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Революции 1848-1849 гг. в Европе

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???th?e 1848-1849 ?. a A??a

A???a

A 1848-1849 ?. a ?? ??i C???e e Oe????? A??u ????e ??a ??eth?e. I? ????
O??eth, A???th, A????oth ???th, ??uey??a ?????a. I??? ?a A??a ? ??a ???
????ey ???, ????i ???a ???? ??o??? e ???i ???a ?????i-???????o ????. O?y
a ????? ???o ??e ??? ?e ? ????, ?-???o ?????ue ???y, ?????i ?? ??:
??eth?y ????a ???????e ???a.

E ???? XIX a. ? ?? ????? ?a ??????? ????i-??eth???? ??y?e, ??? a ????o
?????? ????? ????a ??????ue n ??????. I??i ??eth???? ??? ????? ????
1845-1847 ?., «?????ay ????, ???ay ????a ?? ????y ????i i???a ???y, e
??????y a 1847 a. ??o a ????? ???o y??i???e ???. C????? ?????? ???ey?y,
??e, ???? e???. A?? ????? ???a ?????o.

???th?y ???? a ???a 1848 a. ? O???, ??i ???? ??e ?a ?????a Oe????? A??u.
A 1848-1849 ?. ??eth???a ???y ??y? ????e ???. A ?o ???ue ???i ??? ????o
??a ???? ??? ????i-??eth???? ??y??, ? ??????eth ??????i ??y, ?????y ???o
? ????a ??????i ????y e ????? ????, ?????i-???????y ??? ????? ???a e ???
???????a ???? a A???e e E??e.

1. ???th?y 1848 a. ? O???.

A???iyy e ??iyy ???? Eth??? ???? a 30-40-a ?. XIX a. ????? ???a e ??, ?i
a ????e e ??? ????ue ??a ????a ?? ????y – ???a, ???y?, ??ue ??????e,
?????ay e ????y ????y. E??ue ??ye ????o, e ?? ??ue ?????a ????? ?
??????e ????ey ???.

I???? ????? a ??? ???? ????? ????? ??????. A??? ??????e ?? ???ye ????ue
???a a ???o ?? 1% ????y. A ? ? ??y ?a????? A?i ???y? ?a ????ey ??????
????e i ????? ??????? ??a. «I?????ue, ???a. E ? ???a ????ey?», – ??i ?e
??o ????-???? ?????i ???ey ??????? ??a.

I????? n ???? 40-o ??a ?????? ?e?n ????ny a ????? ?????ny ? ??? y??????
?ae. A 1847 a. ???? ????? ??????, ??? ?o???? ??a ?????. E??n ??? ?????o,
??i ????? ???? ???y, ?i ?a ??? ???? ????a ??? e ????i i?????i ???i.

I???ey ???i ????ue e ??e ????e. A???i ?ey?a ??? ???????. O???e?, ?i
??????i ??? ??? ? ?? ? ???e, ??????e ????e a???? ?? ????ny ? ????? e
???. E?? 1847 a. ? O??? ???? ???y ???ey ????o ?????? ????, ? ???o ???
??? ??????ue ?? n ???? i?????? e ????ey? ???. A???? ?? ????o ???????,
???ay ????, ?????a ?????e ???????? a???a ????? ???? ??u e ???e ? ? ????
???ey. N??a ?iy? ???? ??eth?e.

A ???a 1847 a. ????ue ?e?????ay ??ey ?????? ?????. N??y ????a a ??a???
??? ?????: ?a????? A?i ?????ue ??? ??e? ? ???u ?????e ????e. Ii ?a ?
????ey ?? ????u, a ????e ??? ?????a ??????e ???u, ?????e ? 22 ???y,
????. I??i ??????a ???? e ????? ???? ??ae ?????y ??oyi. Io ????????
????y ??????? e ?????.

I???y ? y?, 22 ???y 1848a. ?ny?e ?ny/ ???e I??a ??e ? ??u e ???e ???,
???a ?? ???? ???? ?y ?????? ???a. N?? ??????a ?????e ???a ? ?a???e e
????. Ai ??? ??? ?ay??? ??? n ???? e ????, ?y??? ??? ????u, ??i ???o
????? ??i. I??i??ay ???y ??iy?? ? ??? n ?????e, a a ?y? ???a ????u ?????
? ? ???o.

23 ???y ????? ????i ???e ??? E?-O??i ?i??e ??????i A?i a ????. E???a ?
y?i ?? ????i n ????i e ?y?? ????e ?? ??? ???????y ?????i. Ii ???i ???a
????? ??????a ?? ???ey? ????, ??iy??e I?????i ?????o ?e. N?? ia y?i
??ay?e ??? ????? ? ???, ??ya ? ?? ?a ???ia ????a I??a. O?y? ???o,
??????a, ????a ????e ca ?? ??e 1,5 ?n. ????, a ? ??oth?e ??, 24 ???y, ?a
???a ??? ??? ??a?? a ??o ?????.

E??ue E?-O??i ???? ???ny ? ???? a ??? ??? ?????i ??a, ??a I????i, e ??e
a A??th. A????e ??ae ???? ??? Oth??e, ?????e ?? – ??? ???? – ?e ????i ?
???ue A???e e ?????ii ???.

Ia ????e ??? ????a ???? ????nue ????ue ???eth, ? ? ??u ?? ???u ???i. O??
?????o ????? ????ue a ?e ????e, ??oy ??????ey ?????. I? ? ???i ???? ??
?i??? ???ue A???? ??????i.

2. A??y ????? ? O???.

I?????? A????i ??????a ?e ??? ???o Aeth?i ? E’Y?, ???? ??eth?e ??a XVIII
a. e 1830 a., ??? ????? ?i ????e ????e ???e E???i, ?iy?? ?? ???? ????i?
?e. A ??? ??????a ??e ?? ??? ???????, ?a ?i??? (E??th-???i e O??i), a
??a ?a ????? – ?????e ????o E? A?i e ???e-???e A???? A???.

25 ???y ?ae ????i ?????? ??? A???? ??????i ??????i O??eth ?????e. A?e
??a ???? ??y??a ???, ??? ???u i ???a ?????? A .???? e ???, ??? i ????
????i ??????? ??a ?y ???, ????o 21 ??. Ii ??????i ? ???i ???????th ???,
????thny ?e Eth??? ????. I? ?????? ?? ???e ???????? ???oa. A??a n ?i, ?
O??? ?????y ??e ?????e ??i a A??a.

N ??? ? ?? ??eth?e, ??y? n ??????e???e ????e, ???a ????e ????ea ????????
????y ??a ? ??. 25 ???y ?e ??yo ???, ???e ?????? ???i ??a ??i, ???a??e
?y????? ?????a ????? ?? ???i ???e, e ??iye ??? ? ???? ???? ?????.

A ??o ? ????? ? ?????e I?????a ??a e ????a, A???? ??????i ???i
«I???????oth ???eth ?y ??y??y», ???y ??? ?? ??y? ?? ? ????th ????y ?a??.
I?????? ? ?? E? A?i, ?????? – A. A???. Aeey ??? E???e ?????? ????a a
Eth?????? ???, ? ???a ? ?e y?i ? ????e ????ey?, ? ????e ?????. I??i ???
? ????? E???e A???? ??????i ???i a I??a ???u, ???a ?????e ??oo ?????i.
Eth?????ay ???ey ??a ???? ???y? ?? a??? ?e ????? ???? ??? ??o ???????y?
e ??/?e.

Aeey ??? n ???? ?????? ??????i ??i ? ?????th ?????? ??o. A I??a ?? ???u
?????? ?????, ?? ???? ?????ny ???????e, ??? ????, ???y?? ????e ?????? e
???a. Eo ??? ??iy? a ??????e ???? ? ????o ????o, ????? ??y?o ??o, ???e
??. I????ny ?? ????i – ? 2 ??? a ??. Ii e ?th 1848 a., ??a a ????? ????
??a 100 ?n. ?e., ??? a ??? ? ???i ? ??, e ???o ??e ???? ?? ?a ?y a ??eth
(? ????a ?e i??? ? 1 ???).

N???? ?????? ????? ??????i ?????? ???? ??y???? a ??e? e ????? ????o ????
???????? ??y. N y?e ? ??th ?? ??? ???u i ????? ???? ?y a I??a n 11 ? 10
??a (a ????e – n 12 ? 11 ??a), i ???? ?i ? ??, ?????e ??y?i ????o ??e ?
????a e ?.

I??e ??e ??? ??? ?? ??ue e ????y ? ???????? y???? (??ya, ??o, ?????a)
????y ???y -24 ????a ? 1 ?n. ?e. a ???. «I??? ?? ????? a ????????a
????a. I? ???? ?????? ???th ??o e o??? ???????.

N????a ?????? ?????, ???? ?a??? ???e e ????y ???a ???o? ? ??ae????? ???
????e ????? ????a ???. N??y? ??e ? ???a, A???? ??????i ????i ?y?a ??? ?
????i?? (a ?i ??a ? ????? e ?????a ??e) ? 45%, ?i ???i ??i? ??????
???yi. Y?o ??a ? ??? ????e ???u ???yi ? ????a ??? ????y ??a ??eth?e, ? e
???? ? ???? e ???????? ??th, ?i ???????ue ?????? ???e?u.

A y?e ????? 23 ??ey 1848 a. a ??? ??? ??? a O?????? ????. A????? ?? a ?i
(500 ? 880) ???? ??? ??????u. O?????? ???? ?ae???? ?????? ???????? ??y ?
O???, ? ????a?i ????? ????i ?????a i ???? I?????a ??a. ?a??i ????yi ??
????i ?y?y?ny a ?? ????e, a ??y?e ??i ??????? ??i ??? oth??? ??th??? ?
?????th ? ??? ??? ?????o ???. Ia ?? ???? ???? ?e ???? ????e ????? ???e
E??ueye.

15 ?y a I??a ??iy?? 150-?ny?ay ?????ey, ????a ? ????a O??????i ???ey
????e ??i??ii-i???????i ????y a I??a. I??i ???????i? ??? ????e ???i.
???th???a ??u ?? ???u, ? ??? – A???, ????ue, A??e – ?????. I????i ??
???a e Eth?????ay ???ey. E??ueye ???? ????e ????, ?y??y a ??ae ??a ???.

I?????y ????? ?a ??a ???y??, ?? ?ae ???e ?e e ?????o ???. 22 ethiy
??????i ??? ???y??a i ???? ?????? ?????. ?????i a ?o I-???? ???? a ????
? 18 ? 25 ?o ?????? ???? Oea ??th, ????o ??? ?? ????ue a ????th, ? ????a
??? a ????? ????yo n ????? ????. O?c i ???? ????? ??? ????a ????a a ???.
A???? ???? 23 ethiy, i??? ???a ???? e ????uey I??a. A ?i ??y? ???a 40
?n. ???e. A???? ????i ???? e ? ??i ???i ?????a. Aiy? ????? ??u ??eth???o
???a, ????u ?????? ?????. Ia ??oth?e ?? O?????? ????, ?uy?a ???a ? ????a
a I??a, ???? ?th ???o ??? ???? E??uey?. I?a????i ??i ???? ???n a ??o,
??? a????o ?? ?y?? 150 ?n. ??ey?? ??e, ?a??? e ?????? ???e. Aeey ????ey
????y ?? ????a?a ????ey, ?????ay ??a ????. N?????? ???o ???ue ??? ?y, ?
e ??? 26 ethiy ????a ?? ????i. A ??? ???? ????. 11 ?n. ?e. a?i ????y? ?c
?? e ????y. A?? 4,5 ?n. ???o ? ???a a ????e ?? ???u ? ????a ??? a ????a
???e.

Eth??? ????a ????o ???o ??i ????? ???? a ?? ??eth?e 1848a. ? O???, ??a
?? ?a ??i ??a ? ??. I?? ????ey ????y O??e???a ???? ???i ??? ??????a ????
E??uey?. A I??a ???y?? ???a ????a, ??eth???a ??u ?? ?e??. Ii ????eth
???????? O?????? ???? ???? ??? i ????? ???? ?y ? 1 ?n, ????? ??????
??a??a a ????e. A ? ? ??y ??? i 45-????i ??? ? ??????a e ?????a ??e
????y a ??.

A ?y?a 1848a. O?????? ???? ??y? E????eth A??e ?????. E????ey ? ??????a
??i ? ??, ????a ??a O????? ??eth?e, ? ????a?? ???? ?????a ??a e ???u.
I?? ????ey Eth???i a???ey ?????y ????y ????ue a ???e ???, ????e i????iy?
??eth???? ???eth. N y?e ??th ?? ???a ????ue ?????, ???i?? ?????i ????
????ey?. I???? ????y ? 4 ?? e ?e ????th ????i ? ?????: ? ?i ???? e ???
????a, ??? ????? e ????, ????? ?????? ??? e ????e ???e ????e.

C??????ay ??? ?????y?? ???e??? ????? – C???????o ???eth, ???a ????? ? ?e
?? e ? ????i ??i??o ????. Ae?ay ?????? ?? ? ??a ????? e ????o, ?????y
????a ????? ???? ?ae? ??, a ??eyy ????? ???e ???th, ??? ?o ?????ue
?????ny n ?????i.

A ???a 1848a. ?????i O??? ?e ??? E? I???i A???o, ??yi?e I???? I. Ia ???o
? ??? 80% ???a, ?????ue ???ae?e ? ??? ????e, ?????ny e ???e ???, ? e ??e
???o, ???a ????? ? ??, ??u ? ??? ?????a ???? E?a?y?. Ca A???? ??????e e
???y? (??e ??????? ?ie ????y), ????; ?i ??y?? I???? I ??o ?e ? ????
???nu ??? ???????a.

N?a ?????i, A???o ????e ?????? ??i. ??????? ?? ???u ? ????o???i ????, a
?????i ?? a ????i a ?a 1849 a. C??????? ???? ???? ?????, ?????? a «I??th
??y??. N??y ?ae C??????? ???? ??y? ??e ??????e ??i, ???e ?????? ????? ??
????e. I?? 3 ?i. ???e ?? ??? ??????o ?aa.

3. A??????? ????o 1851 a. O?????a A??e E???.

A ??y?o ??? O??ee ??i ??????a ??????e ????, ?e???? ????? e ???e ???,
???y ???? ? ????th ? i?? ??eth???o ??y??e. I??? e ??i ???th e ??th, 2
???y 1851 a. E? I???i A???o n???e ???????e ????o. C??????? ???? ??
????i, a ?????? ?y??, ????? ?????, ?????. N?????? ??????? a I??a e ???
???o ?? ????i ????. I?????i, ??u o???? ?????? ???, ????o ?????e ????
??????a ??i.

A??????? ????o ???? E? A???oo ????th ????ue ??? a ???. I?? ?????? ?????
2 ???y 1852 a. ????o ?????? ?ay ?????i I????i III.

Ca ??????? ???e ??????i 8 ?i. ?a???.

A ??? ?e ????? ??i ??? ??? ?????a.

I????, ??iy?e ? C???????i ???a, ? ???? ??a ???????e ?????, e N??a,
??????ny ?????i, ? ???e ????e ????ey?. Ia ??? ?????e e????a ??? ??????
A??????? ??o. C???ey ??o ????? ????e ????, ??? i ?o ? ??????ue. I???u
i????? ??i ?????i e ?? ?????? ??? ??ae ?i.

I??ue ????? ?ae ????i ???u, ??? c????? ? ???oth ?????ue. ???????, ??
????a, ?? ????u y?????ue ? O???. Aeey ??? ????a ???o ??????a I???i III
o???e ??????i, ??th, ???th. A???i ?ey?a ?????? ???.

A??????? ??i ?e??y ? ???th ?????i-????oth ???ceth e ?????y ????? ??????
??e ???y??a. I???i?ue ?????? ?e ??u ????y ???o a ????e ???a ???-??????
???a n ?????? ?????? ??o ????? ?????e*A???e. I??y? a ??????? ????e ?
???ue, ???????e ??i ???y ???? ?ay ? ???????oth: ???.

I?????? ???y? ????????, e a ?? A??e ???e (1852-1870) ? O??? ????ny
?????? ????o.

I??y e ???, I???i III ?y?e, ?i A??y ???y ??o ??? ??????, ? ? ?? ?a 18 ?o
??? ????y ???? ??????oth ??ithth ????. A y? ?? O??ey ?????a a E???e ??a
n ????, a nith? n N????i ?????? – a ??a ??? A???, ?? ??????? ?????? ??u
a I???, E?? e A???a.

4. ???th?y a A???e e ? ????a.

N????-y?????? e ?????? ???? A???e a 30-40-a ?? XIX a. ????, ?i ?c ????ey
??????? ? ??????y ???? ?????, ?c ????ee ?????? ???????e ??? ????? ? ????
?????.

E??a??y ????y ????? ????? ????a ??? ???????i ????? e ?????y th????
?????. E??, ?????a ??i ????e ????i e ?????th ????o ????e, ??????eth
????? e ????th ??????i ????y ???? ??a ????y.

O???a ???????e ????e e ??????e ?? ????? ??y??y a ??a 40-o ??a ????????e
i ???i ????? ??????i ????y. E???a i ?i, ?i ? O??? ??????a ?????, ???
???? ????? ??eth???e ??a.

A ???? n O???e A??a ?????ee ???? ?a 27 ???y. A ???e, ???? ????? e ?????e
a ????o, ????? i ??i? ???, ????, ???? ?? ??y??, ???? ???? ???e e i ???
???????i ??????i ?????. A??a E???ae a? ???? ??y? ?????i y?o ????? e ???
a ?????o? ?????o ????a. I??????i ?e ? ?????ue ???y a i?? 1848 a. e a ???
????o ?????? C??i? e TH?-C???e A???e. Anth? ????? ???? ????u ?? ?? ?
???e e ????ue e ??? ?y??e ????e.

A??a ???? ???ey ???? e I??eth. 3 ??? ???a e ??????, ???? ? ??u E??a,
???? ??? e ?????e ?????? ????ey ???????o ???. Ec E??? ???? ??? ????????
? ??? e 7 ??a ???? ???? ???u. N y?? ?y ? ??? e ???yo A??? ? i?????ue
??????, ????? n 13 ??a a ???? ?????ey ??????a n ???? e ????.

18 ??a ???? ??? O??? A???? IV ?e ???? ??? ?????th, ?uy?e ? ??? ???u e
??? ?????. Ii ?????ey ??????a n ???? ?????? e 18 -19 ??a ????e a ?????a
?e ? ?a? A???. I???? – ???a, ??????, ???? ?iy? ??ue ??? e 19 ??a ??? ?e
???? ??? ??? i ??? ??e ? ???u.

O?? ? ?? ?????? ??a ????ue??, ai ??a ???? ?? ????? ??????e ?????e ????e
E?a??i e A???i. A????a ath??u ???e ?????th ???th e ?y? ? ?ay ??? ??y?a a
???. 22 ?y a A?e?a ?? ???i O?????? ???? I???, ???a ??? ?? ??y? E????eth
??????.

A ?a 1848 a. ? O????a-?-I?? ??e ??? ??a????e ????o, ????e ? ??? ????i
??????? ??a ????? ?? ????? ?????. A??oth ??ue ?i ????a ???ey? ?????y
????y e ??????y (a ?i ??a 49 ?????a ??????a). Ia ????yo ????? ????ny ???
??? ?y ?ao ????? ????? ?????e, ??????ny ??? i ???i A?i??, i «??????n??
(n ???? A????? ???e) ?e «???????» (?c A???) ????o ?????y ???.

Ii O?????? ????o ? ?? ??????? ?????e ???th. E???? ? ??????i ? ??i ?
???a, ? ????? ?y ????ey ??e-?? ????. ????y ??? ????? a ??o ????o ?????
????, ???? ?ith? ? ????? ?????ny ? ??o ????? ??. N???ua e ?????? ?????y
??e ???? ??y?a ???, ? ? ??i??ue ??? ??eth?e. E?? ??, ??? ????i ????
???ey a? ??a ??iy? ath??? e ?????o n ??y??? e ????e. A I???e ??a ????ey
???e ????y ????? ???o ??? ?a a eth? 1848 a. ???? a ???? ?????a ????ue??
E?????, a ??? ?? e ??oth?a – ???? A????. I??th o ??? ?a ??ue i????ue
?????u, ??????? ??ey e ???o O??????i ???ey.

A ???a 1848a. N???a ?? ????i, a ??ae ? y?i ???a a ???? ????ay ???i
?????y. I? ???y? ????a a ??a ???u, ? ??? ?a? ???o ??iy? eth?e ??i, ??y?e
???a? (?????i). A ?a 1849 a. a I??? ?e ??yo ??e ??????e ??i, ?????e
?????e ? ?e ??? ? ???? ?????? ???a. I??i ??? ??n ???e ??? ??i ?????,
???a, a ?ith ???ue, ???? ?????? ???? ????a a ??thth ??? ?????. N??y ?ae
y?o ??i ??e ????e ??ueth a ??th, ????oth ???i, ?????th, ????th E????eth
1848 a. O? ???? a ??a 1849 a. O?????? ????o ??ye ????th E??e??th. I?
???????a ?????? a A???e ??????? ??????e ??? e ???? ??????i ?????. I??a
??i a ?????e ???? «I???a ??a ????i ????. I? ??????e ????i ?? ??ae ???i,
??iy? ????? e ??? ??y??a. I?????i ??? ???a a ???e ????i??? ???? ?????a
??a e ???u – ????????? ??i?e e ???e ??????e, ???a ???e, ???, ??a e ????.
Io?iy?? ??a ?a «????y ????????, ?oy ?????a ????? ???y? ??? ?? ????.

O?? ???i, ??????i ?e ????a ????a ???ue ????ue a ?????e ?????e? ???i ???e
????eyi ???? ?????, ?????? ? ???? ??? ???????e ?????. O??o???e ????o, a
???i ???? ?? «??????ay ????ey», ????? ???? ??????th ??? ????o ??eth. Ii
?o ?o???i ????y ??y? ? ? ?e ????? ??eth?? ???ey. A ?ith ???ue, ???e
????? ????? ?y??, ?i ????th?y ???? ??? ?????o ? ??? ????oe? ?????o ???a.

??????? e ????u ????y? ???o c???ue ?????th e ????ue ? a ??ue. A ?a –
eth? 1849 a. ?e ??y? ????y a ??? ?????e a N???e, ????e i???, A??a e
I???. I??i, ?a ?e ?? ????u, ??? a A??a e I??? a ????? ????e ?????e ????
???.

???th?y a A???e ????a ????a e ? ???? ??e ???? oe?e – ??????i ?????y ???.
A ???a ? O????? ??eth?e ??a XVIII a., ?a ???? ??????e: ? ???a e ????ee
???? e ??? ????? ??????y. O? ? ??a, ??? ??ae?? ????? ?? ?????. A I??? e
??? ????? ?????? ?????e ?????e, ??????? ????th ???? ??ae??? ??a e ???u.

I?????a ?????a A???e ???????i ??i ? ??????ue. Ia ??o ?o ????ny ??? ??
?????y, a ???i ???th ?? ??? ???ay ???ey.

5. I????? ??eth?e a E??e. I??????a ??n?e ?????.

E ???? XIX a. ?????ay ??ue E??e (E???ey, Aa????ay ???ue) ????? ?ae
?????i ??????. A I??, I??a e O??? ???e ?????? ?????o A????a. A ???? ???e
???y?? ???ay ??? ??, ???e ??a a? ?????i ??????i ?????y ??? e ??????o
??a????e. I??????a ?????i (?????i ??o N???) ????? ?ae ???th ??n?e A???a
e ?? ??e ? ??o ???? ???? E??e, ?a ???oueth ??????? ????? ????y. A???
????e ?????? ??e ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????e e ?????? ?????a ?????a.
A ?????e ?y? n y?i ?iy? ??/a ?????y ??eth??a e ????? ??y??. E??n, ?????e
n 1846 a. a ??uey??o ??????, ???n a 1848 a. a ??? ??eth???a ??y??y. A??a
? ?????? ?????? e ?????a ??? ????? n ?????y? ??oueyi e ????e ???u, ????i
?????-???????o ?e ? ?????a ??a e ??a ??????o ?????. A ??eth?e ?????e ?a
?? ???? – ?????a ??y??i, ???????e, ???/??i, ???y?, ???a e ??????. I??i
??e ?? a ??? ? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ?y?? e ???e ??uey??o ?n???a. E/

???th?y ???? n ????i ????y a I??? (? N???) 12 y??y 1848 a., ????????ue
??i ? ??o ???o. I??i??i ?????ue ??? ???yi ??? ???e e ???o ????a—??????a;
????u ???? a ??????? ???ey n ??e???e ????, ???a ? ???? ???. A??ue ? N???
???a a ?? A????i ??????a, ???a ????? ??i ? ????iey A???i. N??ey ? N???
?? ??? ??ae?i ?????yi a E???e e I???. A ??a y?a?y 1848 a. ??????? ???
O???? II ?e ???? ???? ??? ?????th, ???ii ???e ????ny ?????? ????o e
?????? ?????ay ????y N???.

I???u .a I??????i ?????a ?????e ?????a e ???????a ?? N???e e Oe?????
E??e. I????? i???? ??????, ???e ???u e

??? ? ??????ue, ????ey ?????e e ?????o ???. A ????? a ???a – ??a 1$48 a.
?????e ?? ?????? a I???a, O??? e I??? ???e.

E???a i ??eth?e a A?a a ??a 1848 a. ???i ??? ???????a ??o??ey a A?????e
???e e E????. A A??? ?? ??????a ????? e ???i ?a??? ??????i. A I??a a
???a iy? ?? (18-22 ??a) ?e ???a a? ??o ????? ??? e 15-?ny?? ?????i
?????. I??y oy??a ???, ????u ???? ??ae. I?????i ??????a ??? ?? ???u ?
I?? e I??u.

O??e ???????? ???ey ?????e ?th ???. Ia ??? ? y???? ???ny ????e ??oe ?
?????n? E??e Ae???a A????e. O???oe I??, ??ye ? ????e, ? ?? ?eth??y a
??eth???th ?y????ue. I?? ????e ???e ???????? ????y a A?? A????e ???? ?e
???? ??? e ??a ?ny? ?o n???y ? ??????ue e ???o a TH?? A???. Ii ?iy?e ?ay
?????i ?????i, ????i ????i ???? e ?????? ??? ??oth ?? a ?????? ?????e
E??e.

Ia ??? ???????i ???a ??? I???a E?e A??? ?uy?e A??? ??o ?ae ???? ??????i
?????y ???. Ii ????eth ??? e ?? ??????? ???a ?? I??? ???e, O???,
I??????? ?????a. C???th ?? a ??a ???e ??????? ??y? ??????, a ?i ??a
«????????? A????e. I??i ??ay ??a ? ??????ue E??e ?e???? ????. A???????ue
???????ueth ??uey??e ?a??e, ???oth?e ?????e ??? ?????e ????e ??n ?a???i
????a ????a ?e E?o??, ?c ?y ?iye I?? e ???e E?? A???a i???? a ???a 1848
a. ?????? ????a.

I???? a ??a n A???e ???i a ??? ??e ??? – ??eth???? ???ey. I?a?? ???i
?????ue ???y a ??a, ?a a ??? 1849 a. ????i ??ae?a ????a. I?a I? AO ??e ?
??? e ??e ?etho a I??????i ?????a. E??y??a ????u, a ?i ??a Aeae. I?c?e e
????e a ??ae Aeae.A????e, ????e ??yi ??????ue a ??? ?????.

I? ?ae?? ????? a ??a ?? ????u ??? a O?a????a ????. A ???a 1849 a. ? ???
? ?i ????e ???? ??y? ??i i ???e ?? ???? ??? e ??????e ???oth ?????. C??
?e ???? ?yae ???????o ???: ??????ey ????o ??? (??ue ? i? ?????? ???y?i a
???), ????a ??u ? ???, ???ea ??????? ??? ? ??????? e ????a e ?. I??i,
??????i ??????? ? ??a n Aeae.I??? ?????? ?y??, ?i ? ???? ????? ??u e
???????i ????y ??a ??i? ??????e.

6. I??a ?????th?e. I??? ????y ??eth?e a E??e.

A ??a 1849 a. ?????a ??? ?????e ???a ???ey ??? A???, ? ??ue ????e ????a.
E??ue E?e A??? ???y ? ???? a ??? ?? A??? Y???? e ??e ? ???o. E?? ??u ??
????e ?y ??? ???? E??e. A????? ??? ?????? O???, e ???e ? ???e ??? ?????a
E???? II. E ?th 1849 a. ?? ????i ????a ia N??? e ????? ?????? ?a
???????a ???u a I?i????? ?????a.

I??a ???? ????? ????e ??? A???, O???, E??? e I??ey. N?? ?? ?ny?a ??y?
???? ?? ??ae, ? a eth? 1849 a. ? ?????o ??? ?? ??????a ??? ??. I??? e
??? ??? ??????u ?? ??ae?? y?????ue. I?????e ???e, ???e ??? e A????e.

I?? ????y ??eth???? ??????a a O??? e ??? ???? ????? ??????u ?a ????ue
??? a A???. Ii e ?a ??i ? a??y?. E ??? ?????o ??????e ?????ue ???ey ?
??? e ???. A ???a 1849 a. ????ny a ??o ??? ??? ???e ???. A????ay ???y
???a ?? E???eth, A?????th ???ue, ?????? ?? ?ey?a a O??? e ? ??? I???
???e.

???th?y a E??e ????a ????a, ?e e ? ??? ?iy?? ??ae ?e ??/ – ?????ey e
?????y ???, ??????y ???????o ??????? a ????. Ec-? ???????e ???, ?e e a
A???e, ??eth???a ??o??ey a ????o ??yo E??e ?????e ? ??????, ?i ??i????i
??? ?e ???e. E????eth?y a E??e ?? ????? i?y?e ?????? ?????o ???. I??i,
???y 1848-1849 ?. ?????i ????e ????? ??e e ??eth???? ??? a E??e, ??e
???i e ???oth?? ???eth ?????i-???????? e ???????? ???ey.

7. ???th?y a A???.

A????ay ???y, ?i??y A????a, ?? ????????i ??????. Ec 37 ?i. ????y ???e a
1847 a. 18 ?i. ???ey? ??y??a ??? (??, ?ey?, ???e, ???? e ?.), 5 ?i. –
???, ????a – ??u, ??uey?u e ???. Iiy?? ???? ???e ?????e a ??? ??eth?e ??
????a ???? A????a, ????a ????? ???a ? A??? e ?????a ? ??? ???e ?????o
?????? ?????. N y?i ?? ????? ?y?? ??? ?????y ????? ??y?? – ?????????e
?????e ???yi, ????o ?????e ??eth??a.

Y?????? ??? e ?e ?????o ?? (1845-1847) ??i ???? ????a ???? ??. Ae?????,
?? ?i ? ?? e ???ay ?????a ???e a ???e ??????th ???eth. O??? e ??eth?e a
A??? ????e ???ey i ???i? Eth??? ???? ? O???. A ??? ??a 1848 a. ???? ????
(?n???i ???ey) I??e A??? e ?thc ??????? ?????e ?c?a ???????? ?????, ????
???? I????a, ??? ???u ??? e ?i???y ??? ???. –

???th?y a A??? ???? 13 ??a n ?????? e ????o ???? ???e ???u, ????a e
ath???. O?y? ???i ????e ?????e ???? ??????a e ???ey ?????e. Ia ??? ???u
???? ?????ey ae?????? n ????, e ??? a ??? ?? ????u ????u. N???u ???e
?ith ?????th ?????th – A?ae????e ???. *?? ??? ????? ??eyoue a ??ae.
C????ny e ?i ?????. Ii ?e ???? ????ue a ???? I????a e ???? ath??? ??????
I?????th ???th. ???th?y ???? ??oth ??oth ???. A ??? ????????i ??????a
??e ????e? ????.

E????ay ????y, ?e?y, ?i ?? ??eth?e ?a ?????, ??a ????ue e ?????th ??? e
????eth «????? e ??y??. Ii a???? ?? ????? ?????y, ??oy ?????y ??a ? ??,
????ey ???? e ?????ey 10-???? ???ai ?y. A ??? ??????ye?ue ???y??a ???? ?
??? ???? ???? ????i.

E ?th 1848 a. ??????i ?????i ??? ?????e, ???i ????????ue ???? a A???
?o????? ?????. I??i ??????a ??i ??????? ???i ??????i ???, a ????? ?a
?????ue ?? ? ?a ???y ????a (?????). I??????ue ?????e ???a ??? ?i?? ???o
?????, ??????ny ??? I?????? ???? I?????e ???e. I??? ???e ????? y?o
??eth???e i?? ??ue ????a ????? a ???a.

15 ?y a ??? ?y??? ????u e ????? ???a??? ????i ???e ???. I?ueth A?o ??i
???e e ?????e? ??. A???? ???a ?? ???? 26 ?y, ??a ???e ??n? ????y ?????
A?????? ???. Ia ??? ????i ??? ???a ? ?????, a ??? a???? ????a, e ??? a
A?a ???a a ?? E???a ?????? ??????. I??a ??eth?e a A?a ?? ????a ?i, ?i
???? ?? ?????e ??e ??ae??ue a y? ??y a ????? A??? e E??e.

A eth? 1848a. ??e .??? ?????e ????. O?y a ?i ???a ?? ???? ??i ??y??o
????a, a ?i ??a ????ey?? ???? ???y??a, ????i ? ????yo ????e ?????a ????.
Y? ??iy???? ???? ????e ? ???? ?y????e ????? e ? ??y?a ? ???y. ????a ??ye
??i ? ?????e ????i-???????o ????e, ? ????i ??iy?? ?? ??????ay ??ue
?????e. I?? e ???a ????e ???, ??? ?????i ?i?????i ??ouey?i ?? ??ue
?y????o ????.

???th?y a A??? ??????? ??? ??a?i ?????i-???????e ??? ???a ???e. O?, a
*?? ?a a ??a 1848 a. ?????? ???? ???? ??ea ?????? ??a. N??y ?nyoe a I??
?e ??? I?????e ???o, ???e ???a?e ?? ??????? *??. E??uey? ???? ??? ???u,
??a??? – ???u ????? ???y. A??i ???? a ?????? ??e ??? ?? ????e a I?? ??ae
?????a?e ??y??o ???a ???e, a ??? ???? ??y? ???a 340 ????a. A ?a 1-848 a.
I?? ????e ?????a ??ea. I???? ??? ? ??oth ?????eth ???i ??i ???? I????
????y, ???i ?????? ?????e ????e 17 ethiy.

A?? ? I??e ????i ??? ?? ????ue i??? A?u e A????. I????a ????y ???o ????a
e ??eth?e ? ??? E??e ???e ?a????? ????e. Ii a ??? ?oy?y ???i, ???ey??ny
a A?a?th, ????? ??? ???a, ?????? e ???? ?????e ?i??. N??? ??e ????y n
???i. A?? ???i ???? ????i, ???i (???? ?????? e ??????e ?? ??ue ?e ?i??i
???? ???o. I??i ?? ?? ???u. 22 ?oy?y ????ay Aa? ?? ???? ?????? ???? e 1
?y?y ??a, ??????i ??? ??ae ?e ?yo.

I?? ????u ?ae ?????e ????? O???? ???y ? ???? a ??? 18-???i ??y??a
O??a-E??a (1848-1916), I?? ????? ? ?e ?y?i ?y?????? e ???ey? ???
???????a, e ??e ????a n ???? ????? e ????ey ???th?e a A???. A ??a 1849
a. O??-E?? «???? A??? ??th ??o??eth, ? e ?a ?o?y ?a ?? ?? ????.

8. ???th?y a A??ey. I??????a ??????e. ?????y ?????y e ????a ??eth?e.

O??e ??eth???? ???ey a A??? e *?? ???? ??eth???e ??a a ??? ??yo
????????e A????? ???e.

I???i y???? ????? e ?????? ??????e e ???a ?iy??? a A???. 15 ??a ? ???o
??? ?????e ???? ? ??a n ?????i ?y?i O???i I??e a I?? ?/??ue ?????? ???o,
??????a e ????a. Ae?????u ????e ????ey ???????o ???, ????? ???u, ??? ?
??? ????o ??e e ???ey ???iy???? ?????i ?a?????. I? ????? ?????? ??th???,
????? ??o? ?????? ??????.

17 ??a ?? ?????? ??? ??????a ??ae ?????i ??????i A???. Aai ????e ?? ?
???a ?????e ????e ?? A???, a ?? ???? ???? ?iye ??? ?y?? ?????i ????????
???ey E?? E??. A??e 1848 a. ????? n?i ??ye ?yae ???a, ?????? ? ???????
???: i ???i?e e ???e ???iy????e ?????a, ? ??? ????o ??e??e ??y??a, ?
?????e ???????a e ??? ???u ? ??i.

I??i, ????e ???? ??? ??????? ??? ???e ??a???? ?? ??e ??a ??? ???o,
?????i ???yi e ?e?o ??????a. Ia ???? ?????y e ?????a ? ????? Aa??e ??y?
e ???. A?y? ? ?ith ??????ue, ????? ??eth???u ????? a ?e ??? ???i. Y?i
?????? ???????ue ?????a ???, ??iy? ???? ??eth?th a A??? ??? ????, ???? e
??i.

E????eth???y ??a ??? A??? ???? a ??y?a 1848 a. n ???????i ?????i ???????
????y ? ? ????eth ??e ????i? ?? A???. I????eth ??????y ?????i ?ye ? ?ay
E??? ???u ? ??a n E .E??ii. N???ay a ???e ?? ????ay ??y ????? ?????a
????a, a ??i ????a ? a A??eth. A??e 1849 I ??? ???e ?yae ????a??o ???
????i ???i, a 14 ??ey ??iye?ue ??????? ?????e A????e ?????.

I???? A????? ???e ?????ue ??n?????i. O??-E?? ?e ???? ????ny ? ???th e
I??ath I. Ec ???e a A??eth ??c A??eth ????ue 100-?ny?ay ??y ?ae ??????i
?????? I????. I????a ? ?? ??? ????? ????u ????? ?????i ????y, ? ?? ??
???u.

A ???a 1849 a. ????ay ?iey ??????? o ???? A???. E?????a ????? ?? ?c??
?????? ??oy?, ??? ????e ??eth?e ?????ue ????yi. A ???o e ??o A??? ???
??y ??????? ???e?? ??y?.

???th?y a A????? ???e ?????ue ?????. E ?a ? ?a ????i?? ????? ???????a,
?????eth ??????o ????, ?????th ????ey ??eth??a. I?? ? ?????e ??eth?e ??
??????? A????? ???e a 1867 a, a ?o??? ?????i -A??i-A????th ???eth.

N??e ?????

1. ss. I. A?????e, N.A. I????? «A???ay ???y» 2001 N. 111-128.

2. N. E. A??i «E??ey Aa??». 1998 N. 100-109

3. E.A. E??? «A???ay ???y» ???? ???a. 2002 N. 150-164.

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