiaa?aee?iaee ai?iaea aiciaiiaeeenue. 6 ethiy
nithcieee aeaeioeenue ia ooo?i. Ii ooo?i aue ioaeo n aieueoeie iioa?yie
iaiaaeaaoeo. ?aaeaee e ?yaeu caueoieeia Naaanoiiiey. A eiioea ethiy
iiaea Iaoeiia. 24 aaaonoa ia/aeanue i/a?aaeiay aiiaa?aee?iaea, a 27
nithcieee aiiaue iioee ia ooo?i. Ia yoio ?ac ei oaeaeinue caoaaoeoue
Iaeaoia Eo?aai. ?onneea aienea inoaaeee anth thaeioth noi?iio
Naaanoiiiey, ii iiioiiiiio iinoo ia?aeaey /a?ac aoooo. Oae caeii/eeanue
349-oe aeiaaiay iai?iia Naaanoiiiey. Aieaa oniaoii aeaenoaiaaee
?inneeneea aienea a Caeaaeacuea. A iiya?a 1855 a. iie acyee Ea?n,
iaeiaei yoi oaea ia iiaei nouanoaaiii oeo/oeoue iauaa no?aoaae/aneia
iieiaeaiea ?innee, aieia ath auea aaciaaeaaeii i?iea?aia.
Aiaei-O?aioeocneee oeio i?iaeieaeae aeiee?iaaoue iiaa?aaeuea ia Aaeoeea,
a *a?iii ii?a e ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea, iiaeaa?aay aiiaa?aee?iaeai
i?ea?aaeiua ?aeiiu. Aeanaiou n yoeo yneaae? acyee Aiia?coiae ia
Aeaiaeneeo ino?iaao, Ea?/ue e Eeiao?u a I?e/a?iiii?uea. A eiioea 1855 a.
Aano?ey i?aaeuyaeea ?innee ?yae aeanoeeo o?aaiaaiee, oa?iaeay anooieoue
a aieio ia noi?iia eiaeeoeee.

Iiaue eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? II i?eaeanee ia niaauaiea aeaeiaeoeo
naiiaieeia. Ii/oe ana iie nioeenue ai iiaiee, /oi aieia iaecaaaeii
aaaeao e aaie?ionoao. E eiioeo 1855 aiaea aiaiiua aeaenoaey oaeoe/anee
auee i?ae?auaiu, e a naiii ia/aea 1856 aiaea ?inneeneee oea?ue
Aeaenaiae? II i?eiye ?aoaiea i caeeth/aiee ia?aie?ey.

A oaa?aea 1856 aiaea a Ia?eaea ioe?ueny eiia?ann aeey au?aaioee ie?iiai
niaeaoaiey. Ia eiia?anna ?acai?aeanue iai?yaeaiiay aeeieiiaoe/aneay
ai?ueaa, i?iaeieaeaaoayny nauoa ianyoea. 30 ia?oa 1856 aiaea aue
iiaeienai Ia?eaeneee ie?iue aeiaiai?, ioeoeeaeueii caaa?oeaoee E?uineoth
aieio.

?inney ioeacaeanue io naiaai o?aaiaaiey i ia?aaea/a i?aaineaaiuo
iiaeaeaiiuo Iniaineie eiia?ee iiae iniaia iie?iaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneiai
oea?y, niaeaneeanue aa?aioe?iaaoue niaianoii n ae?oaeie aea?aeaaaie
iacaaeneiinoue e oeaeinoiinoue Iniaineie eiia?ee. Ieaaaiea oi?aiauo
noaeia ii Aeoiath noaei naiaiaeiui. *a?iia ii?a iauyaeyeinue
iaeo?aeueiui. ?innee e Oo?oeee cai?auaeinue eiaoue ia iai aiaiiue oeio e
aiaiii-ii?neea aacu. ?inney aica?auaea Oo?oeee Ea?n e thaeioth /anoue
Aanna?aaee., a nithcieee ioaeaaaee ?innee Naaanoiiieue e ae?oaea
caoaa/aiiua eie ?inneeneea ai?iaea. Oaeei ia?acii, aieia
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaea anth iaaoaiinoue ?inneeneiai naiiaea?aeaaee, eiaaea
aieae iaeiiai /aeiaaea, nin?aaeioi/eaoaai a naieo ?oeao iaia?aie/aiioth
aeanoue, a e?iaaaue eiioeeeo aiaeaeathony iiiaea no?aiu, iany
cia/eoaeueiua ethaeneea e iaoa?eaeueiua iioa?e.

Aeaaiie i?e/eiie iaoaea/ ?innee a E?uineie aieia auea ionoaeay
oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneay yeiiiieea, ieacaaoayny ia a ninoiyiee
auaea?aeaoue oyaeanoue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie aieiu. Ionthaea e ae?oaea
i?e/eiu: ieioia iniauaiea e aii?oaeaiea a?iee e Oeioa. Iaoiaeia e
ia?aoeoaeueiia ?oeiaiaenoai a aiaauo aeaenoaeyo. E?uineay aieia
iaino?eea e?ecen oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneiai no?iy a ?innee e onei?eea
iniciaiea i?aayueie e?oaaie iaecaaaeiinoe ?aoi?i.

INIAAIIINOE AeAEAEAIEss 30-50 aa.

Ieeieae I aeoiae oie/oiaeeoue ana ?inoee aieueiiiuneey a ?onneii
iauanoaa. Yoi ia oaeaeinue. O?oaeii aeei cai?aoeoue ethaeyi aeoiaoue,
iaiaieaaoueny iiaieyie, naeeaeaoueny, eiay noiaeea iano?iaiey e iiaiey.
Iinea ?aca?iia aeaeaa?enoia, oeaio? iauanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey
ia?aianoeeny ec a?iee a nooaeai/aneea e?oaeee, a ?aaeaeoeee aacao e
aeo?iaeia. Iiaia iieieaiea eiaei oi?iooth oai?aoe/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo, ii
aio ia oaaoaei i?aeoe/aneiai aeeciaiiiai iiuoa. Iiyoiio ec oeeinioneeo
iinueie ia anaaaea aeaeaeenue i?aaeeueiua auaiaeu, a ca ioeaee
i?eoiaeeeinue aei?iai ?aniea/eaaoueny.

A 1839 a. a iineianeeo naaoneeo e eeoa?aoo?iuo naeiiao noaea
?ani?ino?aiyoueny caienea “I noa?ii e iiaii”. Aa aaoi?ii aue
A.N.Oiiyeia, o/anoiee e?oaeea, a eioi?ii /a?ac iiiai eao ano?aoeeenue
iiac?ineaaoea ae?ocuey. *eaiia iiaiai e?oaeea noaee iacuaaoue
neaayiioeeaie. Eo iauaaeeiyea eaeay i aeoaieii ioee/ee ?innee io no?ai
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, ia iniaii iooe aa ?acaeoey. Aeaaiua iniaaiiinoe ?innee
iie aeaeaee a e?anoueyineie iaueia e i?aaineaaiie aa?a.

Neaayiioeeu n/eoaee, /oi i?aia?aciaaiey Iao?a 1 ioeeiieee ?inneth n
anoanoaaiiiai iooe ?acaeoey, oioy ia eciaieee aa aioo?aiiee no?ie. A
eiioea eiioeia iie nioeenue ia oi?ioea “Oea?th – aeanoue, ia?iaeo –
iiaiea”. Iiyaeaiea neaayiioeeia canoaaeei naeeceoueny oao, eoi n/eoae
?inneth e Caiaaeioth Aa?iio ia?acaeaeeiuie /anoyie iaeiiai
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai oeaeiai. A yoii eaaa?a aianoa n Aaeeineei e
Aa?oeaiii ieacaeenue iieiaeua enoi?eee A?aiianeee e Nieiaueaa, th?eno
Eaeaeei e ae?oaea. Caiaaeieee auee ii i?aeiouanoao ai?iaeneeie
aeeoaeyie, iiiai iiacaeeaoeie ii Aa?iia. I?i/eoaa eaeoeee a
oieaa?neoaoa, iie aoaee a aeaeeioaee eee a?oeau, caie?aeenue a naieo
eaaeiaoao e aeeenue iaae oaie aea naiuie aii?inaie – i iooyo e noaeueaao
?innee. Iaaeaeo caiaaeieeaie e neaayiioeeaie ?acai?aeny nii?. Ii a
aii?ina i iooyo aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ?innee caiaaeieeai oaeaeinue
i?eaea/ue iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ia naith noi?iio.

Caiaaeieee e neaayiioeeu aioee a enoi?eth eae “ethaee ni?ieiauo aiaeia”
– ethaee iniaeeaoeany ia iiene enoeiu a oneiaeyo ieeieaaaneiai
oea?noaiaaiey. ?aaiethoeeiiiua niauoey 1848 aiaea a Aa?iia ioicaaeenue a
?innee aieiie ?ai?annee e oneeaieai oeaico?iiai aiaoa. N iniaie
nae?aiinoueth aeanoe ia?ooeeenue ia /eaiia e?oaeea
I.A.Aooaoaae/a-Iao?ioaaneiai, auioneieea Oea?neinaeueneiai eeoeay,
/eiiaieea Ieienoa?noaa eiino?aiiuo aeae. A Iaoa?ao?aa auei ianeieueei
oaeeo e?oaeeia, ii a iiea c?aiey iieeoeee iiiae eiaiii yoio. Ae?oaea ni
a?aiaiai ?aniaeenue naie niaie. *eaiu e?oaeea Iao?aoaaneiai (/eiiaieee,
eeoa?aoi?u, ioeoea?u, o/eoaey) aiai?eee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, aaaaeaiea naiaiaeiie ia/aoe, i?aia?aciaaiea noaea ia
iniiaa aeaniinoe e ninoycaoaeueiinoe. Iao?aoaaoeu ciaeiieee ae?oa ae?oaa
n i?iecaaaeaieyie o?aioeocneeo nioeeaeenoia, /eoaee e ianoaeaeaee
ienueii Aaeeineiai Aiaieth, a eioi?ii Aaeeineee iiae/a?eeaae: “Naiua
aeeaua, nia?aiaiiua iaoeeiiaeueiua aii?inu a ?innee: oie/oiaeaiea
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, ioiaia oaeaniiai iaeacaiey, aaaaeaiea ii aiciiaeiinoe
no?iaiai auiieiaiey oioy au oao caeiiia, eioi?ua oaea anoue..”

Aei i?aaiecaoeee oaeiiai iauanoaa n ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ia?aiiie e auai?iui
?oeiaiaenoaii aeaei ia aeioei. I?eaiai? ii aeaeo Iao?aoaaoeaa aue
ii?aceoaeueii aeanoie. 21 /aeiaaea i?eaiai?eee e ?anno?aeo, a /enea
eioi?uo ieacaeny O.I.Aeinoiaaneee. Ii a iineaaeithth ieiooo iauyaeee
oea?neoth “ieeinoue” – nia?oioth eaciue caiaieee eaoi?aie.

Iinea ?ani?aau n Iao?aoaaoeaie, a iineaaeiea aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey Ieeieay
1, iauanoaaiiay aeeciue ?innee eacaeinue nianai caia?ea. I?e Ieeieaa 1
ieeoi ia ?ac?aaaouaae eiinoeoooeeiiiuo i?iaeoia, ii aue iniiaaoaeueii
iinoaaeai aii?in i i?aaao /aeiaaea. A 40-a aiaeu aeaeaeaiea noaei aieaa
oe?ieei, /ai i?e aeaeaa?enoao. Oaia?ue caiaoioth ?ieue a iai ea?aee
?acii/eioeu. Ia/aaoeeny yoai inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey iiaeii
iacaaoue aeai?yinei-?acii/eineei.

“Oaeeaeoaeueiia a?aiy ia?oaeiiai ?aanoaa e aioo?aiiaai inaiaiaeaeaiey.”

A.E.Aa?oeai.

Iinea ?ani?aau n aeaeaa?enoaie iauanoaaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea auei caaiaii
aioo?ue, e a oa/aiea anaai ieeieaaaneiai oea?noaiaaiey i?iyaeyeinue
ioaee/ii eeoue a oi?ia eeoa?aoo?iie iieaieee.

?inney a 1825-1855 aa.

Oea?noaiaaiea Ieeieay I.

1 aii?in. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea no?aiu e aai iniaaiiinoe.
Ieeieae 1.

XIX noieaoea caieiaao iniaia ianoi a enoi?ee ?innee. N aai ia/aeii
no?aia anooieea a iiaue yoai ?acaeoey. I?aaeoanoaothuea aaea
oi?ie?iaaiey e oe?aieaiey iniia naiiaea?aeaaiiai ainoaea?noaa niaieeenue
a?aiaiai, eiaaea iaoiieeiue oiae enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna iiaeaa?a aai
nouanoaiaaiea no?iaui eniuoaieyi e naeaeae iaecaaaeiui aeeceia e?ooaiea
anae i?aaeiae oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie nenoaiu.

Ca?iaeaeaiea aeaeaa?ecia, aeanyoeeaoiyy enoi?ey oaeiuo iauanoa e,
iaeiiaoe, ainnoaiea 14 aeaeaa?y 1826 a. auee na?ueaciuie neiioiiaie
yaiiai iaaeaaiiieo/ey a iieeoe/aneii e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii no?ia
?innee. Aoi?ay /aoaa?oue XIX noieaoey oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?anoaieai
e?ecena e?aiinoie/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?ay oi?iiceea ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo nee. A oi aea a?aiy oaea aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii
iaicia/eeenue i?ioeannu ?aniaaea noa?uo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey. Ii ia?a
neeaaeuaaiey aiaoiaai ?uiea e ?anoe?aiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee a yeiiiieea
aic?anoae oaeaeueiue aan i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iaiooaeoo?a ia?a?anoaea a
eaieoaeenoe/aneoth oaa?eeo.

A i?iiuoeaiiinoe eaieoaeenoe/aneay iaiooaeoo?a auoaniyea aio/eiiua e
iinanneiiiua i?aaei?eyoey. I?iaeoeoeey i?aaei?eyoee, i?eiaiyaoeo
iiaeiaaieueiue o?oae, oaea ia iiaea eiieo?e?iaaoue n ecaeaeeyie
caaaaeaiee, iniiaaiiuo ia aieueiiiaaiiii o?oaea, e a neaaenoaea ooaeoaai
ea/anoaa e ii noieiinoe eo i?iecaiaenoaa.

Naiie ia?aaeiaie io?aneueth ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe noaiiaeony
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiay, eioi?ay e 1850 a. nin?aaeioi/eea oaea aieaa iieiaeiu
anao ?aai/eo, caiyouo a oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?e/ai yoi auee
aieueoeinoai aieueiiiaaiiua ?aai/ea.

I?aaei?eyoey eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?aa?aoeeenue a oaa?eee,
iai?oaeiaaiiua iaoeiaie e noaieaie. N na?aaeeiu 3I-o aiaeia i?iiuoeaiiue
ia?aai?io iinoaiaiii ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana io?anee oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oio aea i?ioeann iaaethaeaaony e a iiauo io?aneyo
i?iiuoeaiiinoe – naaeeinaoa?iie, oeie/aneie, ien/aaoiaaeiie. Aaic iaoei
ec-ca a?aieoeu ca 40-ua aiaeu aic?in a 2,5 ?aca. Iiaeieiaaony
ioa/anoaaiiia iaoeiino?iaiea, oeaio?ii eioi?iai e na?aaeeia aaea
noaiiaeony Iaoa?ao?a, eiaaoee a naieo i?aaeaeao iieoi?a aeanyoea
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo caaiaeia. Ia/aeanue oaoie/aneay ia?ano?ieea ai?iie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oa?aeoa?ioth yaiethoeeth ia?aaeeaaea iaeeay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ioaaouaay eeoue e?anoueyi e ai?iaeai – naiinoiyoaeueiuo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae, iia yaeyeanue ieoaoaeueiie n?aaeie aeey ?acaeoey
eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei iinoaiaiii
iaeeea i?iecaiaeeoaee oa?yee naith naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, iiiaaeay iiae
aeanoue neoiueeia e i?aa?auaynue ai aeaaeaeueoeaa ?annayiiie
iaiooaeoo?u. Ae?oaay /anoue e?anoueyi ?acaiaaoaa iiiieieea ?yaeu
eoia/anoaa e i?iiuoeaiieeia.

A naeueneeo oicyenoaao e?aiinoiua oi?iu oae aea ia?aaeeaaee e?ecen.
Iiiaue/uea oicyenoai noaiiaeeinue ai anaaic?anoathuae noaiaie oiaa?iui.
A 40-50 aa. a ?innee ec n?aaeiaai nai?a 250 iei /aoaa?oae ia aiaoiee
?uiie iinooiaei aei 50 iei /aoaa?oae, o.a. 20% anaai i?iecaiaeeiiai
oeaaa. Ec yoiai oiaa?iiai oeaaa 90% i?eoiaeeeinue ia iiiaue/uea
oicyenoai.

Ia iooe iiaeuaia i?iiuoeaiiinoe e naeueneiai oicyenoaa noiyee aeaaiua
i?aiyonoaey: iauay yeiiiie/aneay ionoaeinoue no?aiu, ocinoue aiaoiaai
?uiea a neaaenoaea ieceie iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe ?aci?ythuaainy
e?anoueyinoaa, iaaeinoaoie iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, o.e. aieueiiiaaiiua ?aai/ea
ia oaa?eeao e caaiaeao auee eae i?aaeei iiiaue/ueeie eee
ainoaea?noaaiiuie e?anoueyiaie. Iaaeeaiii ?acaeaaeanue o?ainii?oiay
naycue, oioy ia o?ainii?oa oaea /oanoaiaaeinue aeeyiea iiauo
yeiiiie/aneeo cai?inia. Iniaaiii yoi noaei caiaoiui ia aiaeiii
o?ainii?oa. E na?aaeeia XIX aaea ia Aieaa ieaaaei aieaa 300 ia?ioiaeia,
aeaenoaiaaee ia?ioiaeiua iauanoaa “Ia?eo?ee”, “Naiieao”. Iiyaeeenue
ia?ioiaeu e ia ae?oaeo ?aeao. Auei iieiaeaii ia/aei aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiio
o?ainii?oo: a 1851 a. ioe?ueinue aeaeaeaiea ii aei?iaa 600 ei Iaoa?ao?a
– Iineaa. Ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai Iaoa?ao?a-Aa?oaaneie aeaeaciie
aei?iae. Oneeeeinue no?ieoaeuenoai oinnaeiuo aei?ia.

Ianaeaiea ?inneeneie eiia?ee e 1856 a. ninoaaeyei ieiei 72 iei /aeiaae.
Iieacaoaeai iaaeaaiiieo/ey a yeiiiie/aneii iieiaeaiee ia?iaeiuo iann
auei iiieaeaiea i?e?inoa ianaeaiey aneaaenoaea iiauoaiey eiyooeoeeaioa
nia?oiinoe.

Iniiaiua iauanoaaiiua eeannu oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa ia?aaeeaatho
onei?yaoeeny i?ioeann aioo?aiiae ia?aa?oiie?iaee, eioi?ay oeacuaaea ia
ia/aei ?aniaaea. Iiiaea ec aeai?yi – ii ianii?oo noaiiaeeenue
?acii/eioeaie, iaeeeie /eiiaieeaie eee ioeoea?aie, aeeaoueie ia
aeaeiaaiuea, o/aiuie e oaoieeaie a i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

I?ioeann aeeooa?aioeeaoeee oneeeaaaony e a e?aiinoiie n?aaea. Iiieii
oiai, /oi iniiaiay ianna e?anoueyinoaa a ?acoeueoaoa iaiiia?iiai
oneeaiey e?aiinoie/aneie yenieoaoaoeee ?aci?yeanue, a i/aiue
iacia/eoaeueiay aiaaoaea oi?aiaeae, i?iiuneaie e eiaea aiciiaeiinoue
aeaaea aueoiaoueny ia aieth, a e?anoueyineie n?aaea i?ienoiaeeee e
ae?oaea eciaiaiey.

Iaino?aiea eeanniaie ai?ueau ai aoi?ie /aoaa?oe XIX a. au?aaeaeinue a
aioeoaiaeaeueiuo ianniauo aunooieaiee e?anoueyinoaa, “aoioao” ?aai/eo
ethaeae, aiaiiuo iinaeyi, nieaeao e iao?inia. Aieueoa anaai aieiaiee
e?anoueyi auei a aa?ueiiuo eiaieyo, o.e. a ieo e?aiinoie/aneee aiao aue
iniaaiii oyaeae. Ia i?ioyaeaiee anae /aoaa?oe noieaoey e?anoueyineia
aeaeaeaiea iieacuaaei ia?anoathuoth aeoeaiinoue ai?ueau e?anoueyi n
?anoe?aieai aaia?aoe/aneie noa?u ai?ueau – io oeaio?a e ia?eoa?ee.
Iaeaieueoaai ?aciaoa iii aeinoeaaao a 50-a aa.

III ioaeaeaiea, aaaeaaoaa “aioo?aiieie” aeaeaie i?e Ieeieaa 1, ioia/aei:
“Aiae io aiaeo ?ani?ino?aiyaony e oneeeaaaony iaaeaeo iiiaue/ueeie
e?anoueyiaie iuneue i aieueiinoe”. Oie/oiaeaiea e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe
noaiiaeeinue iauei o?aaiaaieai aoioothuaai e?anoueyinoaa. Ieeieae 1
yaeyeny au?aceoaeai eioa?ania iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa aeai?yinoaa,
eioi?ia auei ano?aaiaeaii niauoeyie aeaeaa?ueneeo aeiae 1925 aiaea, e
aiyeinue iai?ae?auathueony e?anoueyineeo aieiaiee. Ieeieaaaneia
oea?noaiaaiea, ia/aaoaany a 1825 a. e?iaaaie ?ani?aaie iaae
aeaeaa?enoaie ia Naiaoneie ieiuaaee a Iaoa?ao?aa e caeii/eaoaany a 1855
a. a o?aae/aneea aeie iai?iiu Naaanoiiiey, yaeeinue o?eaeoeaoeeaoiei
ia?eiaeii oyaeaeie ai?ueau i?ia?anneaiuo nee no?aiu n ?aaeoeeae, ai?ueau
n aieueoeie aea?oaaie e eeoaieyie, n aaca?aiaiiie aeaaeueth iiiaeo
auaeathueony ethaeae yiioe (Iooeeia, Ea?iiioiaa, Iieaaeaaaa, Aaeeineiai
e iiiaeo ae?oaeo.

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