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Реформы Александра ІІ

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Iaaieoiai?neee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao.

eaoaae?a enoi?ee ?innee

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a II a ioeaieao ioa/anoaaiiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae.

Aaaaeaiea.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu ?aoi?iu 1860-1870-o aiaeia aiiaue i?eaeaeatho
aieiaiea oe?ieeo neiaa ?inneeneiai iauanoaa. Eioa?an, i?iyaeyaiue e iei,
iineo naaiaeiy i?aeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. A iaoe aeie, eiaaea ?inney a
i/a?aaeiie ?ac anooieea ia iooue ei?aiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee, ethaee n
iniaui i?eno?anoeai aaeyaeuaathony ia i?inoi a i?ioeia naiae no?aiu, ii
eiaiii a oa aai ia?eiaeu, eiaaea ainoaea?noai ieacuaaeinue ia ia?aeiia e
i?eoiaeeeinue auae?aoue iooe aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey no?aiu.

A naaiaeiyoiai caeioa?aniaaiiii acaeyaea ia niauoey aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX
aaea anoue naie iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu. Ii
iaycaoaeueii ioaeai e iieo/ai, iineieueeo, eae aeaaii ecaanoii,”
ioae?inoue iaoee e aa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai a
oiaiee ecaeaeaoue o?iee ec enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeiai.”1 N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey, aiaeec ?aoi?i, i?iaiaeeiuo Aeaenaiae?ii II e aai
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, eiaao iaiaeoth i?aeoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau ioeaiea ieioaoaai auea
iaeneiaeueii iauaeoeaia e o?acaa, /oi ia anaaaea iieo/aaony.

Enoi?eaa?aoe/aneee iaci?.

Iniiaiua ?aoi?iu 1861-1874aa. a ?innee oi?ioi eco/aiu, iniaaiii
e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia, i?aaenoaaeaiiay a ia?aie aeaaa. Aieueoia ianoi a
ia?aie aeaaa caieiaao ?aaioa A.A. Eeoaaea “Ia?aai?io 1861 aiaea a
?innee: ii/aio aea ?aaeeciaaoue ?aoi?iaoi?neay aeueoa?iaoeaa.” – I.:
Iieeoecaeao, 1991

A ea/anoaa i?e/eiu iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu A.A.
Eeoaae i?eaiaeeo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo eciaiaiee o?aaiaaei i?iiuoeaiiia ?acaeoea
no?aiu. Aei oao ii?, iiea a no?aia ia?aaaouaathuay iaoiaeeeanue ia
iaiooaeoo?iie noaaeee, iia iiaea nouanoaiaaoue ia aaca e?aiinoiiai
o?oaea. A.A. Eeoaae i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi e?ecen ?inneeneie
ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe aucaai nio?aiaieai e?aiinoiiai i?aaa,
oiaaea eae oaa?eea o?aaiaaea niaa?oaiii eiie, /ai ia iaiooaeoo?a,
aeenoeeieeiu e i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, o?aaiaaea
ea/anoaaiii eiiai ?aai/aai, ee/ii naiaiaeiiai /aeiaaea, eioi?iai auei au
auaiaeii iao/eoue ia?auaieth n iaoeiiie, oi anoue naeaeaoue
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui ?aai/ei.2 Anee aea ia?aoeoueny e ai?iiaeiauaathuae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e niioonoaothuei ae i?iecaiaenoaai, oeaeeeii iniiaaiiii
ia i?eioaeeoaeueiii o?oaea, oi eo ionoaaaiea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
neacuaaeinue ia aiaiiie iiue eiia?ee, /oi yaeeinue ia iineaaeiae
i?e/eiie oieceoaeueiiai ii?aaeaiey a E?uineie aieia.

A.A. Eeoaae ieoao i oii, /oi ?inney XIX aaea – no?aia aa?a?iay, a aa
yeiiiie/aneee iaeee ii?aaeaeaiii naeueneia oicyenoai. Eiaiii caeanue, ii
aai iiaieth, iaoiaeeony n?aaeioi/ea e?ecena oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneie
nenoaiu. Ii ?anniao?eaaao noaoenoeeo aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?innee oeaaii e
aeaeaao auaiae, /oi ?onneee oeaa naeaaae iiceoeee ia caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneii
?uiea. Aeey oiai, /oiau ?innee oaea?aeaoue yoe ii?oeee, iaiaoiaeeii auei
oi?ne?iaaoue i?iecaiaenoai oeaaa, oaaee/eoue aai iauaiu, oeo/oaoue
no?oeoo?o oeaaiiai aaeaina. A.A. Eeoaae i?iaiaeeo aiaeec iiiaue/ueeo
oicyenoa *a?iicaiiiai oeaio?a ?innee e i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi
e?aiinoiia i?aai ea?aei ?ieue oi?iica a aaaeouae io?anee ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa.3

Aoi?ie i?e/eiie A.A. Eeoaae iacuaaao E?uineoth aieio. Aeaoeoeeo
athaeaeaoa, nie?auaiea yenii?oa oeaaa, eueia, eaeiee, naia, nie?auaiea
eiii?oa iaoei, oeiiea, e?aneoaeae, ?ae?ooneea iaai?u e i?ecuau a
iiie/aiea a 1853 – 1855aa., oaaee/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaoo?aeueiuo
iiaeiiinoae – ana yoi yeiiiie/aneea iineaaenoaey E?uineie aieiu, eioi?ua
iiaeeyee ia ?acoeueoaou naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

A oeaeii, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi A.A. Eeoaae iiae?iaii inaauaao oiae
e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu, /ai e aucuaaao eioa?an. Iiae?iaiia inaauaiea
oiaea ?aaiou iaae e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iie iicaieyao eo/oa ociaoue e
iiiyoue anth neiaeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey yoie ?aoi?iu. Ioaeaeueiay aeaaa
iiiia?aoee A.A. Eeoaaea iinayuaia caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoai ?aoi?iu 19
oaa?aey 1861 aiaea. Aaoi? ?anniao?eaaao aeieoiaiou o?ao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae:
“Iauaa iieiaeaiea”, ”Ianoiua iieiaeaiey” e “Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea”.
Aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi oaeia onoaaiay a?aiioa, eaeea i?aaa
e?anoueyi auee caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaiu a “Iaieoanoa” e “Iieiaeaiey
19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea”. Ii aieaa iiae?iaii i ee/iuo i?aaao e?anoueyi
aiai?eony a “Iauai iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe”. A.A. Eeoaae ?anniao?eaaao aieinoiia iauanoaaiiia
oi?aaeaiea, ieoao i naiaia?acea e i?ioeai?a/ee aieinoiiai noaea. N
iaeiie noi?iiu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai no?aieeinue iaania/eoue iacaaeneiinoue
aieiniiai noaea, cai?aoea aieinoiiio noa?oeia e noa?inoa ia oieueei
aiaoeaaoueny a noaeii?iecaiaenoai, ii e i?enoonoaiaaoue i?e ?acai?a
aeae. I?eaiai?u aieinoiiai noaea oeene?iaaoue a “eieaa i?eaiai?ia
aieinoiiai noaea”, oioy naii noaeii?iecaiaenoai auei neiaaniui.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, caeii ia eeoae iiiaueeia i?aaa aio/eiiie iieeoeee,
iie i?iaeieaeaee iaaece?aoue “ca nio?aiaieai iauanoaaiiiai ii?yaeea e
iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe” ia naiae caiea, ii “anyeia aoenoai eee
ianeeea” i?anaeaeinue /a?ac noa?inoo, iineaaeiee aeieaeai aue e
i?aaieciauaaoue iiiiuue iiiaueeo a neo/aa noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee. Anee aea
noa?inoa ia auiieiye yoeo ooieoeee, iiiauee iia aeaeiaaoueny ie?iaiio
iin?aaeieeo.4

E?aoeia eceiaeaiea niaea?aeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia i iicaiaeueiii
ono?ienoaa auaoeo iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i
th?eaee/aneeo i?aaeaeao caiaeueiiai i?aaa ia oieueei e?anoueyi, neieueei
iiiaueeia. Iie ie a eiai neo/aa ia io?aaeatho ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey
neiaeeaoaainy a auaoae iiiaue/ueae aea?aaia a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee
yoeo th?eaee/aneeo ii?i.5

?aaioa E.A. Caoa?iaie “Aeaenaiae? II” (Aii?inu
enoi?ee.-1992.-6/7.-n.58-79) i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea enoi?e/aneiai
ii?o?aoa. Enoi?ee i?ineaaeeaaao aanue aeeciaiiue iooue Aeaenaiae?a II –
io ?iaeaeaiey e aei aai o?aae/aneie aeaaee. Aeey ian yoa ?aaioa
eioa?ania oai, /oi E.A. Caoa?iaa oaeaeyao aieiaiea e?anoueyineie
?aoi?ia, a eiaiii aa ia/aeueiiio yoaio. Aeaenaiae? II iaeeaeaao
“eieoeeaoea” io aeai?yinoaa, ia i?aaei?eieiay ?aoeoaeueiuo oaaia, oioy
eiie?aoiua aa?eaiou ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa auee aio ecaanoiu. I?eia?ii
neoaeee i?iaeo inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi a eiaiee oaoee Aeaenaiae?a II
aaeeeie eiyaeia Aeaiu Iaaeiaiu n. Ea?eiaea Iieoaaneie aoaa?iee,
caaeoiaiiue a ea/anoaa i?eioeeieaeueiiai ia?acoea aeey i?aaenoiyuae
iauae ?aoi?iu. I?iaeo, ninoaaeaiiue aee?aeoi?ii Oicyenoaaiiiai
aeaia?oaiaioa Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae – eeaea?ii eeaa?aeueiie
ath?ie?aoee I.A. Ieethoeiui, aue iiaeai io eiaie Aeaiu Iaaeiaiu, /oiau
ecaaaeaoue ?acae?aaeaiey e io?eoeaoaeueiie ?aaeoeee Aeaenaiae?a II,
eioi?ue n/eoae I.A. Ieethoeia “e?aniui”. Iaeiaei Aeaenaiae? II ioeeiiee
aai , iioeae?oy naia ?aoaiea oai, /oi aeaaeaeueoeu eiaiee naie
auneacaee, a eaeie noaiaie iie iieaaatho aiciiaeiui oeo/oeoue o/anoue
naieo e?anoueyi. E.A. Caoa?iaa ieoao, /oi /a?ac aeaa aiaea, a
ieoya?a-iiya?a 1858a., iiae aeaaeaieai iiauo ianoiyoaeuenoa e iiaie
?annoaiiaee ei ioee/ey e?aiinoiiai i?aaa iioea eiaiii ii yoiio iooe,
eioi?ue i?aaeeaaae I.A. Ieethoei. A a eiioea 1856a. Aeaenaiae? II ia/ae
n oiai, /oi aio oaea auei ciaeiii ii iiuoo, n o/?aaeaeaieai Nae?aoiiai
eiieoaoa ii e?anoueyineiio aeaeo.

I ?aaioa Nae?aoiiai eiieoaoa E.A. Caoa?iaa ia oiiieiaao. Iia ieoao i
iaiieieaaeiinoe oea?y ii aeaiiiio aii?ino, ianiio?y ia aacaeaenoaea
Nae?aoiiai eiieoaoa. Iiiuoea Aeaenaiae?a II iiaeoieeiooue iiiaueeia e
onei?aieth iiaeaioiaee ?aoi?iu nianoaaiiinoe i?eia?ii, ecaeaa oeac ia
inaiaiaeaeaiee oaeaeueiuo e?anoueyi aac caiee io 20 ethiy 1858 aiaea,
ieacaeanue iaoaea/iie; iie ia i?eiyee oaeiai inaiaiaeaeaiey. ”E, – eae
ieoao E.A. Caoa?iaa, – ia o?aaiaaeinue aieueoie aeaeueiiaeaeiinoe, /oiau
i?aaeoaaaeaoue aiaeiae/ioth iiceoeeth iiiaue/ueaai e?anoueyinoaa.”6
Aieueoia aeeyiea ia Aeaenaiae?a II ieacuaae ss.I. ?inoiaoeaa, eioi?ue
aue ca inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi n caieae ca aueoi. Iiyoiio, n/eoaao E.A.
Caoa?iaa, ii o?aaiaaieth Aeaenaiae?a II, Aeaaiue eiieoao i?eiye eiaiii
oaeoth i?ia?aiio inaiaiaeaeaiey.

I nicaeaiee ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo Eiiennee E.A. Caoa?iaa ieoao eae i “iiaii
iao?aaeeoeeiiiii ainoaea?noaaiiii o/?aaeaeaiee aeey iiaeaioiaee i?iaeoia
e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu.”7

E.A. Caoa?iaa ieoao, /oi aeaaiui aeaeii oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a II
noaea ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa e eiaiii yoi aeaei iniiaaiea
nia?aiaiieeai iacaaoue aai Oea?ai-Inaiaiaeeoaeai.

Iia ieoao i oa?aeoa?iie ?aaeoeee Aeaenaiae?a II ia iaaeiaieuenoai
e?anoueyi oneiaeyie ?aoi?iu – oiaiueoaieai iaaeaeia e aunieeie
iiaeiiinoyie e aueoiiuie ieaoaaeaie. Enoi?ee i?eaiaeeo oeeoaoo ec
aunooieaiey Aeaenaiae?a II 15 aaaonoa 1861a. a Iieoaaa i?aae
e?anoueyineeie noa?inoaie, a eioi?ii ii cayaeo i oii, /oi ii aeae ei
aieth e ae?oaie ia aoaeao, /oiau e?anoueyia eniieiyee caeii e
Iieiaeaiea, o?oaeeeenue e auee iineooiu aeanoyi e iiiaueeai.

AEanoieinoue iiceoeee oea?y i?aaie/ii oaeeaaeanue n
iao?ea?oaeueii-naioeiaioaeueiui ioiioaieai aai e ia?iaeo: ”Au iie aeaoe,
a y aai ioaoe e iieth aiaa ca aan, oae aea eae e ca anao, eioi?ua, eae e
au, aeecee iiaio na?aeoeo.” – aiai?ee ii a 1863a. aeaiooaoeee
noa?iia?yaeoeaa, ia?aoeaoeony n aae?anii e Oea?th-Inaiaiaeeoaeth. E.A.
Caoa?iaa i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi aaeeeee aeo ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa
ia iieieaaae o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ioiioaiey e ia?iaeo, a eioi?ii ii aeaeeo
enoi/iee nee e n?aaenoa aeey oneeaiey iiia?oee, ?anoe?aiey eiia?ee,
oe?aieaiey aa i?anoeaea.

I aeaeueiaeoeo ?aoi?iao E.A. Caoa?iaa eeoue oiiieiaao. Ia ioiioaiee
Aeaenaiae?a II e eiinoeoooeee noaiiaeony ynii ec i?eaaaeaiiiai
auneacuaaiey oea?y a aanaaea n i?onneei iineii I. Aenia?eii 10 iiya?y
1861 aiaea. Aaea Aeaenaiae? II neacae: “Ia?iae aeaeeo a iiia?oa
iineaiieea aiaa, iooea e anaaeanoiiai ainiiaeeia. Yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea,
eioi?ia eiaao neeo ii/oe ?aeeaeiciiai /oanoaa, iaioaeaeeii io ee/iie
caaeneiinoe io iaiy, e y neeiiai aeoiaoue, /oi y ia ioeaathnue. Ei?iia
aeaao iia /oanoai aeanoe, anee ei iinooieoueny, oi iiianao oua?a
iaoeeiiaeueiue i?anoeae. Aeoaieia oaaaeaiea, eioi?ui ?onneee ia?iae
ecae?aaea, a neeo i?e?iaeaeaiiiai /oanoaa ie?oaeaao o?ii naiaai oea?y,
iaaiciiaeii ono?aieoue. ss aaci anyeeo nie?aoee au aaoi?eoa?iinoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, anee au oioae aaanoe ooaea i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeai?yinoaa
eee iaoeee. Aia ciaao, eoaea iu aiiaua i?eaeai a aeaea e?anoueyi e
iiiaueeia, anee aaoi?eoao oea?y aoaeao iaaeinoaoi/ii iieiui, /oiau
ieacuaaoue ?aoathuaa aicaeaenoaea.”8

E aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaia?aie/aiiay aeanoue iiia?oee niinianoaiaaea
i?iaaaeaieth ?aoi?iu.

Ia i?eia?a Oeieyiaeee e Iieueoe iieacaiu onooiee ni noi?iiu Aeaenaiae?a
II: ainnoaiiaeaiea naeia a Oeieyiaeee a 1863a. e i?iaaaeaiea aa?a?iie
?aoi?iu a Iieueoa. Iaeiaei ?aoea e?anoueyineee aii?in a Iieueoa,
ainnoaiea auei aeanoiei iiaeaaeaii, /oi niioaaonoaiaaei oiaaeaoiaio
iano?iaieth i?aayueo e?oaia e iauanoaaiiuo eae, eioi?ua
eiinieeaee?iaaeenue aie?oa aaeeeiaea?aeaaiuo eaeae. Aeeyiea ainnoaiey
1865 aiaea a Iieueoa eiaei aieueoia cia/aiea ia oneeaiea ?aaeoeeiiiuo
oaiaeaioeee a “aa?oao” e a iauanoaa.

Eciaiaiey a iieeoeea Aeaenaiae?a II, neeiiaiea e io?aieoaeueiui ia?a, e
?aaeoeee E. A. Caoa?iaa oaycuaaao n iieooaieai Ae. A. Ea?aeiciaa o ai?io
eaoiaai naaea 4 ai?aey 1866 aiaea, n ?acaeaiaiiinoueth a ee/iie aeecie e
no?anoueth, /oi io?aceeinue ia aioo?aiiai ninoiyiee Aeaenaiae?a II, aai
ie?iaini?eyoee. E. A. Caoa?iaa caia/aao, /oi ana aea ?aoi?iu auee
i?iaeieaeaiu, oioy eieoeeaoeaa a i?iaaaeaiee e?oiiiianooaaiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee, ia/aouo ioee/iie e?aiinoiiai i?aaa iinoaiaiii
oo?a/eaaeanue.

Aieaa oe?iei E. A. Caoa?iaa inaauaao aiaoithth iieeoeeo ?innee.
Ioiioaiey n NOA, ssiiieae, I?onneae, Aano?i-Aaia?eae. Caaiaaaiey a
N?aaeiae Acee. ?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia 1877 – 1878 aiaeia.

Caeai/eaaao E. A. Caoa?iaa naith ?aaioo iienaieai iineaaeiaai aiaea
aeecie Aeaenaiae?a II e oa??i?enoe/aneei aeoii 1 ia?oa. Enoi?ee aeaao
ioeaieo Aeaenaiae?o II e aai “Aaeeeei ?aoi?iai”, eioi?ua, eae ieacaeinue
a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe auee iai?aaeaiu ia ia “oeo/oaiea auoa” ia?iaea, ia
ia yeiiiie/aneia i?ioeaaoaiea, ia ia ?acaeoea auai?iiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai ia/aea e nicaeaiea iniia i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa, a
ia oe?aieaiea naiiaea?aeaaey, oneeaiea aiaiiie iiue, ?anoe?aiee eiia?ee
ai eiy aaee/ey ?innee, eae iiieiae aai Aeaenaiae? II e aai ie?oaeaiey.
Oaeia aa?aeeeo E.A. Caoa?iaie.

Oaeaea a iniiao ?aaiou aioea noaouey I.Ae. Aeieaeeiaa “Aeaenaiae? II e
ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa” (Aii?inu enoi?ee. -1998. -?10. –n.39-51)
Iuneue i oii, /oi aeaeaiea oea?y inouanoaeoue ?aoi?io aua ia aeaeaei ec
iaai ?aoi?iaoi?a iieiii niunea neiaa, i?ineaaeeaaaony /a?ac anth ?aaioo
I.Ae. Aeieaeeiaa. Ia/aei ?aoi?i I.Ae. Aeieaeeia ?anoeaieaaao eae aieaa
eee iaiaa iaaeoiaiiie iiiuoeie Aeaenaiae?a II iaeoe auoiae ec e?ecena
iiae aeeyieai eiiieaena ?aoeeiiaeueiuo iiaoaeeoaeueiuo iioeaia. A
ea/anoaa iioeaia I.Ae. Aeieaeeia i?eaiaeeo no?aieaiea ainnoaiiaeoue
iiaei?aaiiue aiaiiui ii?aaeaieai i?anoeae ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaeioa?aoeoue nioeeaeueiua iio?ynaiey, ?an/ao ia iiaea?iecaoeeth
yeiiiieee e i?aiaeieaiey oicyenoaaiiie e oaoie/aneie ionoaeinoe io
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai, iaia?aiea iiaeiyoue aaoi?eoao naiiaea?aeaaey
a Aa?iia e aioo?e no?aiu.9

?aaioo Nae?aoiiai eiieoaoa I.Ae. Aeieaeeia ioeaieaaao eae
iai?iaeoeoeaioth. Aa ?acoeueoaoii noae ieai ia?ii?eyoee, ?ann/eoaiiue ia
o?e iaii?aaeaeaiii aeieaeo ia?eiaea. Aaoi? noaouee i?eaiaeeo io?uaie ec
ainiiieiaiee Ae.A. Iaieaineiai, iaeiiai ec aeiaa?aiiuo nio?oaeieeia
aaeeeiai eiycy Eiinoaioeia Ieeieaaae/a, i ii?o/aiee anai /eaiai eiieoaoa
iaienaoue niioaaonoaothuea i?iaeou oeacia e /oi ?ane?eio Iaceiiao aue
iaiaeeaeaiiui iiai?ioii a aeaea. Ioeaieaay ?ane?eio Iaceiiao, I.Ae.
Aeieaeeia i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi yoio aeieoiaio a aeacao eiia?aoi?a ia
aue i?ia?aiiie i?aia?aciaaiee aeey anae ?innee.

Aieaa iiae?iaii I.Ae. Aeieaeeia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia ?aaioa ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo
eiiennee ai aeaaa n ss.E. ?inoiaoeaaui. Oi?iaeueii ?aaeaeoeeiiiua
eiiennee yaeyeenue aniiiiaaoaeueiui i?aaiii i?e Aeaaiii eiieoaoa, a a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eo ninoaa e e?oa aeayoaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeyeenue ss.E.
?inoiaoeaaui. A i?aaenoaaeaiee oea?y, ii iiaieth I.Ae. Aeieaeeiaa, aeey
oniaoa ?aoi?iu aaaeia auea ee/iinoue ss.E. ?inoiaoeaaa, a ia naiue
einoeooo ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee. Aeaenaiae? II ?aaoey?ii /eoae
aeieeaaeu i?aaenaaeaoaeae ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee – ?inoiaoeaaa e n
oaa?aey 1860a. A.I. Iaieia. I.Ae. Aeieaeeia ioia/aao, /oi Aeaenaiae? II
ionoaeaae aeia?iaieueiinoue niaeaoaiee i aueoia iaaeaeia ia ec iaeiie
eeoue aiycie ia?ooeoue nianoaaiie/aneea i?aaa aeai?yinoaa, a iioiio /oi
aio auei a oie aea ia?a iai?eaieaii i?eioaeaeaiea e aueoio e?anoueyi.

Oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an eieaa E.ss. Eyoaiei
“Oea?ue-Inaiaiaeeoaeue”.-I.,-1994, iinayuaiiay ia nianoaaiii ?aoi?iai
1860-1870-o aa., a eiia?aoi?o Aeaenaiae?o II. Aaoi? i?ineaaeeaaao
aeeciaiiue iooue iiia?oa, iuoaaony ?acia?aoueny a aai neiiaoeyo e
aioeiaoeyo, aiaeece?oy aeaaiua aeayiey oea?y, a oaeaea aeaao
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey Aeaenaiae?a II.

Aiaeece?oy aeaaiua aeayiey oea?y, E.ss. Eyoaiei iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaao
iiaeaioiaeo e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu, oaeaeyy aieiaiea, aeaaiui ia?acii,
o/anoeth Aeaenaiae?a II a yoii aeaea e aai ioiioaieai n aeeaeaeoei
ie?oaeaieai. E.I. Eyoaiei aeaao oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaeiuo iieeoe/aneeo
aeayoaeae oiai a?aiaie: N.N. Eaineiai, I.A. Ieethoeia, ss.I.
?inoiaoeaaa, Aaeeeiai eiycy Eiinoaioeia Ieeieaaae/a.

Oeaeoth aeaao aaoi? ioaiaeeo aeey ?anniio?aiey aiaoiae iieeoeee. Oaeaea
aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyao, oae iacuaaaiiio ia?eiaeo eiio??aoi?i, eiaaea
noaea i?aiaeaaeaoue iieeoe/aneay ?aaeoeey.

A i/a?ea O. Iiaeoeeie “Aaeeeea ?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a II” (io eeeaeaeaoeee
oaeiie iieeoeee e aaaaeaieth noaea i?enyaeiuo). ?anniio?aiu ana ?aoi?iu
Aeaenaiae?a II a iaci?iii aeaea.

Aaoi? ieoao, /oi ?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a II auee aeaenoaeoaeueii aaeeee ii
aeoaeia oao ia?aiai, eioi?ua iie i?iaaee a nioeeaeueiii, yeiiiie/aneii e
iieeoe/aneii no?ia.

O.Iiaeoeeay ia?auaao aieiaiea ia oi, /oi aieueoeinoai o/aiuo, eioi?ua
eco/aee e aiaeece?iaaee ?aoi?iu, eae i?aaeei, auee iaaeiaieueiu eo
iieiaei/aoinoueth e iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth. Oaeie acaeyae i?enou
eaaiio e?ueo ?inneeneie eioaeeeaaioeee, o?aaeeoeeiiii ninoaaeyaoaio aa
aieueoeinoai. Ii ?aoi?ia – yoi ia ?aaiethoeey. A iioiio, ioeaieaay
nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, iiaeii aiai?eoue eeoue i oii, /oi
iie ioe?uee aei?iao aeey iinoaiaiiiai e aeiaieueii iaaeeaiiiai ?acaeoey
?innee ii eaieoaeenoe/aneiio iooe.

O. Iiaeoeeay i?eaiaeeo aaaeioth, ii /anoi oioneaaioth ec aeaea
i?iaeaio: aioiai ee iauanoai e ainoaea?noai e ?aoi?iai, eiathony ee a
iaee/ee neeu, niiniaiua aiieioeoue ?aoi?iu a aeeciue.10 A ia?aoth
iieiaeio XIX aaea auee ?ac?aaioaiu e ii?iaiaaiu ia i?aeoeea ioaeaeueiua
yeaiaiou ioaeaeueiie e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu.

O. Iiaeoeeay i?eaiaeeo iaeei ec aaaeiuo oaeoi?ia i?e i?iaaaeaiee ?aoi?iu
– yoi oeiainiaia iaania/aiea. A nayce n ii?aaeaieai a E?uineie aieia
?inney eniuouaaea na?ueaciia oeiainiaua cao?oaeiaiey. Ai iiiaii eiaiii
iiyoiio oaiiu ?aoi?iu ii?aaeaeyoue oeiainiaua iieiaeaieai ?innee.
Iaeiaei, ieoao O. Iiaeoeeay, ?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaea aioo?eiieeoe/aneay
neooaoeey. Eiaiii iia auioaeeea Aeaenaiae?a II iieoe ia ?aoi?iu,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey eioi?uo ii ioee/ii iiieiae.

Aeaeaa O. Iiaeoeeay aeaao e?aoeoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo anao iniiaiuo ?aoi?i e
aeaeaao auaiae i oii, /oi ?aoi?iu auee ia?aaiicia/iu ii oiio aeeyieth,
eioi?ua iie ieacaee ia ?acaeoea ?inneeneie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. A iaeieo
neo/ayo, n oi/ee c?aiey nia?aiaiieeia, iie auee iaaeinoaoi/ii
?aaeeeaeueiu, ae?oaea ?aoi?iu n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa auee neeoeii
?aaiethoeeiiiu e iio?aaiaaeinue i?eiyoea ?yaea ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, /oiau
eo ianeieueei “iii?aaeoue”.11

?. Aaeionia a noaouea ”Aeaa e?anoueyineea ?aoi?iu: 1861 e 1907 aiaeu.”
?anniao?eaaao e?anoueyineoth ?aoi?io Aeaenaiae?a II e noieuieineoth
aa?a?ioth ?aoi?io 1907 aiaea. Aaoi? aeaeaao aeiaieueii ianneienoe/iue
auaiae a ioiioaiee eoiaia e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea. Ii ioia/aao,
/oi iiiaea oicyenoaa iiiaueeia ieacaeenue iaei?aioaaaeueiuie eee
oauoi/iuie, a ia?ano?ieoueny ia eioaineaiue iooue ?acaeoey iie ia
niiaee. Iiyoiio ei i?eoiaeeeinue eneaoue iiaua enoi/ieee aeioiaea:
caieiaoue ioeoea?neea aeieaeiinoe a a?iee, iinooiaoue ia neoaeao a
ainoaea?noaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey, aaiee, eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee.

Eoiaii ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea ?. Aaeionia n/eoaao ineoaeaiea aea?aaie e, eae
neaaenoaea, nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa a ?innee ia aeooo ianaeaiey.
Eae aeieacaoaeuenoai naiae i?aaiou ii i?eaiaeeo aeaiiua noaoenoeee: 448
ea. a 1861-1865aa. aei 408 a 1886-1890aa. e 392 ea. 1891-1895aa.12
Iaeiaei, iaaei neacaoue, /oi aeaiiua caineie noaoenoeee aiai?yo ia
ia?aoiii. I?eaiaey aeaiiua ca 1891-1895aa., ?. Aaeionia ia ieoao i oii,
/oi 1890-1891 aiaeu auee iao?iaeaeiuie ca 19 aae, a neaaeiaaoaeueii
anoanoaaiii aoaeao nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa.

E iiaeiaiui auaiaeai i?eoiaeeo E. Nie?iia a naiae noaouea “Aaeeeay
aanieiaeiay ?aoi?ia”.(Aeanoue.-2001.-?8.-n. 24-25) Aaoi? n/eoaao, /oi
e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia 1861 aiaea ia noaea ioi?aaiie oi/eie aeey
onei?aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee. Iia ia iiiiaea ?inneeneiio
iauanoao e ainoaea?noao aaeaeaaoii ioaaoue ia aucia a?aiaie – auno?uie
oaiiaie ia?aeoe io oaiaeaeecia e eaieoaeecio. A?anoaiea a eaieoaeeci, ii
aai iiaieth, ieacaeinue aeey ?innee i/aiue io/eoaeueiui e
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue ?aaiethoeeiiiui iio?ynaieai. Iaeiaei a aeaiiie oi/ea
c?aiey nouanoaoao i?ioeai?a/ea: ia?aoiae e eaieoaeecio aieaa auno?uie
oaiiaie aue au aua io/eoaeueiaa aeey ?innee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaa ?aaiou: ?. Aaeioniaa e E. Nie?iiaa aeatho
e?aeia ianneienoe/aneea ioeaiee ?acaeoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa no?aiu a
60-90-a aiaeu XIX aaea, /oi ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony aeaiiuie caineie
noaoenoeea. Ioaeii caiaoeoue, /oi a ii?aoi?iaiiua aeanyoeeaoey yaii
oeo/oaaony. Ai iiiaii aeaaiaea?y cainoaai, iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi – oioy
au a iaeanoe cae?aaiio?aiaiey, ia?aciaaiey. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai noaei
auno?ia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
naeueneiai, ca eioi?ui yaii ia iineaaeiaaei eioaineoeeaoeee oicyenoaa. A
eoiaa e eiioeo XIX aaea iaino?eeanue aa?a?iay i?iaeaia.

A oi aea a?aiy neaaeoao iinoaaeoue iiae aii?in i?aaiia?iinoue oi?aea
?aoi?ia 1861 aiaea, /oi iia nio?aieea iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea – aai
eeeaeaeaoeey i?eaaea au oiaaea e iaiaaeeaiiiio ?acaaeo anaai oiaa?iiai
oicyenoaa.

Aoi?ay aeaaa i?aaenoaaeyao ?aoi?iu 1860-1870-o aiaeia. A ia?aii
ia?aa?aoa iu ?anniao?eaaai caineoth e ai?iaeneoth ?aoi?io. Aieueoia
ianoi a ?aaioa caieiaao noaouey A. Eaaaiaeianeiai “Naiioi?aaeaiea a
eiioaenoa naiiaeanouey”(Ciaiea – neea.-1992.-?2.-n. 64-70) Aaoi?
cao?aaeaaao i?iaeaio naiioi?aaeaiey a ?innee. Ii i?eaiaeeo ieai
Nia?aineiai e inoaiaaeeaaaony ia oie aai /anoe, eioi?ay aaoi?o iaeaieaa
eioa?ania. A eiaiii ia ?ac?aaioea no?oeoo?u i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee iioanieoue ath?ie?aoe/aneea no?oeoo?u. A.
Eaaaiaeianeee n/eoaao, /oi ”Iieiaeaiea i aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo caineeo
o/?aaeaeaieyo” ii niaea?aeaieth ianeieueei iaiiieiae “Ieai” Nia?aineiai,
ii oooaeoaiiue e eneaaeaiiue aei iaeuecy.13 Ii aai iiaieth,
iacaaa?oaiiinoue e iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a?inaaony a aeaca. “Caineia
no?iaiea” auei eeoaii ooiaeaiaioa – iecoeo aieinoiuo cainoa, oae e
e?uoe – iaua?inneeneiai i?aaenoaaeoaeueiiai i?aaia, eioi?ue, iiaeiaii
i?aaeeaaaaoaeny Nia?aineei Ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoia, aai/ae au niaie
caineoth nenoaio. A yoi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iaecaaaeii io?uaaei
iiaeiaioth nenoaio io “caiee”, io iianaaeiaaiuo, naiuo ianouiuo i?iaeai
ianoiiai ianaeaiey, a n ae?oaie – eeoaei aa aiciiaeiinoe aeaenoaiaaoue
eae aaeeiia oeaeia, i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu anaai “caineiai”,
ia/eiiaiiai ianaeaiey no?aiu.14

E iaaeinoaoie E. Eaaaiaeianeee ioiineo oi, eae auea ono?iaia
i?aaiecaoeey auai?ia. A iniiao aue iieiaeai nineiaiue i?eioeei. Oaeaea
ieionii ii n/eoaao ia?aie/aiiinoue eiiiaoaioeee cainoa. Iie caieiaeenue
ianoiuie, oicyenoaaiiuie aeaeaie.

A. Eaaaiaeianeee ioia/aao e iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu nicaeaiey cainoa.
Aia?aua a enoi?ee ?innee e?anoueyinoai iieo/eei eaaeeoeoee?iaaiioth
iaaeeoeeineoth iiiiuue. Cainoaa aianee naie aeeaae a ia?aciaaiea, a aai
?acaeoea, auee ioe?uou caineea oeieu, iaeaaeaiu aaoa?eia?iay neoaeaa e
eae neaaenoaea oeo/oaiea iieiaeaiey aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, i?aaiecaoeey
noaoenoeee.

A eiioea naiae ?aaiou A. Eaaaiaeianeee aeaeaao auaiae i oii, /oi
nicaeaiiay nenoaia naiioi?aaeaiey iiaea noaoue iieai na?ueaciie,
iieaciie aeey ainoaea?noaa aeayoaeueiinoe iiiiceoeeiiiuo nee, iaeiaei, a
nei?ii a?aiaie iia auea eca?auaia e iioa?yea naith i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue
aeey oao, eoi eneae i?eeiaeaiey naieo e ?aoaieth aaaeiuo i?iaeai
ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee. Cainoaa ieii/aoaeueii auee aeiaeou eiio??aoi?iaie
1889-1890 aiaeia, /oi canoaaeei e eeaa?aeia, e ?aaeeeaeia n aieiaie oeoe
a iieeoeeo e oai naiui ec iioaioeeaeueiuo nio?oaeieeia i?aa?aoeoueny a
iai?eie?eiuo a?aaia aeanoe.

Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea acaeyaeu E.A. Enaaaa, eceiaeaiiua a eieaa “Enoi?ey
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ?innee”.(-I.1994) Ii oaeaea ieoao i oii, /oi
caineay ?aoi?ia ia oi?ie?iaaea no?ieiie e oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nenoaiu, ia
nicaeaea i?aai, aicaeaaeythuee e eii?aeeie?othuee ?aaioo anao cainoa.
I?aaeoaeuenoai any/anee i?ioeaeeinue yoiio. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a, E.A.
Enaaa i?eaiaeeo neo/ae n Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneei aoaa?ineei caineei
nia?aieai, eiaaea a 1865a. iii iinoaaeei aii?in ia ia?aciaaiee oaeiai
i?aaia, iii auei iii?inoo cae?uoi i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Oaeei ia?acii
nouanoaiaaiea caineeo o/?aaeaeaiee aeiioneaeinue oieueei ia aoaa?ineeo e
oacaeiuo o?iaiyo. Ieoao E.A. Enaaa e i iieiaeeoaeueiuo noi?iiao
nicaeaiey cainoa. Iie aiaeiae/iu oai, eioi?ua i?eaiaeeo A.
Eaaaiaeianeee. Eioa?an aucuaaao oio oaeo, /oi E.A. Enaaa ioeaieaaao
caineoth ?aoi?io eae ao?aeoacioth ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o a oii ieaia, /oi
cainoaa noaee naiaia?aciie iieeoe/aneie oeieie, /a?ac eioi?oth i?ioee
iiiaea i?aaenoaaeoaee eeaa?aeueiiai e aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iauanoaaiiuo
iai?aaeaiee.

Oaeaea E.A. Enaaa ?anniao?eaaao ai?iaeneoth ?aoi?io, eioi?ay auea aeecea
e caineie. Iiyoiio aaoi? n?aaieaaao ai?iaeneoth ?aoi?io n caineie a
ieaia caaeneiinoe io ainoaea?noaaiiuo ath?ie?aoe/aneeo e iieeoeaeneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Aianoa n oai aaoi? ioee/aao, /oi nicaeaiea iiauo i?aaiia
naiioi?aaeaiey niinianoaiaaei noaiiaeaieth iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e
eoeueoo?iie aeecie, iiiiaaei oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiiio ?acaeoeth ?onneeo
ai?iaeia.15

Ai aoi?ii ia?aa?aoa iu ?anniao?eaaai noaeaaioth ?aoi?io 1864 aiaea.
Caeanue iai eioa?ania ioeaiea A. Niueaeeia a aai ?aaioa “Noaeaaiay
?aoi?ia 1864 aiaea”.(?inneeneay thnoeoeey.-2001.-?5.-n. 39-42) Aaoi?
iacuaaao i?e/eiu iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aoi?ie?iaaiey noaea. Yoi onoa?aaoaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai Iao?a I e Aeaoa?eiu II, neiaeiay e caiooaiiay
no?oeoo?a, nouanoaiaaiea iiiaeanoaa niaoeeaeueiuo noaeia,
acyoi/ie/anoaa, ia aue onoaiiaeai ia?aciaaoaeueiue oeaic aeey noaeae. A.
Niueaeei auaiaeeo iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aoi?iu e ?anniao?eaaao
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aaco. Noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia a ii?ia eciaieea
noaeiono?ienoai, i?ioeannoaeueiia e io/anoe iaoa?eaeueiia i?aai
?inneeneie eiia?ee. I?eioeeiu, i?iaicaeaoaiiua a noaeaaiuo onoaaao,
iineee ao?aeoaciue oa?aeoa?: noaeaaiay aeanoue ioaeaeyeanue io
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie, aaeieieno?aoeaiie, i?eioeei
iacaaeneiinoe e ianiaiyaiinoe noaeae; i?eioeei ?aaainoaa anao ia?aae
caeiiii; aaiaeeony ananineiaiue noae; o/?aaeaeaia aaeaieaoo?a; aaiaeeony
einoeooo i?enyaeiuo canaaeaoaeae; aaaaeaiu i?eioeeiu onoiinoe,
aeaniinoe, ninoycaoaeueiinoue noaeii?iecaiaenoaa; i?iaicaeaoaeanue
i?acoiioeey iaaeiiaiinoe.

Ea?aeeiaeueii auea eciaiaia nenoaia noaeiono?ienoaa. Aianoi nieioiie
no?oeoo?u nineiaiuo noaeia nicaeaaaeinue aeaa noaeaaiua nenoaiu: ianoiua
e iauea noaeu. Inoaiaaeeaaao naia aieiaiea A. Niueaeei ia nicaeaiea
ie?iauo noaeia. E iniaaiiinoyi ie?iauo noaeia a n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie
noaeaie ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee aaoi? ioiineo oi, /oi iie ?anniao?eaaee
iaeicia/eoaeueiua oaieiaiua e a?aaeaeaineea aeaea, yoi auee o?aoaeneea,
niaanoiua noaeuee, inaiaiaeaeaiiua io noaeaaiuo iioeei. Ionthaea aoi?ay
iniaaiiinoue – auai?iinoue ie?iauo noaeae.

Aieaa iiae?iaii nicaeaiea ie?iaiai noaea e aeayoaeueiinoue ie?iauo
noaeae ?anniao?eaaao E. Oa?eiaa a noaouea “Ie?iaie noaeuey a
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee.”(Ainoaea?noai e i?aai.-1998.-?9.-n. 79-85)

Oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an ?aaioa I.I. Ao?aiiaie e I.A. Iaiuoeiie
“Ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea e thnoeoeey a ?innee(1864-1917aa.)”(Ainoaea?noai
e i?aai.-1994.-?3.-n. 126-133) Ii eo iiaieth, caineay, ai?iaeneay e
noaeaaiay ?aoi?iu auee nicao/iu ae?oa ae?oao ii oeaee, oa?aeoa?o e
i?eioeeiai. ”Iie i?ecaaiu iaania/eoue yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua
i?iaeaeaeaiey no?aiu aia?aae aac ?aaeeeaeueiuo, eae eacaeinue iiia/aeo,
ia?aiai a iieeoe/aneii no?ia, aeaiie?aoece?iaaoue ?inneeneoth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, ii a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao.”16 Aaoi?u auaiaeyo
iauea i?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo no?ieeanue aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia caineiai
naiioi?aaeaiey e iiauo noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee: caiyoinoue, auai?iinoue,
aeaniinoue, iacaaeneiinoue io aaeieieno?aoeee, ?aaainoai.

Aaoi?u ia?auatho aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iaeuecy eaeaaeece?iaaoue
i?aia?aciaaiey II iieiaeiu XIX aaea a ?innee. Iie ieooo i
iacaaa?oaiiinoe e iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, ia?aie/aiiinoe oaenoia
Caineiai iieiaeaiey e Noaeaaiuo onoaaia.

I?eioeei caeiiiinoe, ia eioi?ii aeieaeia auea no?ieoueny aeayoaeueiinoue
caineeo e iiauo noaeaaiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?ioeai?a/eo aaniethoenoneie
oi?ia i?aaeaiey. Caeii a aaniethoenoneii ainoaea?noaa au?aaeaao aieth
iiia?oa, eeoe, aai ie?oaeathueo e noiyueo ia aa?oo ie?aieaeu aeanoe, ii
a ii?aaeaeaiiuo neo/ayo aiey iiia?oa iiaeao ieacaoueny e auoa caeiia.
Ea?a?oe/aneay iiae/eiaiiinoue ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa i?e yoie oi?ia
i?aaeaiey noaaeo ethaia aeieaeiinoiia eeoei a ainoaea?noaa a
caaeneiinoue i?aaeaea anaai ia io caeiia, a io auoanoiyuaai /eiiaieea.
I?e yoii aaoi?u ia o/eouaatho. *oi a oi a?aiy ieeaeie aeueoa?iaoeau
naiiaea?aeaaeth, e?iia oaina e ?acaaea ia nouanoaiaaei. Aeaiie?aoe/aneia
i?aaeaiea auei iaaiciiaeii, oae eae ionoonoaiaaea ianniaay aaca
aeaiie?aoee – “n?aaeiee eeann” iiaiai oeia. E?iia oiai,
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey, iaee/ea aanueia aa?anneaiuo
ninaaeae, e?aeiyy neiaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey iiaea?iecaoeee a no?aia
aoi?iai yoaeiia, eioi?ie auea ?inney, aeaeaee aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiie
eiaiii aaoi?eoa?ioth aeanoue, aeaenoaothuoth a iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?anao.
Oaeiaie, i?e anao naieo i?iiaoao, e yaeyeanue naiiaea?aeaaea.

Auai?u a caineea o/?aaeaeaiey, i?ioiaeeaoea ia ia/aeao nineiaiinoe,
oeaica, iiiainoaiaiiua aeey e?anoueyi caeeaaeuaaee yeaiaiou ia?aaainoaa
a iniiao aeayoaeueiinoe yoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo i?aaiia. Iaeiaei aaoi?u
ioeaieaatho oeaiciaua ia/aea ia oieueei io?eoeaoaeueii. Iieiaeeoaeueiui
iiiaioii yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiue iaoa?eaeueiue o?iaaiue, iaee/ea
ia?aciaaiey, i?ioiaeaeaiea neoaeau a oao eee eiuo aeieaeiinoyo.

I?eioeei iacaaeneiinoe io aaeieieno?aoeee a aeayoaeueiinoe noaeaaiuo
onoaiiaeaiee aue iiaee?aieai aua e ianiaiyaiinoueth noaeae. Aaoi?u
n/eoatho noaeaaioth ?aoi?io iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiie e aeaiie?aoe/iie
a ?yaeo i?aia?aciaaiee oiai a?aiaie.17

A ia?aa?aoa o?aoueai iu ?anniao?eaaai aiaiioth ?aoi?io. Caeanue aeey ian
i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an noaouey Ineiiaie I.I. Iinea E?uineie aieiu[Aiaiiua
?aoi?iu aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX aaea] (Aiaiii-enoi?e/aneee aeo?iae.-
1992.-?2.-n. 4-13)

?aoi?iu 60-70-o aiaeia cao?iioee ana iaeanoe aiaiiiai aeaea. Iaeia ec
ia?auo ?aoi?i – ?ai?aaiecaoeey oeaio?aeueiiai aiaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e
nicaeaiey ianoiuo i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey a aeaea aiaiiuo ie?oaia. I.I.
Ineiiaa iacuaaao iniiaiui iaaeinoaoie nenoaiu aiaiiiai oi?aaeaiey
/?acia?ioth oeaio?aeecaoeeth, eioi?ay eeoaea aiciiaeiinoe ia ianoao
i?iyaeyoue eaeoth-eeai naiinoiyoaeueiinoue e eieoeeaoeao a ?aoaiee
aeaaea iaeeeo aii?inia.18

Aaoi? noaouee ?anniao?eaaao iniiaiua iiiaiou ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
oeaio?aeueiiai aiaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e ianoiiai, oaeaea eae
?ai?aaiecaoeeth oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, ?ai?aaiecaoeey Aaia?aeueiiai
ooaaa; nicaeaiey aiaiii-ie?oaeiie nenoaiu. ?acoeueoaoii ?aoi?iu noaea
no?ieiay e /aoeay i?aaiecaoeey eae oeaio?aeueiiai, oae e ianoiiai
oi?aaeaiey. Nie?aoeeny aiia?ao, oiaiueoeeanue eaioeaey?neay ia?aienea.

I.I. Ineiiaa ieoao e i ?aoi?ie?iaaiee a iaeanoe ono?ienoaa a?iee e ia
eciaiaieyo a nenoaia iiaeaioiaee ioeoea?neeo eaae?ia. ?aoi?iu
aiaiii-o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee iicaieeea eeeaeaee?iaaoue iaeiiieaeo ioeoea?ia
e iiaeiyoue o?iaaiue eo iiaeaioiaee. Iaeiaei, aeaeaao iaiai?eo I.I.
Ineiiaa, ia?aciaaiea iieoiaee ii i?aaeiaio aeaaiui ia?acii auoiaeoeu ec
aeai?yi. Aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo nineiaee aeinooi a aiaiii-o/aaiua
caaaaeaiey i?aeoe/anee aue cae?uo.19 Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi caeanue I.I.
Ineiiaa neeoeii eaoaai?e/ia. Aeinooi a aiaiii-o/aaiua caaaaeaiey
iaaeai?yi aue nei?aa cao?oaeiai, /ai cae?uo. Iaeiaei aeiey iaaeai?yi a
iiaeiaiuo caaaaeaieyo iinoiyiii ?inea.

Iiae?iaii I.I. Ineiiaa ?anniao?eaaao i?iaeaio ia?aaii?oaeaiey a?iee. Iia
iienuaaao iiaua aeaeu i?oaeey, iinooiaaoea a a?ieth; ieoao i
?aeiino?oeoeee ioa/anoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aac eioi?ie ia?aaii?oaeaiea
auei au iaaiciiaeii.

Auea i?iaaaeaia aiaiii-noaeaaiay ?aoi?ia a a?iee, eioi?ay aaaea
ao?aeoaciua i?eioeeiu aiaiiiai noaeiono?ienoaa e noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.
Iaeiaei I.I. Ineiiaa i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi “?aoi?iu 60-o aiaeia ana
aea ia ?aoeee iniiaiiai aii?ina ?ai?aaiecaoeee a?iee, aa niiniaiinoe
auno?i ?acaa?ouaaoueny a neo/aa aieiu.”20

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ianoaiiaea eiioea 60-o aiaeia – oneeaiiay
ieeeoa?ecaoeey I?onnee, oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe anao aa?iiaeneeo a?iee, a
caoai e ?ac?aceaoayny o?aiei-i?onneay aieia 1870-1871aa. – aiiaue
iinoaaeea aii?in i aaaaeaiee ananineiaiie aieineie iiaeiiinoe.

Aaaaeaiea ananineiaiie aieineie iiaeiiinoe iicaieeei oaaee/eoue
/eneaiiinoue a?iee, nicaeaoue iao/aiiue ?aca?a, a oaeaea niinianoaiaaei
i?aa?auaieth aii?oaeaiiuo nee ?innee a ianniaoth a?ieth ao?aeoaciiai
oeia.

I.I. Ineiiaa n/eoaao, /oi a oeaeii aiaiiua ?aoi?iu eiaee i?ia?anneaiue
oa?aeoa? e niinianoaiaaee oe?aieaieth e iiauoaieth aianiiniaiinoe a?iee.

Oaeaea a iaoae ?aaioa eniieueciaaia noaouey Oi?niaie A.A. Aiaiiay
?aoi?ia Aeaenaiae?a II.(Aanoiee ?inneeneie Aeaaeaiee Iaoe.-1995.-oii
65.-?9.-n. 826-835)

?a/ue a noaouea eaeao i ia?ao ii oeo/oaieth oneiaee aeecie ioeoea?neiai,
oioa?-ioeoea?neiai e nieaeaoneiai ninoaaa. A.A. Oi?niaa auaeaeyao
iieiaeeoaeueiua eciaiaiey a nenoaia aiaiiiai ia?aciaaiey: ioe?uoea
iiiai/eneaiiuo thiea?neeo o/eeeu, nicaeaiea ia?aciaaoaeueiiai oeaica
aeey einoeoooa aieueiiii?aaeaeythueony, nicaeaiea aiaiiuo aeaeeioae e
aiaiiuo aeaoneeo oeie.

Iiiuoee oeo/oeoue iaoa?eaeueiia iieiaeaiea ?inneeneeo ioeoea?ia iaei e
/aio i?eaaee. Ia/eiay ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 50-o aiaeia XIX aaea
oaei?iaeaiea aeecie i?ienoiaeeei cia/eoaeueii auno?aa, /ai ?ino
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaee aiaiiineoaeauea.21

Aieueoia aieiaiea A.A. Oi?niaa oaeaeyao nicaeaieth aiaiiuo yia?eoaeueiuo
eann e ioeoea?neeo caaiiuo eaieoaeia, eioi?ua yaeeenue aeiiieieoaeueiui
n?aaenoaii oeo/oaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aiaiiineoaeaueo.

Aeey aeaaiono?ienoaa aeecie aiaiiineoaeaueo auee nicaeaiu aiaiiua eeoau.
Aeaaiaea?y ei eciaieeinue a?aiy i?ai?iaiaeaeaiey ioeoea?ia e nieaeao,
iiauneeny iauaeoeueoo?iue e i?ioanneiiaeueiue o?iaaiue.

Aaoi? noaouee ?anniao?eaaao i?eiyoue a oiaea ?aoi?ie?iaaiey caeii i
anaiauae aieineie iiaeiiinoe. Aaaeiui nioeeaeueiui caaiaaaieai ?aoi?iu
noaei nie?auaiea iauaai n?iea i?aauaaiey a iinoiyiiuo aieneao. Iiaue
caeii iicaieye ia?aciaaiiui iieiaeui ethaeyi iinooiaoue ia neoaeao a
aienea ii ae?aaeth, a aieueiiii?aaeaeythueiny ia nie?auaiiue n?ie, ii
ieii/aiee eioi?iai iie oaieueiyeenue a caian.

Aiaeece?oy iiaue ?onneee aiaiiue onoaa, A.A. Oi?niaa ieoao, /oi ii
cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ee i?aaa aiaiiineoaeaueo. “Iiaue caeii i?iyaeyao
caaioo i /aeiaa/aneii aeinoieinoaa ia oieueei ioeoea?ia, ii e nieaeao,
noeioee?iaae eo e iiauoaieth i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e iauaia?aciaaoaeueiiai
o?iaiy.”22Iaaei neacaoue, /oi a?iey i?e Aeaenaiae?a II yaeyeanue aeey
aieueoeinoaa iaa?aiioiuo nieaeao oie oeieie, aaea iie iieo/aee
ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaeaao auaiae aaoi?, a ?acoeueoaoa ?aoi?iu ?onneea
aiaiiua auee o?aaiaiu a i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo n aiaiiuie e?oiiaeoeo
aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa oiai a?aiaie. A a iaeioi?uo ioiioaieyo
onoaiiaeaiey, i?eiyoua i?e Aeaenaiae?a II, auee i?ia?anneaiaa, /ai o
caiaaeiuo ninaaeae.

*oi eanaaony oeiainiaie ?aoi?iu, i?aaenoaaeaiiie a /aoaa?oii ia?aa?aoa,
oi caeanue iai eioa?ania ?aaioa Eieiieaoea A.A. A?aiy “Aaeeeeo ?aoi?i” :
oeiainu ?innee a i?aaeaiee Aeaenaiae?a
II.//Oeiainu.-2000.-?11.-n.62-66.

Aaoi? aeaao yeiiiie/aneoth ioeaieo iieiaeaiey ?innee iinea E?uineie
aieiu. Iaiaoiaeeii auei eneaoue iooe onei?aiey oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa e eeeaeaeaoeee oaoie/aneie ionoaeinoe ?innee.

Iaoaea/iay iia?aoeey ii iiieaeaieth aeeaaeiuo i?ioeaioia auea iaeiei ec
iaoaea/iuo yenia?eiaioia i?aaeoaeuenoaa a oeiainiaie noa?a. Neaaeothuei
iiuoii noaea iiiuoea aaanoe a 1862a. naiaiaeiue ?acia? e?aaeeoiuo
aeeaoia ia iaoaeee/aneea aeaiueae. Iaeiaei e iia ieacaeanue iaoaea/iie.
Iiiuoea ?aaaeueaaoeee ?oaey, oi anoue ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?eoaoa
e?aaeeoiiai e iaoaeee/aneiai ?oaey, yaii auea ia iiae neeo yeiiiieea,
aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie noa?a e ieaoaaeiiio aaeaino ?innee.

A.A. Eieiieaoe aeaao iiae?iaiia inaauaiea aueoiiie iia?aoeee, eioi?ay
i?iaiaeeeanue Ainoaea?noaaiiui aaieii. Aeaaiui ?acoeueoaoii aueoiiie
iia?aoeee noae ia?aoiae iniiaiie iannu auaoeo e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi ia
iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi-nianoaaiieeia.

Oaaee/aiea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, eioi?ia iaaeaei ia e?anoueyieia i?eaaei e
ineaaeaieth aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea caieaaeaeey a
oeaio?aeueiuo iaeanoyo ?innee. Ia/eiay n 80-o aiaeia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei
auioaeaeaiii ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieoue iiaeoiae e aueoiiie iia?aoeee e
i?eciaoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue niecia?aiey ?acia?a ieaoaaeae ia ni
noieiinoueth e?anoueyineeo iiaeiiinoae iiiaueeo aei ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai
i?aaa, a n ?aaeueiie ieaoaaeiie niiniaiinoueth e?anoueyi.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ioia/aao A.A. Eieiieaoe, /oi a aeieoiaioao
athaeaeaoiie ?aoi?iu, i?iaaaeaiiie a 60-a aiaeu XIX noieaoey aia?aua a
caeii/aiiie oi?ia aiieioeeenue i?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna e aaaeaiey athaeaeaoiiai oicyenoaa.23
Athaeaeaoiay ?aoi?ia auea aeiiieiaia ?yaeii iiaiaaaaeaiee a
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee. Aeaaiui ec ieo noaei aaaaeaiea aeoeeciie nenoaiu
iaeiaeaiey eeoae e ioiaiu ioeoiia.

Ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a i?iiuoeaiiii iiaeuaia aoi?ie iieiaeiu 60-o
ia/aea 70-o aiaeia nua?aee ioiineoaeueii aeaaii?eyoiua
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea oneiaey e ia?u i?yiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
i?aaei?eyoee aaciauo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa. A eoiaa ca aiaeu i?aaeaiey Aeaenaiae?a II a ?innee auea
nicaeaia iaeia ec e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a ii i?ioyaeaieth naoae aeaeaciuo
aei?ia.

Oaeaea ?aaeeeaeueii auea eciaiaia oaiiaeaiiay iieeoeea a oeaeyo
iieo/aiey ec caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai oiaa?ia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e o?ainii?oa, i?aaeaea anaai i?iaeoeoeee iaoaeeo?aee e
iaoeiino?iaiey.

E na?aaeeia 70-o aiaeia auei aeinoeaiooi ioiineoaeueiia athaeaeaoiia
?aaiiaanea. Iaeiaei ?inneth aeaeae iiaue e?ecen, naycaiiue n
?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiie.

Oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoie eioa?an aeey ian noaouey A. Aiaiuee/.
I?iaeaiu ?inneeneiai ?aoi?iaoi?noaa. (Ciaiea-neea.-1992.-?2.-n. 74-86) A
ea/anoaa oeaee naiae ?aaiou aaoi? noaaeo aii?in: ii/aio ?inney e
na?aaeeia XIX aaea ieacaeanue a /enea noa?oiaaaoeo n iiicaeaieai?
Eiaaony a aeaeo ia/aei eaieoaeenoe/aneie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee. Ioaao ii
iaoiaeeo a oea?noaiaaiee Ieeieay I, eiaaea ?inney ia i?inoi ionoaea a
yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee, ii e neaoeeanue iacaae. Ai?i/ai, i?ioeann
ionoaaaiey ia/aeny aua ?aiueoa. A ?aoi?iao ioaeaeaeanue i?aaeaea anaai
nenoaia oi?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia ?aciao iauyaeaiiuo ?aoi?i, iie
niaa?oaiii ia cao?iioee aunooth aeanoue. Aieaa na?ueaciuo ?aoi?i
o?aaiaaea i?aaeaea anaai yeiiiieea.

“E ana oaee ?aoi?iu, /oi auee i?iaaaeaiu, aeaee iiuiue oie/ie
yeiiiie/aneiio ?acaeoeth ?innee, e, – ioia/aao A.Aiaiuee/, – eiia/ii
eiaea ia?iiiia cia/aiea ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa”24 Inaiaiaeeaoenue io
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, e?anoueyia ieacaeenue a ieaio iaueiiuo ioiioaiee
aieioue aei 1906 aiaea, aei i?iaaaeaiey noieuieineie aa?a?iie ?aoi?iu.

Aa?a?iay iieeoeea a ?innee iaoiaeeeanue a aaaeaiee Ieienoa?noaa
aioo?aiieo aeae, a oi a?aiy eae i?iiuoeaiiinoue e aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea
eiio?iee?iaaeinue Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia. A ?acoeueoaoa oi?aaeaiey yoeie
aeaoiy oanii naycaiiuie ae?oa n ae?oaii iaeanoyie ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
auei eneonnoaaiii ?aciauaii. Eiina?aaoeey oaiaeaeueiuo ia?aaeeoeia a
naeueneii oicyenoaa ninouanoaiaaea n iieeoeeie onei?aiiiai i?iiuoeaiiiai
?acaeoey, i?iaiaeeaoaeny Ieienoa?noaii oeiainia.

A. Aiaiuee/ ?anniao?eaae i?aia?aciaaiea aaieianeie nenoaiu. Aeaenaiae?
II e aai i?aaeoaeuenoai, ia/aa i?aia?aciaaiea naiae aaieianeie nenoaiu,
iie?aynue ia iiuo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, i?aaeaea anaai Aa?iaiee e O?aioeee.
A a 1860 aiaeu a iniiaiuo aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae io
?ac?aoeoaeueiie nenoaiu o/?aaeeoaeuenoaa e yai/iie, oi anoue i?ioeann
aicieeiiaaiey aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaiee i?eia?aoaao naiaiaeiue oa?aeoa?,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai ?ane?aiiuaaony, inaiaiaeaeaaony io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eiio?iey. ?inneeneia Ieienoa?noai oeiainia a ia/aea
oanoeaeanyouo aiaeia oiaea cayaeei naay noi?iiieeii iiiu?aiey /anoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ieieno? oeiainia I.O. ?aeoa?i aunooiae ca
?acaeoea ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee e ionoaeaae ia oieueei /anoioth eieoeeaoeao
a o/?aaeaeaiee aaieia, ii e iieaciinoue eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo ieie.25
Iaeiaei oaea a na?aaeeia 1870 aiaeia iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue.
I?aaeoaeuenoai, io/anoe iaioaaiiia ?aciaoii ae?aeaauo niaeoeyoeee e
e?aoii 1873 aiaea, aa?ioeinue e o?aaeeoeeiiiie iieeoeea eiio?iey iaae
aeoeeiia?iui o/?aaeeoaeuenoaii e naea?aeeaaieth naiaiaeiie eiieo?aioeee.
A noa?a oeiainiaie aeey ?innee noaei oeie/iui eniieueciaaoue
ainoaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa aeey iaocaeaiey ae?aeaauo e?ecenia, aeey
?aaoee?iaaiey eo?na ?oaey e oeaiiuo aoiaa e aeey iiaeaea?aeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaii “nieeaeiuo” i?aaei?eyoee e aaieia, a oii /enea ca n/ao
auaea/e ec n?aaenoa Ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaiea iaonoaaiuo nnoae.26

*?acia?iue ainoaea?noaaiiue eiio?ieue oi?iicee ?acaeoea ia oieueei
oeiainia, ii e i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ii?aaeaiea a E?uineie aieia niinianoaiaaei ?acaeoeth eioeyoeee. Auea
naeaeaia iiiuoea noaaeeece?iaaoue aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea, iaeiaei iia
ieacaeanue iaoaea/iie. A. Aiaiuee/ ieoao, /oi i?iaae aeaiaaeiie
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae i iaaeinoaoea eaieoaeia a ?innee. Ii iaania/eoue eo
i?eoie ec-ca a?aieoeu iiaeii auei, oieueei noaaeeece?iaaa ?oaeue.
Iaeioi?ue i?iiuoeaiiue niaae e aieia n Oo?oeeae aucaaee aeaeueiaeoaa
?anno?ienoai aeaiaaeiiai ia?auaiey. Noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi aeey ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee no?aiu e oe?aieaiey aa oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiu
iiaua ?aoi?iu.27 Oaeiaa oi/ea c?aiey A. Aiaiuee/ ia oeiainiaoth ?aoi?io
Aeaenaiae?a II. Iia ai iiiaii niaeaaeaao n oi/eie c?aiey A.A.
Eieiieaoea.

?aoi?iu a iaeanoe i?inaauaiey, ia/aoe e oea?eae ?anniio?aiu a ia?aa?aoa
iyoii. ?aaioa Ae. Eeiaaeneiai “I/a?ee ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee.”(I.,1995) A
aeaaa “Aeaenaiae? II Inaiaiaeeoaeue” Ae. Eeiaaeneee ?anniao?eaaao ana
?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a II, a oii /enea e ?aoi?iu a iaeanoe i?inaauaiey e
ia/aoe.

Aaaeouaa ianoi a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey caieiaee oieaa?neoaou. Iie
yaeyeenue n?aaeioi/eai iaoee e iaeiia?aiaiii n na?aaeeiu XIX aaea
oeaio?ii ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey. Onoaa 1853 aiaea, eioi?ue
aeieaeai aue ia?aie/eoue i?aaa oieaa?neoaoia, ai iiiaii ia niaethaeaeny.
A 1863a. i?eieiaaony iiaue Iauee onoaa, eioi?ue aue iai?aaeaia
i?aaeinoaaeaiea aieueoae aaoiiiiee oieaa?neoaoai a i?aaiecaoeee
i?ioeanna iao/aiey e ?acaeoey iaoee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ia oneeaiea
nooaeai/aneie aeenoeeieeiu – n ae?oaie. Ae. Eeiaaeneee oaeaea ieoao, /oi
aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi iao/aiea a oieaa?neoaoao auei ieaoiui, a iai
o/eeenue oa, eoi ai?acaei aieueoa eioa?aniaaeny ?aaiethoeeae, /ai
o/aaie. Iaeiaei iaaei neacaoue, /oi ?ieue ieaoiinoe ia iaaei
ia?aioeaieaaoue, oae eae aeiey nooaeaioia ec iaeiiaania/aiiuo neiaa
ianaeaiey auea a ?inneeneeo oieaa?neoaoao auoa, /ai aaea au oi ia auei a
Aa?iia. Iiyoiio caeanue Ae. Eeiaaeneee ia nianai i?aa. Oiaea naiia e a
ioiioaiee aeiiacee – aeiioneaeenue nooaeaiou, niaea?aeaueany ca n/ao
eaciu, inaiaiaeaeaiiua io ieaou ca iao/aiea.

Iiaiea Ae. Eeiaaeneiai i oii, /oi “aei ia/aea 60-o aiaeia i i?inaauaiee
ia?iaea iaei caaioeoue”28 ia nianai aa?ii. Ia?aua oeieu ia naea, a
ainoaea?noaaiiie aea?aaie, iiyaeeenue a i?aaeaiea Ieeieay I, a aiaeu
i?iaaaeaiey eenaeaaneie ?aoi?iu.

I?aaeoaeuenoai iiieiaei e i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu
oeaico?u. Iaeiaei, iii aeieaia a?aiy ia ?aoaeinue inouanoaeoue yoo
aaeeinoaaiioth ?aoi?io, eioi?ay ia o?aaiaaea ieeaeeo iaoa?eaeueiuo
cao?ao.

Ineaaeaiea oeaico?iuo ia?aie/aiee, ia/aoia a 1855 aiaeo, i?iaeieaeaeinue
aei 1861 aiaea. Iaeiaei iiauoaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe iiaoaeeei
i?aaeoaeuenoai iioaeeeiaaoue A?aiaiiua i?aaeea ii oeaico?a eioi?ua auee
eniieueciaaiu aeey ai?ueau n ?aaeeeaeueiie ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoueth.
Iaeiaei, eae ieoao Ae. Eeiaaeneee , onoaa aai oae e ia aue au?aaioai.29

Oea?eiaiay ?aoi?ia oi?ioi eco/aiu N.A. ?eineei. A iaoae ?aaioa
i?aaenoaaeaiu aeaa aai noaouee:

1. ?eineee N.A. Oea?eiaiay ?aoi?ia Aeaenaiae?a II (Aii?inu enoi?ee.-
1996.- ?4.-n.32-48)

2. ?eineee N.A. Oea?eiaiay ?aoi?ia 60-70-o aiaeia XIX aaea
(Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey.-1995.-?2.-n. 166-175)

?aoi?iu canoaee oea?eiaiia i?aai a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii iii neiaeeeinue
a iniiaiii a oea?noaiaaiea Ieeieay I. N.A. ?eineee ieoao, /oi ?inneeneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai no?iai io?aiyei eioa?anu i?aaineaaey. Ii i?eaiaeeo
iieiaeaiea ec eioi?iai auoaeaea iieeoe/aneay caaeneiinoue oea?eae io
ainoaea?noaa oea?ue iacia/ae iaa?-i?ieo?i?a Neiiaea, ooaa?aeaeae
eaiaeeaeaoia a a?oea?aeneee nai e ia aia?oeaeueiua eaoaae?u. Iniaaiii
iaaeyaeii caaeneiinoue io ainoaea?noaa i?iyaeyeanue a aunoai oea?eiaiii
oi?aaeaiee.

N.A. ?eineee n?aaieaaao oea?eiaioth ?aoi?io ni naaoneeie ?aoi?iaie
Aeaenaiae?a II. Noiaenoaa i?iyaeeinue a aieueoie i?ioyaeaiiinoe ai
a?aiaie, a ei??aeoe?iaea eo?na, a iacaaa?oaiiinoe i?aia?aciaaiee.
Iaeiaei aaoi? i?eaiaeeo e ?acee/ey. N naiiai ia/aea oea?eiaiay ?aoi?ia
eiaea iiiaiieaiiaue oa?aeoa?, auea aieaa cae?uoie io iauanoaa.
Iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu oea?eiaiie ?aoi?iu: eeeaeaeaoeey nineiaiie
caieiooinoe, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea aeooiaiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, iaeeaeaiea
aeecie i?eoiaeneie iaueiu, ?anoe?aiea i?aa aeooiaainoaa.30
Io?eoeaoaeueiay noi?iia: aei 1917 aiaea oae e ia oaeaeinue ?aoeoue
i?iaeaio iaoa?eaeueiiai iaania/aiey i?e/oia.

Enoi/ieee

A iniiao ?aaiou aioee Ainoaea?noaaiiua ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou
(Iaieoano ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, Iieiaeaiey, Onoaau).

?anniio?ei aeaiiua enoi/ieee iiae?iaiaa “Iaieoano ia ioiaia e?aiinoiiai
i?aaa 19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea” – caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeo, cae?aieythuee ana
iauea aeey e?anoueyi i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe. Oaeno Iaieoanoa ia
inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi aue iaienai iineianeei ieo?iiieeoii Oeea?aoii.
Oaeno Iaieoanoa oyaeaeiaaniue e iaeiiiiyoiue aeey i?inoiai ia?iaea, eae
ai?i/ai e ana inoaeueiua caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou.

E?iia Iaieoanoa auee iioaeeeiaaiu 5 ia?oa 1861 aiaea aeieoiaiou o?ao
?aciiaeaeiinoae: “Iauaa iieiaeaiea”, “Ianoiua iieiaeaiey” e
“Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea”. “Iauaa iieiaeaiea i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo
ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe” ii?aaeaeyei a iniiaiuo /a?oao ee/iua e
eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe
e?anoueyi, ia?aciaaiea e ooieoeee naeueneeo e aieinoiuo i?aaiia
e?anoueyineiai naiioi?aaeaiey, oa?aeoa? “iiia/eoaeuenoaa” iaae
e?anoueyiaie eo auaoeo iiiaueeia ia ia?eiae a?aiaiii ia?aciaaiiiai
ninoiyiey, a oaeaea ii?yaeie ioauaaiey eacaiiuo, caineeo e ie?neeo
iiaeiiinoae. A niioaaonoaee n Iauei iieiaeaieai e?anoueyia iieo/aee
ee/ioth naiaiaeo e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey Iaieoanoa.

Caoai “Iieiaeaiea ia ono?ienoaa aeai?iauo ethaeae, auoaaeoeo ec
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe”. Yoi eaoaai?ey e?aiinoiuo auea oaeoe/anee
aaccaiaeueiie e i/aiue /anoi e aacaeieueiie, oae eae iaoiaeeeanue i?e
iiiaue/ueai aeai?a. Iie aeaaii auee ioi?aaiu io caiee e ii?ie ia eiaee
naiuee.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao “Iieiaeaiea i aueoia e?anoueyi, auoaaeoeo ec
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, eo onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe e i niaeaenoaee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?eia?aoaieth neie e?anoueyiaie nianoaaiiinoue iieaauo
oaiaeee”, ii?aaeaeeaoaa eiia/ioth oeaeue ?aoi?iu – nicaeaiea iaueiie
caiaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e?anoueyi.

“Iieiaeaiea a aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo ii e?anoueyineei aeaeai
o/?aaeaeaieyo” nicaeaaaea aiia?ao i?aaeaiey ?aoi?iu e ii?aoi?iaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey naeueneiai auoa. Iiae th?eaee/aneea ii?iu yoeo aeieoiaioia
iiiaaeaea any eiia?ey.

Ii aue ?yae naia?aoiuo aeoia, o/eouaathueo iniaaiiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
?aaeiiia no?aiu. Yoi “Ianoiua iieiaeaiey i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa
e?anoueyi, auaeai?aiiuo ia iiiaue/ueeo caieyo a aoaa?iee:
Aaeeei?inneeneeo, Iiai?inneeneeo e Aaei?onneeo”, “Ianoiia iieiaeaiea i
iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi, auaeai?aiiuo ia iiiaue/ueeo caieyo a
aoaa?ieyo: Iaei?inneeneeo, Iieoaaneie e /anoe Oa?ueeianeie”, “Ianoiia
iieiaeaiea i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi, auaeai?aiiuo ia
iiiaue/ueeo caieyo a aoaa?ieyo: Eeaaneie, Iiaeieueneie e Aieiaiaeneie”,
“Ianoiua iieiaeaiey i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi, auaeai?aiiuo ia
iiiaue/ueeo caieyo a aoaa?ieyo: Aeeaineie, A?iaeiaineie, Eiaaineie,
Ieineie e /anoe Aeoaaneie”. Aeaa iineaaeieo iieiaeaiey io?aaeaee oio
oaeo, /oi yoe aoaa?iee a i?aae?aoi?iaiiia a?aiy aeeee ii th?eaee/aneei
ii?iai oae iacuaaaiuo eiaaioa?iuo i?aaee.

E o?aoee iannea th?eaee/aneeo aeoia – “Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea” –
eanathony oneiaee inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi iaeeiiiianoiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa,
eaoaai?ee “i?eieniuo” e?anoueyi, oi anoue e?aiinoiuo, ioauaathueo
aa?ueio ia /anoiuo ai?iuo caaiaeao, ?aaioieeia ia?ineeo /anoiuo ai?iuo
caaiaeia e nieyiuo i?iiuneia, e?anoueyi, ?aaioaaoeo ia iiiaue/ueeo
oaa?eeao e caaiaeao. Ae?oaea “Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aaeea” ?aaoee?iaaee
ioiaio e?aiinoiiai i?aaa a Caiea Aienea Aeiineiai e Neae?e, a oaeaea
Aanna?aaee.

I?e aiaeeca caineie ?aoi?iu aeey ian i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an “Iieiaeaiea i
aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo caineeo o/?aaeaeaieyo io 1 yiaa?y 1864 aiaea”
nicaeaaaea aeaoocaaiioth nenoaio auai?iuo i?aaiia: oacaeiuo e
aoaa?ineeo. Yoe o/?aaeaeaiey ieeae ia auee naycaiu n i?aaiaie
e?aiinoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, nicaeaiiuie ii e?anoueyineie ?aoi?ia, ia
eiaee iie e caaa?oaiey ia iaua?inneeneii o?iaia.

Ai?iaeneoth ?aoi?io ?aaoee?iaaei «Ai?iaeiaia iieiaeaiea io 16 –28 ethiy
1870 aiaea». I?iaeo Iieiaeaiey ?ac?aaaouaaeny a Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo
aeae. I?iaeo aue aioia a 1864a. e a1866a. aianai a Ainoaea?noaaiiue
Niaao. Iieiaeaiea aaiaeeei i?onneoth nenoaio, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie
?aaiia /enei aeaniuo ecae?aee iaeiaiieaoaeueueee, oiea/eaaaoea ?aaioth
noiio iaeiaia.

Aeieoiaiou noaeaaiie ?aoi?iu aeeth/atho a naay 4 caeiia: «O/?aaeaeaiea
noaeaaiuo onoaiiaeaiee», «Onoaa oaieiaiiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa», «Onoaa
a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa»

e «Onoaa i iaeacaieyo, iaeaaaaiuo ie?iauie noaeueyie».

Aeey aiaiiie ?aoi?iu aieueoia cia/aiea eiaei i?eiyoea «Onoaaa i aiaiiie
iiaeiiinoe io 1 yiaa?y 1874a.», eioi?ue aaae nenoaio, eniieuecoaioth
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie. Niune: ana ioae/eiu, niiniaiua ianoe
aiaiioth neoaeau a oa/aiee iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie iao/aeenue
aiaiiiio aeaeo, a caoai ca/eneyeenue a caian.

Aaaeiia ianoi a oeiainiaie ?aoi?ia eiaei aaaaeaiea «Iieiaeaiey i
eeoaeiii nai?a io 4 ethey 1861aiaea», eioi?ia oi?acaeiyei nenoaio
ioeoiia. Iieiaeaiea aaiaeeei aieueioth i?iaeaaeo nie?oiuo iaieoeia
(eeoae), aeeth/ay ieai e iaae, n aceiaieai aeoeeca e ieoaeiiai nai?a.
Aeoeec aceiaeny n eaaeaeie iinoaeeiu, niaea?aeauae aeii eee aiaeeo, a
ieoaeiue nai? n aeiiuo neeaaeia e ieoaeiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu n noa?a ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey aue i?eiyo
iiaue «Iauee onoaa eiia?aoi?neeo, ?inneeneeo oieaa?neoaoia io 18 ethiy
1863a.». Ii aue iai?aaeai ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea aieueoae aaoiiiiee
oieaa?neoaoai a i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna iao/aiey e ?acaeoey iaoee e ia
oneeaiea nooaeai/aneie aeenoeeieeiu. Onoaa i?aaeinoaaeye i?aai
i?ioanni?ai oieaa?neoaoa ecae?aoue ?aeoi?a, a i?ioanni?ai oaeoeueoaoa –
aeaeaia. Auee ?anoe?aiu i?aaa oieaa?neoaoneiai Niaaoa a ?aoaiee
i?ia?aiiii- iaoiaee/aneeo aii?inia, ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
ecaeaiee iao/iuo o?oaeia.

Oeaee e caaea/e enneaaeiaaiey.

Oeaeue: ?anniio?aoue ioeaiee ?aoi?i Aeaenaiae?a II, naeaeaiiua
ioa/anoaaiiuie enneaaeiaaoaeyie a eiioea XX aaea.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie oeaee iu noaaei ia?aae niaie neaaeothuea
caaea/e:

1. ?anniio?aoue ioeaiee e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea. ?anniio?aoue
iniiaiua yoaiu e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu: ?ac?aaioea, i?iaaaeaiea e eoiae.

2. ?anniio?aoue iniiaiua ioeaiee ?aoi?i 60-70-o aiaeia XIX aaea:
caineie, ai?iaeneie, noaeaaiie, aiaiiie, oeiainiaie; ?aoi?i a iaeanoe
i?inaauaiey, ia/aoe e oea?eae.

3. Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca naeaeaoue auaiae.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneee iiaeoiae: aeey ananoi?iiiaai iauaeoeaiiai ?anniio?aiey
i?iaeaiu iu eniieuecoai eiiieaeniue(eioaa?e?iaaiiue) iiaeoiae, eioi?ue
iniiaai ia ni/aoaiee enoi?e/aneiai aiaeeca, neioaca, iaiauaiey. Iu
iie?aainy ia i?eioeeiu enoi?ecia, iauaeoeaiinoe, nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e
eco/aaiie i?iaeaia, a oaeaea anaiauae acaeiinayce e caeiiiia?iinoe.

No?oeoo?a enneaaeiaaiey: ?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, aeaoo aeaa,
caeeth/aiey, i?eia/aiee, nienea enoi/ieeia e eeoa?aoo?u.

Aeaaa I Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa 1861 aiaea.

§1 I?aaeiinueee e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu.

Ii ieii/aiee E?uineie aieiu iaia?oaeeeenue iiiaea aioo?aiiea iaaeinoaoee
?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Ioaeiu auee ia?aiaiu, e no?aia n iaoa?iaieai
aeaeaea eo.

N?aaee ?aoi?i, ia ia?aii ianoa, eiia/ii aea, auea eaeay inaiaiaeaeaiey
e?aiinoiuo. E?anoueyia n eaaeaeui aiaeii ana neeueiaa au?aaeaee
iaaeiaieuenoai nouanoaothuae nenoaiie. ?anoe?yeanue aa?ueiiay oi?ia
yenieoaoaoeee e?anoueyieia, /oi e aucuaaei e?eceniua neooaoeee.

Ia yoii ieooo I. E. *enoyeia e O. A. Iiaeoeeay: “I e?ecena e?aiinoiiai
no?iy naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae ?ino e?anoueyineeo aieiaiee a na?aaeeia XIX
aaea; iiaiaeu e aoioai auee ?acee/iu, ii a ianna naiae iie eiaee
aioee?aiinoie/aneee e aioeaeai?yineee oa?aeoa?”1 Ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaoaieci ia/ae aeaaaoue naie, e yoi auei neaaenoaeai aioo?aiiaai
e?ecena. A ?acoeueoaoa, eiay eo/oaai a ie?a nieaeaoa, i?ae?aniuo aiaauo
ioeoea?ia, ?inney iioa?iaea ii?aaeaiea a E?uineie aieia. I. E. *enoyeia
e O. A. Iiaeoeeay n/eoatho, /oi “i?iecioei ia iioiio, /oi a ooaaa canaee
i?aaeaoaee e oieiiu, a iioiio, /oi ?inneeneee /eiiaiee i?aneaaeiaae a
aieia naie, ioee/iua io iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaee; aeey iaai aieia auea
enoi/ieeii iaiaauaiey”.2

?inney a 1835 aiaeo iieo/eea Naiae Caeiiia, a 1845 aiaeo auei i?eiyoi
Oeiaeaiea i iaeacaiiuo oaieiaiuo e eni?aaeoaeueiuo, a noae i?iaeieaeae
inoaaaoueny iai?aaui, /aio iaiaei niinianoaiaaea ionoaeinoue
i?ioeannoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I?ioeaaoaei acyoi/ie/anoai.

A a Iao?iiaaeianeie e?aiinoe a iaeoie eia?aie eaia?a a ie?oaeaiee
oth?aiiie aaeieieno?aoeee, iiieaay aeii e ea?ay a ea?ou, neaeae a?ao
Iioioeeee, oee/aiiue III ioaeaeaieai a niaa?oaiee 52 i?anooieaiee. Anaai
/a?ac iieoi?a aiaea iinea a?anoa aai inaiaiaeyo e ii?aaeaeyo ia neoaeao
… a Ieienoa?noai thnoeoeee.3

“Eoae, – aeaeatho auaiae I. E. *enoyeia e O. A. Iiaeoeeay, –
i?aia?aciaaiey ai anao noa?ao aeecie ?inneeneiai iauanoaa auee aeeciaiii
iaiaoiaeeiu.”4 Ii iie aeaeatho iaiai?eo, /oi neiaeiinoueth yoeo
i?aia?aciaaiee auei oi, /oi a eo iniiaa eaaeaea nioeeaeueii –
yeiiiie/aneay ?aoi?ia, oi anoue ?aoi?ia, eioi?ay cao?aaeaaea eioa?anu
aeaaiuo eeannia iauanoaa e eioi?ay aeieaeia auea i?ioiaeeoue a oneiaeyo
iauaai e?ecena, a iioiio iaaa?iua oaae iiaee i?eaanoe e iiuiiio
nioeeaeueiiio ac?uao.4

A. A. Eeoaae ieoao i oii, /oi E?uineay aieia ?aci?eea no?aio. Ca aiaeu
aieiu aeaoeoeeo a ainoaea?noaaiiii athaeaeaoa ninoaaee ieiei 800 iei.
?oaeae na?aa?ii. A aiaeu aieiu a 13 ?ac nie?aoeeny auaic oeaaa ii
n?aaiaieth n i?aaeaiaiiui a?aiaiai, eueia a 8 ?ac, iaiueee – a 6 ?ac,
naea – a 4 ?aca. Nie?aoeeny eiii?o iaoei, iauai eioi?iai nie?aoeeny a 10
?ac, a 2,5 ?aca nie?aoeeenue iauaiu aaica oeiiea, a 1,5 ?aca –
e?aneoaeae, /oi iaiaaeeaiii neacaeinue ia ninoiyiee oaenoeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe oeaio?aeueiuo aoaa?iee ?innee, a oii /enea e noiee/iuo. E
inaie 1854 aiaea iineianeay oeii/aoiaoiaaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue iaiieiaeio
nie?aoeea i?iecaiaenoai, /oi aucaaei ?yae aaie?ionoa oaa?eeaioia e
eoioeia.5

Oaeaea, A. A. Eeoaae ieoao i ?iee ?ae?ooneeo iaai?ia e i?ecuaia a
iiie/aiee a 1853 – 1855 aiaeia, eioi?ua ecuyee ec naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa ieiei iieooi?a ieeeeiiia ioae/ei – ?aaioieeia
iiiaue/uee eiaiey e e?anoueyineea oicyenoaa eeoeeenue nouanoaaiiie /anoe
o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a oaaee/eaoeany iio?aaiinoe a ainoaea?noaaiiuo
iaoo?aeueiuo iiaeiiinoyo ioaeaeaee inoaaoeony ?aaioieeia io
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio. A. A. Eeoaae i?eaiaeeo neaaeothuea aeaiiua:
ainoaea?noaaiiay aea?aaiy auaeaeeea a 1853 – 1855 aiaeao 15 iei.
iiaeaiae aeey ia?aaicee a?ocia e e?iia yoiai aua 18 iei. eiiiuo e iaoeo
?aaioieeia aeey ii/eiee e no?ieoaeuenoaa aei?ia e aei?iaeiuo
nii?oaeaiee. Ii i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iooie ?aai/ae neeu ec iiiaue/ueae
aea?aaie ia oaeea ?aaiou aue oaeaea aiooeoaeai ii naiei ?acia?ai, a yoi
a oeaeii ii no?aia ia iiaei ia iiaeeyoue ia eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.6

E. A. Caoa?iaa n/eoaao, /oi a no?aia aua ia neiaeeeenue iauanoaaiiua
neeu, niiniaiua aicaeaaeoue iac?aaoea i?aia?aciaaiey, eieoeeaoeaa
enoiaeeea “naa?oo”, n auniou o?iia. Iia i?eciaao, /oi auee aioo?aiiea
nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneea i?e/eiu, canoaaeaoea i?enooieoue e ioiaia
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. Iaeiaei ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii E. A. Caoa?iaa
n/eoaao “ianinoiyoaeueiinoue e?aiinoiie nenoaiu a iaiin?aaenoaaiiii
nii?eeiniiaaiee e noieeiiaaiee ?innee n aa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie a
na?aaeeia XIX aaea”7

A enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a nouanoaotho aeaa iiaiey i i?e/eiao ioiaiu
e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. Niaeanii ia?aiai ec ieo, e na?aaeeia XIX aaea
e?aiinoiia oicyenoai aua aeaeaei ia en/a?iaei naieo aiciiaeiinoae e
aunooieaiey i?ioea i?aaeoaeuenoaa auee i/aiue neaau. Ie yeiiiie/aneay,
ie nioeeaeueiay eaoano?iou ?innee ia a?iceee, ii, nio?aiyy e?aiinoiia
i?aai, iia iiaea auauoue ec /enea aaeeeeo aea?aeaa. Yoie oi/ee c?aiey
i?eaea?aeeaathony I. A. No?oaa, I. E. ?oaaeiooaei. Aeaaiua aea i?e/eiu
ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa – iieeoe/aneea – e i?aaeaea anaai oieceoaeueiia
ii?aaeaiea ?innee a E?uineie aieia, ?acaayaoaa ieo i aiaiiii iiaouanoaa
eiia?ee, aucaaaoaa ?acae?aaeaiea a iauanoaa e oa?ico noaaeeueiinoe a
no?aia.

Iiae/a?eeaaaony oaeaea iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea E?uineie aieiu e ia
yeiiiie/aneoth neooaoeeth a no?aia, au?aceaoaany a ioaea/aiee aieaa 10%
?aaioieeia io oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a oiaea ?ae?ooneeo iaai?ia; a
nie?auaiee ia 13% /eneaiiinoe neioa a ?acoeueoaoa ?aeaeceoeee e iaaeaaea
io aieaciae; ?anno?ienoaa oeiainia: ca aiaeu aieiu aeaoeoeeo
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ninoaaeee 800 iei. ?oa., /oi a 3 ?aca
aieueoa aiaeiauo iinooieaiee a eacio; nie?auaieai yenii?oii-eiii?oiuo
iia?aoeee, neaaenoaeai /aai yaeeinue caiaoiia oooaeoaiea iieiaeaiey
iiiaue/ueeo oicyenoa, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia aiaoiea ?uiee, e nie?auaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa ia ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Niaeanii aoi?iai – ia/aea nieaeaaony i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
e?aiinoiuo, oae eae iiiaueee oioaee i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoa i?iaeoeoeee
yoei iiae?uaaee neeu e?anoueyineiai oicyenoaa. Iiiaea iiiaueee iuoaeenue
aaiaeeoue iiaua nenoaiu aaaeaiey oicyenoaa, i?eiaiyoue iiaaeooth
oaoieeo, caeoiaoue oeo/oaiiua ni?oa, ii?iaeenoue neio. Oaeea ia?u
i?eaiaeeee eo e ?aci?aieth, e niioaaonoaaiii, e oneeaieth yenieoaoaoeee
e?anoueyi.

Yoi o?aaeeoeeiiiia iiaiea aieueoeinoaa enoi?eeia. Aai i?eaea?aeeaathony
E.A. Caoa?iaa, A.A. Eeoaae. Iie n/eoatho, /oi aeaeueiaeoea ?acaeoea
oicyenoaa ia e?aiinoiie nenoaia auei iaaiciiaeiui, e /oi e?aiinoiia
i?aai a ?innee a ia?eiae ?aceiaeaiey oaiaeaeecia i?eia?aei
eneeth/eoaeueii aeanoieea /a?ou. Oae n/eoatho e I.E. *enoyeia e O.A.
Iiaeoeeay.

Iaeiaei aeaaiuie i?aaeiinueeaie ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa ana aea
yaeyaony iieeoe/aneea. E i?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaiea a E?uineie aieia,
eioi?ay iiaeeyea ia yeiiiieeo no?aiu. Iiyoiio ia?aia iiaiea ii aeaiiiio
aii?ino iia eaaeaony aieaa aa?iui.

E?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia iiaeaeea ca niaie i?aia?aciaaiea anao noi?ii
ainoaea?noaaiiie e iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Aue i?aaeoniio?ai ?yae ia? ii
ia?ano?ieea ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey, noaeaaiie nenoaiu, ia?aciaaiey e,
iicaeiaa, a?iee. Yoi auee aeaenoaeoaeueii e?oiiua eciaiaiey, n?aaieiua
?acaa /oi oieueei n ?aoi?iaie Iao?a I.

§2 Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue yoai.

A Iaieoanoa 19 ia?oa 1856 aiaea, iauyaeye ia oneiaeyo caeeth/aiiiai
ie?a, Aeaenaiae? II iaicia/ee aioo?eiieeoe/aneea caaea/e, noiyuea ia?aae
?inneae: “… aea ooaa?aeaeaaony e niaa?oainoaoaony aa aioo?aiiaa
aeaaiono?ienoai; i?aaaea e ieeinoue aea oea?noaoao a noaeao aa; aea
?acaeaaaony iianthaeo e n iiaie neeie no?aieaieth e i?inaauaieth e
anyeie iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoe, e eaaeaeue iiae naiueth caeiiia, aeey
anao ?aaii ni?aaaaeeeauo, anai ?aaii iie?iaeoaeuenoaothueo, aea
ianeaaeaeaaony a ie?a iiaeaie o?oaeia iaaeiiuo”1

Iaii?aaeaeaiiia iaauaiea ?aoi?i auei i?ecaaii aeey niya/aiey aia/aoeaiey
io iici?iiai eiioea aieiu. Iaeiaei, yoiai inoi?iaeiiai iaiaea ia
i?aaenoiyuea ?aoi?iu oaaoeei, /oiau ianoi?iaeeeanue e acaieiiaaeanue
aeai?yinoai. Oaea 30 ia?oa 1856 aiaea ia iaaaea, ono?iaiiii a aai /anoue
iineianeei aeai?yinoaii. Ai anaoneuoaiea Aeaenaiae?a II cayaee i naiai
iaia?aiee. I?iecioei yoi, i?aaaea, neo/aeii. Aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? Iineau
Cae?aaneee, oaaaeaeaiiue e?aiinoiee, ai a?aiy iaaaea aiacaiii ia?aoeeny
e eiia?aoi?o n i?inueaie ?acaayoue neooe i aiciiaeiii inaiaiaeaeaiee
e?anoueyi e oniieieoue iineianeia aeai?yinoai.

Aeaenaiae? II n/ae iaiaoiaeeiui auneacaoue naith oi/eo c?aiey. “Neooe
iinyony, /oi y oi/o aeaoue naiaiaeo e?anoueyiai; yoi iani?aaaaeeeai; – e
au iiaeaoa neacaoue yoi anai iai?aai e iaeaai. Ii /oanoai a?aaeaeaaiia
iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e iiiaueeaie, e ian/anoueth, nouanoaoao, e io yoiai
auei oaea ianeieueei neo/aaa iaiiaeiiaaiey iiiaueeai. ss oaaaeaeai, /oi
?aii eee iicaeii iu aeieaeiu e yoiio i?eeoe. ss aeoiath, /oi e au
iaeiiai iiaiey ni iiie: neaaeiaaoaeueii, ai?acaei eo/oa, /oiau yoi
i?iecioei nauoa, /ai nieco”2

A yoie ?a/e ia neeoeii i?iaeoiaiiie e eiae/iie, eae ieoao I.Ae.
Aeieaeeia, aeaeaee aeaeaiea eiia?aoi?a niyoue n naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue, a
oi e oaeeueiooue io ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii a ?a/e Aeaenaiae?a II /oanoaoaony iaoaa?aiiinoue,
niyoaiea eiia?aoi?a. Ii a yoii iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai: aaaeue ii
ianiiiaiii ?eneiaae, iineieueeo ieeoi ia iia neacaoue, eae io?aaae?oao
ia aai neiaa ?inneeneia aeai?yinoai, aea e aiiaua, ianeieueei
aeaaii?eyoai aeey ia/aea ?aoi?i eiaiii aeaiiue iiiaio.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, Aeaenaiae? Ieeieaaae/ ene?aiia ia?auaaony e aeai?yiai
ca iiiiuueth a noieue aaaeiii aeaea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoi auea ia?aay
aai iiiuoea auynieoue noaiaiue nii?ioeaeaiey aeai?yinoaa eee, iaiai?io,
aai aioiaiinoueth e ia?aiaiai e nio?oaeie/anoao n i?aaeoaeuenoaii.

Ia?auaiea Aeaenaiae?a II e iineianeiio aeai?yinoao noaei
iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth aeaaea aeey naiiai ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae N.N.
Eaineiai. Eaineie, a iieiaeinoe ianii – /eai Nithca aeaaiaeainoaey, nai
aue noi?iiieeii ?aoi?i. Oae aio, ia aa?y ie neooai, ie nianoaaiiui
enoi/ieeai eioi?iaoeee, Eaineie n/ae naiei aeieaii auynieoue ee/ii o
eiia?aoi?a, i?aaaea ee, /oi oio aiai?eo a Iineaa i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi? Eiia?aoi? ioaaoeo: “Aea aiai?ee oi/ii oi, e ia
niaeaeath ia yoii”.

Eaineie aue a iaaeioiaiee, oae eae Aeaenaiae? II, iacia/ay N.N. Eaineiai
a 1855 aiaeo ia aeieaeiinoue ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae, ii?o/ee aio “…
ia?ooeii io?aiyoue i?aaa, aaioeaiiniui aai i?aaeeaie aea?iaaiiua
aeai?yiaie.”

Ai?i/ai, iaaeioiaiea i?iaeieaeaeinue ia aeieai. Aeaenaiae? II ii?o/ee
N.N. Eaineiai nia?aoue ana aeaea i iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi – ca ?aciua
aiaeu e ii anai aaaeiinoaai e ana iaoa?eaeu i nouanoaothuai iauanoaaiiii
iiaiee. Nai? iaoa?eaeia i?aaenoaaeye ecaanoioth o?oaeiinoue, iineieueeo
a ia/aoe /oi-eeai ienaoue ii e?anoueyineiio aii?ino cai?auaeinue. Aeaaea
iaiaee ia inoaaeyeenue aac aieiaiey. Ai?i/ai, a ?oeiienyo oiaeeei iaiaei
caienie e i?iaeoia, eanaaoeony e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu.

I/aiue nei?i Eaineie e Eaaoei(oiaa?eu ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae) auyaeee
o?e iniiaiuo iooe ?aoaiey e?anoueyineiai aii?ina:

1) iaiaaeeaiiia inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi aac caiee;

2) ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa n nio?aiaieai ca e?anoueyiaie eo caiaeueiuo
iaaeaeia n oneiaeai aueoia, /oi auei neiaeii, eai: a) iiiaueeai ioaeia
auea noiia aueoia n?aco;

a) ainoaea?noai ia iiaei aeaoue e?anoueyiai a ?ann?i/eo i?eaeeceoaeueii
a 1 ie?ae. ?oaeae;

3) i?iaaaeaiea ?yaea iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo ia? aeey ia?aiia/aeueiiai
ia?aaiaea e?anoueyi ai a?aiaiii-iaycaiiia ninoiyiea.

Oaea ia yoii, iiaeaioiaeoaeueiii, yoaia Eaaoeio noaei ynii, /oi iiiaueee
i?iiuoeaiiuo aoaa?iee i?iea?atho i?e inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi,
iineieueeo ee/ioth naiaiaeo e?anoueyia aueoiaoue ia aoaeoo, a caiey ia
i?aaenoaaeyao a yoie iieina oeaiiinoe. Eiiiainaoeee iiiaueeai ca iioa?th
e?anoueyi aeieaeai aue noaoue aueoi e?anoueyiaie naiae onaaeaaiie
inaaeeinoe, a noieiinoue eioi?ie iiaee auoue aeeth/aiu “iniaua
i?iiuneiaua auoiaeu”, niaaeeiaiiua n aeaaeaieai yoeie onaaeueaaie.

Iaeiaei aeey i?eaeaiey oiaea aeaeo inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi iaiaoiaeeii
auei aeiaeoueny eieoeeaoeau ni noi?iiu iiiaueeia. A.E. Eaaoei, ii
?anii?yaeaieth Aeaenaiae?a II iiiuoaeny aaeioiiaeoue ia aeia?iaieueiue
ioeac io e?aiinoiiai i?aaa aoaa?ineeo i?aaeaiaeeoaeae aeai?yinoaa,
nuaoaaoeony ia ei?iiaoeeth a Iineao. Ii iie noa?aeenue ioiie/aoueny. A
eiioea aiaea Eaineie auioaeaeai aue aeieiaeeoue eiia?aoi?o, /oi ie
iineianeay ?a/ue, ie ia?aaiai?u /eiiaieeia Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae
n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeai?yinoaa ?acee/iuo aoaa?iee ia aeaee ?acoeueoaoa.
A iineaaenoaee Eaaoei ienae a iaioa?ao: “Aieueoay /anoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iicaiaeueiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa aiana ia auea aioiaa aeaeiooueny a iiaue
iooue, ieeiaaea ia ianoaeaeaea e?aiinoiiai ninoiyiey n oi/ee c?aiey
inaiaiaeaeaiey e iioiio i?e ia?aii iaiaea i oii, ecuyaeyea oaeeaeaiea, a
eiiaaea iai?eoai?iue no?ao. I/aaeaeii, /oi oaeea aanaaeu, oioy
iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?yaiua, ia i?iaeaeioee iaiy aeaeaei aia?aae.”3

Iaaeaeo oai, aeey Aeaenaiae?a II aeia?iaieueiia niaeanea aeai?yi ia
ioiaio /anoe eo i?eaeeaaee auei iaiau/aeii aaaeii. Iaoiaeynue iaaeaeo
aeaoo iaiae(iaaeiaieuenoai e?anoueyi naiei iieiaeaieai e nii?ioeaeaiea
iiiaueeia iiiuoeai eciaieoue yoi iieiaeaiea), ii iuoaeny iaaciianeoue
aa?oiaioth aeanoue oioy au n iaeiie noi?iiu. Niaeanea aeai?yinoaa ia
ioiaio e?aiinoiiai i?aaa aeieaeii auei au noaoue iaaeaaeiie aa?aioeae
aeaeueiaeoeo niaianoiuo aeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e ia?aiai nineiaey
?innee.

A neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee o Aeaenaiae?a II auei aeaa aiciiaeiinoe:
i?iaiaeeoue i?aia?aciaaiey naa?oo, iie?aynue ia /eiiaie/anoai e ieaiu,
au?aaioaiiua a oeoe ieienoa?neeo eaaeiaoia; eee ia?aoeoueny e
iiaeaea?aeea aeai?yineiai iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey e iiiuoaoueny auynieoue,
/oi i?aaeii/eoaao eee aieueoeinoai iiiaueeia, eee ia?aaeiaay eo /anoue.
Iinea /aai niaeaniaaoue naie aeaenoaey n i?aaeeiaeaieyie yoie /anoe
ianaeaiey.

§3 ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia ?aoi?iu.

Aeaenaiae? II ia/ae n oiai, /oi ee/ii aio oaea auei ciaeiii ii iiuoo: a
o?aaeeoeeyo ieeieaaaneie nenoaiu o/?aaeee i/a?aaeiie Nae?aoiue eiieoao
ii e?anoueyineiio aeaeo. 3 yiaa?y 1857 aiaea Aeaenaiae? II
nianoaaiii?o/ii ioe?ue canaaeaiea Iaaeaniiai eiieoaoa. Aeaenaiae? II
iinoaaee neaaeothuee aii?in ia?aae i?enoonoaothueie: neaaeoao ee
i?eiyoue eaeea-eeai ?aoeoaeueiua ia?u ii inaiaiaeaeaieth e?anoueyi?
*eaiu eiieoaoa aioee 11 aaeueiiae: i?aaenaaeaoaeue Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
niaaoa I?eia, ieieno? aioo?aiieo aeae Eaineie, ieieno? eiia?aoi?neiai
aeai?a Aaeea?aa?a, oao aeaiaea?iia Aeieai?oeia, ieieno? oeiainia A?ie,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa I. Io?aaueaa e ?yae /eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
niaaoa, n?aaee eioi?uo: ?inoiaoeaa, Aaaa?ei, Aeoaeia.

*eaiu eiieoaoa niae?aeenue iiea eco/aoue iaoa?eaeu, nia?aiiua a
ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae. Aeey yoiai ec ninoaaa Nae?aoiiai eiieoaoa
auea auaeaeaia eiienney: eiycue Aaaa?ei, aa?ii Ei?o e aaia?ae
?inoiaoeaa. Iie ia aeiaiai?eeenue ae?oa n ae?oaii e iiaeaioiaeee o?e
i?iaeoa ?aoaiey e?anoueyineiai aii?ina.

A ai?aea 1857 aiaea aaia?ae-aaeuthoaio ss.E. ?inoiaoeaa iiaeaioiaee
Aeaenaiae?o II caieneo i niiniaao iinoaiaiiiai inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi,
niaea?aeauoth aeaeueiiaeaeiue aiaeec ia?niaeoea inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi
n caieae. A iae o/eouaaeenue aeaaea oaeea neiaeiua iineaaenoaey ?aoi?iu,
eae ?ino e?anoueyineiai iaeicaiaeuey a ?acoeueoaoa aucaaiiiai ath
aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ac?uaa. Iaeiaei, eae ieoao I.Ae. Aeieaeeia: “…
i?aaeeiaeaiiua ?inoiaoeaaui niiniau ia ioee/aeenue ii?aaeaeaiiinoueth e
a?auaeenue a noa?ii caieiooii e?oao ia? ii “ii oiya/aieth” e?aiinoiiai
ninoiyiey.”

Ae?oaie i?eia? oiai aea ?iaea – iocua I.Ae. Eenaeaaa, auaoaai ieieno?a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa i?e Ieeieaa I. Ii aai oaaaeaeaieth, iieiia
ee/iia inaiaiaeaeaiea iaaiciiaeii aac iaeiia?aiaiiiai i?aa?auaiey
e?anoueyi a nianoaaiieeia iaaeaeia. Eiaiii iiieiaiea yoie noi?iiu
i?iaeaiu aeaeaei aai noi?iiieeii ion?i/ee inaiaiaeaeaiey aei oie ii?u,
eiaaea neiaeaony oneiaey aeey aueoia e?anoueyineie caiee. Iaaeaeo oai
ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae i?iaeieaeaei ?aaioaoue. A aai iaae?ao
au?aaaouaaaony i?iaeo inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi: ee/iay naiaiaea,
aeaaeaiea onaaeueaie, i?aai aueoieoue caieth i niaeaneaoeony ia yoi
iiiaueeia. Eiieoao yoiai i?iaeoa ia i?eieiaao, oeacuaay ia aai
/?acia?ioth ?aaiethoeeiiiinoue.1

Ieacaaoenue ia?aae eeoeii nii?ioeaeaiey e aeai?yi, e naiaai eiieoaoa,
Aeaenaiae? II auioaeaeai aue aiaoaoueny. Ii aaae a naioya?a 1857 aiaea a
eiieoao naiaai a?aoa, Eiinoaioeia Ieeieaaae/a e ii?o/ee aio aanoe
canaaeaiey.

Ianiio?y ia ana oneeey, aeaei n ia?oaie oi/ee ia aeaeaaeinue, ia/eiay
aiooaoue iianaiey ?aoi?iaoi?ai. Ii Aeaenaiae? II ino?ioiii eniieueciaae
i?aaenoaaeaoothny aiciiaeiinoue.

Inaiueth 1857 aiaea a Iaoa?ao?a i?eaue iaiau/aeii ?aoeoaeueii
iano?iaiiue aeeaineee aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? A.E. Iaceiia, eioi?ue aeinoaaee
a noieeoeo aeieaiaeaeaiioth “eieoeeaoeao” aeai?yinoaa naieo aoaa?iee –
anaiiaeaeaiiaeoee aae?an n i?inueaie ia inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi,
i?aaaea, aac caiee. Ii aeey Aeaenaiae? II aaaeai aue nai oaeo iiaea/e
aae?ana. Ii ii?o/ee Ieienoa?noao aioo?aiieo aeae, eae iiaeii auno?aa,
iiaeaioiaeoue ?ane?eio n eceiaeaieai iniia, ia eioi?uo i?aaeeaaaeinue
ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa a naaa?i-caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo. Eaaoei ca 48
/ania iaienae aeieoiaio, a eioi?ii e?anoueyiai i?aaeinoaaeyeanue ee/iay
naiaiaea, onaaeueaa ca aueoi e iieaaua iaaeaeu(ca eniieiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaycaiiinoae). Ianiiniaiue nii?ioeaeyoueny iiia?oo Eiieoao
iaeia?yao ?ane?eio ia eiy Iaceiiaa2: Eaineie oaiai?ee Aeaenaiae?a II
?ac?aoeoue ?acineaoue yoio ?ane?eio aoaa?iaoi?ai “aeey iciaeiieaiey e
iiae?aaeaiey”. Au?aaa o eiia?aoi?a niaeanea, ieieno? aucaae I.E.
Iaeueieeiaa e ii?o/ee aio caiyoueny ia/aoaieai e ?annueeie aeieoiaioa a
ii/ue n 5 ia 6 aeaeaa?y 1857 aiaea. 6 aeaeaa?y eo?uea? ioaac 75
yecaiiey?ia ?ane?eioa ia aiecaeu aeey ioi?aaee eo ii aoaa?ieyi. A oio
aea aeaiue Nae?aoiue eiieoao iio?aaiaae io ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae,
/oiau ii iia?aiaiee n ?annueeie aeieoiaioa, ii auei oaea iicaeii.

Iaeiia?aiaiii oaeie aea aeieoiaio aue ioi?aaeai iaoa?ao?aneiio
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o e /ooue iicaea – iineianeiio. Aeaniinoue yoiai
ia?aiai oaaa ia iooe e ?aoaieth e?anoueyineiai aii?ina io?acaea
i?aaeoaeuenoao iooue e ionooieaieth.

Aio oae ioeaieaaao I.Ae. Aeieaeeia nicaeaiea ?ane?eioa Iaceiiao:
“Aeoiaaony, ?ane?eio Iaceiiao ia noaaeee aai iiaeaioiaee aua ia ia?ae a
aeacao eiia?aoi?a niunea iauae aeey anae ?innee i?ia?aiiu
i?aia?aciaaiee. Inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi a eeoianeeo aoaa?ieyo
i?aaenoaaeyeinue Aeaenaiae?o niaoeeoe/aneie, aeaeeeaoiie i?iaeaiie,
naycaiiie n aai aoiaeaeaieai a ia?ac ni?aaaaeeeaiai e /ooeiai e ioaeaeai
iiaeaiiuo ainoaea?y.”3

E aeaenoaeoaeueii, ie o eiia?aoi?a, ie o Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae,
ie o ia?aaeiauo yoaeiiia ?onneiai iauanoaa ia auei ii?aaeaeaiiiai ieaia
aeaenoaee. Any i?ia?aiia caeeth/aeanue a auno?ii ?aaae?iaaiee ia
i?ienoiaeyuaa a no?aia. A i?ienoiaeyuea a no?aia auei neiaeiui e
iaiaeiicia/iui. E?aiinoieee caioaeaaee Aeaenaiae?a II a?icyueie ?innee
aaaeaie. Aeai?yineia iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ai aeaaa n /anoueth aunoaai
/eiiaie/anoaa any/anee noa?aeenue caoi?iiceoue inouanoaeaiea ?aoi?iu.

Iaeiaei, ia/aei aeaeo inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi io e?aiinoiiai eaa auei
iieiaeaii. Eiaiii ii yoiio iiaiaeo Aa?oeai neaaeao ia Aeaenaiae?a II –
“Ou iiaaaeee, Aaeeeayie!” A *a?iuoaaneee iaieoao a “Nia?aiaiieea”:
“Enoi?ey ?innee n ianoiyuaai aiaea noieue aea ?acee/ia io anaai
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoaai, eae ?acee/ia auea aa enoi?ey ni a?aiai Iao?a io
i?aaeieo a?aiai. Iiaay aeeciue, oaia?ue aeey ian ia/eiathuayny, aoaeao
ianoieueei aea i?ae?aniaa, aeaaiono?iaiiaa, aeenoaoaeueiaa e n/anoeeaaa
i?aaeiae, ianeieueei noi iyoueaeanyo iineaaeieo eao auee auoa XVII
noieaoey a ?innee. Aeaaineiaaiea, iaauaiiia ie?ioai?oeaie e e?ioeei,
oaai/eaaao Aeaenaiae?a II n/anoueai, eaeei ia aue oaai/ai aua ieeoi ec
ainoaea?ae Aa?iiu, n/anoueai – iaeiiio ia/aoue e niaa?oeoue
inaiaiaeaeaiea naieo iiaeaeaiiuo.”5

Iineieueeo iinea iioaeeeiaaiey ?ane?eioia aeaei inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi
iieo/eei iaeaneo, 20 yiaa?y 1858a. Nae?aoiue eiieoao aue ia?aeiaiiaai a
“Aeaaiue eiieoao ii e?anoueyineiio aeaeo aeey ?anniio?aiey iinoaiiaeaiee
e i?aaeeiaeaiee e e?aiinoiii ninoiyiee.” I?aaenaaeaoaeai aai noae eiycue
A.O. I?eia, a ianeieueei iicaeiaa – aaeeeee eiycue Eiinoaioei
Ieeieaaae/. 21 ai?aey 1858 aiaea Aeaenaiae? II ooaa?aeee i?ia?aiio
Aeaaiiai eiieoaoa ii e?anoueyineiio aeaeo ia i?eioeeiao ?ane?eioa
Iaceiiao. Iniiaiua aii?inu, ?anniao?eaaaoeany a aoaa?ineeo eiieoaoao,
naiaeeeenue e ii?aaeaeaieth ?acia?a iaaeaeia, iiaeiiinoae ca caieth e
onoaiiaeaieth i?aaeaea aio/eiiie aeanoe. I?e yoii aieueoay /anoue
eiieoaoia auneacaoue ca nie?auaiea e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia. Iiaeiiinoe
aea i?aaeeaaaeinue nio?aieoue i?aaeieie, a a ioaeaeueiuo aoaa?ieyo –
aeaaea oaaee/eoue. Aa?oeai, aieiaoaeueii neaaeeaoee ca oiaeii
iiaeaioiaee ?aoi?iu, ienae ia Aeaenaiae?a II: “Iao, ia ii aai iea/ai yoa
iioa”; “Oeoi, oaeanii oeoi eaeoo aeaea ia ?one, neaaay ?oea Aeaenaiae?a
Ieeieaaae/a ae?iaeeo”.6

I?ioeaieeai ?aoi?i ec Aeaaiiai eiieoaoa oaeaeinue oaea ec ?ane?eioa
iaoa?ao?aneiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o oa?aoue neiaa i iaiaaeeaiiii
inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe e i oii, /oi ?acia?u
aueoia onaaeueau ia aeieaeiu i?aauoaoue aa ?aaeueiie noieiinoe.
Eiia?aoi? niaeaneeny ia yoe eciaiaiey. Aeaenaiae?o II noaei ynii, /oi
oneiaey inaiaiaeaeaiey aoaeao au?aaaouaaoue ia Aeaaiue eiieoao,
aieueoeinoai eioi?iai auei i?ioea inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, i?e a?aaeaeaaiii ioiioaiee e ?aoi?ia aieueoeinoai iiiaueeia e
ne?uoii nii?ioeaeaiee ae cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa,
Aeaenaiae? II yaii ia oioae ioe?uoi iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ie oao, ie ae?oaeo.
Ii caiye iiceoeeth noaeuee, eioi?ue euao eiii?iienn iaaeaeo aeaoiy
oi/eaie c?aiey.

Iiea aea, Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae naeaeaei ioaaoiue oiae,
iiaeaioiaea naia ianoaaeaiea aoaa?ineei aeai?yineei eiieoaoai,
aeeth/aaoaa a naay neaaeothuaa:

1) Inaiaiaeaeaiea e?anoueyi n caieae.

2) Ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeiiinoe e?anoueyi a iieueco iiiaueeia.

3) Aueoi onaaeueau.

4) Iieiay ee/iay iacaaeneiinoue e?anoueyi io iiiaueeia, i?aai eo
ia?aoiaeeoue ia ae?oaea caiee e i?i/aa.

Aeaaiue eiieoao ia i?eieiaao yoio aeieoiaio e ii?o/aao ss.E. ?inoiaoeaao
ninoaaeoue i?iaeo, aieaa caueuathuee eioa?anu iiiaueeia. Ii iiaieth
?inoiaoeaaa, aeaei eo/oa anaai auei ia?aaeaoue aoaa?ineei aeai?yineei
eiieoaoai, iio?aaiaaa eeoue, /oiau iie naeaeaee e?anoueyi ee/ii
naiaiaeiuie e i?aaeinoaaeee ei i?aai aann?i/ii aeaaeaoue onaaeueaie.
Aueoi aea iieaaiai iaaeaea aeieaeai aue noaoue i?aaii, ii ia
iaycaiiinoueth e?anoueyi. Yoo caieneo Eiieoao i?eiye, eiia?aoi?
ooaa?aeee, e iia auea ?acineaia ia ianoa aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa e aeaenoaeth,
i?e ninoaaeaiee aoaa?ineeo i?iaeoia e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu.

A aaaonoa – naioya?a 1858 aiaea Aeaenaiae? II i?aaei?eieiaao iiacaeeo ii
aoaa?ieyi ?innee. Eiia?aoi? aea?aeae ?a/e a aeooa iao?ea?oaeueiiai
aeiaa?ey e aunoaio nineiaeth; aeaaea oi?aee, ia?auaiiua e iineianeiio
aeai?yinoao, nii?iaiaeaeaeenue i?i/oanoaiaaiiuie caaa?aieyie a ethaae e
neiiaoee. A ioiioaiee aea naiie ?aoi?iu, aie?oa i?iaeoia eioi?ie eeiaee
aaoaeee a eiieoaoao, Aeaenaiae? ia?aie/eaaeny ?anieua/aouie o?acaie i
aiciiaeiinoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aa?iiiece?iaaoue eioa?anu iiiaueeia e
e?anoueyi ia iniiaaiee ia/ae ?ane?eioa. A oiaea iiacaeee a Aeaenaiae?a
II ieii/aoaeueii nic?aaaao ?aoaiea i auciaa a Iaoa?ao?a ii aeaa
aeai?yineeo i?aaenoaaeoaey io eaaeaeie aoaa?iee. A oi aea a?aiy
eiia?aoi? e aai noi?iiieee iiieiaee, /oi iiaiea anaai aeai?yinoaa, anee
ii?in aoaeao i?iaiaeeoueny a aoaa?ieyo, a?yae ee ieaaeaony ooaoeoaeueiui
aeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Eiae/iaa auei iiiuoaoueny ni?aaeoueny a noieeoea n
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie io aoaa?iee, anee ioaeii, oi e iaaeaaea ia ieo.

E eiioeo 1858 aiaea a noieeoeo ia/eiaao iinooiaoue i?iaeou ?aoi?iu io
aoaa?ineeo eiieoaoia. I?e ana ?acieoea ai iiaieyo ianoaeaeaiea i?iaeoia
?aoi?iu a aoaa?ieyo auei aaeaa ee ia ia?aui iiuoii ianoaeaeaiey a ?innee
a auai?iuo i?aaiao aii?ina ainoaea?noaaiiie aaaeiinoe.

I?e yoii io i?aaeoaeuenoaa e eiia?aoi?a o?aaiaaeinue aieueoia oa?iaiea e
?aoeoaeueiinoue, yniinoue oeaeae e aeaeinoue iaoiaeia, aaaeoueo e
aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae.

E oiio aea a eiioea 1858 aiaea noaei aaniethoii ynii, /oi ie oneeey
Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae, ie iiacaeea ainoaea?y ii no?aia ia
canoaaeee iniiaioth ianno iiiaueeia eciaieoue naia iiaiea a iieueco
inaiaiaeaeaiey e?aiinoiuo.

§4 Nicaeaiea ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee

A yoie neiaeiie neooaoeee, eiaaea ii no?aia a?iaeeee aeanyoee i?iaeoia
ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae i?aaeeiaeeei
nicaeaoue aeaa eiiennee: iaeio – aeey au?aaioee iauaai iieiaeaiey i
?aoi?ia; ae?oaay – aeey iiaeaioiaee eiie?aoiuo oneiaee inaiaiaeaeaiey
e?anoueyi ii ianoiinoe eee iieinai(ia/a?iicaiiue, /a?iicaiiie e
noaiiie). Aeaenaiae? II iaeia?ee yoo eaeath, e eiiennee, iieo/eaoea
iacaaiea ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo, ia/aee naith ?aaioo. Iaeiaei anei?a eiiennee
auee niaaeeiaiu a iaeio, oioy iacaaiea ai iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea
nio?aieeinue. Iie eiaee /aou?a ioaeaeaiey: th?eaee/aneia,
aaeieieno?aoeaiia, oicyenoaaiiia e oeiainiaia.1

?aaeaeoeeiiiua eiiennee ieacaeenue iaauaaeui a ?innee o/?aaeaeaieai.
Iie auee i?ecaaiu au?aaioaoue aaaeiaeoea aeey aeecie no?aiu
caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou. A ia?ooaiea anao o?aaeeoeee, eiiennee ieacaeenue
iinoaaeaiu aia anyeie caaeneiinoe io aeaaiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee – Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e aeaaiiai eiieoaoa ii
e?anoueyineiio aeaeo. I?aaenaaeaoaeai eiiennee Aeaenaiae? II iacia/ee
?inoiaoeaaa. Eiiennee ai aeaaa n ?inoiaoeaaui ?acaa?ioee ao?ioth
caeiiioai?/aneoth ?aaioo e ?aoeoaeueii aoi?aeenue a naioth nae?aoioth
noa?o ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey – oeiainu e aaieianeia aeaei.
?inoiaoeaa ana aieueoa aoyaeaaeny aianoa n i?eaeaoaiiuie ei
niaoeeaeenoaie a i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaioo iaae ieaiaie aueoiiie iia?aoeee.
I?iaeoe?iaaiea aueoia oaycuaaeinue eie n ia?aie ii auioneo aeieain?i/iuo
iaeeaaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai caeia e iiaeaea?aeaieth eo ae?aeaaie oeaiu
ca n/ao iaaeeaaaoaeny oiaaea i?iaeaaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa.
Nicaeaiiay ei aioo?e ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee iniaay oeiainiaay eiienney
a naiae ia?aie i?ia?aiiiie caienea au?aaeaea naia iaia?aiea “ia
ia?aie/eaaoueny ecaanoiie ?aieie”, a iai?ioea oiai “,naiie ii?aaeaeeoue,
eaeea eiaiii ec oeiainiauo ia? aiceiaeaiu a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey
aeinoeaeaiey oeaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa ii e?anoueyineiio aeaeo”.

Oaeiio iiaeoiaeo ai?acaei aieaa niioaaonoaiaaea iinoaiiaea aueoiaia
?aaoey?ioth e ieaiiia?ioth iniiao, /ai i?aaenoaaeaiea aai aiea noeoee
aeia?iaieueiuo naeaeie. Iiyoiio ?inoiaoeaa ia?aiia/aeueii oeacae /eaiai
?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee ia noaoai i?iiaaeooi/iinoue ia?eiaea
n?i/iiiaycaiiuo ioiioaiee e oaeoe/anee inoaaeye ca ?aaeaeoeeiiiuie
eiienneyie i?aai iaaeaeo “iiethaiaiuie” aueoiiuie aeiaiai?aie e
iauaainoaea?noaaiiui, iaycaoaeueiui aueoiii.

Eeoue ii ianoiyieth oea?y ?inoiaoeaa niaaaeee naia i?aaeeiaeaiea
?aaeaeoeeiiiui eiienneyi aiai?iie i oii, /oi aueoi aeieaeai niaa?oaoueny
ii “iiethaiaiiio” niaeaoaieth, ii aiaoaoaeuenoai Aeaenaiae?a ia
iaaneo?aaeeei i?aaenaaeaoaey – nei?i ii aiiaue iiiuoaaony ieacaoue
aeaaeaiea ia “auni/aeooth aieth”. : iay 1859 aiaea ii iiyoue ia?aoeeny e
/eaiai ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee n i?aaeeiaeaieai i oii, /oi ii enoa/aieth
12 – eaoiaai eee iaiueoaai n?iea ana ia auoaaeoea aeia?iaieueii e oiio
a?aiaie ec n?i/iiiaycaiiiai ninoiyiey e?anoueyia aoaeoo ia?aaaaeaiu ia
aueoi. Oa?ica i?eioaeaeaiey e aueoio auea iaiaaeeaiii caia/aia I.I.
Ooaaeiaui – /eaiii ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee, iaoa?ao?aneei
i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aeai?yinoaa. Ii aic?acee i?ioea oaycee iieiiai ee/iiai
inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyieia n iieoieie caiee a nianoaaiiinoue e
i?aaeeiaeee iino?ieoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia i?aaa e?anoueyineiai
aann?i/iiai iieueciaaiey iaaeaeueiie caieae, niaiauaiiii n i?aaii ioeaca
io iaaeaea e naiaiaeiiai ia?aaeaeaeaiey.

Aeaenaiae?o II i?eoeinue aunooieoue a ?iee noaeuee a yoii nii?a. Ii
i?eiye noi?iio ?inoiaoeaaa e aieueoeinoaa ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee.
Oneiaey ia?aoiaea ia aueoi e aueoiiuo naeaeie aucuaaee a aeaeueiaeoai o
eiia?aoi?a iniaue eioa?an i?e iciaeiieaiee n o?oaeaie ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo
eiiennee. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo Aeieaeeia ieoao: “Aeaenaiae? ionoaeaaao
aeia?iaieueiinoue niaeaoaiee i aueoia iaaeaeia ia ec iaeiie eeoue aiycie
ia?ooeoue nianoaaiie/aneea i?aaa aeai?yinoaa. A oie aea ia?a aeey iaai
auei iai?eaieaii i?eioaeaeaiea e aueoio e?anoueyi.”2

Oaea a aaaonoa 1859 aiaea i?iaeo “Iieiaeaiey i e?anoueyiao” aue
caeii/ai. Ia/aee aiineoue a iaai iii?aaee ii caia/aieyi aeaiooaoia io
aoaa?ineeo eiieoaoia.

Neooaoeey iaiaeeaeaiii ineiaeieeanue ia/aeueiui niauoeai – a oaa?aea
1860 aiaea neii/aeny ss.E. ?inoiaoeaa. Ia?aae nia?oueth sseia Eaaiiae/
ia?aoeeny e aaeaaeiaaii iinauaaoaio aai eiia?aoi?o n iineaaeiei
iaioonoaeai: “Ainoaea?ue! Ia aieoanue!”

Aeaenaiae? II oyaeaei ia?aaeeaae iioa?th aaeeinoaaiiiai nio?oaeieea.
Oaia?ue, ia iino i?aaenaaeaoaey ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee iacia/aaony a?ao
Iaiei, iiiaieaoiee i?ioeaiee i?aia?aciaaiee. Yoi iacia/aiea aucaaei a
?inneeneii iauanoaa ao?th yiioeee e ioeaiie. Aa?oeai iiianoee a o?ao?iie
?aiea iauyaeaiea i iacia/aiee Iaieia. “A i?ioeia oea?noaiaaiea, – ienae
Aa?oeai – iaeiiai ec oiiaeoeo ethaeae a ?innee. I.ss. *aaaeaaaa n/eoaee
ii auni/aeoaio iiaaeaieth oiaeeoaiiui. Oaia?ue noianoaaeoee Iaiei ii
auni/aeoae aiea n/eoaaony oiiui. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaia?aie/aiiia
naiiaea?aeaaea”

I. Ieethoei cayaee, /oi ii iaiaaeeaiii aueaeao ec ninoaaa ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo
eiiennee, anee oaaaeeony, /oi ia a neeao ionoiyoue i?iaeo ?inoiaoeaaa.
Oaeia aea ?aoaiea i?eiyee yenia?ou, i?eaea/aiiua e ?aaioa eiiennee:
eiycue *a?eanneee, Naia?ei, Oaoa?eiia, Aaeaaai e ae?oaea.

Iaeiaei noi?iiieee ?aoi?i ?aii ia/aee iiea/eaaoue ?aoi?io. Ai-ia?auo,
Aeaenaiae? II oaa?aei ?aoee aeiaanoe aeaei aei eiioea. Ai-aoi?uo, ii
i?aaeii/eoae aeaeaaoueny aia?aae inoi?iaeii, ii oaa?aiii. Ia yoii ii
neacae a ?a/e 21 oaa?aey 1860 aiaea aeai?yineei aeaiooaoai aoi?iai
nicuaa: “O iaiy aeaa oeaee, eee, eo/oa neacaoue, iaeia – aeaai
ainoaea?noaaiiia… ss oi/o, /oia oeo/oaiea auoa e?anoueyi auei ia ia
neiaao, a ia aeaea e /oia ia?aai?io niaa?oeeny aac iio?ynaiee.”3
A-o?aoueeo i?e auai?a Iaieia Aeaenaiae? II o?acai acaanee e ana
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, e naie nianoaaiiua neeu. Ii ?aoee, /oi a oio iiiaio
eaiaeeaeaoo?a Iaieia iaeaieaa i?eaieaia.

§5 Ooaa?aeaeaiea i?iaeoa ?aoi?iu

N inaie 1860 aiaea ?aoi?ia anooiaao a ?aoathuoth noaaeeth. A eiioea
naioya?y iiyaeyaony oeac, aiai?yuee i oii, /oi 10 ieoya?y ?aaeaeoeeiiiua
eiiennee i?ae?auatho naith ?aaioo, e i?aaenaaeaoaeai Aeaaiiai eiieoaoa
iacia/aaony a?ao eiia?aoi?a. Ia yoie noaaeee auei i?iaeieaeaii
oaeanoi/aiea i?iaeoa ii eeiee oiaiueoaiey e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia e
oaaee/aiey iiaeiiinoae.

Naiui iianiui aeey ieaie?othueony iiaiaaaaeaiee noae i?iaeo Io?aaueaaa,
i?aaeeaaaaoaai auaeaeeoue aeaa aeeaeaeoeo aiaea aeey caeeth/aiey
aeia?iaieueiuo niaeaoaiee iaaeaeo iiiaueeaie e e?anoueyiaie. Anee aea
iie ia noiatho aeiaiai?eoueny, oi aeaei aeieaeii ?aoaoueny a
Ieienoa?noaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo eiouanoa, eioi?ui ?oeiaiaeee nai
Io?aaueaa. Oioy Eiieoao ioeeiiee i?aaeeiaeaiea iii?aaee, ii ana aea
ianeieueei oaaee/ee ?acia?u i?aaeiieaaaaiiai ia?iea.

A yiaa?a 1861 aiaea i?iaeo ?aaeaeoeeiiiuo eiiennee iinooiee ia
ooaa?aeaeaiea a Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao. N 28 yiaa?y ii 17 oaa?aey 1861
aiaea i?iaeo ianoaeaeaeny a Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa. I cia/aiee, eioi?ia
i?eaeaaaeinue ?aoi?ia, aiai?eo oi, /oi aia?aua ca anth enoi?eth
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa a iai ?aaeueii i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae nai
eiia?aoi?, eioi?ue ?aiaa eeoue /eneeeny aai i?aaenaaeaoaeai.1 Ec ni?iea
/eaiia Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa iiaeii auei ?ann/eouaaoue ia ni/oanoaea
o?eiaaeoeaoe: o?eiaaeoeaoue aea auee ?aoeoaeueiuie i?ioeaieeaie ia?aiai,
a aua /aou?iaaeoeaoue /aeiaae, ni/oanoaoy inaiaiaeaeaieth e?anoueyi,
eiaee nianoaaiiia iiaiea ii iiaiaeo oneiaee yoiai inaiaiaeaeaiey.

A oaeie neooaoeee iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaei iiceoeey eiia?aoi?a,
eioi?oth ii /aoei au?acee a ia?aue aea aeaiue ?aaiou Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
Niaaoa 28 yiaa?y 1861 aiaea. A ?a/e2 ia?aae /eaiaie Niaaoa ainoaea?ue
au?acee iaaeaaeaeo, /oi iie ana oaaaeaeaiu a iaiaoiaeeiinoe
inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi. Aeaeaa ii neacae, /oi o?aaoao io /eaiia
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa nei?aeoaai ieii/aiey aeaea e?anoueyineie
?aoi?iu aei na?aaeeiu oaa?aey e iiaei auoue iauyaeaii aei ia/aea iieaauo
?aaio. Iioii, oiiiyioa i naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeao – Aeaenaiae?a I e
Ieeieaa I – eiia?aoi? iiae?iaii inaaoee oiae iiaeaioiaee ?aoi?iu.
Caeii/ee aea ii neaaeothuei: “Acaeyaeu ia i?aaenoaaeaiioth ?aaioo iiaoo
auoue ?acee/iu. Iioiio ana ?acee/iua iiaiey y auneooath ioioii; ii y
ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue io aan iaeiiai, /oiau au, ana ee/iua eioa?anu,
aeaenoaiaaee eae ainoaea?noaaiiua naiiaieee, iaea/aiiua iiei aeiaa?eai…
Aio oaea /aou?a aiaea eae iii aeeeony e aicaoaeaeaao iianaiey e
iaeeaeaiey eae a iiiaueeao, oae e a e?anoueyiao. Anyeia aeaeueiaeoaa
i?iiaaeeaiea iiaeao auoue iaaoaii aeey ainoaea?noaa.”3

Iinea yoiai ia/aeenue neooaiey i?iaeoa. Aieiniaaeny ii ii ia?aa?aoai e
iiaeaaeythuaai i?aeiouanoaa ia eiaea ie iaeia ec noi?ii. Caeanue
?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiaea oaea ia iiceoeey, a aiein eiia?aoi?a,
i?eniaaeeiaiiue e iaiueoeinoao, oai naiui aeaaay iineaaeiaio
i?aeiouanoai. Iaeiiaoe, 19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea Aeaenaiae? II ia/a?oae ia
ia?aie no?aieoea i?eiyoiai caeiia: ”Auoue ii naio”, a i?aaenaaeaoaeue
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa a?ao Aeoaeia, niaieaoee I?eiaa, caaa?ee naiae
iiaeienueth iiaeeeiiinoue Auni/aeoae ?aciethoeee.4 Ii aeaaea iinea
ooaa?aeaeaiey Iieiaeaiey eiia?aoi?ii aua ia ana auei ynii. Aeaei a oii,
/oi aeieoiaio aeieaeai aue auoue ooaa?aeaeai Naiaoii. Ii caeiio,
aeaiiiio aua i?e Iao?a I, Naiao eiae i?aai i?einoaiiaeoue iaia?iaeiaaiea
anyeiai oea?neiai oeaca eee iaieoanoa e eeoue a neo/aa iiaoi?iiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey caeiiii?iaeoa ainoaea?ai Naiao aue iaycai aaciaiai?i/ii
iiae/eieoueny e i?eiyoue aai.

Aacia?acia aianoa n ianeieueeeie naiaoi?aie naiai?eeenue aicaoaeeoue
aii?in i iaoaeianoaa iaia?iaeiaaiey Iieiaeaiey, i a?aaea aai,
iacaaa?oaiiinoe. E oieueei ee/iia aiaoaoaeuenoai a?aoa Iaieia,
enioaaiiiai iaia?aieyie naiaoi?ia, iiiaoaee inouanoaeaieth yoie aeoeee.

Inoaaaeinue iineaaeiea – Iaieoano, iauyaeyaoee no?aia i aeieaiaeaeaiiii
niauoee. Iaienaoue aai auei ii?o/aii TH.O. Naia?eio, oi?ioi ciaaoaio
aanue oiae iiaeaioiaee ?aoi?iu. Oaeno, iiaeaioiaeaiiue Naia?eiui, ia
oaeiaeaoai?ye eiia?aoi?a.

Oiaaea ia?aoeeenue e ieo?iiieeoo Oeea?aoo, ii oio ioeacaeny io
ii?o/aiey, oae eae aue i?ioeaieeii inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi. Oieueei
iaaeei ni noi?iiu Aeaenaiae?a II canoaaee Oeea?aoa iaienaoue Iaieoano.
Iaeiaei iieo/eeny nooie, aeeeiiue e /a?an/o? iiae?iaiue.

Ii yoi oaea eacaeinue iaei/ueth. Ana o/anoaiaaaoea a iiaeaioiaea
e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu, iieo/eee iaaeaee ia Aeaenaiae?ianeie eaioa n
i?ioeeai eiia?aoi?a e iaaeienueth: “Aeaaiaea?th”5

§6 I?iaaaeaiea e eoiae e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu 1861a.

Eoae, 19 oaa?aey 1861 aiaea, a oanooth aiaeiaueio naiaai anooieaiey ia
i?anoie, Aeaenaiae? II iiaeienae aeieoiaiou ?aoi?iu: Iaieoano1 E 17
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia(Iauaa iieiaeaiea i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe; Iieiaeaiea ia ono?ienoaa aeai?iauo ethaeae,
auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe; Iieiaeaiea i aueoia e?anoueyiaie,
auoaaeoeie ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe, eo onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe e i
niaeaenoaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?eia?aoaieth neie e?anoueyiaie a
nianoaaiiinoue iieaauo oaiaeee; Iieiaeaiea i aoaa?ineeo ii e?anoueyineei
aeaeai o/?aaeaeaieyo; I?aaeea i ii?yaeea i?eaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea
iieiaeaiee i e?anoueyiao, auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe; /aou?a
Ianoiuo iieiaeaiey i iicaiaeueiii ono?ienoaa e?anoueyi; ainaiue
Aeiiieieoaeueiuo i?aaee).

Iaieoano e?aoei eceaaae iniiaiua oneiaey inaiaiaeaeaiey e?anoueyi io
e?aiinoiie caaeneiinoe. Iauaa iieiaeaiea ii?aaeaeyei a iniiaiuo /a?oao
ee/iua e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe auoaaeoeo ec e?aiinoiie
caaeneiinoe e?anoueyi, ia?aciaaiea e ooieoeee naeueneeo e aieinoiuo
i?aaiia e?anoueyineiai naiioi?aaeaiey, oa?aeoa? “iiia/eoaeuenoaa” iaae
e?anoueyiaie eo auaoeo iiiaueeia ia ia?eiae a?aiaiiiiaycaiiiai
ninoiyiey, a oaeaea ii?yaeie ioauaaiey eacaiiuo, caineeo e ie?neeo
iiaeiiinoae.

A niioaaonoaee n Iauei iieiaeaieai e?anoueyia iieo/aee ee/ioth naiaiaeo
e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey Iaieoanoa. Ii 10-e ?aaecee
(1858 aiaea) a ?innee ian/eouaaeinue aieaa 23 iei. /aeiaae iaiaai iiea
e?aiinoiuo e?anoueyi(aianoa n naiueyie), auei ieiei 05, iei. /aeiaae.

?aoi?ia aeieaeia auea i?iaiaeeoueny iinoaiaiii. A oa/aiee ia?auo aeaoo
eao i?aaeiieaaaeanue:

1) ioe?uoue a aoaa?ieyo aoaa?ineea i?enoonoaey ii aeaeai i auaoeo
iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyiao;

2) aaanoe einoeooo ie?iauo iin?aaeieeia;

3) ia?aciaaoue e?anoueyineia iauanoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea;

4) ninoaaeoue e aaanoe onoaaiua a?aiiou.

A onoaaiuo a?aiioao cae?aieyeenue ?acia?u caiaeueiuo iaaeaeia,
auaeaeyaiuo a iieueciaaiea e?anoueyiaie, e iiaeiiinoe, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
auee ianoe e?anoueyia ca iieueciaaiea caieae.

?acia? e?anoueyineiai iaaeaea aue niaoeeaeueii ii?aaeaeai oae, /oiau a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa e?anoueyiei ia iia n iaai i?iei?ieoueny.
Caeiiiaeaoaeue, cae?aieyy ca e?anoueyiaie i?aai ia caieth, oai naiui
i?eaycuaae eo e iae. Yoie oeaee neoaeeee e iaeaa/aiiue ii?yaeie aueoia
e?anoueyiaie naiae onaaeaaiie inaaeeinoe, e i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?anoueyiai
aac aueoia iaeiie /aoaa?oie /anoe iaeneiaeueiiai iaaeaea aanieaoii(oae
iacuaaaiue aea?noaaiiue). Ec-ca eneonnoaaiii nicaeaaaaiie iaoaaoee
iieaaie caiee e?anoueyia auee auioaeaeaiu a?aiaeiaaoue aa o iiiaueeia.
Iaeiaei aueoiaoue naie iieaaie iaaeae iie iiaee oieueei n niaeaney
iiiaueeia.

Eae e i?aaeiieaaaeinue n naiiai ia/aea, ?acia? aueoiiiai ieaoaaea
ii?aaeaeyeny oaeei ia?acii, /oi e?anoueyiei ia iieo/ae caieth ii aa
?uii/iie noieiinoe, a, ii nooe aeaea. Ioeoiaeny io iiaeiiinoae, eioi?ua
n yoie caiee iinooiaee iiiaueeo. I?eiyoea ia?iea ca iniiao i?e
en/eneaiee aueoiiie noiiu ioe?iaaiii iieacuaaei, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeue
oi/ao nio?aieoue a iaeciaiiinoe aei?aoi?iaiiua aeioiaeu iiiaueeia, ii
oieueei a iiaie i?aaiaie oi?ia. Caeii enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aueoiiay
noiia aeieaeia auoue oaeie, /oiau, aoaeo/e iieiaeaia a aaie i?e oanoe
i?ioeaioao aiaeiauo, iia aeaaaea a aeaea yoeo i?ioeaioia i?aaeiee,
i?eau/iue aeey e?aiinoieea ia?ie.

Aueoiiay iia?aoeey auaeyaeaea eae i?aaeinoaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiui
aaieii e?aaeeoa e?anoueyieio aeey i?eia?aoaiey ei caiee. Aeaiueae auee
n?aco ia?a/eneaiu iiiaueeai a oi?ia oeaiiuo aoiaa. N/eoaeinue, /oi
e?anoueyiei i?eia?ae caieth e iiiaueea, i?aaeiea i?aaiioiioaiea n
eioi?ui o iaai oaia?ue i?ae?auaeinue. N iiiaioa caeeth/aiey aueoiiie
naeaeee e?anoueyiei eiaiiaaeny nianoaaiieeii. I?aaaea, ioia/aao O.
Iiaeoeeay, nianoaaiiinoue o iaai aua na?ueacii ia?aie/aia ii i?aao
?anii?yaeaiey. A iaeiii ec naiaoneeo ?acuyniaiee i?yii aiai?eeinue, /oi
«e?anoueyineea iaaeaeueiua caiee ninoaaeytho iniaue aeae aeaaeaiee,
?acei ioee/athueeny io i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, iieiiai ainiiaenoaa iaae
eiouanoaii». 2

I?ae?aoea i?aaiioiioaiea n iiiaueeii, e?anoueyiei anooiaao, iaeiaei, a
iiaua i?aaiioiioaiey n ainoaea?noaii – e?aaeeoiua. Ii iaycoaony a
oa/aiee 49 eao iiaaoaoue naie aeiea a ?ann?i/eo, oiea/eaay i?e yoii ia
iaeua i?ioeaiou, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy cia/eoaeueii
i?aauoaoue aaeaaiaeiua aciinu a iiaaoaiea nnoaeu.

Any yoa a?aaeoaeueneay nenoaia i?eaaea e oiio, /oi e iiiaioo i?ae?auaiey
aueoiiuo ieaoaaeae – a iie auee i?ae?auaiu aein?i/ii a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aie ?inneeneie ?aaiethoeee – e?anoueyia oaea auieaoeee noiio, a
ianeieueei ?ac i?aauoathuoth ?aaeueioth oeaio iieo/aiiie eie caiee.

Iauyaeaiea auaoei e?aiinoiui e?anoueyiai iieiaeaiee a iaeioi?uo ianoao
ia iaioeinue aac aieiaiee, aac eioi?uo oae Aeaenaiae? II e
i?aaeoaeuenoai. A Eacaineie e Iaicaineie aoaa?ieyo aeaei aeioei aei
ioe?uoiai iaiiaeiiaaiey. Iaiaei cao?oaeiaiee ano?aoeei iioii ninoaaeaiea
onoaaiuo a?aiio, a eioi?uo oeene?iaaeenue ?acia?u iaaeaea e iauai
iiaeiiinoae e?anoueyi. Ia ninoaaeaiea onoaaiuo a?aiio ioaiaeeeinue aeaa
aiaea. Ninoaaeyoue a?aiiou aeieaeiu auee naie iiiaueee, a i?iaa?youe,
aa?ii ee iie ninoaaeaiu, – ie?iaua iin?aaeieee, eioi?ua iacia/aeenue ec
ianoiuo iiiaueeia. Auoiaeeei, /oi iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e
iiiaueeaie ieacuaaeenue oa aea iiiaueee. Iie ii/oe anaaaea eni?aaeyee
onoaaiua a?aiiou a iieueco iiiaueeia.

Onoaaiua a?aiiou caeeth/aeenue ia n ioaeaeueiuie e?anoueyiaie, a n
naeueneei iauanoaii ec anao e?anoueyi oiai eee eiiai iiiaueea, anee a
iauanoaa auei ouny/a aeoo, oi ni anaie aianoa. Oae cae?aieyeanue
o?oaeiaay ii?oea e ioaaonoaaiiinoue anaai «ie?a» ca eaaeaeiai
e?anoueyieia e ca aai iiaeiiinoe.

Aeey oiai, /oiau onoaiiaeoue e caoeene?iaaoue a onoaaiie a?aiioa ?acia?
iaaeaea, e iiiaueee, e e?anoueyia aeieaeiu auee o/eouaaoue ii?iu
iaaeaeueiuo o/anoeia – aunooth e iecooth. E?anoueyia ia iiaee o?aaiaaoue
iaaeae auoa onoaiiaeaiiiai iaeneioia, a iiiaueee – o?acaoue iaaeae ieaea
onoaiiaeaiiiai ieieioia. Oaeia auei i?aaeei. Ii ec iaai aeaeaeenue
eneeth/aiey, ?acoiaaony ia a iieueco e?anoueyi. N iaeiie noi?iiu, anee
e?anoueyiei aei ?aoi?iu eiae a iieueciaaiee iaaeae iaiueoa, /ai
onoaiiaeaiiue iinea ?aoi?iu ieieioi, iiiauee i?e?acae aio caieth aei
ieieioia ia anaaaea, a i?e oneiaee, /oi o iiiaueea inoaiaony ia iaiaa
o?aoe, a a noaiiie iieina – ia iaiaa iieiaeiu, oaeiaiuo caiaeue. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, anee iaaeae, eioi?ui iieueciaaeny e?anoueyiei aei
?aoi?iu, i?aauoae ii?aoi?iaiiue iaeneioi, iiiauee io?acae io iaai
«eceeoae». Naie ii?iu e?anoueyineeo iaaeaeia auee ?ann/eoaiu oae, /oiau
io?aceia io ieo auei eae iiaeii aieueoa, a i?e?acie e iei niioaaonoaaiii
iaiueoa.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiiaue/uee e?anoueyia iieo/eee a n?aaeiai ii 3,3 aeanyoeiu
ia ?aaecneoth aeooo, oi anoue ia ioae/eio, oae eae aeaiueiai caiey ia
ioaiaeeeanue. Yoi iaiueoa oie caiee, eioi?ie iie iieueciaaeenue aei
?aoi?iu, e ia iaania/eaaei ei i?iaeeoi/iiai ieieioia. Anaai ii
/a?iicaiiui aoaa?ieyi iiiaueee io?acaee o e?anoueyi 1/5 eo caiaeue.
Aieueoa anaai caiaeue iioa?yee e?anoueyia Iiaieaeuey. Anee Iineianeie,
Niieaineie, Iiaai?iaeneie aoaa?ieyo io?acee ninoaaeyee io 3 aei 7.5%
e?anoueyineeo caiaeue, oi a Eacaineie aoaa?iee – 29,8%, a Naia?neie –
41,8%, a Na?aoianeie 42,4%.

E?iia io?aceia, iiiaueee iaoiaeeee e ae?oaea niiniau ouaieoue eioa?anu
e?anoueyi: ia?anaeyee eo ia iaaiaeiua caiee, eeoaee eo auiania, auaiiia,
aiaeiiiaa, eania e i?i/eo oaiaeee, aac eioi?uo iaeuecy auei aanoe
naiinoiyoaeueiia oicyenoai.

Iiaeeeiiui ae/ii e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa noaea /a?aniieineoea: iiiaue/uee
caiee eeeiii aaiiyeenue a e?anoueyineea, io/aai e?anoueyia auioaeaeaiu
auee ca ?inoiaue/aneea oeaiu a?aiaeiaaoue iiiaue/uee eeeiuey.

Any caiey, eioi?oth e?anoueyia iieo/eee a «nianoaaiiia iieueciaaiea»,
th?eaee/anee inoaaaeanue nianoaaiiinoueth iiiaueeia aei caeeth/aiey
aueoiiie naeaeee. Iiea aea yoa naeaeea ia auea caeeth/aia, e?anoueyia
n/eoaeenue «a?aiaiii iaycaiiuie», oi anoue ii – i?aaeiaio auiieiyee ca
iieueciaaiea caieae oaiaeaeueiua iiaeiiinoe. N?ie a?aiaiii iaycaiiiai
ninoiyiey aia/aea ia aue ii?aaeaeai. Oieueei 28 aeaeaa?y 1881 aiaea
iineaaeiaae caeii ia iaycaoaeueiii aueoia – caeii, ii eioi?iio ana
a?aiaiii iaycaiiua e?anoueyia ia?aaiaeeeenue ia aueoi, ii ia n?aco, a n
1 yiaa?y 1883 aiaea. Oaeei ia?acii, th?eaee/aneay eeeaeaeaoeey
e?aiinoie/anoaa ?anoyioeanue ia 22 aiaea – yoi a aoaa?ieyo oeaio?aeueiie
?innee. Ia ie?aeiao a A?ocee, Aca?aaeaeaeaia, A?iaiee a?aiaiii iaycaiiua
ioiioaiey nio?aiyeenue aei 1912 – 1913aa., oi anoue aieaa iieoaaea.

Ca iieueciaaiea caieae e?anoueyia aeieaeiu auee auiieiyoue aeaa ?iaea
iiaeiiinoae – aa?ueio e ia?ie. ?acia?u ia?iea eieaaaeenue a ?aciuo
?aaeiiao io 8 aei 12 ?oaeae ca aeooaaie iaaeae a aiae, ii ieeaeiai
niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo aaee/eiie ia?iea e aeioiaeiinoueth iaaeaea ia auei.
Naiue aunieee ia?ie – 12 ?oaeae, e?anoueyia ieaoeee aeec Iaoa?ao?aa,
aaea caiey auea iaei ieiaei?iaeiie, a a /a?iicaiiuo Eo?neie e
Ai?iiaaeneie aoaa?ieyo ia?ie aue ieaea – 9 ?oaeae. Yoio ia?aaeien
iaiaaeaao oaiaeaeueioth nouiinoue ii?aoi?iaiiiai ia?iea. Eae e aei
?aoi?iu, ia?ie i?aaenoaaeye niaie aeioiae iiiaueea ia oieueei io caiee,
ii e io ee/iinoe e?anoueyieia: aaaeue a i?iiuoeaiiuo aoaa?ieyo
e?anoueyia ieaoeee iiiaueeai aeaiueae, ca?aaioaiiua ia noieueei ia naieo
ooaei?iaeiuo oaeaeao, neieueei ia anyeiai ?iaea i?iiuneao.

Aua aieueoa ia?ooaea niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo aeioiaeiinoue caiee e ?acia?ii
ia?iea oae iacuaaaiay a?aaeaoeey ia?iea: ia?aay aeanyoeia caiee
oeaieeanue aei?iaea neaaeothueo. Oae, a ia/a?iicaiiie iieina, aaea
aunoee iaaeae aue onoaiiaeai a 4 aeanyoeiu, a ia?ie a 10 ?oaeae, ca
ia?aoth aeanyoeio iieaaaeinue 5 ?oaeae (50% ia?iea), ca aoi?oth 2 ?oa.
50 eii. (25%) e ca inoaeueiua aeaa – ii 1 ?oa. 25 eii. (o.a. ii12,5%) n
eaaeaeie aeanyoeiu. Oaeei ia?acii, /ai iaiueoa caiee iieo/ae
e?anoueyiei, oai aei?iaea iia aio noieea.

A?aaeaoeey aaiaeeeanue i?aeiouanoaaiii a ia/a?iicaiiuo aoaa?ieyo, aaea
caiey oeaieeanue iecei, caoi ?aai/ay neea auea aei?iaa. Iia niaeaciyea
e?anoueyi a?aoue iiaieueoa caiee, iineieueeo ca eaaeaeoth
aeiiieieoaeueioth aeanyoeio ieaoeoue iaaei auei iaiueoa, e?anoueyia oee
ia yoi. Iiiaueeai aea auei auaiaeii nauaaoue e?anoueyiai ooaei?iaeioth
caieth e oai naiui iiiieiyoue naie aeaiaaeiua eaieoaeu, noieue
iaiaoiaeeiua a i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aaeiiao. A neo/aa nie?auaiey e?anoueyineeo
iaaeaeia a?aaeaoeey iicaieeea iiiaueeai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a nio?aiyoue
eo aeioiaeu. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a?aaeaoeey ia?iea auea, a nouiinoe,
aeaiaaeiie iaaeaaaeie iiiaueeai ca iioa?th ?aai/ae neeu.Aa?ueio, eae e
aei ?aoi?iu, aeieaeiu auee ioauaaoue ana e?anoueyia – ioae/eiu n 18 aei
55 eao e aeaiueiu n 17 aei 50 eao. Oieueei oaia?ue ?aaeei aa?ueiu aue
ianeieueei oii?yaei/ai, a iiiaue/ee i?iecaie /anoe/ii iaocaeai. Ca
eaaeaeue aunoee iaaeae iieaaaeinue io?aaioaoue 40 ioaeneeo e 30 aeaineeo
aeiae, ia aieaa; i?aaaea, 3/5 a?aiaie – eaoii.

?aoi?ia aeaea i?aai aueoieoue onaaeueao e iieaaie iaaeae. Noiia aueoia
ii?aaeaeyeanue iooai eaieoaeecaoeee ec 6% ia?iea, onoaiiaeaiiiai ca
iaaeae, oi anoue, iieo/eoue eneiioth noiio aueoia, ?ann/eouaaee,
neieueei aeaiaa iaaei iieiaeeoue a aaie, /oiau i?e 6% aiaeiaiai
i?e?inoa iiiauee eiae aeioiae, ?aaiue ia?ieo.3

?ieue iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie e iiiaueeaie ii aueoio acyei ia
naay ainoaea?noai. E?anoueyiei auiea/eaae iiiaueeo iaiaaeeaiii 20%
aueoiiie noiiu, a inoaeueiua 80% aiineei ca e?anoueyi ainoaea?noai.

N iiiaioa caeeth/aiey aueoiiie naeaeee e?anoueyia ia?anoaaaee auiieiyoue
iiaeiiinoe a iieueco iiiaueeia e i?aa?auaeenue ec a?aiaiii iaycaiiuo a
«e?anoueyi – nianoaaiieeia». Ioiuia caiey, auaoay ?aiaa nianoaaiiinoueth
iiiaueeia, ia?aoiaeeea a e?anoueyineoth nianoaaiiinoue, e caeii io?aiye
aa io iinyaaoaeuenoa ni noi?iiu iiiaueeia.

Ianeieueei ii iniaiio inaiaiaeaeaeenue aeai?iaua neoae, eioi?uo auei
oiaaea 1,5 iei., oi anoue 6,5% iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi. Iie auoiaeeee ia
aieth aac aueoia, ii ia n?aco a /a?ac aeaa aiaea ,e, aeaaiia, ie
iieo/aee ie onaaeueau, ie iieaaiai iaaeaea, ie eaeiai au oi ie auei
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eo o?oae ia iiiaueea. Aieueiua e i?anoa?aeua,
iao?oaeiniiniaiua aoeaaeueii aua?anuaaeenue ia oeeoeo, oae eae o ieo ie
ieacuaaeinue ie /aai, e?iia naiaiaeu. Oaeiau auee oneiaey inaiaiaeaeaiey
iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi. ?aoi?ia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue e ia e?anoueyi
oaeaeueiuo, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo oea?neie naiuea e ainoaea?noaaiiuo.

Oaeaeueiia aaaeiinoai auei ia?aciaaii 1797 i?e Iaaea I. Iii iaania/eaaei
oea?neoth oaieeeth aeioiaeaie n aeai?oeiauo caiaeue e i?ee?aieaiiuo e
iei e?anoueyi. E ia/aeo 60-o aiaeia oea?neee oaeae ninoaaeye 9 iei.
aeanyoei caiee a 20 aoaa?ieyo e yenieoaoe?iaae 1,7 iei. e?aiinoiuo aeoo.

Iniaia iieiaeaiea ia oaeaeueiuo e?anoueyiao i?eiyoi auei 26 ethiy 1863a.
oaeaeueiua e?anoueyia aueoiaee naith caieth ia oao aea oneiaeyo, /oi e
e?anoueyia iiiaue/uee; oieueei oaeaeueiua auee ia?aaaaeaiu ia
iaycaoaeueiue aueoi ia /a?ac 20 eao, eae iiiaue/uee, a /a?ac 2 aiaea.
Oaeaeueiua e?anoueyia iieo/eee io?acee iaiueoa, /ai iiiaue/uee
e?anoueyia – 10,%% io iauae ieiuaaee e?anoueyineeo oaiaeee. A n?aaeiai
oaeaeueiua e?anoueyia iieo/eee ii 4, 8 aeanyoei caiee ia ?aaecneoth
aeooo.

Aua iicaeiaa, 24 ethiy 1866a., «Iieiaeaiey 19 oaa?aey» auee
?ani?ino?aiaiu ia ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue ee/ii
naiaiaeiuie, ii ieaoeee a eacio oaiaeaeueioth ?aioo. Ana iie nio?aieee
ca niaie caiee, iaoiaeeaoeany a eo iieueciaaiee, e iiaee ii naiaio
aeaeaieth, eae i?aaeaea, ieaoeoue ia?i/ioth iiaeaoue ainoaea?noao, eeai
caeeth/eoue n eaciie aueoiioth naeaeeo i?e oneiaee aaeeiia?aiaiiiai
aciina oaeiai eaieoaea, i?ioeaiou n eioi?iai ?aaiyeenue au noiia
ia?i/iie iiaeaoe. N?aaeiee ?acia? iaaeaeia ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi
ninoaaee 5,9 aeanyoeiu aieueoa, /ai o e?anoueyi iiiaue/ueeo e
oaeaeueiuo.

?aoi?ia nouanoaaiii eciaieea i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi. Iia aia?aua
aeaea auaoei e?anoueyiai aeaaeaoue nianoaaiiinoueth, caieiaoueny
oi?aiaeae, i?iiuneaie, caeeth/aoue naeaeee, anooiaoue a a?ae aac
niaeaney iiiaueea e oae aeaeaa. Iaeiaei iiiaueee nio?aieee ?yae
oaiaeaeueiuo i?eaeeaaee, aeeth/ay iieeoeaeneoth aeanoue iaae a?aiaiii
iaycaiiuie e?anoueyiaie. Eae e aei ?aoi?iu, iie i?aaenoaaeyee eioa?anu
e?anoueyi ia noaea. Aei 1903 aiaea nio?aiyeenue oaeaniua iaeacaiey
e?anoueyi.

Aeey oi?aaeaiey e?anoueyiaie auee nicaeaiu a oiaea ?aoi?iu iniaua
i?aaiu, eioi?ua a?iiei eiaiiaaeenue «naiioi?aaeaieai». Eo ieaeiai caaiii
yaeyeinue naeueneia iauanoai ec e?anoueyi ia caiea iaeiiai iiiaueea. Ii
ninoaaeyei naeueneeo noiae, ecae?aaoee naeueneiai noa?inoo e ?yae
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe: nai?ueeia iiaeaoae, niio?eoaeae iaaaceiia e i?i/ea.
Naeueneee noa?inoa iaania/eaae ii?yaeie a naiae ie?oaa, neaaeee ca
eniieiaieai iiaeiiinoae, iia iaeacuaaoue ca iaeiaaaeiua i?inooiee, oi
anoue oo?aoiaaoue, i?eioaeaeaoue e iauanoaaiiui ?aaioai, aeaaea naaeaoue
iiae a?ano.

Ianeieueei naeueneeo iauanoa ia?aciaaee aieinoue, eioi?ay no?ieeanue ii
oa??eoi?eaeueiiio i?eioeeio. Aunoei e?anoueyineei i?aaiii aieinoe aue
aieinoiie noiae ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae naeueneeo iauanoa. Aieinoiie noiae
ecae?ae aieinoiia i?aaeaiea ai aeaaa n aieinoiui noa?oeiie e aieinoiie
noae. Aieinoiie noa?oeia eiae oa aea ooieoeee, /oi e naeueneea noa?inou,
oieueei a iauaia aieinoe, naeueneea noa?inou aio iiae/eiyeenue.
Aieinoiie noae ?acae?ae oyaeau iaaeaeo e?anoueyiaie ia oa??eoi?ee
aieinoe e noaeee aeiiaiuo ca i?inooiee, aieaa na?ueaciua, /ai oa, ca
eioi?ua iaeacuaae naeueneee noa?inoa.

Ana yoi «naiioi?aaeaiea» eiaei iaeioi?oth caaeneiinoue: aai
eiio?iee?iaae ie?iaie iin?aaeiee, eioi?ue ii caeiio ooaa?aeaeae auai?u
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe e?anoueyineie aaeieieno?aoeee.

Ie?iaua iin?aaeieee iacia/aeenue aoaa?iaoi?aie ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
i?aaeaiaeeoaeae aeai?yinoaa ec ianoiuo iiiaueeia.

E. Nie?iia n/eoaao, /oi a oeaeii ?aoi?ia 1861 aiaea auea aeey ?innee
naiie aaaeiie ec ?aoi?i ca anth aa enoi?eth. Iia iineoaeeea
th?eaee/aneie a?aiueth iaaeaeo aeaoiy e?oiiaeoeie yiioaie ?inneeneie
enoi?ee – oaiaeaeecia e eaieoaeecia. E. Nie?iia aeaeaao iaiai?eo, /oi
e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia 1861 aiaea ia noaea ioi?aaiie oi/eie aeey
onei?aiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee, iaeiaei oaeou aiai?yo i oii,
/oi , e i?eia?o, i?iiuoeaiiue ?ino ia/aeny iinea ?aoi?iu. Ii oaeaea
ieoao, /oi e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia «ia iiiiaea ?inneeneiio iauanoao e
ainoaea?noao aaeaeaaoii ioaaoeoue ia aucia a?aiaie – auno?uie oaiiaie
ia?aeoe io oaiaeaeecia e eaieoaeecio»; yeiau «a?anoaiea a eaieoaeeci
ieacaeinue aeey ?innee i/aiue io/eoaeueiui».4 Caeanue aicieeaao
i?ioeai?a/ea: ia?aoiae e eaieoaeecio a ?innee oae iaaeeaiii, ii ia?aoiae
aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie aue au aua io/eoaeueiaa!

Eoiaii ?aoi?iu 1861 aiaea ?. Aaeionia a naiae noaouea «Aeaa
e?anoueyineea ?aoi?iu 1861 e 1907 aiaeu» n/eoaao ineoaeaiea aea?aaie e,
eae neaaenoaea, nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa a ?innee ia aeooo
ianaeaiey. Eae aeieacaoaeuenoai naiae i?aaiou ii i?eaiaeeo aeaiiua
noaoenoeee 448 ea. A 1861 –1865aa. aei 408 a 1886 – 1890 aa. e 392 ea.
1891 – 1895aa.5 Iaeiaei, iaaei neacaoue, /oi aeaiiua caineie noaoenoeee
aiai?yo ia ia?aoiii. I?eaiaey aeaiiua ca 1891-1895aa., ?. Aaeionia ia
ieoao i oii, 1890 – 1891 aiaeu auee naiuie ia o?iaeaeiuie ca 19 aae, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa oeaaa – anoanoaaiiue oaeoi?.

?. Aaeionia oaeaea ioia/aao, /oi ee/iua oicyenoaa iiiaueeia ieacaeenue
iaei?aioaaaeueiuie eee aeaaea oauoi/iuie, iinea oiai, eae iie eeoeeenue
aanieaoiie ?aai/ae neeu e?aiinoiuo, a ia?ano?ieoueny ia eioaineaiue
iooue ?acaeoey ia niiaee. Aua aei ?aoi?iu aieaa o?aoe aeai?yineeo
eiaiee, a oii /enea e?oiiuo, auee caeiaeaiu a aaieao e o /anoiuo eeoe.
Iinea ?aoi?iu, ianiio?y ia aueoiiua aeaiueae, eiioa/iay caaeieaeaiiinoue
iiiaueeia aic?inea n 425 iei. ?oaeae a 1857 aiaeo aei 1359 iei. a 1897
aiaeo.6 *anoue aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa auea eniieueciaaia ia
iiaea?iecaoeeth oicyenoaa, caeoieo iaoei, ooeia, ii?iaeenoiai neioa.
Iaeiaei, caia/aao ?. Aaeionia, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iieo/aiiuo
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa o?aiaee?eeanue i?inoi oae, e auaoea aeaaeaeueoeu
eiaiee auioaeaeaiu auee ?annoaoueny n ieie. Ei oaeaea i?eoiaeeeinue
eneaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua enoi/ieee aeioiaeia, iooai caiyoey ioeoea?neeo
aeieaeiinoae a a?iee, iinooieaiey ia neoaeao a ainoaea?noaaiiua
o/?aaeaeaiey, aaiee, eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee.

«Iiuo ?aoi?i 1861 aiaea, – ii neiaai E. Nie?iiaa, – naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi ?aoi?iaoi?u aeieaeiu auoue i?aaiaoeeaie, no?aiyueieny i?aaeaea
anaai e yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe naiae iieeoeee, a ia e niaeaniaaieth
eioa?ania eeannia e a?oii, iiiaea ec eioi?uo e oiio aea ia?a/aiu ia
ooiae n enoi?e/aneie a?aiu».7 A eiia/iii n/aoa ni noeaiu ooee e
aeai?yinoai, e e?anoueyinoai, eioi?ia anaai eeoue ia iieoi?a
aeanyoeeaoey ia?aaeeei aeai?yinoai.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi e?aeia ianneienoe/aneea ioeaiee ?acaeoey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa no?aiu a 60 – 90-a aiaeu XIX a. ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeathony aeaiiuie caineie noaoenoeee. E?iia oiai, a
ii?aoi?iaiiua aeanyoeeaoey yaii oeo/oeeinue iieiaeaiea e?anoueyi.
?acoeueoaoii yoiai noaei auno?ia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, naeueneiai. Ca eioi?ui yaii ia oniaaaea
eioaineoeeaoeey oicyenoaa. A eoiaa e eiioeo XIX a. iaino?eeanue aa?a?iay
i?iaeaia.

A oi aea a?aiy neaaeoao iinoaaeoue iiae aii?in i?aaiia?iinoue oi?aea
?aoi?ia 1861 aiaea, /oi iia nio?aieea iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea – aai
eeeaeaeaoeey i?eaaea au oiaaea e iaiaaeeaiiiio ?acaaeo anaai oiaa?iiai
oicyenoaa.

Aaaeiaeoei eoiaii e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu yaeeenue iieo/aiea e?anoueyiaie
ee/iie naiaiaeu, i?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii, aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aa?eia,
?anii?yaeaoueny naiae noaeueaie, i?eia?aoaiea eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa,
aiciiaeiinoue iaiyoue nineiaiue noaoon, iieo/aoue ia?aciaaiea.
E?anoueyia ia iieo/eee io ?aoi?iu iaoa?eaeueiuo auaiae. Caeanue auea?aei
i?aaeaea anaai ainoaea?noai. Iaeiaei iniiaiay caaea/a, iinoaaeaiiay
ia?aae ?aoi?iie, oie/oiaeeoue e?aiinoiia i?aai – auea auiieiaia. ?aanoai
iaei aea?aaiy anooiaea ia iooue eaieoaeecia aac a?aaeaeaineie aieiu.

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