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Роль Александра Ярославича Невского в отражении немецко-шведской агрессии

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Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ Iaaneee ?iaeeeny 30 iay 1219 aiaea a ai?iaea
naiaai iooea Ia?ayneaaea Caeanneii e i??iaeee ia naaoa ni?ie /aou?a
aiaea e iyoue n iieiaeiie ianyoeaa . E oiio a?aiaie, eiaaea ss?ineaa
Anaaieiaeiae/, ioaoe eiycy Aeaenaiae?a, anooiee a Ia?ayneaaeue, eae
aannae e nithciee aaeeeiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?i-nocaeaeueneie caiee,iia
i?eia?aea neaao ia eaieaa cia/eoaeueiiai eiyaeanoaa ia ?one. Caiey yoa
aieueoa Aiaeee, iia i?inoe?aeanue io Ieaeiaai Iiaai?iaea aei Oaa?e ia
Aieaa, aei Ai?ioiaoea, Iiaeaenea e Eieiiiu ia thaa; aeeth/aea Aaeeeee
Onotha e Aaeiica?i ia naaa?a.Aa a?aieoeu nii?eeanaeenue n ?ycaineei,
*a?ieaianeei, Niieaineei eiyaeanoaaie e iniaaiii oe?iei n Iiaai?iaeneie
aiy?neie ?anioaeeeie.

Aeaaeii Aeaenaiae?a ss?ineaae/a ii iooeo aue ciaiaieoue aaeeeee eiycue
aeaaeeie?neee Anaaieiae Aieueoia Aiacaei. I?e naiii ia/aea naiaai
eiyaeaiey, ianiio?y ia naie iieiaeua aiaeu, ii i?iyaee aieueoii
ioaeanoai e oaa?aeinoue i?aaa, ?an/aoeeainoue e inoi?iaeiinoue –
ea/anoaa, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui ii i?eia?ae ia?iiioth neeo ia ?one,
nia?aa iiae naiae aeanoueth ii/oe anth Naaa?ioth ?onue. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ii iaoa?e naiae Aeaenaiae? yaeyaony ianeaaeieeii anao
aeanoyueo ea/anoa, ioee/aaoeo thaeii?onneeo eiycae. Aai aeaae ii
iaoa?e aue ciaiaieoue eiycue Inoeneaa Inoeneaaiae/,i?icaaiiue Oaeaoiui,
eee Oaeaeui. Yoi aue aa?ie/aneee caueoiee caiee ?onneie. Oaeei aea aue e
aai ioaoe, i?aaeaae Aeaenaiae?a, Inoeneaa ?inoeneaaiae/ O?aa?ue,
i?e/eneaiiue e eeeo nayouo. Iaa iieueciaaeenue ai?y/aae ethaiaueth naieo
nia?aiaiieeia. “Ii anaaaea ii?uaaeny ia aaeeeea aeaea, -aiai?eo
eaoiienaoe i Inoeneaaa O?aa?ii, – E ia auei caiee ia ?one, eioi?ay au
ia oioaea aai eiaoue o naay e ia ethaeea au aai.E ia iiaeao any ?onneay
caiey caauoue aeiaeanoe aai”. Aei/ue Inoeneaaa Oaeaeiai
Oaiaeineynoaea iaoa?ueth nayoiai Aeaenaiae?a. Aai ioaoe, ss?ineaa
Anaaieiaeiae/, aueainieoai a aeooa nocaeaeueneiai aaeeiiaea?aeaaey
naiaai iooea, Anaaieiaea Aieueoia Aiacaei, /uee iieee iiaee “Aieao
aaneaie ?anieaneaoue, a Aeii oaeiiaie au/a?iaoue”. Oaiia?aiaioiue a
inaoeieo iaoue e ?aoeoaeueiue a iooea, ss?ineaa ia aue,
iaeiaei,oaea/eea. Iaeeiiaaeoeaoe eao io ?iaeo ii o/anoaiaae a iioiaea ia
iieiaoeaa aoaeo/e eiycai Ia?ayneaaey thaeiiai, a 1202 aiaeo. Anei?a
iinea yoiai ioaoe aeaiee aai ia iieiaaoeeie eiyaeia. A iyoiaaeoeaoue
eaoi/a?oy aieiao i?ii/aeny iieouny/e eeeiiao?ia /a?ac anth ?onue,
/oiau caiyoue aaeeoeeee noie, ii iiicaeae – /a?ieaianeee eiycue oaea
anooiee a Aaee/, a ss?ineaa aue ecaiai ec Ia?ayneaaey. O/anoaoy a
nocaeaeuenei-/a?ieaianeie aieia ia thaa, ooo?iiaae iyoaaeiue I?iine,
eiyaeee a iaiiei?iie ?ycaie. ?ycaioeu i?aaeaee aai, a Anaaieiae “ca
iaeaeo” nuia naeaa eo ai?iae. Iinea nia?oe iooea ss?ineaa i?aaeo a
Ia?ayneaaea Caeanneii, eae aa?iue iiae?o/iee naiaai noa?oaai a?aoa
TH?ey. Iinni?eaoenue ni naiei oanoai Inoeneaaii Oaeaeui ec-ca
Iiaai?iaea a aeoaa i?e Eeieoea a 1216 aiaeo iieee Inoeneaaa ?aca?iieee
nocaeaeueoeaa, Inoeneaa a aiaaa ioia?ae o iaai naith aei/ue.
Aaoi? “AEeoey” Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai oaaeeo ss?ineaaa Anaaieiaeiae/a eae
/aeiaaea e?ioeiai, “ieeinoeethaoea e ioaeaethaoea”, iaeiaei, oio
aeaeaei ia anaaaea auaae e?ioie e ieeinoea e ii?ie iaia?oaeeaae a
ai?ueaa ca aeanoue n ?iaeiae e n iiaai?iaeoeaie iaoia?aiioth
aeanoieinoue. Oaeia aue ioaoe Aeaenaiae?a.

Anee a oa?aeoa?a e aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeeia Aeaenaiae?a ii-iaoa?e iu
aeaeei /a?ou aeanoyuae aaccaaaoiie o?aa?inoe, aeaeei cieioua na?aeoea,
oi a niaaeeiaiee n aeaai?acoieai, oianeaaeiaaiiii io nocaeaeueneeo
i?aaeeia, a Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneii iu oaeaeei a iaeiii eeoea i?ae?aniia
aa?iiie/iia niaaeeiaiea ?aciiia?aciuo aea?iaaiee, oaeaeei oeaeueiue
iiao/ee oa?aeoa?, i?ae?aniia nicaeaiea Aiaeea, aea? anaaeaaiai
I?iaeaeaiey a iaeio ec o?oaeiaeoeo aiaeei iaoae enoi?ee.

30 iay 1219 aiaea aeeoaee Ia?ayneaaey ociaee ?aaeinoioth aanoue: o
eiycy ss?ineaaa ?iaeeeny aoi?ie nui, iacaaiiue i?e anyoii e?auaaiee
Aeaenaiae?ii. Aaoi? “AEeoey” Aeaenaiae?a, “naiiaeaeaoe aic?anoa aai”,
aiai?eo, /oi ?inoii eiycue aue auoa ae?oaeo ethaeae, /oi aiein aai
cao/ae, eae o?oaa a ia?iaea, eeoei auei i?ae?anii, eae o aeaeaeneiai
Eineoa, neea auea /anoueth neeu Nainiia, i?aioae?inoue Aia aeae aio
Nieiiiiiao, a o?aa?inoueth ii aue iiaeiaai ?eineiio eana?th Aanianeaio,
– iiaaaeaeay, aue iaiiaaaeei. A 1236 aiaeo ia?yae iinaaeaiey ia noie aue
niaa?oai a Iiaai?iaea o na. Nioee. Eae ?ac iaeaioia Aaouaaa iaoanoaey,
ioi?aaeyynue eiyaeeoue a iaaeaaii ?aci?aiiue iaaeaeioniaeoeaie i?e
o/anoee iieiaoeaa Eeaa, ss?ineaa Anaaieiaeiae/ aicaae “nuia naiaai
Aeaenaiae?a O?aa?iai” ia Iiaai?iaeneee eiyaeaneee noie. Aeaaineiaeyy
nuia naiaai ia eiyaeaiea a Iiaai?iaea, ss?ineaa Anaaieiaeiae/,
iiaeiaii iooeo naiaio, aiai?ee aio: “E?ano aoaeao oaiei o?aieoaeai e
iiiiuieeii, a ia/ oaiath a?icith! Aia aeae oaaa noa?aeoeinoai iaaeaeo
a?aoueyie, a Iiaai?iae Aaeeeee – noa?aeoaa eiyaeaiea ai anae caiea
?onneie!”

Aeaea a I?eaaeoeea neeaaeuaaeenue ana ooaea e ooaea n oie ii?u, eae a
1202 aiaeo iaineee noaaeaiiee?eaeneee aieneii Aeueaa?o nicaeae caeanue
I?aeai iaiaoeeeo ?uoea?ae-ia/aiinoeaa.*eaiaie I?aeaia auee
“a?aouey-?uoea?e”-aieiu, “a?aouey-nayuaiieee” – aeooiaainoai e
“neoaeauea-a?aouey” – i?oaeaiinoeu, ?aianeaiieee. Aicaeaaeye I?aeai
Iaaeno?, i?e iai ninoiye niaao. Ia caoaa/aiiuo caieyo Ynoiiee e Eaoaee,
a eaiaiiuo caieao, noaeii e oi?aaeaieai aaaeaee o ieo eiiaiaei?u e
oiaou. I?aeai e aieneii ?acaeaaaee caaiaaaiiua caiee ?uoea?yi e
aeooiaainoao, iiae/eiyy eo aeanoe ianoiia ianaeaiea, iaycaiiia
niaea?aeaoue naieo ii?aaioeoaeae, ?aaioaoue ia ieo, o/anoaiaaoue a eo
iioiaeao. Ii eiaie aeeaoueo e ii?aaiuaiiuo a ieciaueyo Caiaaeiie
Aeaeiu eeaia, I?aeai noae iacuaaoueny Eeaiineei. Iinea caoaaoa
?uoea?yie ino?iaia Naa?aiaa e Iooo iaia Aiii?ee 3 a 1227 aiaeo ia?aoeeny
“Ei anai ei?ieyi ?onnee”: “Oaa?aei niaethaeay ie? n o?enoeaiaie Eeaiiee
e Ynoiiee, ia i?aiyonoaoeoa oniaoai aa?u o?enoeaineie, /oiau ia
iiaeaa?aiooueny aiaao Aiaeeaio e aiinoieueneiai i?anoiea, eioi?ue
eaaei iiaeao, eiaaea iiaeaeaao, iiea?aoue aan”. Ca iiei?aieai Aecaioee
oa aea o/anoue aioiaeeanue iaoaio ioa/anoao, e caeanue ia iiiiuue
iaia e?iia einoeieoia oeuie/anoaa e ?aeeaeiciiai oaiaoecia
i?eniaaeeieeanue aaeiaay ieaiaiiay a?aaeaea aa?iaineiai ieaiaie e
neaayineiio. ?eineea iaiu iaeia?yee e inayuaee ai?ueao ni
“noeciaoeeaie” (?aneieueieeaie), eae eaoieeee iacuaaee i?aaineaaiuo,
iaaeaynue, /oi neea i?oaeey i?eaaaeao eo aianoa n ycu/ieeaie a
iiae/eiaiea ?eineie oea?eae.

Aaniie 1234 a. ss?ineaa Anaaieiaeiae/ i?eaae a Iiaai?iae naie
ia?ayneaaneea iieee e aianoa n iiaai?iaeoeaie aunooiee i?ioea iaioeaa,
iiae TH?ueaaui ?acaee eo iaaieiao e iionoioee eo caieth. Iaiaoeeea
e?aiinoe auee iaeiaeaiu oyaeaeie aeaiueth. Iaioeu iieeiieeenue
ss?ineaao e caeeth/eee n iei oaeie ie?, eae aio e oioaeinue, n?ieii ia
5 eao. Eaoii oiai aea aiaea ss?ineaa iaea?aeae aua iaeio neaaioth
iiaaaeo iaae eeoiaoeaie, naeaeaaoeie iaaaa ia Noa?oth ?onno.
Oi?aeanoaaiii iinea yoeo iiaaae anooiae a Iiaai?iae ss?ineaa
Anaaieiaeiae/. Ia?iae ano?a/ae aai n aaeeeie /anoueth, eae caueoieea
iiaai?iaeneie caiee. Oae iinea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie ai?ueau n
nocaeaeueneeie eiycueyie Iiaai?iae, enoiieaiiue iaaeaeioniaueyie,
aieiaeii, ii?ii, iiaea?aie naeaeaeny oaeaeii aeiia ss?ineaaa. Aianoa n
iiaaaeaie iooea auno?i ?in e Aeaenaiae?, ioaeay aeaiue ioi aeiy, ana
noaaouaay ia eaoo. E ana /aua ss?ineaa Anaaieiaeiae/ aeaeae a iieiaeii
aua Aeaenaiae?a ia eiyaee/a-nuia, ii – ioaea, ?aoeoaeueiiai, niaeiai,
aeaeueiiaeaeiiai.

A 1238 aiaeo ?onneoth caieth iinoeaaao no?aoiia ian/anouea –
iaoanoaea oaoa?i-iiiaieia. “Eacaeinue, /oi iaiaiiay ?aea i?ii/aeanue
io ainoi/iuo i?aaeaeia aei caiaaeiuo, /oi ycaa, caieao?ynaiea e ana
oaeanu anoanoaaiiua aianoa iionoioeee eo”. Ie i?aaeaea, ie iinea oiai ia
i?eoiaeeeinue ?onneiio ia?iaeo eniuouaaoue oaeiai aaaenoaey,
eioi?ia oae aea neeueii iio?ynei au e?aieoth iaoo?o ?onneiai /aeiaaea,
eae iaoanoaea Aaouy. Iaeia oieueei iaaieueoay /anoue ?onneie caiee ia
naaa?a inoaeanue iao?iiooie, ia aeieaey aei Iiaai?iaea noi aa?no, oaoa?u
iiaa?ioee iacaae.

Iinea iaoanoaey oaeie eiaiii eiycue, eae ss?ineaa Anaaieiaeiae/ e
ioaeai aue ?onneie caiea. Iaiiiai iicaea iu aeaeei ai aeaaa ?onneiai
ia?iaea Aeaenaiae?a, ii oaia?ue, iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea iia?iia, aio
o?oaeii auei au aunooieoue ia ia?aue ieai. Oieueei ie?aioee a
eniuoaieyo, n o?acaui i?aeoe/aneei niuneii e caeaeaiiie yia?aeae
ss?ineiaa Anaaieiaeiae/ iaeei iia ia ?anoa?youeny n?aaee anaiauaai
niyoaiey. Ioaeanoaaiii ia?aiany ecaanoea i nia?oe noa?oaai a?aoa
Aai?aey, ii iiniaoee ai Aeaaeeie?, /oiau caiyoue aaeeeieiyaeaneee noie,
i?eaanoe a ii?yaeie iio?ynaiiia ainoaea?noai e iaiae?eoue ia?iae.
I?aaaea, ii “i?eaoae ainiiaenoaiaaoue iaae ?acaaeeiaie e o?oiaie”, ii
e yoi aai ia niooeei. Iai?ioea, oaia?ue-oi aiieia i?iyaeeenue aai
ianie?ooeiay yia?aey e aeaaeaea aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii ia i?eoae a oiuiea,
ia i?ieeaaae neac,ia i?ieeeiae noaeueao, eae yoi aeaeaee ae?oaea, ii
niaoee naeaeaoue ana aiciiaeiia, /oiau eni?aaeoue oioy ianeieueei
i?e/eiaiiia cei. Aio i?aaenoiyei ?aoeoue aeaaioth e naioth o?oaeioth
caaea/o – onoaiiaeoue ioiioaiey n a?iciuie caaiaaaoaeyie. A 1243 a.
ii ioi?aaeeny a I?aeo e Aaouth. Aaoue i?eiye aai n /anoueth. Iinea
yoiai aaeeeee eiycue i?aaei?eiye iiacaeeo a aeaeaeee Ea?aei?oi, ii
i?eeaco aaeeeiai oaia Aathea,iiacaeeo, ec eioi?ie aio ia noaeaeaii
auei aa?iooueny. A 1246 aiaeo ss?ineaa Anaaieiaeiae/ aue io?aaeai a
I?aea oaioae Oo?aeeiie. Eii/eia ss?ineaaa Anaaieieaeiae/a auea no?aoiui
ian/anoueai aeey aai ine?ioaeie naiuee e aeey ?onneiai ia?iaea; ii a
oi a?aiy oaea acioei e?aniia nieiuoei caiee ?onneie – oaea anthaeo
a?aiaea neaaa i aeiaeanoyo aai noa?oaai nuia, iiaai?iaeneiai eiycy
Aeaenaiae?a ss?ineaae/a.

Iieuecoynue ?aca?iiii ?one oaoa?aie e iaaiciiaeiinoueth ni noi?iiu
aaeeeiai eiycy iiaeaoue iiiiuue iiaai?iaeoeai e ineiae/ai, oaaaeu e
eeoiaoeu oneeeee a oi a?aiy naie iaoene ia iia?aie/iua caiee ?onneeo,
iaaeaynue aac iniauo oneeee iiae/eieoue eo naiae aeanoe. Eiycue
Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ a 1239 a. aeaieeny ia Aeaenaiae?a A?y/eneaaiaia,
aei/a?e iieioeeiai eiycy, oiaea eniuouaaaoaai aeaaeaiea n Caiaaea.
Aai/aiea i?ienoiaeeei a Oi?iioea, a?a/iua ie?u a Oi?aeea e Iiaai?iaea.
Oio/an ii ieii/aiee oi?aeanoa eiycue Aeaenaiae? n iiaai?iaeoeaie
i?eiyeny ca ono?ienoai iia?aie/iuo oe?aieaiee, ii iaiaaeaiea oaaaeia
aaeaa ia canoaei aai a?anieio. o iiaai?iaeoeaa e oae i?aaeaea ia ?ac
auee noieeiiaaiey ni oaaaeaie ec-ca Oeieyiaeee. ?ani?ino?aiyy naia
aeaaeu/anoai e eaoiee/aneoth aa?o a Oeieyiaeee, oaaaeu noaiiaeeenue ana
aieaa e aieaa iianiuie aeey Iiaai?iaea. Oea?noaiaaaoee a oi a?aiy a
Oaaoeee ei?ieue Y?eo Y?eonii iaei caieiaeny aeaeaie, e ana oi?aaeaiea
no?aiie iaoiaeeeinue a ?oeao ciaiaieoiai Ae?aa?a. Ii i?ienoiaeee ec
ae?aaiae iiaouanoaaiiie oaieeee Oieueeiioiaia. Aeeceia ?iaenoai n
oea?noaothueie aeiiaie Oaaoeee e Ii?aaaee aeaaaei yoie oaieeee ia?iiiia
aeeyiea e ianiaoiua aiaaonoaa. Aunoea aeieaeiinoe ainoaea?noaa – y?ea,
eaaiaia e ae?oaea – i?eiaaeeaaeaee eneeth/eoaeueii ?iaeo Oieueeiioiaia.
Iaianuoiia /anoiethaea e aeaaeiinoue auee aeaaiuie /a?oaie yoie oaieeee.
Ae?aa? aue aeaiao ia nano?a ei?iey e ca aai aacaeaoiinoueth nai
?an/eouaae caiyoue i?anoie. Aai auaeathueany niiniaiinoe iicaieyee aio
ieoaoue noieue ai?aeua iaaeaaeaeu. Ni a?aiaiai aio oaeaeinue
aeaenoaeoaeueii ieacaoue naiaio ioa/anoao aannia?oiua oneoae. Ii
iaania/ee niieienoaea a no?aia, io?acee aiaoieo a?aaia, aeaaiui ia?acii
ie?aoia. N iaiaueiiaaiiith i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiinoueth oaaaeae ii ianoi
aeey noieeoeu e iniiaae Noieaieuei ia ino?iaa, eaaeaaoei i?e aoiaea a
Iaea?neia ica?i, oeo/oee caeiiu, eni?aaee noaeii?iecaiaenoai, ia
inoaaee aac aieiaiey aeaaea i?aau e aeiiaoiee auo oaaaeia. Ioee/aynue
aeaeaciie aieae, ii nie?ooae ana i?aiyonoaey ia iooe naieo ?aoi?i.
Ae?aa? iieo/ee ?oeo Eiaa?aeu ca aiaaua caneoae i?ioea neeueiiai e
/anoiethaeaiai Oieueeiioiaa Eiooa Eiaainiia Aeieaiai, iioeoeaoaai auei
i?anoie. Ca inaiaiaeaeaiea Ethaaea io iaiaaeaiey aeaoneiai ei?iey – ii
aue iaea/ai aunieei caaieai y?ea e iieo/ee a?acaeu i?aaeaiey. Ii aeey
aeinoeaeaiey eiia/iie oeaee naieo /anoiethaeauo no?aieaiee aio ioaeii
auei i?ineaaeoueny eaeei-ieaoaeue auaeathueiny i?aaei?eyoeai. Niaa?oeoue
neaaiue e?anoiaue iioiae, i?eia?anoe neaao aa?iy aa?u e a oi aea
a?aiy ?anoe?eoue i?aaeaeu ainoaea?noaa naeaeaeinue ia/oie y?ea. Aoeeie
io 9 aeaeaa?y 1237 aiaea iaia A?eai?ee-9 aicaanoee e?anoiaue iioiae
i?ioea ycu/ieeia-oeiiia e ?onneeo. Iaia eiaiai Anaauoiaai iaauae
i?iuaiea a?aoia anai o/anoieeai iioiaea, a iaaoei a aith – aa/iia
aeaaeainoai. I?eaioiaeaiey i?iaeieaeaeenue 2 n eeoiei aiaea. Nia?aa
iiiai aienea, e eioi?iio auee i?eniaaeeiaiu io?yaeu iiae/eieaoeony
oeiiia e ii?aaaeneea ?uoea?e, oi/ii ia oo?ie a Nayooth caieth, n iaieai
nayuaiiuo inaeiia, n e?anoii aia?aaee, iiie/aiea acioei ia ei?aaee.
Ia?aacae /a?ac Aaeoeeneia ii?a aei Aai e io Aai e onoueth Iaau
niaa?oeeny aiieia aeaaiiieo/ii, e iai?eyoaeueneee oeio ai?aei anooiee a
aa aiaeu. Iaaeaynue ia iiiai/eneaiiinoue aienea, Ae?aa? ?an/eouaae
i?aaeaea anaai iaianoue ia Eaaeiao e, noaa caeanue oaa?aeie iiaie,
oaea?eoue ia Iiaai?iae. Iiei?aiea iiaai?iaeneie caiee e ia?auaiea
?onneeo a eaoeinoai auei eiia/iie oeaeueth iioiaea. Aunooieaiea
oaaaeneeo e?anoiiinoeaa, aac niiiaiey, auei niaeaniaaii n aeaenoaeyie
eeaiineeo ?uoea?ae, eiaaea a 1240 aiaeo iie aii?aee iaueiiaaieth ia
ceiie, a eaoii i?aaei?eiyee ianooieaiea ia Ecai?ne e Ineia.

N i?e/aeeaoeo noaeia auee neeioou iinoee. Ia aa?aa nioea oaaaeneay
ciaoue, a oii /enea Ae?aa? e Oeueo Oane a nii?iaiaeaeaiee aieneiiia,
n?aaee eioi?uo aue Oiian. Ae?aa? ia niiiaaaeny a oniaoa, n/eoay, /oi
aac nocaeaeueneeo iieeia Iiaai?iae aio ia no?aoai. Oaaaeneee
iieeiaiaeaoe ioi?aaee iineia a Iiaai?iae,ia?aaeaoue eiycth Aeaenaiae?o:
“Anee iiaeaoue, nii?ioeaeyeny, ii ciae, /oi y oaea caeanue, ieaiyy
caieth oaith!” Naiei iineaieai ii aucaae ac?ua ia?iaeiiai iaaiaeiaaiey e
y?inoe, ca?aiaa ia?aeay naay e naia aienei ia ii?aaeaiea.
Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ iaaeieai i?aaeaaaeny nei?ae ii neo/ath
iaei/eneaiiinoe naiae ae?oaeeiu, ia?aoeaoenue e iei: “A?aouey! Ia a neea
Aia, a a i?aaaea!” Nayoia aiiaeooaaeaiea eiycy ia?aaeaeinue ia?iaeo e
aieneo, o anao yaeeanue oaa?aiiinoue a oi?aeanoaa i?aaiai aeaea.
Aunooiea ec Iiaai?iaea aienei aeaeioeinue e Eaei?a. Oee aaeieue
Aieoiaa e Eaaeiae. Caeanue ?eniaaeeieeny io?yae eaaeiaeai, iioii
i?eieioee eaei?yia. E oo?o 15 ethey ana aienei, i?aiaeieaa 150 ei
iooe, iiaeioei e ianoo aunaaeee oaaaeia. Aeaenaiae?o ioaeai aue
aiacaiiue oaea?, aeaieiie oaea? aaeieue Iaau e Eaei?u, ii caiuneo
eiycy, aeieaeai aue caaeaoue a oaie ia?acoaiue yoeie ?aeaie aaaeiaeooth
/anoue a?aaeaneiai aienea e iaeiia?aiaiii io?acaoue ?uoea?yi iooue e
ionooieaieth e eeoeoue eo ei?aaeae. A oiaea aiy, iaoea e eiiiua ?aoe,
niaaeeieaoenue, aeieaeiu na?ineoue a?aaa a aiaeo. Ne?uoii iiaeieaey e
Eaei?a, ?onneay eiiiay ae?oaeeia, aaaeiiay Aeaenaiae?ii, a oanii
niieiooii no?ith aiacaiii iiyaeeanue ec-ca eana,oaea?ea a naiue oeaio?
oaaaeneiai eaaa?y. O oaaaeia ia/aeanue iaieea. Ioaeiieaiiua oaaaeu
eeioeenue nianaoueny ia oiaee, ii aieueoeinoai noaaoeeinue ca i?oaeea,
oieueei a iai aeaey ianoiyuaa nianaiea. Ae?aa? n ae?oaeeiie i?ee?uaae
iooiae. Oiaaea oi e i?iecioae ciaiaieoue iiaaeeiie eiycy Aeaenaiae?a n
y?eii Ae?aa?ii. ss?e i/aeny n caianaiiui ia/ai, eiycue – n
aunoaaeaiiuiaia?aae eiiueai. Ae?aa? aue oaa?ai, /oi eiiuea eeai
neiieony i aai eaou, eeai neieueciao a noi?iio. Caoi ia/ – ii ia
auaeano. Ii Aeaenaiae? ia iieiii neaeo oaiaeee oaaaeo a ia?aiinuea iiae
caa?aei oeaia, caa?aei ioeeioeinue e eiiuea aeoaiei aiiceeinue a uaeo
y?ea. N?aaeaiiue ?uoea?ue iae ia ?oee i?oaeaiinoeaa. Aaeieue Iaau
iiaai?iaeneea iaooeu Ieoe ?oaeee iinoee, ioaeaay oaaaeia e n nooe,
e n aiaeu,caoaaouaay e oiiya?aaeaneea oiaee. Eaaia e?uei n sseiaii
Iiei/aieiii ai aeaaa caoaaoeei eiiae e i?i?oaeeinue ii/oe aei onouey
Eaei?u. A a oeaio?a eaaa?y oae o?oaeiue aie, caeanue oaaaeu noiyee
iania?oue. Anei?a ?onneea ii anae aeeeeia eaaa?y auoee e Iaaa,
i?eaeaouo e aiaea oaaaeia aeiaeaaee ii iaeiiio, iaeioi?ua ioneaeenue
aieaaue, ii auno?i oiioee a oyaeaeuo aeiniaoao. No?aieoaeueii
i?iaaaeaiiue aie i?eian aeanoyuoth iiaaaeo ?onneiio aieneo. Oaeaio e
o?aa?inoue iieiaeiai iieeiaiaeoea, aa?ienoai ?onneeo aieiia iaania/eee
auno?oth e neaaioth iiaaaeo n iaeiaiueoeie iioa?yie, iiaai?iaeoeaa e
eaaeiaeai iaei ieiei 20 /aeiaae. Ae?oaeeia Aeaenaiae?a ni neaaie
ai?ioeeanue a Iiaai?iae. Ca ioaeanoai, i?iyaeaiiia a aeoaa, ia?iae
i?icaae Aeaenaiae?a ss?ineaae/a “Iaaneei”. Yoie aeoaie ia/aeanue ai?ueaa
?one ca nio?aiaiea auoiaea e ii?th, noieue aaaeiiai aeey aoaeouiinoe
?onneiai ia?iaea. Iiaaaea i?aaeioa?aoeea oo?aoo aa?aaia Oeineiai caeeaa
e ia aeaea i?a?aaoue oi?aiaue iaiai n ae?oaeie no?aiaie, e oai naiui
iaeaa/eea ?onneiio ia?iaeo ai?ueao ca naa?aeaiea oaoa?i-iiiaieueneiai
eaa. Iiaaaea iaae Oaaoeeae auea, iaeiaei, eeoue /anoueth aaeeeiai
aeaea iai?iiu ?iaeeiu – aeanoyuae aa no?aieoeae.

Iaiaaeeaiii iinea iiaaaeu iaae oaaaeaie Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/o
i?eoeinue ai?ioueny n ae?oaeie, aua aieaa iianiuie a?aaaie-
iaioeaie.Aeaaiui iniiaaoaeai iaiaoeeiai aeaaeu/anoaa a i?eaaeoeeneii
e?aa aiieiani?aaaaeeeai n/eoatho aieneiia Aeueaa?oa, ioee/aaoaainy
aeaeaciie aieae e iaiaueiiaaiiie i?iieoeaoaeueiinoueth e oeo?ui oiii. A
1200 aiaeo Aeueaa?o iniiaae a onouea Aeaeiu ai?iae ?eao, e a 1202
aiaeo aue iniiaai i?aeai Ia/aiinoeaa. Eiiee-aieiu aeieaeiu auee iineoue
aaeue ieau n e?aniui ia/ai e e?anoii. Ia?aui iaaeno?ii i?aeaia aue
Aeiii oii ?i?aao. Iaiu anaie ne-eaie noa?aeenue onei?eoue caaiaaaiea
Eeaiiee, ii eiia/iie oeaeueth anao no?aieaiee iai auei ii?aaiuaiea
?onneie oea?eae. Caaiaaaiea Eeaiiee au-i eeoue ia?aui oaaii ia yoii
iooe. A naieo iineaieyo iaiu iacuaatho ?onneeo ia?ooeoaeyie
eaoiee/aneie aa?u, iiaaeaaatho ioithaeue ia neaaaoue i?oaeey e ia
caeeth/aoue ie?a n ycu/ieeaie e ?onneeie, iauyaeyo anth ?onneoth
caieth ia aa/iua a?aiaia nianoaaiiinoueth na.Iao?a e a?ici i?aae-
ienuaatho ?uoea?yi enei?aiyoue “i?ieeyoue a?a/aneee caeii e
i?eniaaeeiyoue ?onue e ?eineie oea?eae”.

A oi aea eaoi (1240 a.) iaioeu aeaeioeenue ia ineianeea caiee e
ai?iaea, iaianee ii?aaeaiea ineiae/ai, iaeaaeaee Ineiaii e iinaaeeee
oai naieo iaianoieeia, a caoai ia/aee a?aaeoue iiaai?iaeneea naea.
Iaiaaeeaiiiai ioii?a iie ia iieo/eee, oae eae Aeaenaiae?, ?anni?eaoenue
n iiaaiiaeoeaie, ooae ec ai?iaea “ia iec”, a nocaeaeueneoth caieth, e
iooeo. Niioaaoeaoeany iiaai?iaeoeu iineaee ca iei a Ia?ayneaaeue
aeaaeueo Nie?eaeiia, e io aaeaa oaiai?ee aaeeeiai eiycy ss?ineaaa
aa?iooue ei Aeaenaiae?a. Yoi uei oai aieaa naiaa?aiaiii, /oi ia
neaaeothuee iinea Iaaneie aeoau aiae aioeu anooieee a iiaai?iaeneea
aeaaeaiey, iaeiaeeee aeaiueth aaaeue, auno?ieee aith e?aiinoue a
Eiii?uea, ia aa?aao Oeineiai caeeaa, e a?aaeee ?onneeo oioeia oaea a
o?iao aeanyoeao aa?no io Iiaai?iaea. Aa?ioaoeeny Aeaenaiae? ioae n
iiaai?iaeneei aieneii a iiaue iioiae e nie?ooee iiaoth e?aiinoue
aioeaa, a ec aa iaeoaoaeae iaeieo iiaanee, ae?oaeo oaae a ieai, a
o?aoueeo, iiieeiaaa, ioionoee, eai – eae caia/aao aaoi? eoey – “aue
ieeinoea naa?o ia?u”.

Iaeii oaeeaeyei Aeaenaiae?a: oaoa?neee iioiae aaeoaue Aa?iiu ia
ieueei ia ineaaee iaoene I?aeaia, ii, eacaeinue au- iai?ioea,
iaeeaee i. Aeaenaiae? ciae, /oi iiiaieueneee a?eai iaaen iaae Aa?iiie,
ii aaea eae aiaaae Aaoue aio auei iaecaanoii. A Aaoue n aeaaiui
aieneii oae iau/iui iooai ei/aaieeia ia Aaia?eth. Io?yaeu ae?oaeo
aiaaiae ii iai?aaee ae, /oiau iaaciianeoue naay io oaea?ia ni noi?iiu
Iieueoe, *aoee e Aieaa?ee. ¶a?iia ia auea aioiaa e ioii?o iie/euai
Aaouy, oioy aanoe i aai ?eaeeaeaiee iinooiaee aeaaii. Ia?aie aea?oaie
iae E?aeia, iieueeia aienei, ianiio?y ia ioaaao, auei ?acaeoi.
Aaiaa?neia aienei Aaeu /aoaa?oiai iaea auei ?acaeoi. Iiiaieueneea ?aoe
?aci?eee Neiaaeeth, caoai Ii?aaeth. Aieueoea iioa?e auioaeeee Aaouy
ioeacaoueny io noieeiiaaiey n 40-ouy/iuiaieneii /aoneiai ei?iey
Aaoeeaaa. Ianooieaiea, ia/aoia ia oe?ieii i?inoi?a iiaieaeuey, iiaeiaii
no?aea ia eceaoa, oo?aoeei neeo e caia?ei ia ae?eaoeea. Ecaanoea i
nia?oe eiia?aoi?a, aaeeeiai oaia Oayaeay, (11aeae. 1241 a.) noaei
oaeiaiui i?aaeeiaii iiniaoiiai ionooieaiey. Aaoue aae naith ?aoue /a?ac
Ainieth, Na?aeth, Aieaa?eth, ?onue – ca Aieao. Ia?iaeu, /oi ionoaeaaee
a no?iaoth ii?o iaoanoaey naie i/aae, e i?aaeaea anaai- ia?iaeu ?one,
nianee Aaio e Ia?eae, Eiiaeii e ?ei, ai?iaea e eoeueoo?o iiaeo no?ai
io ?ac?ooaiey, e a yoii eo aaeeeay caneoaa ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii.

Aeaenaiae? caaeoiae eiio?ianooieaiea ia a?aaa. Naieo nee auei iaei –
ioaeia iiiiuue ec Aeaaeeie?a. ss?ineaa iaeia?ee aai caiunae e ioi?aaee
aio n a?aoii Aiae?aai naie aiiaue noi?ie?iaaiiua “iecianeea” iieee.
Iaa?aeinue aei 20 ouny/ nocaeaeuenei-iiaai?iaeneeo aieiia. N oaeei
aieneii iiaaaeaeae iaioeaa ioaoe. Iinoa?aaony e nui. Ni anaie neeaie
anooiee Aeaenaiae? a Ynoiieth, io aeaenoaee aai aienea caaenaea noaeueaa
?onneie caiee. Iinea Eiii?uey aoi?ie aai oeaeueth aue Ineia. Iieee
Aeaenaiae?a “ecaiiii”, iaiaeeaeaiii ai?aaeenue a e?aiinoue. Ieaiiuo
?uoea?ae e ynoia, eiycue, ieiaaa, ioi?aaee a Iiaai?iae, ineianeea
i?aaeaoaee-aiy?a ?acaeaeeee noaeueao Eiii?neeo. Ia iaoeay ai Ineiaa,
Aeaenaiae? iiaae ana aienei aianoa nineianeie ?aoueth ia Aea?io. Ii
ciae yoo aei?iao ii iooeianeiio iioiaeo e Yiaeuaa. Ia caiaaeiii aa?aao
*oaeneiai ica?a ionoee aienei “a caaeeouea”. I?eoee o?aaiaeiua aanoe io
aeici?iuo. A ?aeiia naeaiey Iiinoa eiiiue io- ?yae ai aeaaa n Aeiiaoai
Oaa?aeeneaau/ai e oaa?neei aiaaiaeie Ea?aaoii aeec ?aniieiaeaiey
iaiaoeeeo aiene caaycae aie, ii aue ?acaeo, a?aae oaeee “ioaea /anoia
Aeiiaoa, e eiao n iei, a eiao ?oeaie ecieiaoa”, inoaeueiua aea “e
eiycth i?eaaaioa a iiee”. I?eaeeaeaeanue ?aoeoaeueiay aeoaa. I?eau/iia
iino?iaiea ia aiaeeeinue (neeueiue oeaio?-“/aei” e aeaa iaiaa
neeueiuo “e?uea”), o?aaiaaeanue eaeay-oi ae?oaay iinoaiiaea aienea,
ioaeii auei eciaieoue oaeoeeo e nin?aaeioi/eoue iniiaiua neeu ia e?ueao.
E eo/oa anaai yoi naeaeaoue ia eueaeo. “Eiycue aea ainiyoeny ia ica?i”.
?onneea aeaeioeenue e *oaeneiio ica?o, a neaaeii, eae e i?aaeiieaaae
Aeaenaiae?,”iaioee aea e /oaeue iieaeioa ii ieo”. *oiau oaea?eoue n
e?ue, ioaeii caiaieoue e caaea?aeaoue eeei, eia/a ii i?ieaeao neaicue
?onneoth ?aoue, eae iiae, e iiaa?ioa, oaea?eo n ouea. Ia Yiaeuaa
?uoea?ae iiaeaae o?oieee eaae. Iaaeayoueny, /oi iie aoi?e/ii iiiaaeoo
ai?inae – cia/eei au eaeoe ia aac?annoaeiue ?ene. Aeaenaiae? iaoae
aeey aiy naiia iiaeoiaeyuaa ianoi – Ociaiue, iuia Oaieia ica?i,
n?aaieoaeueii oceee i?ioie, niaaeeiythuee Ineianeia e *oaeneia ica?a.
I?aaia e?uei caueuaea iie?uoay neaaui eueaeii Neaiaeoea, ia?aae eaaui
aue aeaeaeee eaaeyiie iaci?. Ianooiathuaa ii ioe?uoiio eueaeo
iaiaoe0eia aienei auei eae ia eaaeiie, iieiinoueth iaia?oaeeaay naie
neeu, iino?iaiea e iai?aaeaiea oaea?a. Ia ?annaaoa 5 ai?aey 1242 aiaea
Aeaenaiae? oaeaeae, eae any ianna iaiaoeeeo aiene ono?aieeanue ia
?onneeo. Ono?aoathua ?acia?aiii aeaeaaeny aaceeeee aeaeaciue eeei,
naa?eathuee aeiniaoaie, i?e/oaeeeauie oeaiaie ?uoea?ae a aaeuo
ieauao n ecia?aaeaieai e?aniiai e?anoa e ia/a. Aeaenaiae? n Ai?iiueaai
eaiiy niio?ae e aeaeae. Ii oeeiieeny io iau/ii i?eiyoiai ano?a/iiai
oaea?a, iieaciie ae?oaeeiiie aeiaeanoeii i?aaeii/ae ioae?inoue.
“Iaaoaoa ia iiee iaioee e /oaeue e i?ioeaioanyneaicue iiee”.
E?anoiiinoeu y?inoii i?iaeeenue neaicue aienei caneiia. Ii caeanue eo
eiiieoea, oo?aoea e no?ie e aiaaie ii?ua, n/eoay aeaei auea?aiiui,
ieacaeanue ia?aae caianaiiui aeoaieei niaaii, iai?ioiaeeiui aeey iaa
eanenoui aa?aaii Ociaie. Oaia?ue ii?a. Aeaenaiae? iiaeae ciae, ia
nieioea naa?eioe cieioii nocaeaeueneee eaa ia eiaaeai noyaa, e aiacaiii
ia ?uoea?ae ono?aieeenue aeaaiua neeu ?onneeo, n iaeiie noi?iiu
ii?aai?iaeoeu, ineiae/e, eaei?yia n ounyoeeei e iinaaeieeii ai aeaaa,
n ae?oaie – noc0aeaeueneay ?aoue Aeaenaiae?a, e “aunoue na/a oo aaeeea
iaioeaiue e /thaee” Iiaeiyeny iaaiia?aceiue ooi io /anouo oaea?ia
ia/ae ii ueoai e oeaiai,io o?anea eiiathueony eiiee, io ?ac?uaia
eueaea, io aiieae n?aaeaiiuo e ooiiathueo. Eaae iiaaa?iaae io e?iae.
I?aaeeueiiai aiy oaea ia auei: ia/a- einue ecaeaiea a?aaia, oii?ii
ai?iaoeony aei iicaeiaai aa/a?a. Ica?i ia i?ioyaeaiee naie aa?no auei
iie?uoi o?oiaie, aieioue aei Noaiee/neiai aa?aaa. Aienei, iaaeaaii
noieue a?iciia e aeanoyuaa, aieaa ia nouanoaiaaei. Iioa?e I?aeaia auee
ia?iiiu. Auei oaeoi iaeieo oieueei ?uoea?ae 400 (ecieo 200 ia/aiinoeaa),
a 50 iiiaee a ieai. Iaiaei iaei e ynoia.

Aac niiiaiey, oi aue iaeei ec naiuo naaoeuo aeiae a enoi?ee Ineiaa,
eiaaea iiaaaeiiiniue aiaeaeue n oi?aeanoaii aica?auaeny a ai?iae.
Aanue ia?iae a i?acaeie/iuo ia?yaeao auoae ano?a/aoue iiaaaeeoaey.
Aia?aaee oei aeooiaainoai – eaoiaiu e nayuaiieee ni nayouie eeiiaie e
e?anoaie, a naaoeuo ?ecao. Aio ii, inaiaiaeeoaeue, aa?ie, caueoiee aa?u
e ?iaeeiu, aia?aaee naieo neaaiuo iieeia. Aeec aai eiiy – 50 ciaoiaeoeo
ieaiieeia, eaeie ia/aeueiue aeae o ieo, o yoeo iaaeaaii noieue
ai?aeuo caaiaaaoaeae Ineiaa! Iicaaee aienea – iiiaeanoai i?inouo
ieaiiuo. Ianiieeaaiue aoe?aaeinoiuo aineeeoeaiee ?acaeaeny a
aicaeooa. Ana neaaeee Aiaa e aa?iiai ?aaa Aai Aeaenaiae?a ss?ineaae/a.
?acaeaeea ?aaeinoue oi?aeanoaa n ineiae/aie, Aeaenaiae? iiniaoee a
Iiaai?iae. Iiaai?iaeoeu ia ionoaee io ineiae/ae a au?aaeaiee na?aea/iie
aeaaiaea?iinoe Aiao e ainoi?aa ii neo/ath neaaiie iiaaaeu, i eioi?ie
iaiyoue o?aieeanue o ieo i/aiue aeieaia a?aiy. Aeaaea a eiioea 16
noieaoey a o?aiao aiciineeenue iieeoau ia oiieiaiee a?aoee, iaaoeo ia
eueaeo *oaeneiai ica?a. Aeaenaiae? ia i?aaiciineeny naieie neaaiuie
iiaaaeaie, ii aai “i?ineaae Aia” – ni a?aiai Eaaeiaiai iiaieua,
iineiaai eaoiienoea, “ia/a eiy neuoe aaeeeaai eiycy Aeaenaiae?a
ss?ieaae/a ii anai no?aiai, io ii?y Aa?yaeneiai e aei ii?y Iiioueneaai,
e aei i?y Ooiiaeueneaai, e aei no?aiu Oeaa?eeneuy, e aei ai?
A?a?aoueneeo, e ai? A?aaeeneeo, aeaaea e aei ?eia aaeeeaai: ?ani?ino?aie
ai ny eiy aai i?aae oueiu oueiaie e i?aae ounyue ounyuaie”. Iaaeaeo
oai, eae ia ?one ?aaeiaaaeenue ii neo/ath iiaaaeu, ii Eeaiiee
?aciineeanue iio?ynathuay aanoue i ?aca?iia iaiaoeeiai aienea e
eniieiyea anao oaeanii. Iaioeu ni aeiy ia aeaiue iaeeaeaee Aeaenaiae?a
iiae noaiaie ?eae. Iaaeno? I?aeaia iaiaaeeaiii ioi?aee iinieuenoai e
aeaoneiio ei?ieth i?ineoue iaioeiaeiie iiiiue i?ioea iaaa?iuo.Iaoe a?aae
ia iiaee i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi eo aeaai?iaeiue iiaaaeeoaeue n/eoaao naiei
i?aanoaaiiui aeieaii aeeoue, “ia i?anooiay a /oaeay /anoe”. Aeeyiaai
aeiaieueii auei e oiai, /oi ii iaaae no?ao ia a?aaia, io eioi?iaiiie
aeieaia a?aiy ia iiaee i?eeoe a naay, e canoaaee eo oaaaeaoue ?onneia
eiy. I?iaua iaiaei a?aiaie a o?aaiaeiii iaeeaeaiee, iaioeu iiniaoeee
caeeth/eoue n iiaai?iaeoeaie ie?. Iineu eo yaeeenue a IIaai?iae n
aea?aie e iie-

eiiaie. Aeaenaiae?a a yoi a?aiy ia auei a Iiaai?ieaea, e
iiaai?eiaeoeu “aac eiycy” naiinoiyoaeueii aaee ia?aaiai?u. Iaioeu
ioeacuaaeenue io anao naieo iineaaeieo caaiaaaiee e onooiaee
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue naieo caiaeue. Caeeth/aiiue ie? aue nayoi
eniieiai. “Oae ia/aeueii ieii/eeinue i?aaei?eyoea I?aeaia i?ioea
?onneeo” – n a?onoueth aineeeoeaao iaiaoeeee enoi?ee.

?aa?ue Aeaenaiae? i?eioaeee ?uoea?ae e ie?o.” Aeey ?onneiai ia?iaea
iiaaaea eiaao ia?iiiia cia/aiea – caeanue oeacai i?aaeae
?ani?ino?aiaieth iaiaoeeiai aeaaeu/anoaa, caeanue nai Aia ?annoaeee
aaeiaie nii? aa?iaioeaa e nea-ayi, ia?aaeea iaanaaaea iaoa ioa/anoai io
iianiuo eiicaioeaa. *oi auei au n iaoae naaa?i-ainoi/iie ie?aeiie, n
Iiaai?iaeii, n Ineiaii , n i?eea- aathueie e iei caieyie, anee auoniao
inoaeny ca a?aaaie – i?eia? ian/anoiie Eeaiiee aeaao iai yniue ioaao
ia yoi. Eoi ciaao, iiaeao auoue,iai ieeiaaea aiineaaenoaee ia
i?eoeinue au e aeoiaoue i i?eia?aoaiee aa?aaia Aaeoeeneiai ii?y, i oao
neaaiuo caaea/ao, eioi?ua iaeooaaeyee Iao?a Aaeeeiai…

Aeaenaiae?o iaecaaaeii i?aaenoiyei ii?aaeaeeoueny oaeaea ii ioiioaieth e
I?aea. Aaoue, oneuoaa, /oi Aeaenaiae? noieue neaaai e o?aa?, ioi?aaee
aio iineia n oaeeie neiaaie: “Aeaenaiae?, ciaaoue ee ou, /oi Aia ii
ei?ee iia iiiaea ia?iaeu, e ou iaeei ia aeaeaaoue iia iiei?eoueny…
Anee oi/aoue nio?aieoue naith caieth, oi i?eoiaee iinei?ae ei iia e
oaeaeeoue, eaeiaa /anoue iiaai oea?noaa”. Aaeeeee eiycue ss?ineaa
Anaaieiaeiae/, ioaoe Aeaenaiae?a, aue ia?aui ?onneei eiycai, eiyaeeaoei
n iicaieaiey oaoa?. A 1243 a. ii aia?aua nuacaeee e Aaouth a I?aeo, a
a 1246 a. oia? a “oaoa?ao”, aica?auaynue io?aaeaiiue ec Oeaio?aeueiie
Acee io aaeeeiai oaia. Ioeac i?eciaoue aeaaainoai ainoi/iiai “oea?y”
naeaeae au Aeaenaiae?a a?aaii iiaouanoaaiiaeoae iiiaiei-oaoa?neie
eiia?ee, nii?ioeaeyoueny eioi?ie, eiia/ii, nee o iaai iaaeinoaei au,
aithy e ia caiaaea e ia ainoiea. E ana aea, eiaaea Aeaenaiae? Iaaneee “n
neeie aaeeeie” iioae iinea nia?oe iooea ec Iiaai?iaea ai Aeaaeeie?,
yniinoe o oaoa? e o iiei?iuo ei eiycae, eae ii iiaaaeao naay ii
ioiioaieth e iei, ia auei. “E aue a?icai i?eacaeaai, – niiauaao AEeoea,
– e i?ii/aeanue aanoue ia yoii aei naiiai onouey Aieae, e ia/aee
aeaiu ionoeueiaineea no?auaoue ei aeaoae naieo, aiai?y: “Aeaenaiae?
eaeao”. Ii iinea niaaoa n aieneiiii Ee?eeeii Aeaenaiae? ?aoee iiei?ii
aoaoue a I?aeo. E eiycue, e aieneii, iiaee aeaeaoue, /oi iiae
oaoa?neie aeanoueth no?aia no?aaeaea, ii i?aaineaaea aa nio?aiyeinue, a
iiae iaiaoeeie, oaaaeneie eee aaiaa?neie no?aaeaea e no?aia e
enei?aiyeanue aa?a. A I?aea Aaoue ieacae i?eee/anoaothuea ii/anoe
Aeaenaiae?o ss?ineaae/o e a?aoo aai Aiae?ath e ioionoee aai. Aeaenaiae?o
auea aea?iaaia aeanoue e a thaeiie ?one, e a Eeaaa, – ii caiaaeiie
a?aieoea caaiaaaiiuo oaoa?aie caiaeue, eae iieeiaiaeoeo, eiathuaio
oniaoiue iiuo ai?ueau n caiaaeiuie aa?iiaeoeaie, eiycue Aiae?ae
ss?ineaae/ ieeinoueth oaoa? noae Aaeeeei eiycai Aeaaeeie?neei.
Anei?a ii aica?auaiee ia ?onue Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ aeieaeai aue
i?i/anoue iineaiea iaiu Eiiieaioey /aoaa?oiai, iaienaiiia 10 oaa?aey
1248 aiaea a Eeiia. Iineaiea i?eianee 2 ?acoiiaeoeo ec 12 ea?aeeiaeia,
Aaeueae e Aaiiio. Eiiieaioee ecaauae Aeaenaiae?a, /oi ioaoe aai,
ss?ineia Anaaieiaeiae/, iaoiaeynue a I?aea, aeae Eiaiio aea Ieaii
Ea?ieie iaauaiea i?eniaaeeieoueny e eaoeineie aa?a, e ianiiiaiii,
eniieiee aunaia neiai, anee au ia aai aiacaiiay nia?oue. Nui iaycai,
ienae ii, iineaaeiaaoue i?eia?o iooea, e anee ii naeaeaao yoi, oi e ii
nai, e ia?iae aai iaeaeoo oeoeio e neaao iiae naiueth caiaaeiie oea?eae.
Aeaenaiae? iaienae aio a ioaao, /oi iu “o/aiey io aan ia i?eieiaai”. A
1252 aiaeo Aaeeeee eiycue Aiae?ae ss?ineaae/ oo?aoee ?aniieiaeaiea
oaoa?, ea?aoaeueiay yeniaaeeoeey Iaa?thy ?acaeea aai ae?oaeeio ieiei
Ia?ayneaaey, ii aaaeae a Oaaoeeth.Aeaaeeie?i-nocaeaeueneea caiee auee
oaoa?aie aeanoiei “iiaiaaaiu” Aeaenaiae? Iaaneee a I?aea noiae
aeieacaoue naith eiyeueiinoue Na?oaeo, nuio Aaouy, e iieo/ee a?ioaiiia
a?aoii aaeeeia eiyaeaiea. Inoaaea a Iiaai?iaea nuia Aaneeey, ii nae ia
aeaaeeie?neee aaeeeieiyaeaneee noie e caiyeny ainnoaiiaeaieai
?ac?ooaiiiai – aicaeaeaae nie?ooaiiua oea?eae, ainnoaiaaeeaae ai?iaea,
niae?ae ianaeaiea, aueoiae ieaiiuo. “E ouaae?ee Aiacaieth Aeaenaiae?a
aiaaonoaii e neaaith, e i?iaeeee aiaeu aai”.

Eiycue Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaaiae/ iaiaei “ooa? iioo e?iaaaiai” aua ca
?onneoth caieth. Aica?auaynue ec I?aeu a 1263 aiaeo, ioaaaey
i/a?aaeioth aaaeo io ?onneie caiee, Aeaenaiae?, oaea i/aiue aieueiie,
aeia?aeny aei Ai?iaeoea. Ineaaaaay, 14 iiya?y 1263 aiaea ii iino?eany
a iiiaoe, neaaeii i?eiye e aieueoie iiiaoaneee nai – noeio,- e oie aea
ii/ueth oia?.

?onue, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee naieo ioiioaiee e I?aea caneoaaie Aeaenaiae?a
nio?aieea aeanoue naieo eiycae, eioi?ua naeaeaeenue, oaeei ia?acii,
iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaii e oaiaie, ae inoaaeaiu auee aa
?iaeiua caeiiu e nianoaaiiue noae ai anao aeaeao, /oi a iniaaiiinoe
nii-nianoaiaaei nio?aiaieth ?onneie aeecie e ?onneiai oa?aeoa?a; ae
i?aaeinoaaeaia auea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue ia oieueei ?aeeaeiciuo
aa?iaaiee, ii e aeaaea oea?eiaiiai ono?ienoaa, /oi i?aeiouanoaaiii
ieoaei /oanoai ia?iaeiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe; e iaeiiaoe, ?onue
oaea?aeaei ca niaith, eae ainoaea?noai naiinoiyoaeueiia, i?aai aieiu e
ie?a aac iin?aaenoaa I?aeu. Oaeei ia?acii, Aeaenaiae? oieueei iaeiei
oiaieai aanoe ia?aaiai?u, aeaai?acoiiith ianoie/eainoueth e
auaeeaeaieai a?aiaie aeinoea oiai, /oi ?onue, niaa?oaiii iiei?aiiay
iiiaieaie e ?aoeoaeueii ia eiaaoay nee ei i?ioeaeoueny, iieo/eea io
naieo iiaouanoaaiiuo iiaaeeoaeae, ia iiaeieiay i?oaeey, i?aaa aea?aeaau
ii/oe naiinoiyoaeueiie, oi anoue aeinoeaea oiai, /aai ia anaa-aea
aeiaeaathony ae?oaea ia?iaeu, aeaaea iinea oii?iie ai?ueau, e i?eoii
io iiaaeeoaeae ia noieue iiaouanoaaiiuo, eaeeie auee iiiaieu a 13
noieaoee  Iiaeai ee iu n/eoaoue iaeiei neo/aeiui niaiaaeaieai oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a naioth o?oaeioth yiioo iiiaieueneiai eaa, a
ia?aia aai aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoea, eiaaea oa?aeoa? oyaioaaoaai iaae iaie
eiiieaiaiiiai aeaaeu/anoaa oieueei /oi ii?aaeaeyeny, eiaaea oieueei
/oi iaia/aeenue iaoe ioiioaiey e iiiaieai, noaeueaa ?one iaoiaeeeanue
a ?oeao Aeaenaiae?a? Iao. Aeaenaiae? caneiiee e ecaaaee iaoa
ioa/anoai io eiia/iiai ii?aaiuaiey, noiae i?aaeioa?aoeoue iiaua no?aoiua
iia?iiu e oaea?aeaoue oaoa? aaeaee, ia aeiionoea eo ?annaeeoueny ii
?onneie caiea e caaanoe naie ii?yaeee, /oi any iaoa caaeneiinoue
au?aceeanue a aeaea aiaoiae iiei?iinoe e aeaie, /oi iu nio?aieee
iai?eeiniiaaiiuie naie ?iaeiie ycue, naia iieeoe/aneia ono?ienoai,
naia oi?aaeaiea e naie noae, /oi i?aaineaaiay aa?a eae auea, oae e
inoaeanue aeaaiie ainieoaoaeueiie neeie ?onneiai ia?iaea, /oi
aeaaiaea?y yoiio iu nio?aieee aiciiaeiinoue ainnoaiiaeaiey naieo nee
e aeaeueiaeoaai eo ?acaeoey – anai yoei iu a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iaycaiu aeayoaeueiinoe Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai, a yoi oaeay caneoaa,
eioi?ie ?inney ia caaoaeao ieeiaaea ! Aa/iay iioaaea eiycth, eioi?ue n
ecoieoaeueiie, iienoeia aaieaeueiie i?iieoeaoaeueiinoueth aia?aiy
?acaaaeae no?aoioth iianiinoue, oa?iaeaaooth iai n Caiaaea, i?aaeii/ae
oaoa?neoth iaaieth, anaaiciiaeiua oieaeaiey e oyaeaeua iaoa?eaeueiua
aea?oau, ii a oi aea a?aiy ioaeanoaaiii anoae ia no?aaea ?onneie
ia?iaeiinoe.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1.Ea?aicei, Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai

2.Nieiaueaa, Enoi?ey ?innee

3.Iaoooi, Aeaenaiae? Iaaneee

4.Oeo?ia, Aaeeeee eiycue Aeaenaiae? Iaaneee

5.Eaoiiene.

I?eia/aiea

1.- I i?aaeeao nayoiai Aeaenaiae?a ii iaoa?e, Nio.1 228:

«Eiyce aea ieeinoeae, ieaiy eiyaea ?inoeneaaea, e aei o?enoeyi aeia?u»;
A Iiaai?iaeneie eaoiiene i Inoeneaaa O?aa?ii:»Nue aea aeaaiaa?iue
eiycue Iuenoeneaa ac?anoii na?aaeiee aa e eeoeai eai, e anath
aeia?iaeaoaeueth oe?aoai e aeaaii?aaai, e ethaiaue eiaoa ei anai, e
ieeinouie i?eeaaeaoa, iiianou?e iaaaey.Aa ai e?aiie ia ?aoe, anaaaea ai
oaniyoany oia?aoe ca ?onneoth caieth e oaei iieayoa ae?oaeeia- A?aouey!
Ie/oi aea eiaeoa a oia naiai, aua iuia oi?ai ca o?enoeaiu, oi i/enoeiny
a?aoia, oi?ai aea anyei. Aa ai iaethaaciea ia ae?oaeeio, e ia cae?aoa
ceaoa, ie n?aa?a, ii aeaaoa ae?oaeeia , iai aea i?aayoa aeooe naiae. Ia
aa ai oia caiea a ?one, eioi?aa aai ia oioyoa, ia ethayoa.Ieaeaoany ii
iai any ?onneaa caiey» Ea?aicei, «Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai»,
o.3,57.I?ei.54.

2.ss?ineaa Anaaieiaeiae/ aue aeaiao aeaa ?aca. A ia?aue a?ae ii anooiee
a 1206 a. N TH?ueaaiith Eii/aeiae/a (Eaa?.180), ai aoi?ie a 1214 aiaeo
ia aei/a?e Inoeneaaa Oaeaeiai, iacaaiioth i?e ?iaeaeaiee ?inoeneaaith,
a i?e e?auaiee Oaiaeineath. (Eao. Ia?ayne-Nocaeaeueneay, I?aae.3,
Iiaai?iaeneay 1.35, Aine?124, Oaa?neay 385: «Oiai aea eaoaa (1244),
ianyoea iay, ia iaiyoue nayoua io/aieoea E?eiu, i?anoaaeny aaeeeay
eiyaeiy Oaiaeiney ss?ineaaia, a Iiaai?iaea aeue aaeeeaai eiycy
Iuenoeneaaa Iuenoeneaae/a, iaoe aaeeeiio eiycth Aeaenaiae?o Iaaneiio».

3.Ioiineoaeueii aiaea ?iaeaeaiey na. Aeaenaiae?a nouanoaoao ?aciiaeanea.
Iaeioi?ua o/?iua iieaaatho, /oi ii ?iaeeeny a 1220 aiaeo, iniiauaaynue
ia oeacaiee a Eaa?. Eaoiiene aiaea ?iaeaeaiey aai noa?oaai a?aoa
O?aei?a. Oaoeuaa ii?aaeae?iii oeacuaaao aiae e aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey
Aeaenaiae?a, eiaiii 1219 aiae, 30 iay.

Oaoeuaa 3, 423. Aaeyaa aea?aeeony ecaanoey Oaoeuaaa. 30 iay – aeaiue
caia/aoaeueiue a ?onneie enoi?ee: a yoio aeaiue ?iaeeeny e Iao? Aaeeeee.

I iinaaeaiee ia noie. Nieiaueaa, Enoi?ey ?innee, o.3, 6.

Iiaai?iaeneay 1, 49., Nio. 1, 237: « Aei aeoa /aeii iaioee eiycth
ss?ineaao, e nie?eaoany ioueeaeioa».

Ea?aicei, Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai, o.4, 16.

Ea?aicei, Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai,o.4, 16.

«Aeaenaiae? ss?ineaae/ n iiaai?iaeoee n?oae ai?iae a Oaeiie».Nio. 1,
247., Iiaa. 1, 52.

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