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Российская Империя во второй половине XIX века

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?AOA?AO

Ia oaio:

«?inneeneay eiia?ey ai aoi?ie iieiaeia xix aaea»

Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. ?aoi?iu 60-70-o aa. XIX a.

1. Iauanoaaiiia aeaeaeaiea i?ioea e?aiinoie/anoaa.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. a ?innee iaino?yaony e?ecen
oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneeo ioiioaiee, icia/aaoee, /oi aeaeueiaeoaa
yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea no?aiu ia aaca nouanoaothuae e?aiinoiie nenoaiu
oicyenoaa, noaiiaeeinue iaaiciiaeiui. Aii?aee ainiiaenoaiaaaoae
e?aiinoiie nenoaia ?acaeoea no?aiu i?ienoiaeeei ia aaca iiauo,
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee. Iaeioi?ua iiiaueee iiieiaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, oae eae aeaeaee yaiia i?aeiouanoai naiaiaeiiai
o?oaea aieueiiiaaiiuo ?aai/eo ia?aae e?aiinoiui. Ii aieueoeinoai aeai?yi
no?aieeinue nio?aieoue nouanoaothuee ii?yaeie.

E?aiinoiia i?aai (e?aiinoie/anoai) – oi?ia oaiaeaeueiie caaeneiinoe
e?anoueyi: i?ee?aieaiea eo e caiea e iiae/eiaiea aaeieieno?aoeaiie e
noaeaaiie aeanoe oaiaeaea. A ?innee a iauaainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa
e?aiinoiia i?aai auei ioi?ieaii Noaeaaieeii 1497 aiaea, oeacaie i
«caiiaaaeiuo» e «o?i/iuo» eaoao, e ieii/aoaeueii cae?aieaii Niai?iui
oeiaeaieai 1649 aiaea.

A i?aayueo e?oaao ?innee ia/eiaee iiieiaoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoi?i e
i?aia?aciaaiee. Yiioa Aaeeeeo ?aoi?i auea i?aaeaea anaai naycaia n
eiaiai iiaiai eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a II, eioi?ue anooiee ia i?anoie a
1855 aiaeo.

A ia/aea naiaai i?aaeaiey oea?ue, iniciaaay iaecaaaeiinoue
ea?aeeiaeueiuo eciaiaiee a no?aia, ia ciae eae i?enooieoue e iei; ia
auei ieaia ?aoi?i e o ieieno?ia.

A yoi a?aiy a iauanoaa, a iicaeiaa e a i?aaeoaeuenoaa caaiai?eee i
aeaniinoe, iaeiaei a ia/aoe naiaiaeiua ianoaeaeaiey ia aeiioneaeenue. Ii
e?oaeeai, ainoeiiui, naeiiai, ?aaeaeoeeyi noaee oiaeeoue caienee,
iinayuaiiua iaaieaaoei aii?inai. Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia iauanoaaiiia
iiaiea, ia i?aaeoaeuenoai e ia oea?y ieacaea «Caienea ia inaiaiaeaeaiee
e?anoueyi» E.Ae. Eaaaeeia, eioi?ue n/eoae, /oi e?aiinoiia i?aai aeieaeii
auoue ioiaiaii iaianeeuenoaaiiui niiniaii: inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi, ii
aai iiaieth, aeieaeii nii?iaiaeaeaoueny aiciaa?aaeaeaieai iiiaueeia,
/anoue caiee o ieo aeieaeia auea aueoiaoueny i?aaeoaeuenoaii.
Aiineaaenoaee iaa nineiaey aeieaeiu auee neeoueny a iaeei
caieaaeaeue/aneee eeann n eiouanoaaiiuie ?acee/eyie, ii aac nineiaiuo.

ss?ui iiai?ieeii ?aoi?i a yoi a?aiy aunooiae A.E.Aa?oeai. A ia?aii
iiia?a aacaou «Eieieie», eioi?ue oaeaeae naao a 1857 a., ii iioaeeeiaae
i?ia?aiio-ieieioi. Iia aeeth/aea a naay inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi,
oi?acaeiaiea oeaico?u, ioiaio oaeaniuo iaeacaiee.

A 1858 a. auei ?ac?aoaii ianoaeaeaiea a ia/aoe e?anoueyineiai aii?ina.
Ia no?aieoeao aeo?iaea «Nia?aiaiiee» I.A. *a?iuoaaneee i?aaeeaaae
?aoeoue e?anoueyineee aii?in ?aaeeeaeueii: e?anoueyineee o?oae ia
iiaeeaaeae aueoio, caiey ia?aaeaaaeanue e?anoueyiai, a iiiaueee iieo/aee
oieueei neiaiee/aneoth ieaoo io ainoaea?noaa. N i?eoiaeii a
«Nia?aiaiiee» I.A Aeia?iethaiaa, eioi?ue aue iano?iai aua ?aoeoaeueiae
*a?iuoaaneiai, ia no?aieoeao aeo?iaea cacao/aee i?ecuau e «ia?iaeiiio
aeaeo» – ?aaiethoeee. Eeaa?aeueiia aeaeaeaiea ?acae?aaeaei aai
aaneiia/iuie ?acaiai?aie. Iii annioeee?iaaeinue o Aeia?iethaiaa n
«iaeiiiaueiie», a naieo eeaa?aeia ii iacuaae «eeoieie ethaeueie». Oaeei
ia?acii, a iiiiceoeeiiiii aeaeaeaiee neiaeeeenue ?aaeeeaeueiia
iai?aaeaiea, eioi?ia ieeoeaoai?yee *a?iuoaaneee e Aeia?iethaia, e
eeaa?aeueiia, i?aaenoaaeaiiia ?aoi?ienonee iano?iaiiuie eeaea?aie
i?aayueo e?oaia.

2. I?aaeiinueee ?aoi?i.

A ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea ?inney ?acaeaaeanue aeinoaoi/ii auno?uie
oaiiaie. Ii ana aea ii iiiaei iieacaoaeyi iia ii-i?aaeiaio ionoaaaea io
aaaeoueo aea?aeaa, /oi auei naycaii n oeaeui eiiieaenii i?e/ei:

– iaee/eai a no?aia aaniethoiie iiia?oee;

– ainiiaenoaii oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee;

– ia?acaeoinoueth aeaiie?aoee;

– nio?aiaieai o?aaeeoeeiiiie nenoaiu oeaiiinoae, eioi?ay ia iicaieyea
eniieueciaaoue iiuo caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee;

– ianneaiui, eee, eae i?aaeei, iaaaoeaiui ioiioaieai e iiaea?iecaoeee
i?aiaeaaeathuae /anoe ianaeaiey.

Iiaaaeea a Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia 1812 aiaea, ?inney, aianoa n oai, ia
iiaeaa?aeanue aeeyieth ao?aeoacii-eeaa?aeueiuo ?aoi?i Iaiieaiia. Eaeae
I?inaauaiey auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu n?aaee iacia/eoaeueiie /anoe
eioaeeaeooaeia (aeai?yineie eioaeeeaaioeee). Anee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia
iniiaiui aeaeaaoaeai iiaea?iecaoeee e i?ia?anna auea ao?aeoacey, oi a
?innee iia aieioue aei eiioea XIX aaea auea n?aaieoaeueii
iaiiiai/eneaiia, ?aciauaia e neeoeii caaenaea io ainoaea?noaaiiie
aeanoe, /oiau i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iieeoe/aneia eeaea?noai. I?aaaea, ?inei
/enei e?anoueyi, caieiaaoeony oi?aiaie e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, ii a oeaeii e?anoueyinoai, aeaaea iinea ?aoi?iu 1861
a. aeeaoaa iao?ea?oaeueiie iaueiie, ia iiaei auoue noi?iiieeii
iiaea?iecaoeee.

Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai a ?inneeneie eiia?ee inoaaaeny iaoeeiiaeueiue
aii?in. Ioe?uoi i?iaiaey oiaeienoe/aneoth iieeoeeo ii ioiioaieth e
iiiai/eneaiiui iaoeeyi e ia?iaeiinoyi, oea?eci no?aieeny i?aaeioa?aoeoue
iiaeuai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey e naea?aeaoue
eiaeono?eaeueiia ?acaeoea iaoeeiiaeueiuo ie?aei ainoaea?noaa.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiua i?aaeiinueee i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i auoaeaee ec eiie?aoiie
enoi?e/aneie neooaoeee, eioi?ay neiaeeeanue e na?aaeeia XIX aaea.
Oaeoaeaiea i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, ?ino
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae oi?aiaee
?aceaaaee oaiaeaeueioth nenoaio oicyenoaa. Oaiaeaeueiua ioiioaiey
iaoiaeeeenue a aeoaieii e?ecena. Ii?aaeaiea a E?uineie aieia (1853-1856)
e iiaeienaiea Ia?eaeneiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a (1856) na?ueacii caaeaee
iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiethaea ?innee. Yoe niauoey auee e?aeia aieaciaiii
aini?eiyou e eiia?aoi?neei aeai?ii, e a n?aaea i?aayuae yeeou, e a
oe?ieeo e?oaao ?inneeneiai iauanoaa. Aiaiiia oeanei ioithaeue ia auei
neo/aeiui. A ?innee ia oaaoaei aeaeaciuo aei?ia, ia?oniua noaea
?inneeneiai oeioa cia/eoaeueii onooiaee aiaiiui ei?aaeyi i?ioeaieea, ia
eioi?uo auee onoaiiaeaiu ia?iaua aeaeaaoaee. A?iey ia auea iaania/aia a
aeinoaoi/iii eiee/anoaa aeioiaeaie, iao?iiaie e aeaaea ia?aayci/iui
iaoa?eaeii.

E?aiinoiia i?aai, eioi?ia a ?innee a ainoaea?noaaiiii ianooaaa
ieii/aoaeueii cae?aieeinue Niai?iui oeiaeaieai 1649 a., aeaaeaiea
«e?auaiiie nianoaaiiinoueth», o.a. e?anoueyiaie, neeoeii iioiaeaa ia
?aanoai, auei aaci?aanoaaiiui ii naiae nooe.

E?ecen oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie nenoaiu oooaeoae iieiaeaiea
e?anoueyi, /oi i?eaiaeeei e ?inoo e?anoueyineeo aunooieaiee. Aieiaiey
e?anoueyi auee naycaiu n eo iaaeaaeaeie iieo/eoue naiaiaeo. A 1854 a. a
Oaiaianeie, ?ycaineie, Ieaeaai?iaeneie, Aeaaeeie?neie aoaa?ieyo
i?ienoiaeeee ianniaua aieiaiey a nayce n Oeacii i nicaeaiee” iiie/aiey
aeey o/anoey a E?uineie aieia. A yoii aeaeaeaiee i?eieiaei o/anoea aieaa
ouny/e e?anoueyi, oae eae, ii neooai, eeoea, anooieaoea a iiie/aiea,
iieo/aee naiaiaeo. A 1856 a. iaaethaeaeenue ianniaua iiaaae e?anoueyi a
E?ui ec Oa?ueeianeie, Oa?niineie, Aeaoa?eiineaaneie e ae?oaeo oe?aeineeo
aoaa?iee. Ia?aaeeeie auee noeoeeiua ainnoaiey i?ioea i?iecaiea
iiiaueeia. Ana yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i no?aieaiee e?anoueyi e
inaiaiaeaeaieth io e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

3. Iiaeaioiaea e ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.

A oaa?aea 1855 a. ia ?inneeneee i?anoie anooiee iiaue eiia?aoi? –
Aeaenaiae? II. Ii iiieiae iaiaoiaeeiinoue ainnoaiiaeaiey oo?a/aiiiai
?inneae i?anoeaea ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aia. E yoiio a?aiaie e?aiinoiia
i?aai a aieueoeinoaa no?ai Aa?iiu auei oaea ioiaiaii, ec-ca /aai
e?aiinoie/aneay ?inney auaeyaeaea a aeacao Aa?iiu ionoa-, eie, caaeoie e
iao?ea?oaeueiie. Iiaue ?inneeneee oea?ue, a ioee/ea io naieo
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, i?eaea?aeeaaeny eeaa?aeueiuo acaeyaeia e eo/oa iiiaeo
ae?oaeo a no?aia iiieiae, /oi ianoaei a?aiy ianoaiaea?oiuo ?aoaiee e
i?aeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee.

30 ia?oa 1856 a. Aeaenaiae? II ioaee/ii cayaee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. Naeaeae ii yoi a naiae ?a/e ia?aae i?aaeaiaeeoaeyie
aeai?yinoaa a Iineaa, a eioi?ie neacae ia inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi:
«Ai?acaei eo/oa, /oiau yoi i?iecioei nauoa, iaaeaee nieco». Iiiaueeai
auei ii?o/aii aeeth/eoueny a ?ac?aaioeo ?aoi?iu.

A Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae eco/aeenue ecaea/aiiua ec a?oeaia i?iaeou
Nia?aineiai1 e Eenaeaaa, oiaeeaoea ii ?oeai caienee, a oii /enea e
Eaaaeeia. Auei ?aoaii inaiaiaeeoue e?anoueyi io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e
aeaoue ei iaaieueoea iaaeaeu, ca eioi?ua iie aoaeoo auiieiyoue o
iiiaueeia ii?aaeaeaiiua iiaeiiinoe.

A 1857 a. aue ia?aciaai Iaaeaniue eiieoao aeey ianoaeaeaiey ieienoa?neie
i?ia?aiiu, ii aai aeayoaeueiinoue ieacaeanue iaeii?iaeoeoeaiie. Iiiaueee
oiaea ia niaoeee ioeeeeiooueny ia i?ecua oea?y. Iaeiiaoe, Aeeaineee
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? A.E.Iaceiia oaaaeee ianoiuo aeai?yi aunooieoue n
i?aaeeiaeaieai ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. Iaeiaei eeoianeea iiiaueee
i?ineee inaiaiaeeoue e?anoueyi aac caiee.

A yoie ianoaiiaea Aeaenaiae? II iiaeienae ?ane?eio (i?aaeienaiea) ia eiy
Iaceiiaa, a eioi?ii i?aaeeaaaeinue nicaeaoue aoaa?ineee eiieoao aeey
?ac?aaioee ?aoi?iu ia oneiaeyo, auaeaeioouo i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

?ane?eio aue iioaeeeiaai. Iaaeaniue eiieoao i?aia?aciaai a Aeaniue
eiieoao ii e?anoueyineiio aeaeo. ?aoi?ia noaea ?acaeaaoueny aeanii. E
eaoo 1858 a. aoaa?ineea eiieoaou auee nicaeaiu ii/oe aacaea, a e eiioeo
aiaea n iano noaee iinooiaoue ia?aua iocuau, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaaeenue a
?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiienneyo. ss.E.?inoiaoeaa, aicaeaaeaoee ?aaeaeoeeiiiua
eiiennee, no?aieeny iai?aaeoue eo ?aaioo a eeaa?aeueiia ?onei. Oaeouea
aeaea ii iiaeaioiaea ?aoi?iu i?iaiaeeee I.A.Ieethoei e TH.O.Naia?ei.

E aaaonoo 1859 a. i?iaeo aue iiaeaioiaeai. Aeey iciaeiieaiey n iei a
Iaoa?ao?a auee aucaaiu i?aaenoaaeoaee aeai?yinoaa. Ioeoeeaeueiuo
canaaeaiee ia i?iaiaeeee, oae eae i?e aeai?a iianaeenue noeoeeiiai
aicieeiiaaiey ia?eaiaioa.

Iiiaueee ia/a?iicaiiuo aoaa?iee o?aaiaaee ca caieth ia?iiiue aueoi e
oioaee io i?aaeoaeuenoaa aa?aioee aueoiiie iia?aoeee.

I?aaenoaaeoaee /a?iicaiiuo aoaa?iee ia oioaee aeaaaoue e?anoueyiai
caieth, ii ianee?iaaee naia iaaeaeaiea a?iieeie e?eeaie i aiia?aaeaaiuo
iianiinoyo, oniio?aa a o?oaeao ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee i?iyaeaiea
?anioaeeeaineeo e aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee.

Iiiuoee e?aiinoieeia naeaeaaee i?iaeo a noi?iio ouaieaiey eioa?ania
e?anoueyi. Iaeiaei ianoaeaeaiea i?iaeoia eiaei aieueoia cia/aiea.
Aeaaiua ?ac?aaio/eee, Ieethoei e Naia?ei, naeaeaee aaaeiua auaiaeu,
eioi?ua eaaee a iniiao caeiiiieiaeaiee i ?aoi?iao:

– iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ianoiua iniaaiiinoe (a /a?iicaiiuo aoaa?ieyo
aeaaiay oeaiiinoue – caiey, a ia/a?iicaiiuo – e?aiinoiie o?oae,
iaauanoaeaiiue a ia?iea);

– aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i iaiaoiaeei ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae;

– e?anoueyi iaeuecy inoaaeyoue aac caiee, a iiiaueeia – aac
aa?aioe?iaaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai aueoia.

Aeaenaiae? II iineaaeiaaoaeueii ionoaeaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey
?aoi?i, ianiio?y ia ?anoouaa nii?ioeaeaiea iiiaueeia. I?iaeo
i?aia?aciaaiee aue ia?aaeai aeey ieii/aoaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey a
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao.

E?anoueyia, aeey eioi?uo aioiaeeanue ?aoi?ia, ia o/anoaiaaee a ?aaioa
eiiennee e eiieoaoia. I?aaenoiyuay ?aoi?ia i?iaiaeeeanue oieueei a
eioa?anao iiiaueeia.

4. Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa e i?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?iu 1861 a.

19 oaa?aey 1861 a. Aeaenaiae? II iiaeienae Iaieoano e «Iieiaeaiea i
e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe». A

yoeo aeieoiaioao eceaaaeenue iniiaiua oneiaey ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa.
E?anoueyia iieo/aee ee/ioth naiaiaeo e i?aai naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny
naiei eiouanoaii. Iiiaueee, nio?aiyy nianoaaiiinoue1, iaycaiu auee
i?aaeinoaaeoue a iinoiyiiia iieueciaaiea e?anoueyiai onaaeueao n
i?eonaaeaaiui o/anoeii, a oaeaea iieaaie iaaeae. Ca iieueciaaiea
iiiaue/ueae caieae e?anoueyia iaycaiu auee auiieiyoue iiaeiiinoe –
io?aaaouaaoue aa?ueio eee ieaoeoue ia?ie. Iie ia eiaee i?aaa ioeacaoueny
io iieaaiai iaaeaea a ia?aua aeanyoue eao. ?acia?u iaaeaea e iiaeiiinoe
aeieaeiu auee ii?aaeaeyoueny niaeaoaieai (onoaaiie a?aiioie) iaaeaeo
iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyiaie. Onoaaiua a?aiiou iiaeienuaaeenue ia aeaa
aiaea. Ninoaaeaiea a?aiio ii?o/aeinue naiei iiiaueeai, a i?iaa?ea eo –
ie?iaui iin?aaeieeai, eioi?ua oiaea auee aeai?yiaie.

A?aiiou caeeth/aeenue ia n ioaeaeueiui e?anoueyieiii, a n naeueneie
iaueiie. E?a- E?anoueyia oae?atho o?iaeae iiae i?eniio?ii oi?aaeythuaai
noueyiai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue i?aai aueoia onaaeueau, a aueoi iieaaiai
iaaeaea ii?aaeaeyeny aieae iiiaueea.

E?anoueyia, aueoieaoea naie iaaeaeu, iacuaaeenue
e?anoueyiaie-nianoaaiieeaie. Aei aueoia naieo iaaeaeia e?anoueyia
aeieaeiu auee a iieueco iiiaueeia auiieiyoue oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe e
iacuaaeenue a?aiaiiiiaycaiiuie.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey caiaeueiiai iaaeaea aeey aaeeei?inneeneeo,
iaei?inneeneeo e aaei?onneeo aoaa?iee any oa??eoi?ey aeaeeeanue ia
ia/a?iicaiioth, /a?iicaiioth e noaiioth iieinu. ?acia? caiaeueiiai
iaaeaea, i?aaeinoaaeyaiiai e?anoueyiai ia ?acee/iuo o/anoeao, eieaaaeny
io 3 aei 12 aeanyoei. Iaeaieueoee ii ?acia?ai iaaeae onoaiaaeeaaeny oai,
aaea caiey i?aaenoaaeyea iacia/eoaeueioth oeaiiinoue, iai?eia?, a
naaa?iuo oacaeao Aieiaiaeneie aoaa?iee.

Onoaiiaeaiiua ii?iu iaaeaea auee ieaea oiai eiee/anoaa caiee, eioi?ia
iaoiaeeeinue a iieueciaaiee o e?anoueyi aei ?aoi?iu. Iiiauee eiae i?aai
io?acaoue eceeoae caiee. Ii eiae oaeaea i?aai iaiaieaaoue e?anoueyineea
caiee. Yoio iaiai i?iecaiaeeeny, anee ia e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeao
iaia?oaeeaaee caeaaee oi?oa, ieia?aeueiua enoi/ieee. O e?anoueyi
ioae?aee oo caieth, /oi auea iieo/oa, a aeaaaee ian/aioth caieth eee
aicea aieio. Aeaaiaea?y «io?aceai», iiiaueee caoaaoeee ia iaiaa 20%
caiee, ia?aaaouaaaoaeny e?anoueyiaie aei ?aoi?iu, a a oaeeo aoaa?ieyo
eae Naia?neay e Na?aoianeay – nauoa 40%.

A eo/oai iieiaeaiee ieacaeenue e?anoueyia I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu, aaea
iiiaueeaie auee iieueneea aeai?yia. Ii «Ianoiiio iieiaeaieth» aeey
Eeaaneie, Aieuineie e Iiaeieueneie aoaa?iee ca e?anoueyiaie
cae?aieyeanue any caiey, eioi?ie iie iieueciaaeenue.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e iaaeaeaiee e?anoueyi caieae a aieueoeinoaa aoaa?iee
iiiaueeai i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ana i?aaa aeey ia?aaeaiey e?anoueyinoaa;

Aueoieoue iieo/aiiue a iieueciaaiea iaaeae e?anoueyiei iia n niaeaney
iiiaueea. I?aaeoaeuenoai o/?aaeeei «aueoiioth i?aaiecaoeeth»: e?anoueyia
iieo/aee aueoiioth nnoaeo, eioi?oth iaycaiu auee caoai iinoaiaiii
iiaaoaoue. I?e/ai auaea/a aueoiiuo . nnoae ?ani?ino?aiyeanue oieueei ia
e?anoueyi, ieaoeaoeo ia?ie. Oneiaey aueoiiie iia?aoeee i?aaeiieaaaee
auaea/o nnoaeu a ?acia?a 80% noieiinoe ia?iea i?e oneiaee niioaaonoaey
iaaeaea ?acia?ai aai ii onoaaiie a?aiioa, e nnoaeu a ?acia?a 75% a
neo/aa oiaiueoaiey iaaeaea ii n?aaiaieth n ?acia?ii, oeacaiiui a
onoaaiie a?aiioa. Iieo/aiioth io i?aaeoaeuenoaa aueoiioth noiio
e?anoueyia iaycaiu auee iiaaoaoue a oa/aiea 49 eao.

Iiaaoaiea e?anoueyiaie aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae i?iecaiaeeeinue naeueneie
iaueiie ia iniiaa i?eioeeia e?oaiaie ii?oee. Aueoiiay iia?aoeey aeaea
aiciiaeiinoue iiiaueeo nio?aieoue oio aeioiae, eioi?ue ii iieo/ae aei
?aoi?iu. Iiyoiio ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi niioaaonoaiaae eioa?anai
iiiaueeia.

A aua aieaa neiaeiia iieiaeaiea iiiaaeaee aeai?iaua e?anoueyia. Iie ia
iieo/aee ie iieaaiai iaaeaea, ie onaaeueau e a oa/aiea aeaoo eao
inoaaaeenue a iieiie caaeneiinoe io iiiaueeia. Aeai?iaua aeieaeiu auee
neoaeeoue naiei ainiiaeai eee ieaoeoue ia?ie. Ii enoa/aiee aeaooeaoiaai
n?iea aeai?iaua ioioneaeenue ia aieth, ia iieo/ay caiee.

?aaioiua ethaee iiiaue/ueeo oaa?ee e caaiaeia ia?aaiaeeeenue ia ia?ie a
oa/aiea aeaoo eao, ii ca ieie cae?aieyeanue caiey, eioi?oth iie iiaee
aueoieoue.

Iinanneiiiua ?aai/ea, i?eienaiiua e /anoiui ai?iui caaiaeai,
iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia ianoa?iauo, ?aaioaaoeo ia caaiaeao, e naeueneeo
?aaioieeia, auiieiyaoeo aniiiiaaoaeueiua ?aaiou, iaeiia?aiaiii
caieiaynue oeaaiiaoanoaii. Ianoa?iaua inaiaiaeaeaeenue n onaaeueaie e
caiaeueiui iaaeaeii, anee iie eiaee eo ?aiueoa, ii ca yoi ieaoeee ia?ie
a aeaa ?aca iaiueoa, /ai ia?i/iua iiiaue/uee e?anoueyia. Naeueneea
?aaioieee a oa/aiea o?ao eao ia?aaiaeeeenue ia ia?ie, a anee ia eiaee
iaaeaeia, oi i?e?aaieaaeenue e aeai?iaui e?anoueyiai.

Iauea oneiaey inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe
?ani?ino?aiyeenue ia iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi 47 aoaa?iee ?innee. Aeey
inoaeueiuo iaeanoae ?aoi?ia auea i?iaaaeaia ia iniiaa iniauo Iieiaeaiee.
A aieaa auaiaeiuo oneiaeyo ieacaeenue I?aaiaa?aaeiay Oe?aeia, Eeoaa,
Aaei?onney, Iieueoa.

E?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia, ianiio?y ia a? a?aaeoaeueneee oa?aeaia?, eiaea
ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey ?uii/iuo io?aoaiee. Eeeaeaeaoeey
ee/iie caaeneiinoe, ia?aaiae e?anoueyi ia aueoi – ana yoi nicaeaaaei
oneiaey aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey a ?innee eaieoaeecia.

Ii aianoa n oai ?aoi?ia iineea e?aiinoie/aneee oa?aeoa?, oae eae
i?iaiaeeeanue e?aiinoieeaie. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai yaeeinue nio?aiaiea
oaiaeaeueiuo ia?aaeeoeia: iiiaue/ueaai caieaaeaaeaiey, a?aiaiiiiaycaiiuo
ioiioaiee, aa?ueiu e ia?iea, «io?aceia», aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae, naeueneie
iaueiu e iieeoe/aneiai aani?aaey e?anoueyi. Yoe ia?aaeeoee oi?iiceee
?acaeoea no?aiu.

5. Iieiaeaiea i cainoaao.

Noaeaaiay, ai?iaeneay, aiaiiay ?aoi?iu.

Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa iiaeaeea ca niaie ia?aiaiu ai anae
ainoaea?noaaiiie e i?aaiaie nenoaia ?innee. ?a/ue oea ia ia eciaiaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy, a i nicaeaiee i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey –
cainoa. 1 yiaa?y 1864 a. Aeaenaiae? II ooaa?aeee Iieiaeaiea i aoaa?ineeo
e oacaeiuo caineeo o/?aaeaeaieyo. Caineay ?aoi?ia aaiaeeea i?aaiu
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey: oacaeiua e aoaa?ineea cainoaa.

Caineea o/?aaeaeaiey aeieaeiu auee ninoiyoue ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao
nineiaee -aeai?yi, /eiiaieeia, aeooiaainoaa, eoioeia, i?iiuoeaiieeia e
e?anoueyi. Ana ecae?aoaee aeaeeeenue ia o?e eo?ee. A ia?aoth eo?eth –
oacaeiuo caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa – aoiaeeee iiiaueee, eiaaoea ia iaiaa 200
aeanyoei caiee, a oaeaea nianoaaiieee e?oiiuo oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa noieiinoueth ia iaiaa 15 oun.
?oaeae. Ai aoi?ie eo?ee – ai?iaeneie – o/anoaiaaee eoioeu, aeaaeaeueoeu
iaaeaeaeeiinoe, eioi?ay ioeaieaaeanue io 500 aei 3000 ?oaeae. Aeey
o/anoey a auai?ao ii o?aoueae eo?ee – naeueneeo iauanoa – eiouanoaaiiue
oeaic ionoonoaiaae. Oaeoe/anee ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea a cainoaao
caieiaee iiiaueee. Oae, ia ia?auo auai?ao a oacaeiua cainoaa a n?aaeiai
ii no?aia aeai?yia ninoaaeyee 41,7%, aeooiaainoai – 6,5%, eoioeu –
10,4%, e?anoueyia – 38,4%. Cainoaa aaeaaiaeii niae?aeenue ia caineea
nia?aiey. Ia nia?aieyo ecae?aeny eniieieoaeueiue i?aai – Caineay oi?aaa
ai aeaaa n i?aaenaaeaoaeai.

Noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe iiauo i?aaiia auea ia?aie/aia
oicyenoaaiii-eoeueoo?iuie aeaeaie. Iie aaaeaee no?ieoaeuenoaii ianoiuo
iooae niiauaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaieai, ia?iaeiui ia?aciaaieai, ianoiie
oi?aiaeae e i?iiuoeaiiinoueth. Iiaua i?aaiu ananineiaiiai naiioi?aaeaiey
nouanoaiaaee oieueei ia o?iaia aoaa?iee e oacaeia. A aieinoyo cainoaa ia
nicaeaaaeenue. Ca aeayoaeueiinoueth cainoa onoaiaaeeaaeny eiio?ieue ni
noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Oae, aoaa?iaoi? eiae i?aai inoaiiaeoue
eniieiaiea iinoaiiaeaiey cainoaa.

Cainoaa o/?aaeaeaeenue oieueei a 34 aoaa?ieyo no?aiu. A I?eaaeoeea,
Aaei?onnee, I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeia, ia Eaaeaca, N?aaeiae Acee, a Neae?e
e ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea cainoaa ia auee aaaaeaiu. Caineay ?aoi?ia ieacaea
aeeyiea ia ?aoi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey a ai?iaeao.

A 1870 a. auea i?iaaaeaia ai?iaeneay ?aoi?ia, niaeanii eioi?ie
?anii?yaeeoaeueiua ooieoeee a ai?iaeao aiceaaaeenue ia aeoiu.

Ai?iaeneay aeoia – i?aai ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey a ?innee.
Caieiaeanue aii?inaie ai?iaeneiai aeaaiono?ienoaa, cae?aaiio?aiaiey,
oicyenoaaiiuie aeaeaie. Aicaeaaeyeanue ai?iaeneei aieiaie.

Auai?u a Aeoio i?ioiaeeee ?ac a /aou?a aiaea ii o?ai eo?eyi,
nicaeaaaaiui a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a oiea/eaaaiiai iaeiaa. Eiiiaoaioeey
ai?iaeneiai naiioi?aaeaiey ia?aie/eaaeanue ?aoaieai oicyenoaaiiuo
aii?inia: aiaeiniaaaeaiea, oee/iia inaauaiea, o?ainii?o,
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua i?iaeaiu.

Ai?iaeneea aeoiu iaycaiu auee caaioeoueny e ia iauanoaaiiii
aeaaininoiyiee, i?eieiaoue ia?u i?ioea iiaea?ia, ieacuaaoue niaeaenoaea
a iaania/aiee ianaeaiey i?iaeiaieuenoaeai, ono?aeaaoue aieueieoeu,
o/?aaeaeaoue oeieu, iocae. Ii aeayoaeueiinoue Aeoi auea ia?aie/aia
aoaa?ineie aaeieieno?aoeeae. Ai?iaeneay ?aoi?ia auea i?ia?anneaiui
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii aeey naiaai a?aiaie, oioy e iineea ia?aie/aiiue
oa?aeoa?.

N?aaee ?aoi?i 60-70-o aiaeia iaeaieaa ?aaeeeaeueiie yaeyeanue noaeaaiay
?aoi?ia, i?iaaaeaiiay a 1864 a. Auea aaaaeaia nenoaia iacaaeneiinoe
noaeae. Noae noaiiaeeny aeaniui. Noaeaaiue i?ioeann i?ienoiaeee ioe?uoi,
ioaee/ii, iinee ninoycaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. A ?ac?aaioea aeaea o/anoaiaaee
iaa noi?iiu – i?aaenoaaeoaee iaaeiyaiiai e iaaeieoaey. Ia noaea
aunooiaee i?ieo?i? e caueoieee a eeoea i?enyaeiuo iiaa?aiiuo eee
aaeaieaoia. Noaeueao iaaeiyaiuo ?aoaee i?enyaeiua canaaeaoaee. Ii
caeiio, i?enyaeiui canaaeaoaeai iia noaoue /aeiaae, eiathuee ?onneia
iiaeaeainoai, a aic?anoa io 25 aei 70 eao e i?iaeeaathuee ia iaiaa aeaoo
eao a oii oacaea, aaea i?iaiaeeeinue eca?aiea a i?enyaeiua. I?enyaeiua
canaaeaoaee iacia/aeenue cainoaaie e Ai?iaeneeie aeoiaie.

Aaiaeeeny aaeeiue aeey anaai ianaeaiey ananineiaiue noae, oioy aeey
e?anoueyi nio?aiyeny aieinoiie noae. Inoaaaeenue iniaua noaeu aeey
aeooiaainoaa, aeey aunoeo /eiiaieeia, aiaiiuo.

?aoi?ia noaea auea iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ?aoi?iie. Iia ia oieueei
eeeaeaee?iaaea ianiaa?oainoai aei?aoi?iaiiie nenoaiu noaeii?iecaiaenoaa,
ii e iaania/eea nouanoaaiioth noaiaiue caueou iiaeaeaiiuo ?inneeneie
eiia?ee. A iieeoe/aneie nenoaia iinoaiaiii noae aiaae?youeny i?eioeei
i?ei?eoaoa caeiiiinoe e i?aaa.

O?iee E?uineie aieiu iieacaee, /oi ?onneay a?iey ioaeaeaaony a ei?aiiie
?ai?aaiecaoeee. Aiaiiua ?aoi?iu a 60-a aiaeu noaee i?iaiaeeoueny iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii aiaiiiai ieieno?a Ae.A.Ieethoeia. Aeey oeo/oaiey
iiaeaioiaee ioeoea?neiai ninoaaa o/?aaeaeaeenue niaoeeaeueiua aiaiiua
o/eeeua, eiioeiaaio aeey eioi?uo iiaeaioaaeeaaeny aiaiiuie aeiiaceyie.
Auee nicaeaiu oaeaea aiaiiua aeaaeaiee e ii?neia o/eeeua.

Anth oa??eoi?eth ?innee a 1864 a. ?acaeaeeee ia 10 aiaiiuo ie?oaia. Ai
aeaaa ie?oaa noiye eiiaiaeothuee, eioi?ue inouanoaeye ?oeiaiaenoai
aieneaie. 1 yiaa?y 1874 a. aue i?eiyo iiaue aiaiiue onoaa, ii eioi?iio a
no?aia aaiaeeeanue anaiauay aieineay iiaeiiinoue aeey eeoe ioaeneiai
iiea, aeinoeaoeo 20 eao. *anoue aaeaaiaeii i?ecuaaaiuo eeoe ca/eneyeanue
ia aeaenoaothuoth neoaeao a a?ieth, ae?oaay /anoue – a iiie/aiea. Onoaa
i?aaeoniao?eaae nie?auaiea n?iea aiaiiie neoaeau a nooiiooiuo aieneao
aei 6 eao e ia oeioa aei 7 eao. Eeoeai, eiaaoei ia?aciaaiea,
?ac?aoaeinue i?ioiaeeoue neoaeao ia iieiaeaiee aieueiiii?aaeaeythueony
n?ieii io 6 ianyoeaa aei 4 eao. Inaiaiaeaeaiea io aiaiiie neoaeau
iieo/aee ii naiaeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai, iai?eia?, anee nui aue
aaeeinoaaiiui ei?ieeueoeai a naiuea.

Caeii i i?ecuaa a a?ieth ia ?ani?ino?aiyeny ia ia?iaeu N?aaeiae Acee,
Eaaeaca, E?aeiaai Naaa?a.

Inouanoaeyeinue oaeaea ia?aaii?oaeaiea a?iee iiauie aiaiii-oaoie/aneeie
n?aaenoaaie. Caiaoiua oeo/oaiey iaiiaeaiiie a?iee i?iyaeeenue a
?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia 1877-1878 aa. ?onneay a?iey noaea ii no?oeoo?a,
aii?oaeaieth, ia?aciaaieth aieaa nia?aiaiiie.

6. Cia/aiea ?aoi?i -70-o aiaeia.

Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa noaea enoi?e/aneei ?oaaaeii a ?acaeoee ?innee.
E?aiinoie/anoai eae nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee ia?anoaei
nouanoaiaaoue, oioy iiiaea aai /a?ou e ia?aaeeoee nio?aieeenue aei 1917
aiaea. ?aoi?ia 1861 a. ia ?aoeea caiaeueiiai aii?ina, oioy e nicaeaea
oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia a ?innee.

A i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e?oaao iiieiaee, /oi e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia ia
iiaeao inoaoueny eciee?iaaiiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
i?iaiaeeoue ?aoi?iu a iieeoe/aneie e ainoaea?noaaiiie noa?ao.
?aoi?iaoi?u, i?iaiaey i?aia?aciaaiey, oioaee, /oiau ?inney ?acaeaaeanue
ii iooe nicaeaiey eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee. Oai ia iaiaa aaniethoiay
iiia?oey aua nio?aiyea naith aeecianiiniaiinoue.

Aaoi?eoao ?innee e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, oie/oiaeeaoae e?aiinoiia
i?aai, iiaeiyeny auniei a Aa?iia. ?inney auno?i iioea ii iooe
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna.

Ii ?aoi?iu i?iaiaeeeenue naiiaea?aeaaeai e iiyoiio iineee iieiaei/aoue,
i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?. E?aiinoieee no?aieeenue nio?aieoue ca niaie
iaeneioi i?eaeeaaee a yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie iaeanoyo. ?aoi?iu
i?iaiaeeeenue iiae aeaaeaieai iauanoaaiiiai aeaeaeaiey, e oea?neia
i?aaeoaeuenoai a aieueoae noaiaie iianaeinue oaina, /ai aeaeaei
i?ia?anna.

Iiyoiio ?aoi?iu 60-70-o aiaeia XIX a. i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iieoia?u,
eioi?ua eo nicaeaoaee ia niiaee aeiaanoe aei eiae/aneiai caaa?oaiey.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. ss. I. A?????e, N.A. I????? «A???ay ???y» 2001 N. 111-128.

2. N. E. A??i «E??ey Aa??». 1998 N. 100-109

3. E.A. E??? «A???ay ???y» ???? ???a. 2002 N. 150-164.

4. C???i I. A. A???ay ???y. E??ey ???e e ?? n ????? ??? ? ??a 19 ??:
??i? ?y 10 ???. ? 6-a ?ae. ? I.: III «OEAe «???? ??i ? ?N», 2006 (§ 41).

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