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Роль женщин в войне 1812 года

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Aaaaeaiea

I?e/eiaie niauoee aieiu 1812 aiaea noaee: noieeiiaaiea i?aoaicee
Iaiieaiia ia ie?iaia ainiiaenoai ni no?aieaieai Aeaenaiae?a I
?oeiaiaeeoue aa?iiaeneie iieeoeeie. E 1812 aiaeo Iaiieaiio inoaeinue
caoaaoeoue aeey iieiiai ainiiaenoaa a Aa?iia oieueei ?inneth, ia
aei?iaa, /oiau noaoue, eae au?aaeaeny nai eiia?aoi?: “Aeanoaeeiii ie?a”,
noiyea oieueei iia. Iaiieaii ociae, /oi ?inney ia?ooeea aeiaiai? i
eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaea. (?inney oi?aiaaea n Aiaeeae iiae aia?eeaineei
oeaaii). Eiioeeeo a iieueneii e aa?iaineii eiyaeanoaa. (Iaiieaii nai?y/a
i?eniaaeeiee e O?aioeee aa?oeianoai Ieueaeaiao?naeia, a aa?oeia
i?eoiaeeeny aeyaeae Aeaenaiae?o I), ee/iua iaeaeu e inei?aeaiey.
(Iaiieaii iainoi?iaeii iaiiiiee Aeaenaiae?o I i aai ee/iii o/anoee a
caaiai?a i?ioea iooea. ?onneee eiia?aoi? a ioaao ia i?eiye naaoianoaa
Iaiieaiia e aaeeeie eiyaeia Aiia Iaaeiaia). Ii iiaeaae aienea e Aa?oaaa
e ioooaea aeaeioeny ia ?inneth. Oae ia/aeanue aieia 1812 aiaea.

A yoi a?aiy ?inney oaea aaea aeaa aieiu: n Oo?oeeae e E?aiii. Oaeei
ia?acii ?inney ia iiaea i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue Iaiieaiio aieueooth a?ieth.
O?aioeey auea caiyoa oieueei ii?neie aieiie n Aiaeeae, aeey O?aioeee
?inney auea iniiaiie e aaeeinoaaiiie oeaeueth ia nooa, e iia iiaea
nin?aaeioi/eoue iieiinoueth ana neeu ia aieio n ?inneae. E oiio aea a
?innee auee i/aiue ieioea aei?iae, /oi oneiaeiyei naycue a?iee, iiaeaic
anaai iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey o?iioa, aeaai, /oi yoi auei i?iaeaiie e aeey
Iaiieaiia, eiaaea ii anooiee a ?inneth. A yeiiiie/aneii niunea O?aioeey
auea aieaa /ai i?ioeaaoathuae no?aiie. Ai O?aioeee auee ?acaeou
eaieoaeenoe/aneea ioiioaiey, iiyoiio aeaiaa ia aieio o O?aioeee auei
aieaa, /ai i?aaeinoaoi/ii.

?inney auea ii/oe iieiie i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth O?aioeee –
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee ii/oe ia auei, ainiiaenoaiaaee oaiaeaeueiua
ioiioaiey, nio?aieeinue e?aiinoiia i?aai, aeaiueae a eacio iinooiaee io
iaeiaia e iioeei, ana /oi ?inney eiaea, iia aeiaeeanue ca n/ao oaiaoaiey
ia?iaeiuo iann e noa?aiee aiaaouo iao?eioia. O ?innee auee ia?iiiua
caianu ?ano?nia, e iie ?ac?aaaouaaeenue, ii a iniiaiii ia O?aea e a
oeaio?a ?innee.

Oeeueceoneee ie?, caeeth/aiiue iaaeaeo ?inneae e O?aioeeae, iinea
ii?aaeaiey ?onneeo aiene iiae Aonoa?eeoeai (1807), i?eniaaeeiaiea e
eiioeiaioaeueiie aeieaaea i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ca 1808 – 1812 aiaea
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ?innee nie?aoeeanue ia 43 %. O?aioeey ia iiaea
eiiiaine?iaaoue yoiai oua?aa, iineieueeo yeiiiie/aneea nayce n ?inneae
iineee iiaa?oiinoiue oa?aeoa?. Ia ia?aue acaeyae o ?innee auei iaei
oainia auea?aoue aieio n O?aioeeae. N 1810 aiaea Aeaenaiae? I ia/ae
iiaeoyaeaaoue aienea e caiaaeiui a?aieoeai eiia?ee, ?ann/eouaay ia oaea?
a Iieueoa, a ia ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee. Aiiaua i aiacaiiii iaiaaeaiee
Iaiieaiia ia ?inneth ia iiaeao auoue e ?a/e, iineieueeo aiaiiia
eiiaiaeiaaiea ?onneeo aiene iiaeaioiaeei aieaa 40 ieaiia eaiiaiee i?ioea
O?aioeee. Iaiieaii oaea n 1809 aiaea ia/ae iiaeaioiaeo ia Ainoie.
Iaeiaei ii ia o/ae, /oi ?inney oaea iaeiaaeaeu nianea Aa?iio, anoaa
noaiie a 13 – 14 aaeao ia iooe aan/eneaiiuo aiei ei/aaieeia ec
oeaio?aeueiie Acee.

Iaaeaeo aeaaiieiiaiaeothueie a?iee Eooociaui e Iaiieaiiii auei i/aiue
iiiai iauaai: iie iaa ethaeee naith ?iaeeio, eo ethaeee e a a?iee.
Iaiieaiia, iioiio /oi ii aue aeinaea iaiiaaaeeiui, Eooociaa, iioiio /oi
ii aue i?aaiieeii Noai?iaa, iie auee oaeaioeeauie iieeiaiaeoeaie, oi?ioi
ciaaoeie naia aeaei. Aei yoiai Iaiieaii iiaaaeaeae a eo i/iuo noaaeao,
iiyoiio o iaai auei i?aeiouanoai ia?aae Eooociaui, e?iia oiai ii aue
iieiaea e yia?ae/iaa Eooociaa. Eooocia e Iaiieaii aeiaeaaeenue oniaoa
naiei o?oaeii, iaa iie ia/eiaee ieaaeoeie ioeoea?aie. Ca yoi a?aiy iie
iaa?aeenue ia oieueei aiaiiiai, ii e a?aaeaeaineiai iiuoa. Iaa iie auee
oiieeie aeeieiiaoaie.

Iaaiaeiaaiea ia?iaea

*oi aea ianei iaoanoaea a?aaa ianaeaieth ?innee? “Ai?yuea aie?oa naeaiey
e i?aaeianouey ai?iaea, oeeoeu, onoeaiiua ?aiaiuie e ia?oauie, iiey,
oiauaiiua /aeiaa/aneie e?iaueth e onayiiua iiiaeanoaii o?oiia, a?aaaae,
ianeeuenoaiaaiey e oaeenoaa iaaci?oaeaiiuo aeeoaeae” – yoi ca?eniaea n
iaoo?u iaeiiai ec naeaeaoaeae anooieaiey aiene Iaiieaiia a Aeoaane.
Iiaeii i?eaanoe iiiaeanoai oaeeo naeaeaoaeuenoa. Eiaaea-oi aienea
?aaiethoeeiiiie O?aioeee neaaeeenue naiae aeenoeeieeiie. Ii oaia?ue a
yoii a?aaeoaeueneii e iaioaeiii aeey ia?iaea O?aioeee iioiaea nieaeaou
“aaeeeie a?iee” oai?eee ianeeey iaae ie?iuie aeeoaeyie. Iaiieaii iiieiae
iianiinoue ?aceiaeaiey a?iee. Ii ecaeae i?eeac i ?anno?aea nieaeao,
oee/aiiuo a a?aaaaea e ia?iaea?noaa, ii yoi iaei iiiiaei. A Iineao e nai
Iaiieaii iaauae ioaeaoue ia ?aca?aaeaiea nieaeaoai eae “iaa?aaeo” ca ana
eeoaiey iioiaea. Ii aeaei auei ia oieueei a ia?iaea?noaa nieaeao.
O?aioeocneea aeanoe aaniiuaaeii ioieiaee o ianaeaiey oeaa, iaan, naii,
ioneay ii ie?o ouny/e ethaeae. Yoi aue oiaea a?aaaae, oieueei
“i?aaieciaaiiue”.

N ia?auo aeiae aieia aeey ia?iaea noaea Ioa/anoaaiiie. E?anoueyia
aeia?iaieueii aacee a ionooiaaooth a?ieth ana, /oi eiaee:
i?iaeiaieuenoaea, iaan, naii. A a?aa ia iia iieo/eoue o ieo naia e
oo?aaea ie ca aeaiueae, ie neeie. Ianeeey a?aaa aucuaaee “inoa?aaiaiea
ia?iaea” (Iooeei). Iiiaea naeeaaee naie aeiia, caianu oeaaa e ei?ia
neioo – eeoue au ia iiiaee a ?oee a?aaa. Aa?ieci noae iau/iui yaeaieai.

Aa?ieci ia?iaea i?iyaeyeny ii-?aciiio. E?anoueyieia Naiaia Neeaaaa ec
Niieaineie aoaa?iee o?aioeocu canoaaeyee iieacaoue ei iooue ia ai?iae
Aaeue. A ii oaa?ye eo, /oi aei?iaa aieioenoay, iinou niaeaeaiu e i?ieoe
iaaiciiaeii. Ia iaai iai?aaeytho ca?yaeaiiua ?oaeuey – ii noieo ia
naiai, i?aaeeaaatho cieioi – ia iiiiaaao. Oae e ooee o?aioeocu ie n /ai.
Ai?iae aue nianai. A i?ieoe iiaeii auei eaaei: ana aieioa a oi eaoi
aunioee.

A iaeiii ec aiaa ai a?aiy ionooieaiey aue oyaeaei ?aiai aona? Oaaei?
Iioaiia, ii i?icaeuo Naionue. Aai i?ethoeee e?anoueyia. Ii?aaeaoenue io
?ai, Naionue nicaeae ia?oecaineee io?yae ec e?anoueyi. Anei?a a io?yaea
auei oaea aieaa 3 ouny/ /aeiaae. Naionue ?ac?aaioae nenoaio eieieieueiuo
neaiaeia, aeaaiaea?y /aio ia?oecaiu e aeeoaee ie?anoiuo aea?aaaiue ciaee
i aeaeaeaiee e eiee/anoaa iai?eyoaey. Io?yae oi?ioi aii?oaeeeny, ioaea o
a?aaa i?oaeea, aeinoaee aeaaea iooeo.

A aith iiae Oea?aai-Caeieuai iiiae a ieai ?yaeiaie A?iieae *aoaa?oaeia.
*a?ac o?e aeiy ii aaaeae. Neieioea io?yae ec e?anoueyi, aii?oaeaiiuo
naiiaeaeueiuie ieeaie, *aoaa?oaeia noae iaiaaeaoue ia iaaieueoea io?yaeu
iai?eyoaey. Anei?a o iaai auei 300 aieoeia, aii?oaeaiiuo o?aioeocneei
i?oaeeai. *aoaa?oaeia i?aaieciaae io?aio ie?anoiuo nae, iaeaaeee
?acaaaeeo.

Ni a?aiaiai io?yae *aoaa?oaeiaa anooiae a aie aeaaea n e?oiiuie
io?yaeaie caoaao/eeia. Iaeiaaeaeu oeaeue o?aioeocneee aaoaeueii o?oneeai
oeeiiyeny io n?aaeaiey n e?anoueyiaie.

*ai aeaeueoa i?iaeaeaaeanue a?aaeaneay a?iey, oai aieueoa iaeanoi/aeny
?onneee ia?iae, oai oii?iaa ii caueuaeny. “Iiaeii aac i?aoaaee/aiey
neacaoue, /oi iiiaea ouny/e a?aaa eno?aaeaiu e?anoueyiaie”—ienae
Eooocia.

E?aiinoiia e?anoueyinoai – iniiaiia ianaeaiea no?aiu – naeaeaaoaa
aanoeaiiue aeeaae a ecaiaiea o?aioeocia, a 1812 aiaeo iaaeayeinue, /oi
iii – inaiaiaeeoaeue Ioa/anoaa – iieo/eo inaiaiaeaeaiea io e?aiinoiie
iaaiee. Ii eiaaea aieia eii/eeanue, o oea?y aeey ia?iaea iaoeanue
oieueei iaeia o?aca a iaieoanoa: “E?anoueyia, aa?iue iao ia?iae, aea
iieo/ao icaeo naith io Aiaa”.

Ii iiaeao auoue eiia?aoi? ao?aeoaciiai ainoaea?noaa Iaiieaii iia
inaiaiaeeoue e?anoueyi ?innee io e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe? Iao, ia iia! Ii
aue i?aaenoaaeoaeai eiio??aaiethoeeiiiie ao?aeoacee, ii ainnoaiiaee
iiia?oeth ai O?aioeee e i?iaicaeanee naay eiia?aoi?ii, ii iaiaaeaeae e
i?ace?ae ia?iae. Caiya Iiaeeaa, o?aioeocneee ia?oae nicaae /eiiaieeia e
aeai?yi e oaa?aei iaauae ei, /oi “e?anoueyia inoaioony a iiaeiiaaiee
iiiaueeai naiei”. A Niieainea caaiaaaoaee nicaeaee ea?aoaeueiue io?yae
aeey ?ani?aau n e?anoueyiaie, aunooieaoeie i?ioea naieo iiiaueeia.

Ia naiaiaeo ianea iaiieaiiianeay a?iey ia?iaeo ?innee, a iiaia
ii?aaiuaiea!

I?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey ia?oecaineie aieiu.

Ia?oecaineia aeaeaeaiea yaeyeinue y?eei au?aaeaieai ia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?a
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu 1812 aiaea. Aniuoioa iinea aoi?aeaiey iaiieaiiianeeo
aiene a Eeoao e Aaei?onneth, iii n eaaeaeui aeiai ?acaeaaeinue,
i?eieiaei ana aieaa aeoeaiua oi?iu e noaei a?iciie neeie.

Iiia/aeo ia?oecaineia aeaeaeaiea auei noeoeeiui, i?aaenoaaeyei niaie
aunooieaiey iaeeeo, ?ac?iciaiiuo ia?oecaineeo io?yaeia, caoai iii
caoaaoeei oeaeua ?aeiiu. Noaee nicaeaaaoueny e?oiiua io?yaeu, iiyaeeenue
ouny/e ia?iaeiuo aa?iaa, auaeaeioeenue oaeaioeeaua i?aaiecaoi?u
ia?oecaineie ai?ueau.

Ii/aio aea aani?aaiia e?anoueyinoai, aacaeaeinoii oaiaoaaiia
e?aiinoieeaie-iiiaueeaie, iiaeiyeinue ia ai?ueao i?ioea naiaai,
eacaeinue au, “inaiaiaeeoaey”? Ie i eaeii inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi io
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe eee oeo/oaiey eo aani?aaiiai iieiaeaiey Iaiieaii
e ia aeoiae. Anee aia/aea e i?ieciineeenue iiiaiiaauathuea o?acu ia
inaiaiaeaeaiee e?aiinoiuo e aeaaea iiaiaa?eaaee i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
auionoeoue eaeoth-oi i?ieeaiaoeeth, oi yoi auei eeoue oaeoe/aneei
oiaeii, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai Iaiieaii ?ann/eouaae i?eioaiooue iiiaueeia.

Iaiieaii iiieiae, /oi inaiaiaeaeaiea ?onneeo e?aiinoiuo iaecaaaeii
i?eaaei au e ?aaiethoeeiiiui iineaaenoaeyi, /aai ii aiyeny aieueoa
anaai. Aea yoi e ia ioaa/aei aai iieeoe/aneei oeaeyi i?e anooieaiee a
?inneth. Ii iiaieth ni?aoieeia Iaiieaiia, aeey iaai auei “aaaeii
oi?i/eoue iiia?oeci ai O?aioeee e aio o?oaeii auei i?iiiaaaeiaaoue
?aaiethoeeth a ?inneth”.

Ia?aua aea ?anii?yaeaiey aaeieieno?aoeee, o/?aaeaeaiiie Iaiieaiiii a
caiyouo iaeanoyo, iai?aaeyeenue i?ioea e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi, a caueoo
iiiaueeia-e?aiinoieeia. A?aiaiiia eeoianeia “i?aaeoaeuenoai”,
iiae/eiaiiia iaiieaiiianeiio aoaa?iaoi?o, a iaeiii ec ia?auo aea
iinoaiiaeaiee iaycaei anao e?anoueyi e aiiaua naeueneeo aeeoaeae
aani?aeineiaii iiaeiiaaoueny iiiaueeai, ii-i?aaeiaio eniieiyoue ana
?aaiou e iiaeiiinoe, a oao, eoi aoaeao oeeiiyoueny, iaaeeaaeaei no?iai
iaeacuaaoue, i?eaeaeay aeey yoiai, anee oiai iio?aaotho ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
aiaiioth neeo.

Eiiaaea ia/aei ia?oecaineiai aeaeaeaiey a 1812 a. naycuaaaony n
iaieoanoii Aeaenaiae?a I io 6 ethey 1812 a., eae au ?ac?aoaaoai
e?anoueyiai acyoueny ca i?oaeea e aeoeaii aeeth/aoueny a ai?ueao. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aeaei ianoiyei eia/a. Ia aeiaeeaeaynue ?anii?yaeaiee
ia/aeuenoaa, aeeoaee i?e i?eaeeaeaiee o?aioeocia ooiaeeee a eana e ia
aieioa, /anoi inoaaeyy naia aeeeuea ia ?aca?aaeaiea e niaeaeaiea.

E?anoueyia auno?i iiiyee, /oi iaoanoaea o?aioeocneeo caaiaaaoaeae noaaeo
eo a aua aieaa oyaeaeia e oieceoaeueiia iieiaeaiea, /ai oi, a eioi?ii
iie iaoiaeeeenue aei yoiai. Ai?ueao n eiino?aiiuie ii?aaioeoaeyie
e?anoueyia naycuaaee oaeaea n iaaeaaeaeie ia inaiaiaeaeaiea eo io
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe

?onneea aeaiueiu aeaeeee ana oyaiou aieiu

Aieia 1812 a. ia neo/aeii iieo/eea iacaaiea Ioa/anoaaiiie. Ia?iaeiue
oa?aeoa? yoie aieiu y?/a anaai i?iyaeeny a ia?oecaineii aeaeaeaiee,
eioi?ia nua?aei no?aoaae/aneoth ?ieue a iiaaaea ?innee. Ioaa/ay ia
oi?aee a “aieia ia ii i?aaeeai”, Eooocia aiai?ee, /oi oaeiau /oanoaa
ia?iaea. Ioaa/ay ia ienueii ia?oaea Aa?ouea, ii ienae 8 ieoya?y 1818 a.:
“O?oaeii inoaiiaeoue ia?iae, iaeanoi/aiiue anai, /oi ii aeaeae; ia?iae,
eioi?ue a i?iaeieaeaiea noieueeeo eao ia ciae aieiu ia naiae oa??eoi?ee;
ia?iae, aioiaue aea?oaiaaoue niaie aeey ?iaeeiu…”.

Aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiiay ia i?eaea/aiey ia?iaeiuo iann e aeoeaiiio
o/anoeth a aieia, enoiaeeea ec eioa?ania ?innee, i?aaeeueii io?aaeaea
iauaeoeaiua oneiaey aieiu e o/eouaaea oa oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua
i?iyaeeenue a iaoeeiiaeueii – inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieia.

Aieia 1812 aiaea auei iinayuaii iiiaeanoai iaioa?iie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?u, i/a?eia, ienai, caienie i/aaeaeoeaa niauoee oao eao. Ienaee
iieeiaiaeoeu e ainoaea?noaaiiua aeayoaee, aieiu e iiyou, i?inoua ethaee,
aieioue aei iineianeie aeai?iaie aeaiueiu. Ec yoeo ienai iu ociaai, /oi,
e aeaiueiu anao nineiaee ia iiaee inoaaaoueny aeooeie e aiaiiui niauoeyi
1812 aiaea.

E, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, yoi ioiineony e ciaiaieoie “eaaaea? aeaaeoea” –
Iaaeaaeaea Aiae?aaaia Aeo?iaie, /uey oaeeaeoaeueiay noaeueaa aua i?e aa
aeecie noaea eaaaiaeie. A naieo iiiai/eneaiiuo iioiaeao iia aaea
caienee, ia/oi a?iaea aeiaaieea, ii eioi?ui e auee iaienaiu
aiineaaenoaee iiiaea aa i?iecaaaeaiey.

Iaaeaaeaea Aiae?aaaia Aeo?iaa ?iaeeeanue 17 naioya?y 1783 aiaea a naiuea
aona?neiai ?ioieno?a. Iaoooea aa i/aiue oioaea nuia, e eiaaea ae
i?eianee iiai?iaeaeaiioth aei/ue, n?aco iaacethaeea aa. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii,
/oi aei/ue noaea oyiooueny e iooeo. Oaea iaeaiueeie iia i?iaiaeeea iiiai
a?aiaie a naaeea aai eioaaee. Ii o iaeaiueeie Iaaeaaeaeu iinoiyiii
aicieeaee eiioeeeou n iaoa?ueth. Aio /oi ienaea Aeo?iaa a naiae eieaa
“Eaaaea?eno – Aeaaeoea”: “Iaoooea eiaea iainoi?iaeiinoue aiai?eoue iooeo
iiaio, /oi iia ia eiaao nee oi?aaeoueny n ainieoaiieoeae Anoaoiaa, /oi
yoi aona?neia ainieoaiea ionoeei aeoaieea ei?ie, /oi iaiiue aeac iieo
ioaaao aa, e /oi iia aeaeaea au eo/oa aeaeaoue iaiy ia?oaoth, iaaeaee n
oaeeie iaeeiiiinoyie. Aaothoea ioaa/ae, /oi y aua aeeoy, /oi ia iaaeiaii
caia/aoue iaiy e /oi n eaoaie y iieo/o ae?oaea iaeeiiiinoe e ana
i?ieaeao naii niaith: “Ia i?eienuaae yoiio ?aay/anoao oaeie aaaeiinoe,
ae?oa iie!” – aiai?ee aaothoea. Noaeueaa oaiaeii auei, /oia iaoue iiy ia
iiaa?eea e ia iineaaeiaaea aeia?iio niaaoo ioaea naiaai. Iia
i?iaeieaeaea aea?aeaoue iaiy acaia?oe e ia aeicaieyoue iia ie iaeiie
thiioaneie ?aaeinoe. ss iie/aea e iiei?yeanue, ii oaiaoaiea aeaei
c?aeinoue oio iiaio; y i?eiyea oaa?aeia iaia?aiea naa?aiooue oyainoiia
eai e eae ac?ineay ia/aea iaaeoiuaaoue ieai oniaoue a yoii. ss ?aoeea
oiio?aaeoue ana niiniaiinoe auo/eoueny acaeeoue aa?oii, no?aeyoue ec
?oaeuey e, ia?aiaeaaoenue, oeoe ec aeiia iooeianeiai”. Iiiai eao
i?ieaeao, iiea aa ia/oa inouanoaeoueny.

E aio, a naioya?a 1806 aiaea iia, ia?aiaeaaoenue a ioaeneia ieaouea,
oaeii iieeioea aeii e anooieea a eaca/ee iiee iiae eiaiai Aeaenaiae?a
Aaneeueaae/a Aeo?iaa (iioii iia iineea oaieeeth Nieieiaa eee
Aeaenaiae?iaa). “Noyioa noai naie /a?iui oaeeiaui eooaeii e iaaeaa
aunieoth oaieo n ioioeiaui aa?oii, n /aoaa?oue /ana y ?anniao?eaaea
i?aia?aceaoeeny aeae naie; ino?eaeaiiua aieinu aeaee iia nianai ae?oaoth
oeceiiiieth; y auea oaa?aia, /oi ieeiio e a aieiao ia i?eaeao
iiaeic?aaaoue iie iie”, – oae iienuaaea naia i?aa?auaiea a ioae/eio naia
aa?ieiy. Aaanoai Aeo?iaie ec aeiia a aieueoie noaiaie noeoeeiue ii?ua,
yoi ono?aieaiea a iaecaaaeaiiua i?inoi?u. Iaeiaei yoa aeaeaiiay naiaiaea
iio?aaiaaea io iaa aei?iaie ieaou – iaeeii/anoaa. Iaeeii/anoaa a no?iaii
iioiaeiii auoo. Iiiaaiea i?eoeinue aanoe aeeciue caieioooth, ne?uooth.

Oaaeeiyynue ia aeaaeao, Aeo?iaa eeiaea iaiaueiiaaiiie yia?aeae a
n?aaeaieyo, – iia oiaeeea aianoa n oiaa?euaie a oyaeaeaeoea aoaee ia
o?aioeocia. Eiiaiaee? auaiaa?eaae ae aeaaea, /oi iia oiaeeo a aie ni
anaie yneaae?iiaie iieea iii/a?aaeii, a ia oieueei ni naiei, eae
iieaaaaony. AEo?eee aa e ca oi, /oi iia, ?eneoy aeeciueth, no?aieony
nianaoue “ano?a/iiai e iiia?a/iiai”, auaiaeeo ?aiaiuo ec aiy. Ca
iiaeeeiiue iiaeaea, ca nianaiea io aeaaee ?onneiai ioeoea?a (aeaiueia n
ieeie a ?oea a?ineeanue ia ianeieueeeo o?aioeocneeo eaaaea?enoia) ae aue
aeai naiue ii/aoiue aieineee i?aeai – Aai?aeaaneee e?ano.

Aeiai e ii/ueth, a ethaoth iiaiaeo – a naaeea, aaneiia/iua nou/ee n
iai?eyoaeai, ii/aaee ia caiea, caieaniaaaeua nooa?e e ieouea ec eoaee,
iaaiciiaeiinoue iaia?aoueny eee niaieoue iie?ue ioiaee?… Iai anai yoii
Aeo?iaa aiai?eo a naieo caieneao. Ieeoi ia neuoae io iaa ieeaeeo aeaeia,
aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea iia auea neeueii eiiooaeaia yae?ii a iiao e
inoaaaeanue a no?ith.

Ia aeaaeao, a oi a?aiy eae ioeoea?u-nineoaeeaoeu a?aaeie/atho ca iauei
noieii e aaaeoo naie ioaeneea ?acaiai?u (eiia/ii, ia noaniyynue a
au?aaeaieyo), iia n io/oaeaeaiiui aeaeii iay/eo aaea-oi a noi?iia – io
ethaeae, io eino?a, io oaiea, eioi?ia ae oae ioaeii, – aeeaea e oueia
ii/e; eee neaeeo iaeeiiei n eieaie a naiae iaeaoea. Auoiaeeei oae, /oi
ai a?aiy ioaeuoa, ia aeaaea e aeaaea a iioiaea ae ai?acaei o?oaeiaa, /ai
a aith. Eii/aaony aie – e en/acaao iieiioa aeecie…

Ia iaeia Aeo?iaa eneaea yoie iieiiou. Ae?oaay aa naa?noieoea – aeaia
aaia?aea O?aiiaieoeeiai – anthaeo nii?iaiaeaeaea naiaai ioaea, iaeaoay
eacaeii. Iia auaaea aianoa n iei a aiyo e aeaaea iieo/eea iaaeaeue. Ii
ianea?aae O?aiiaieoeeie ieeiai ia iaiaiuaae. Naiuey inoaaaeanue naiueae
e i?e aiaiii-iioiaeiie aeecie. Auee e aua aeaiueiu a oi a?aiy, oae eee
eia/a eiiaaoea ia i?aaeaoeeny ei oeeaae aeecie. E ana aea Aeo?iaa
ecoieea anao. Ieeoi ia a neeao aue i?aiaeieaoue oaeeo o?oaeiinoae, eaeea
acaaeeea ia naay iia.

Iaiiiaei eaa/a ae auei e a i?aeeia?oeao – o Ieei?aaeiae/a e
Eiiiaieoeuia, a iioii o Eooociaa (iinea Ai?iaeeineie aeoau). I?e ooaaa
Eooociaa iia neoaeeea eae “Aeaenaiae?ia”, oioy oaeia aa auea oaea
?ane?uoa.

A iioiea aiaiiuo iaioa?ia “Caienee Eaaaea? aeaaeoeu” i?eianee Aeo?iaie
neaao. Oae eae ia?ac aaoi?a i?i/ii neeeny n ia?acii aa?ieie caienie. E
ionoue aa?ie – “eaaaea?eno”, ionoue – “Nieieia”, “Aeaenaiae?ia” – ana
?aaii yoi aeaiueia n aeoaieie, /enoie aeooie (“neiaii a iiianou?ue ooea
iia a aiaiiue ioiaee?”…). Caienee Aeo?iaie – yoi aua e oi/ea c?aiey
?yaeiaiai o/anoieea niauoee, aeey eioi?iai aieia ninoieo ia noieueei ec
aaia?aeueiuo n?aaeaiee e niio?ia, neieueei ec aaeaaeiaaiie oyaeaeie
?aaiou e o?oaeiinoae auoa. I?e/ai ia /oaeae ae e aieaa oe?ieee, iauee
acaeyae ia iieiaeaiea aeae (iai?eia?, aa ?annoaeaeaiey i noaeueaa
Iaiieaiia). Aeo?iaa, ii neiaai Aaeeineiai, auea “aeeaiue oaiiiai
i?aanoaaiiiai ie?a”.

Iaiieaiiianeia iaoanoaea auei ia?iiiui ian/anoueai aeey ?innee. A i?ao e
iaiae auee ia?auaiu iiiaea ai?iaea. Ii iauay aaaea, eae ecaanoii,
naeeaeaao ethaeae. A iino?aaeaaoeo io iaoanoaey aoaa?ieyo aeaiueiu e
aeaoe iiiiaaee naiei ioaeueyi, iooeai, ooiaeeee a ia?oecaiu.

Oae iinooieea Aaneeena Eiaeeia, eioi?ay aicaeaaeea io?yae ec aeaiuei e
iiae?inoeia. Iie auneaaeeaaee e oie/oiaeaee ioaeaeueiua iaaieueoea
a?oiiu iaiieaiiianeeo nieaeao. A ia?iaea i Aaneeena ni/eiyee aiaeaeiou,
aio iaeei ec ieo:…

A Niieaineie aoaa?iee oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue iieo/eea noa?inoeoa Aaneeena
Eiaeeia. Aa ioae – noa?inoa iaeiie aea?aaie Nu/aaneiai oacaea iiaae a
ai?iae ia?oeth ieaiiuo, caa?aiiuo e?anoueyiaie. A ionoonoaea aai
iinaeyia iieiaee aua ianeieueei o?aioeocia e oio/an aea i?eaaee e
noa?inoeoa Aaneeena aeey ioi?aaeaiey eoaea neaaeoao. Ney iineaaeiyy, ia
aeaeay ioaeaeaoue ac?ineuo io aeaaiaeoaai eo caiyoey aeoue e eiaeoue
ceiaeaaa, nia?aea iaaieueoie eiiaie ?aayo e, naaoe ia eioaaeue,
ionoeeanue a aeaea i?aaeaiaeeoaey i?ai?iaaaeaoue o?aioeocia naia. A nai
iaia?aiee, ?acuacaeay aie?oa ieaiiuo, e?e/aea ei iiaaeeoaeueiui aieinii:
“Io, ceiaeae o?aioeocu! ai o?oio! no?ieny! nooiae, ia?o!” Iaeei ec
ieaiiuo ioeoea?ia, ?acae?aaeai aoaeo/e oai, /oi i?inoay aaaa acaeoiaea
ei iiaaeaaaoue, ia iineooaeny aa. Aaneeena, aeaey nea, iiaenei/eea e
iaio iaiiaaiii, e oaea?y ii aieiaa naiei aeaceii – einith, iiaa?aea aai
ia?oaui e iiaai naiei, ane?e/aaoe: “Aai anai, ai?ai, niaaeai, aoaeao oi
aea, eoi oieueei /ooue iniaeeony caoaaaeeoueny. ss oaea aeaaaeoeaoe naie
oaeei ici?ieeai ni?aaea aieiaa! Ia?o a ai?iae!” E iinea yoiai eoi
oniiieony, /oi ieaiiua ia i?eciaee iaae niaith aeanoue noa?inoeoe
Aaneeenu?

“… ?onneee ia?iae iiaeiyeny, eae iaeei /aeiaae, e aeey yoiai ia
o?aaiaaeinue ie i?ieeaiaoeee, ie iaieoanoia… aieiu i?ioiaeeee anthaeo n
ianiyie; eiiaaea (y nai aeaeae) ca ieie oee eo aeaiu e, /oiau iiii/ue
ioaeueyi, ianee eo i?oaeea e eo aaue…” (ec ienueia A. Oaaa?a, /eiiaieea
?onneiai ieienoa?noaa eiino?aiiuo aeae). Oae ioaeanoaaiii aaee naay
i?inoiethaeeiu a aea?aaiyo. A /oi aea a ai?iaeao? Aio, iai?eia?, a
Iaica, eae iu ociaai ec caienie O. Aeaaeue: “Aeai?yinoai ii-naiaio
noa?aeinue auneacaoue iao?eioeci. Aeaiu ioeacuaaeenue io o?aioeocneiai
ycuea… Iiiaea ec ieo, ii/oe ana, iaeaaaeenue a na?aoaiu, iaaeaaaee
eieioieee e iiaycee”. Yoi auei a i?iaeioeee, a a Iineaa?

Aio ainiiieiaiey aeai?iaie aeaiueiu ec aeiia eiycy Eiaaiiaa, eioi?ay
auea aeaiie e?aiinoiiai… “Oaea aeaaii oieeiaaee a ia?iaea, /oi eaeao ia
ian Iaiieaii, e eae au a Iineao ia caa?aeny, a ainiiaea ana ia aa?eee, –
ionoue, iie, ia?iae aieoaao! – aea e ia iicaaioeeenue aeia?i naia io
o?aioeoca nianoe. A iioiio aa?ei n oo?a iaaeaaae ioiaee? e acaeee, eoaea
ana ae?oaea ainiiaea niae?aeenue aeoio aianoa aeoiaoue, eae eo/oa
o?aioeoco ianieeoue, aea a Iineao ia aeiionoeoue”.

Oea?neay naiuey oiaea auioaeaeaia auea i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue naie
iao?eioeci – nano?a oea?y Aeaoa?eia Iaaeiaia aii?oaeeea e acyea ia
niaea?aeaiea iaeei aaoaeueii iiie/aioeaa ec naieo e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi
Oaa?neie aoaa?iee, eioi?ue o/anoaiaae a ai?iaeeineii n?aaeaiee.

Aeaiu, i?eaeeaeaiiua e oea?neiio aeai?o oiaea ia inoaaaeenue a noi?iia
io aiaiiuo niauoee. Eioa?aniua ienueia, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iauanoaaiiia
iano?iaiea inoaaeea iai Aieeiaa Ia?ey Aiieeiiiaia (1786-1859 aa.) –
o?aeeeia eiia?ao?eoeu Ia?ee Oaaei?iaiu. A oaeaea Eaineay Aa?a Oaaei?iaia
(1787-1844 aa.) – aei/ue eiycy Eaaia Eaaiiae/a Iaeiaaneiai. Iie aaee
iaaeaeo niaie iao?eioe/aneoth ia?aieneo…

Ana yoe ainiiieiaiey, ienueia, a iniaaiii, caienee I. Aeo?iaie auee
iaoa?eaeii ia?ainoaiaiiie cia/eiinoe, eioi?ua eo/oa anyeeo
aaeeao?enoe/aneeo auiuneia ?anneacuaaee nia?aiaiieeai i aeaenoaeoaeueiie
aeecie e iieiaeaiee ?onneeo aeaiuei, eioi?ua aeaeeee ana oyaiou aieiu
ia?aaia n ioae/eiaie.

Caeeth/aiea

Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812 aiaea ieii/eeanue iiaaaeie ?onneiai ia?iaea. Ia
iaea a yoii e caneoaa ia?oecai. Iiaeuai ia?iaeiuo iann ia ai?ueao n
a?aaii iaoneaaeeaaeny oai, /oi aieia aeey ?onneeo ethaeae iineea
ni?aaaaeeeaue, iai?iieoaeueiuo oa?aeoa?; e?anoueyia ai?ieenue ca
iaoeeiiaeueioth iacaaeneiinoue naiae ?iaeeiu.

Ia anao yoaiao ai?ueau ?onneiai ia?iaea i?ioea caoaaoie/aneiai iaoanoaey
o?aioeocia ia?oecaineia aeaeaeaiea ea?aei ia?iiioth ?ieue e ieacuaaei
iiuioth iiaeaea?aeeo ?aaoey?iie a?iee. A 1812 aiaeo ?onneee ia?iae
i?iyaee naienoaaiiua aio noieeinoue, auaea?aeeo, naiiioaa?aeaiiinoue e
aa?ieci. Ianiio?y ia eeanniaoth ai?ueao e e?aiinoiie aiao ia?iae iaoae a
naaa neeu ?aca?iieoue iaeio ec neeueiaeoeo a?iee oao a?aiai – a?ieth
Iaiieaiia.

Ai?ueaa n a?ieae Iaiieaiia auea o?oaeiui aiaiiui eniuoaieai. Neeueiue e
aeanoieee a?aa iuoaeny ii?aaioeoue ?inneth. Ii oa?iaeae naiiio
nouanoaiaaieth aa eae iacaaeneiiai e noaa?aiiiai ainoaea?noaa. Eiaiii
iiyoiio aieia aneieuoioea oe?ieea neie iauanoaa. Iniiaioth oyaeanoue
ai?ueau auianee o?oaeiaua iannu, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?onneia
e?anoueyinoai.

Aeoeaiia o/anoea ia?iaea a inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieia iaoei i?iyaeaiea
i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi ?onneea ethaee, iaeaoua a nieaeaoneea oeiaee,
naiiioaa?aeaiii n?aaeaeenue n a?aaii a ninoaaa ?aaoey?iuo aiene.

A Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia 1812 aiaea y?ei i?iyaeeinue i?aainoiaenoai
?onneiai eneonnoaa iaae aiaiiui eneonnoaii i?ioeaieea.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa y?eeo i?iyaeaiee ia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?a aieiu 1812
aiaea auei ia?oecaineia aeaeaeaiea. E?anoueyia nicaeaaaee ia?oecaineea
io?yaeu e ?acaa?ouaaee aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao i?ioea caoaao/eeia. Naiae
ioaeanoaaiiie e naiiioaa?aeaiiie ai?ueaie iie ieacaee nouanoaaiioth
iiiiuue a ?aca?iia a?aaa. ?onneee aiaiiue enoi?ee I. N. Aieeoeui
ioia/ae: ” … ia?oecaiu iaoe ii naiae ni?aaaaeeeainoe iaiieiaeio
?acaeaeeee n eeiaeiuie aieneaie neaao ecaiaiey o?aioeocneie a?iee ec
?innee”.

Aieueoie aeeaae a ?aca?ii iaiieaiiianeeo aiene aianei ia?iaeiia
iiie/aiea. ?onneea ?aoieee i?iyaeee aunieee iao?eioeci e ioaeanoai.
Iiie/aiey yaeyeenue iiuiuie ?aca?aaie a?iee.

Aaeee aeeaae a iiaaaeo ianaeaiey ?innee, eioi?ia o?oaeeeinue a oueo.
E?anoueyia, ?aianeaiieee, ?aai/ea iaiooaeoo? i?iecaiaeeee i?oaeea,
iaioiaee?iaaiea, i?iaeiaieuenoaea. “Ouny/e ?aai/eo ?oe ia naiuo
?acee/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo – io e?oiiiai caaiaea aei iaeeie ianoa?neie, –
?aaioaee ia ioaeaeu a?iee”, – ioia/aea aeaaeaiee I. A. Ianeeia. AEaeay
aeiaeoueny ?aca?iia a?aaa, ?onneea ethaee aea?oaiaaee anai. Iianaianoii,
n aieueoei oniaoii i?ioiaeee nai? aeaiaa, iaeaaeaeu, i?iaeiaieuenoaey ia
ioaeaeu a?iee. Iai?eia?, aeeoaee Iineianeie aoaa?iee oieueei ca ia?eiae
n 20 ethey ii 31 aaaonoa nia?aee 3293790 ?oaeae 16 eiiaae. Anaai ca 1812
aiae a Iineianeie aoaa?iee nia?aee 4456006 ?oaeae 16 eiiaae. Ineianeay
aoaa?iey nia?aea 14252334 ?oaey. Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812 aiaea iieacaea
?aoathuoth ?ieue ia?iaeiuo iann. ?onneee ia?iae aue iiaeeeiiui aa?iai
yoie aieiu. Ioa/anoai a 1812 aiaeo iieacaei anaio ie?o, ia eaeea aaeeeea
iiaeaeae niiniaai ?onneee ia?iae.

Iiaeaea ?inneyi a Ai?iaeeii iiaoi?ai a aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu
1941 – 1945 aiaeia, a niaa?oaiii eiuo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo, aeinoiei
naiiai ene?aiiaai oaaaeaiey e aunieiai ii/eoaiey iioiieia.

Aeaeeia?aoey

Iaaeaaeaea Aeo?iaa. Eaaaea?eno – aeaaeoea. I?ienoanoaea a ?innee. 1985
a.

I.A. Aeo?iaa “Eca?aiiia”. Iineaa, “Niaaoneay ?inney” 1984 aiae.

A.A. Ne?ioeei “Ioa/anoaaiiay Aieia 1812 aiae”. Iineaa “I?inaauaiea” 1988
aiae.

I.E. Eooocia – aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae “Ienueia, caienee”. Iineaa “Aiaiiia
ecaeaoaeuenoai” 1989 a.

AEeeei I. A. Aeaaeue iaiieaiiianeie a?iee a ?innee. I., 1974. Enoi?ey
O?aioeee, o.2. I., 1973.

I?eee I. A. “A?ica aeaaiaaeoeaoiai aiaea…”. I., 1987.

Aaaeei A. E. Ia?iaeiia iiie/aiea a Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia 1812 a. I.,
Nioeyeaec, 1962.

Aane?iaiue E. A. Ia?oecaiu a Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia 1812 a. – aii?inu
enoi?ee, 1972, ? 1,2.

Ai?iaeeii. Aeieoiaiou, ienueia, ainiiieiaiey. I., Niaaoneay ?inney,
1962.

Ai?iaeeii, 1812. A. N. Aaaeeoei, E. I. Aiaaeaiia, A. I. Ao/iaaa e ae?.
I. A. AEeeei (ioa. ?aae.) – I., Iuneue, 1987.

AEeeei I. A. Ieoaee Eeea?eiiiae/ Eooocia. AEeciue e iieeiaiae/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue. I., Aiaiecaeao, 1979.

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