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Рембрандт Харменс ван Рейн

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?AIA?AIAeO

Oa?iain aai ?aei

1606 – 1669

Aieeaiaeey a 17-i aaea auea iaeiie ec naiuo aiaaouo no?ai Aa?iiu. A a?
noieeoeo Ainoa?aeai noaeaeenue oiaa?u ni anao eiioeia ie?a.
?acaiaaoaaoea aieeaiaeneea eoioeu e aaiee?u oioaee, /oiau i?iecaaaeaiey
eneonnoaa io?aaeaee anth eo aeeciue.

AEeaiienue auea a oo ii?o iaeaieaa iiioey?iui e ?acaeoui aeaeii
eneonnoaa. Eaaeaeue iaei-iaeuenee ninoiyoaeueiue aieeaiaeaoe n/eoae
ea?oeio eo/oei oe?aoaieai naiaai aeeeeua. Ii neiaai nia?aiaiieea, a
aieeaiaeneeo ai?iaeao «ana aeiia auee iaie/eaiu ea?oeiaie».

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iaeie ooaeiaeieee ienaee a iniiaiii ii?o?aou,
ae?oaea – aeai?iaua noeaiu, o?aouee – iaoth?ii?ou, /aoaa?oua – iaecaaee,
ana iie no?aieeenue ecia?aaeaoue ie?oaeathuoth aeeciue ?aaeenoe/anee:
i?aaaeeai, i?inoi, aac i?ee?an. Yoi ei oaeaeinue, e iiiaea ec ieo
i?ineaaeeenue ia aaea.

Ii eae ie auniei auei ianoa?noai aieeaiaeneeo aeeaiienoeaa 17-ai aaea,
anao eo i?aacio?e naiei aaeeeei eneonnoaii ?aia?aiaeo aai ?aei. Ii
aaeee oaeeaeoaeueiie i?inoioie e /aeiaa/iinoueth. N?aaenoaaie aeeaiiene
?aia?aiaeo noiae, eae ieeoi aei iaai, ?ane?uoue aioo?aiiee ie? /aeiaaea,
aai neiaeiua aeooaaiua ia?aaeeaaiey.

?aia?aiaeo ?iaeeeny a aieeaiaeneii ai?iaea Eaeaeaia a naiuea iaeueieea.
Ioaoe oioae, /oiau ii noae o/?iui, ii thiioa iao?e nai? i?ecaaiea a
aeeaiiene. Ii ia?aaoae a Ainoa?aeai, e nei?i e iaio i?eo?e aieueoie
oniao .Aio caeacuaaee iiiai ea?oei e ii?o?aoia. Ii ooiiay neaaa ieeiaaea
ia i?eaeaeaea ?aia?aiaeoa. Ii ia no?aieeny oaiaeaeaoue aiaaoui
ai?iaeaiai. E /ai na?ue?ciaa e aeoaaea noaiiaeeinue aai eneonnoai, oai
iaiueoa i?aaeeinue iii aiaaoui, naiiaeiaieueiui caeac/eeai.

. Ii ienae oi, /oi iaaethaeae a aeecie, e an?, /oi ii ecia?aaeae,
noaiiaeeinue iaiau/aeii iiyoe/iui. Yoi /oaei niaa?oaea eenoue aaeeeiai
ianoa?a. A ea?oeiao ?aia?aiaeoa ainiiaenoaoao iieoi?ae, e iyaeee
cieioenoue naao auaeaeyao ec iaai oeao?u. Naie e?anee, neiaii nia?aoua
aioo?aiiei oaieii, ia?oeatho , eae ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie. «Ecaiaiea
oi?aothueo ec o?aia” (1626 AeA?AAI, IANEI 43 o 33). auei iaienaii
?aia?aiaeoii a aeaaaeoeaoeeaoiai aic?anoa. Iaeioi?ua /a?ou yoiai
i?iecaaaeaiey aiai?yo i iaiiuoiinoe ia/eiathuaai ianoa?a, oioy iiiaia
oaea i?aaeaauaao aai aoaeouea oaaeaa?u. Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue a ea?oeia
i?ioanneiiaeueiua ia?aoe: ioeaee a ia?niaeoeaa e a i?iii?oeeyo. Iaeiaei
oaea nai auai? nthaeaoa — naeaeaoaeuenoai iacaaeneiuo ono?aieaiee
iieiaeiai aeeaiienoea. Aii?aee i?eaycaiiinoyi aieueoeinoaa aieeaiaeneeo
aeeaiienoeaa e auoiaiio aeai?o, ii ia?auaaony e enoi?e/aneie ea?oeia ia
aeaeaeneee nthaeao e ieoao aa n iai?eau/iui aeey „iaeuo aieeaiaeoeaa”
ae?aiaoe/aneei iaeaeii no?anoae. Ainnicaeaiiua ia iieioia e?aeiea
yiioeeiiaeueiua ninoiyiey — no?aoa, oaeana, aiaaa — naeaeaoaeuenoai
?aiiaai eioa?ana ooaeiaeieea e aioo?aiiaio ie?o /aei aaea. Yoi
ianeieueei a?ioaneiia caino?aiea aeooaaiuo i?iyaeaiee e auei enoiaeiie
oi/eie a oai?/aneii iooe ?aia?aiaeoa, eioi?ue i?eaae aai a aeaeueiaeoai
e ioe?uoeth iiiaiieaiiaie aeecie /aeiaa/aneie aeooe. Iaeiiaoe, aaaeii e
oi, /oi oaea caeanue iieiaeie aeeaiienaoe no?aieony e ainnicaeaieth ia
oieueei oa?aeoa?ia, ii e i?aanoaaiiuo i?iaeai. Ecia?aaeay aeaeaeneee
nthaeao ecaiaiey O?enoii oi?aiaoeaa e iaiye ec o?aia, ?aia?aiaeo
ionoaeaaao iuneue i ianiaianoeiinoe noaoiie iiaiie ca aeeciaiiuie
aeaaaie n aunieei i?aaeiacia/aieai /aeiaaea.

Eooiy” ?aia?aiaeoa — naiue auaeathueeny ?enoiie aieeaiaeneie oeieu. N
XVIII noieaoey aei na?aaeeiu 1930-o aiaeia yoio eeno aue ecaanoai iiae
iacaaieai „Aeeiueoea”. Aai iiaia ii?aaeaeaiea — „Eooiy” — i?aaeeiaeeea
A. I. Iaaaaeeia, eioi?ay oaeaeaea a eiiiiceoeee eioa?uea? eooie a aeiia
naiiai ?aia?aiaeoa ia oeeoea Aano?ao a Ainoa?aeaia, a a aeaaiuo
ia?niiaaeao ?enoiea — ecia?aaeaiey Oaiae?eeuea Noiooaeuen e aa
iaeaiueeie aei/a?e Ei?iaeee.

I?iecaaaeaiea c?aeiai ?aia?aiaeoa, yoa eiiiiceoeey ?ane?uaaao aai
ianoa?noai ?eniaaeueueea, aai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia aeaeaiea ie?a, aai
iuouaiea aeecie. Eniieiaiiue aeno?ii a o?aaeeoeeiiiie oaoieea ia?a e
?aciuaee, eeno iino?iai ia ni/aoaiee iaiiiaeo neoiuo eeiee e oiieeo
ia?aoiaeia naaoioaie. Ia?oeathuay, aeoaieay e i?ic?a/iay, iia
i?aia?acoao i?icae/aneoth noeaio ee?e/iue ia?ac.

Eniieiaiiay o?inoieeiaui ia?ii, iia nio?aiyao anth naiaiaeo e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiinoue iaiiaaiiiai iaa?inea n iaoo?u eee ii iaiyoe, eiaaea
?oea ooaeiaeieea aaeaa oniaaaao iaiaoeoue aeaaiua eeiee. Aianoa n oai a
a?aoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaieyo c?aeiai ?aia?aiaeoa aeaaea naiua, eacaeinue
au, i?eaeeceoaeueiua i/a?oaiey iaaeaeaiu ia?iiiie neeie iaiauaiey.
Iiaeao auoue iioiio a iaeaiueeii iaa?inea, i?eiaaeeaaeauai iocath, oae
ii?aaeaao oiaiea ia?aaeaoue ianeieueeeie oo?eoaie ia oieueei iico e
iaeee aeaiueiu, ii e aeooaaiia ninoiyiea e aeaaea oo aoiinoa?o ethaae e
aeiaa?ey, eioi?ay neiaii ieoouaaao aa e ?aaaiea.

?aia?aiaeo oeaiee a /aeiaaea ia ciaoiinoue, ia aiaaonoai, ia aiaoithth
e?anioo, a niiniaiinoue iuneeoue, /oanoaiaaoue, ia?aaeeaaoue. Ethaeiuie
aa?iyie i?iecaaaeaiee ?aia?aiaeoa auee i?inoua ethaee. Ia aai iieioiao
/aeiaae ?aaeoaony, nei?aeo, ia/aeeony, no?aaeaao.

A iaiau/aeii aieiothueo e i?iieeiiaaiiuo ii?o?aoao ?aia?aiaeoa eae au
iuouaaoue i?iaeeooth /aeiaaeii aeeciue. Ecia?aaeay naieo aeeceeo,
ae?ocae, ieueo, noa?eeia, eaaeaeue ?ac n oaeeaeoaeueiie ci?einoueth
ia?aaeaaae ii eciai/eaua aeooaaiua aeaeaeaiey, aeeaoth o?aiaoiinoue
au?aaeaiee eeoea, niaio iano?iaiee.

Ii?o?ao iiaeeeie aeaiueiu, ii o?aaeeoeee (ii aac aeinoaoi/iuo
iniiaaiee), eiaioaiue „Ii?o?aoii aeaiu a?aoa”, iaienai ?aia?aiaeoii a
iicaeiee ia?eiae aai oai?/anoaa, eiaaea auee nicaeaiu naiua
i?ineaaeaiiua ec aai ii?o?aoiuo ?aaio. Iiaeaeyie aeey iiiaeo ec ieo
neoaeeee eeai ae?ocuey ooaeiaeieea, eeai ethaee ec aeeceiai aio e?oaa. A
oaeeo ii?o?aoao en/acaao i?eau/iay aeenoaioeey, ioaeaeythuay ooaeiaeieea
io ii?o?aoe?oaiiai, e iaaeaeo ieie onoaiaaeeaaaony oa noaiaiue
aeiaa?eoaeueiiai acaeiiiiieiaiey, eioi?ay ninoaaeyao iniiao aeey
i?iieeiiaaiiiai ?ane?uoey aioo?aiiaai ie?a iiaeaee. N?aaee
?aia?aiaeoianeeo ii?o?aoia 1650-o aiaeia ii?o?ao ec iaoaai nia?aiey
auaeaeyaony iniaie eiioeaio?e?iaaiiinoueth ia?aciiai e eiiiiceoeeiiiiai
caiunea. Naaoii auoaa/aiu eeoue eeoei e aa?oiyy /anoue oeao?u;
neiaeaiiua ?oee, iau/ii noieue au?aceoaeueiua o ?aia?aiaeoa, ni?yoaiu a
?oeaaa. Oaiii-e?aniue ieaoie, ia?aieythuee aieiao, iiae/a?eeaaao
aiaaonoai ieanoe/aneie ithaine?iaee eeoea e iaeiia?aiaiii oneeeaaao
aia/aoeaiea iouaaeeiaiiinoe aa?ieie io ie?oaeathuaai, aa iieioth
iia?oaeaiiinoue a naie aioo?aiiee ie?. I?iecaaaeaiea yoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
oiio oeio ?aia?aiaeoianeeo ?aaio, eioi?ua iacuaatho
ii?o?aoaie-aeia?aoeyie. AEaiueia ecia?aaeaia caeanue a ninoiyiee iniaie
aioo?aiiae nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe, eiaaea iuneue e /oanoai neeou aiaaeeii e
?aciuoeaiea i?aaenoaao a i?aiea oii/aeoeo yiioeeiiaeueiuo iooaieia, a
aeoaieia ia?aaeeaaiea iaioaeaeeii io oie ioae?inoe, eioi?ay
aini?eieiaaony eae eoia i?iaeeoie aeecie. E naia ?aia?aiaeoianeay
aeeaiienue, aai ciaiaieoay naaoioaiue — eiio?anou i?aea e naaoa,
aeeiaieea eo neiaeiaeoeo a?aaeaoeee io i?ic?a/iuo oaiae aei ieaiaiathueo
oeaaoiauo ?aoeaenia — aunooiaao eae c?eiia aiieiuaiea aeooiaiiai
aiaaonoaa /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe.

Iaeia ec aai iicaeieo ea?oei – «Aica?auaiea aeoaeiiai nuia». Caeanue
ecia?aae?i /aeiaae, eioi?ue eiaaea-oi iieeioe io/ee aeii e iinea
aeieaeo eao neeoaiee, ieuaou, oieaeaiee aa?ioeny e iooeo. E i?anoa?aeue
ioaoe, ineaioee io ai?y, i?iuaao aai, iaieiay ae?iaeaueie ?oeaie.

E naiui cia/eoaeueiui nicaeaieyi iicaeiaai ia?e iaea aai oai?/anoaa
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ea?oeia „A?oaena?en, Aiai e Ynoe?ue”(1660

OIENO, IANEI, 73 o 94).. Aa nthaeao — yieciae aeaeaeneie eaaaiaeu i
oea?eoea Ynoe?e, iaee/eaoae ia?aae naiei noi?oaii, ia?neaeneei oea?ai
A?oaena?enii, eiaa?iua caiuneu aai i?eaeeaeaiiiai Aiaia, a?iceaoea
oie/oiaeaieai oeaeiio ia?iaeo. Neoiua, ii e?anii?a/eaua aeanou e iicu
ia?niiaaeae ?ane?uaatho ae?aiaoe/aneee eiioeeeo iaaeaeo ieie. A ea?oeia
oea?eo iai?yaeaiiay aoiinoa?a iaeeaeaiey. Oieueei /oi caeii/eea naia
neiai Ynoe?ue, A?oaena?en ono?aiee acaeyae ia?aae niaie, ?oea aai aioiaa
iiaeiyoue aeace; iiae a?ocii iaaeiaiee niaioeny Aiai. Naeaaoenue, ii
iaeeaeaao i?eaiai? oea?y. Oi?aeanoai i?aaaeu, inoaeaeaiea cea,
aiiaeooaaeaiiinoue Ynoe?e e iiaeaaeaiiinoue Aiaia au?aaeaiu a ea?oeia
/a?ac neiaeiua niiinoaaeaiey naaoa, oaie e oeaaoiaua iooaiee. Oeao?a
Ynoe?e ica?aia neyieai, aa iaeaaeaea n aeeeiiui oeaeoii naa?eaao, eae
anee au iia auea iie?uoa ae?aaioeaiiu ie eaiiyie. A aeoaieoth oueio
iia?oaeai Aiai. ?aia?aiaeo aeinoeaaao oaeeaeoaeueiie aeoaeiu a ia?aaea/a
aioo?aiiae aeecie naieo aa?iaa, eo aeooiaiie yia?aee. A iai?yaeaiiie
yiioeeiiaeueiie n?aaea ea?oeiu iooaiee naaoa e oeaaoa aini?eieiathony
eae aiaeiae aeooiaiuo e yoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae.

?aia?aiaeo aue ia oieueei aeeaiienoeai, ii e auaeathueiny ianoa?ii
ioi?oa.

?aia?aiaeo Oa?iain aai ?aei iineaaeiea aiaeu aeee a ieuaoa, caauoue
anaie. Ieeoi ec aiaaouo caeac/eeia e ia aniiieiae oaea i aaeeeii
aieeaiaeneii ooaeiaeieea. A aaaeiaeoai eaa?oaea Ainoa?aeaia ia?aaeei
ano?a/aee aai – iaeeiieiai noa?eea, /uey aaooay iaeaaeaea auea caia/eaia
e?aneaie. Ii no?iaua aeeciaiiua eniuoaiey ia neiieee aai. Ii i?iaeieaeae
oii?ii ?aaioaoue e ienae oae, eae iiaeneacuaaei aio na?aeoea

Iiaeaioiaeea Eiiuoaaa Aeaoa?eia 6 eeann

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