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?aoa? ii Aoeea?o .

iieeoieiaey

ec IAOO ei.

Aoiaia

a?.EIO 3-31

Eae-oi iaeei /aeiaae iia neacae : “Iineooaeoa, anee au yoi naeaeaaoa,
oi oiaaea /a?ac oanoue iaaeaeue Aa?iaiey iiaeaiao”. ss aiai?th : “*oi au
eiaaoa a aeaeo ?” — “Oiaaea Aa?iaiey ?acaaeeony”. ss aiai?th : “*oi au
eiaaoa a aeaeo ?” — “Oiaaea Aa?iaiee eiiaoe”. ss ioaaoee : “Iaiaoeeee
ia?iae a aueua a?aiaia auaea?aeae aieiu n ?eieyiaie. Iaiaoeeee ia?iae
auaea?aeae ia?anaeaiea ia?iaeia. Iinea iaiaoeeee ia?iae auaea?aeae
aieueoea aieiu ?aiiaai e iicaeiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey. Iaiaoeeee ia?iae
auaea?aeae caoai ?aeeaeiciua aieiu Iiaiai a?aiaie. Iaiaoeeee ia?iae
auaea?aeae iioii O?eaeoeaoeeaoithth aieio. Iinea iaiaoeeee ia?iae
auaea?aeae iaiieaiiianeea aieiu, inaiaiaeeoaeueiua aieiu, ii auaea?aeae
aeaaea ie?iaoth aieio, aeaaea ?aaiethoeeth — e iaiy ii oiaea auaea?aeeo
!”

Aaeieueo Aeoea?, 1938 aiae

Ii/oe aac ia?aoiaea, neiaii iaeii iaiiaaiea niaieei ae?oaia, ni
nia?oueth Aeoea?a e eaieooeyoeeae en/ac e iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeeci, eae
aoaeoi ii aue anaai eeoue aeaeaeaieai, ninoiyieai iiueyiaiey e
eaoano?ioie, eioi?oth ii aea e ii?iaeee. Ia neo/aeii a niiauaieyo aaniu
1945 aiaea ia?aaeei oeao?e?otho au?aaeaiey i aae?oa oeaoo/eaoeony
“/a?ao”, i ?anoayaoai “i?ec?aea” : oaeiai ?iaea oi?ioeu, acyoua ec noa?u
iaae/aneiai, iaaeyaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaee eae ia oaeeaeaiea e??aaeueiue
oa?aeoa? ?aaeeia, oae e aiacaiioth i?e?iaeo aai eiioea. Niaoeeaeenou
aeoea?ianeie i?iiaaaiaeu iaonoaiii oaa?aeeee ia aeueieeneeo oaa?aeuiyo,
?aaeooao nii?ioeaeaiey, a oaeaea i iiiai/eneaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo
aa?aieueoia-”iai?ioiae” e i?aaeneacuaaee i?iaeieaeaiea aieiu e iinea aa
ieii/aiey — ana yoi ieacaeinue aeaoii. Aua ?ac auynieeinue, ianeieueei
aea iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeeci — aea e oaoeci aiiaua — a naiae nooe caaenae io
i?aainoiaeyuae neeu, aiaeoeeiciinoe, o?eoioa, e eaeei iaiiaeaioiaeaiiui
aue ii, a nouiinoe, e iiiaioo ii?aaeaiey. Iaaea?ii aea oeacuaaeinue ia
oi, /oi Aa?iaiey auea aaeeinoaaiiie iiaaaeaeaiiie no?aiie, ia
ii?iaeeaoae ieeaeiai aeaeaeaiey Nii?ioeaeaiey.

Yoi ionoonoaea i?i/iinoe ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue iaaeyaeii
i?ineaaeeaaaony e ia iiaaaeaiee aaaeoueo aeaenoaothueo eeoe e
ooieoeeiia?ia ?aaeeia. I?aaeaea anaai oiae Ith?iaa?aneiai i?ioeanna, a
oaeaea iineaaeothueo noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoa i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae, ca
aanueia iaiiiaeie eneeth/aieyie, yaiua noa?aiey eaeaieiae/anee
aeenoaioee?iaaoueny io oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeei, a i?anooiiua aeayiey
i?aoiaiueoeoue eee inii?eoue, aeaau a eiia/iii n/aoa ana — ianeeea,
aieia, aaiioeeae — ia?aei oa?aeoa? iaeiaai no?aoiiai e aeoiiai
iaaei?acoiaiey. Ana yoi niinianoaiaaei nicaeaieth aia/aoeaiey, aoaeoi
iaoeeiiae- nioeeaeeci aiana ia aue yaeaieai, ioaaouaathuei oeaeoth
yiioo, a yaeeny ii?iaeaeaieai aeaaeaeu aeanoe o iaeiiai eiie?aoiiai
/aeiaaea, a oaeaea eiiieaena /oanoa caaenoe e iaiaaenoe o iaeiiai
aaniieieiiai, aeaaeaeouaai caaiaaaiee ia?iaea, eai anee au iaoeeiiae-
nioeeaeeci eiae aeoaieea ei?ie a naiai a?aiaie e aue iaeiei ec
iai?aiaiiuo aeaeaeaiee iiiai, oi aiaiiia ii?aaeaiea ia niiaei au
ono?aieoue e oae e?ooi iooanieoue aai a caaaaiee.

A aaaeue ii anaai eeoue ca eaeea-oi aeaaiaaeoeaoue eao i?eaeae ie?o
iiaue iaeee, e i/aaeaeii, /oi noieue iiuiua i?ioeannu aaeaa ee iiaoo
auoue aeinoaoi/iui ia?acii iauyniaiu eai?ecii aei?aaaoaainy aei aeanoe
iaeeii/ee. Eai oieueei anee yoio iaeeii/ea yaeyaony oeao?ie,
eioaa?e?othuae ?aciiia?aciaeoea yiioeee, no?aoe eee eioa?anu, anee
aeaeoo aai aia?aae iiuiua, i?eoiaeyuea ec aeaeueieo aeaeae yia?aee,
noaiiayony aiciiaeiuie iiaeiaiua niauoey. A oaeii naaoa aua ?ac
au?eniauaaaony ?ieue e cia/aiea Aeoea?a ii ioiioaieth e ie?oaeathuei aai
neeai : nouanoaiaae aeaaioneee, iaoii?yaei/aiiue iioaioeeae
aa?anneaiinoe, no?aoa, naiiioaea/e e yaiecia, eaaeaaoee a iieia e
ioaeaeaaoeeny eeoue a oii, /oiau iaeia aeanoiia yaeaiea ?acaoaeeei,
noieone?iaaei e eniieueciaaei aai ; yoiio yaeaieth aue iaycai oio
iioaioeeae naiae oaea?iie neeie, n iei i?acaeiiaae ii naie eieinnaeueiua
iiaaaeu, ii n iei aea aianoa ii e ?ooioe.

Iaeiaei Aeoea? aue ia oieueei oeao?ie, iauaaeeieaoae noieue iiiaea
oaiaeaioeee a?aiaie ; a aua aieueoae noaiaie ii e nai i?eaeaaae niauoeyi
eo iai?aaeaiea, ianooaau e ?aaeeeaeueiinoue. Aeaaii?eyonoaiaaei aio i?e
yoii oi, /oi aai iunee ia auee ioyaiuaiu eaeeie-eeai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuie
oneiaeyie e /oi aoeaaeueii ana — aioaaiieciu i?ioeaieeia, ia?oia?ia ii
nithco, iaoeee, eaeae — ii noieue aea oeaaeiie?iaii, eae e iaieaeaeueii
iiae/eiye naiei /oaeiaeuiui oeaeyi. Aai yeno?aieci niioaaonoaiaae oie
aioo?aiiae aeenoaioeee, eioi?ua ii nio?aiye ii ioiioaieth ei anai neeai.
Iiiaia aiai?eo ca oi, /oi ii — aii?aee aai ioiinyuaeny aua e thiioaneei
aiaeai i?aoaicee, — oae ieeiaaea e ia iniuneee, /oi anoue enoi?ey ; ii
aeaeae a iae naiaai ?iaea ianoaaeue ioe?uoue aeey /anoiethaoeaa o?ai
neaau. Niunea aea e i?aaiou naa?oeaoaainy ii ia iniciaaae niaa?oaiii. E
eiaiii oaeei ia?acii, n aano?aae?iaaiiie aania/iinoueth, oae ii ia
inouanoaeaiea naieo caiuneia. A oi a?aiy eae ae?oaea ainoaea?noaaiiua
aeayoaee o/eouaaee ?aaeueiinoue nouanoaothuaai niioiioaiey nee, ii
iooaeeeaaeny io /enoiai ianoa : oi/ii oae aea, eae ia/ae ii aac iaeyaeee
ia nouanoaothuaa i?iaeoe?iaaoue iiaue iaaaiieen Aa?eei, ieaie?iaaeinue
ei e iieiay ia?ano?ieea Aa?iiu e anaai ie?a ; ia oieueei ii nai i?eoae
ec ieioeoaea — ec ieioeoaea oee e aai iunee. Ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia
a?aieoeu ia aaia?aoe/aneie ea?oa Aa?iiu, cae?aieaoeany a ?acoeueoaoa
aiei e eciaiaiey niioiioaiey nee, ii ia?aaeaeae yoo ea?oo ia naie eaae,
?ac?ooee aea?aeaau e iiiia iiaeiyoueny iiaui neeai, aucaae ?aaiethoeee e
iieiaeee eiiaoe aaeo eieiieaeecia ; a eiia/iii eoiaa ii aeaaioneei
ia?acii ?anoe?ee yiie?e/aneee ai?eciio /aeiaa/anoaa.

Aeiieie?othuei n?aaee oao iioeaia, a eioi?uo ii niueaeny n neeueiui
oa/aieai aeooa a?aiaie, auei iaeciaiiia /oanoai oa?icu : no?ao ia?aae
eeoeii i?ioeanna oie/oiaeaiey, aea?oaie eioi?iai auee ia i?ioyaeaiee
aaeia iiiaea ainoaea?noaa e ia?iaeu, ii eioi?ue oieueei oaia?ue, ia yoii
ia?ae?anoea anae enoi?ee. ?acaee oieaa?naeueioth, oa?iaeathuoth anaio
/aeiaa/anoao iiuue.

Eaeay nianaiey auea aeey iaai ia?ac?uaii naycaia n naiiooaa?aeaeaieai
Aa?iiu. ?yaeii n eioi?ie ia nouanoaiaaei ieeaeie eiie /anoe naaoa,
ieeaeie eiie neieue-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiie eoeueoo?u, ana ae?oaea
eiioeiaiou auee eeoue aaia?aoe/aneeie iiiyoeyie, i?ino?ainoaii aeey
?aaiaeaaeaiey e yenieoaoaoeee — ionouie ieineinoyie. Aea e naii
aunooieaiea Aeoea?a auei iaeiia?aiaiii e iineaaeiei aeia?aieece?iaaiiui
au?aaeaieai aa?iiaeneiai i?eoycaiey inoaaaoueny oicyeiii nianoaaiiie, a
oai naiui e anae enoi?ee aiiaua. A aai ea?oeia ie?a Aa?iia, a eiia/iii
n/aoa, ea?aea oo aea ?ieue, /oi e iaiaoeeee aeoo a niciaiee ii?u aai
iieiaeinoe : yoi auea iaoiaeeaoayny iiae oa?icie, oaea ii/oe oo?a/aiiay
aunoay oeaiiinoue.

E oioy nai ii aue oeao?ie aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aaea, ii ieeoeaoai?ye niaie
eeoue aai aioeeeaa?aeueiue aa?eaio, oa?aeoa?ecoaiue ni/aoaieai
iaieioeyoeee aieinaie iooai ieaaenoeeoia e oa?eciu aiaeaey. Iaeiei ec
iai?aoiaeyueo ai?ueeeo o?ieia iiya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee 1918 aiaea auei
iniciaiea oiai, /oi nouanoaoao iayniay acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo aeaiie?aoeae
e aia?oeae, /oi oaioe/aneea ninoiyiey e yaeythony nianoaaiiui,
iaiiaeaeaeueiui au?aaeaieai iiaeeeiiiai ia?iaeiaeanoey, a i?iecaie —
aai caeiiii. Ionthaea iao?oaeii enoieeiaaoue ainoiaeaeaiea Aeoea?a e eae
iineaaeithth io/ayiioth iiiuoeo oaea?aeaoue noa?oth Aa?iio a oneiaeyo
i?eau/iiai aaee/ey. E ia?aaeienai yaeaiey Aeoea?a ioiineony oi, /oi ii n
iiiiuueth e?aoa iuoaeny caueoeoue /oanoaa ii?yaeea e aaoi?eoaoa ia?aae
eeoeii ainoiaeyuae yiioe aeaiie?aoee n aa i?aaaie ?aoathuaai aieina aeey
iann, yiaineiaoeeae e ?aniaaeii iaoeeiiaeueiie e ?aniaie eaeaioe/iinoe.
Ii ii au?acee oaeaea e aeieai eiieaoeeny i?ioano i?ioea i?ac?aiiiai
yaiecia e?oiiiai eaieoaea, i?ioea ei??oiie?othuae iaoaieiu ao?aeoaciie
eaeaieiaeae e iaoa?eaeueiiai eioa?ana.

Ia ninoaaeyao o?oaea, ?anoe?ea yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey aei aeiaaeueiiai
o?iaiy, ?aniiciaoue a ieo neooaoeeth ?aiiaai yoaia ia?aoaiey oaoeciii
naieo i?eaa?aeaioeaa : yoi oa iannu n?aaeiaai nineiaey, eioi?ua — ia
oiia iaueo iaie/aneeo iano?iaiee — aeaeaee naay a iaaeeaiiuo
oaeooathueo eo iauyoeyo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?ionithcia, a n ae?oaie —
oieaa?naeueiuo iaaaceiia, a iauyoeyo eiiioienoia e aiiieiiuo eiioea?iia.
E, iaeiiaoe, yaeaiea Aeoea?a iiaeii iiieiaoue e eae iiiuoeo
ooaa?aeaeaiey naiaai ?iaea o?aoueae iiceoeee — iaaeaeo iaaeie
ainiiaenoaothueie neeaie yiioe, iaaeaeo eaauie e i?aauie. Yoi e i?eaeaei
aai aunooieaieth oio aeaoeeeee oa?aeoa?, eioi?ue ia ioaaouaaaony anaie
ii?aaeaeaieyie, oaeeie eae “ eiina?aaoeaiue “, “ ?aaeoeeiiiue “, “
eaieoaeenoe/aneee “ eee “ iaeeiao?aeoaciue “. Iaoiaeynue iaaeaeo anaie
iiceoeeyie, ii a oi aea a?aiy o/anoaiaae a ieo ai anao e oco?ie?iaae eo
nouanoaaiiaeoea yeaiaiou, naaaey eo e nianoaaiiiio, iaiiae?aaeaaiiio
oaiiiaio. N aai i?eoiaeii e aeanoe i?eoae eiiaoe e i?ioeaiai?noao ca
Aa?iaieth, ia/aei eioi?iio auei iieiaeaii iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu
Aeeueniiii e Eaieiui, eiaaea iaeei iuoaeny i?eaea/ue aa ia noi?iio
ia?eaiaioneie aeaiie?aoee, a ae?oaie — ia noi?iio aeaea ie?iaie
?aaiethoeee ; eeoue aeaaiaaeoeaoue eao nionoy yoi i?ioeaiai?noai
aiciaiiaeeinue e caaa?oeeinue iaaeaaiei iauaaeeiaieai ?acaeaeaiiie
no?aiu.

Oioy o?aouey iiceoeey, e eioi?ie no?aieeny Aeoea?, e aeieaeia auea
caoaaoeoue aanue eiioeiaio, ii aa yia?aaoe/aneei yae?ii aeieaeia auea
auoue Aa?iaiey : nia?aiaiiay ienney ?aeoa caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oiau
aeaoue onoaaoae Aa?iia iiaua noeioeu e eniieueciaaoue aa eae ?aca?aoa?
nee aeey ie?iaiai ainiiaenoaa Aa?iaiee. Aeoea? ?aaeny iaaa?noaoue
oiouaiiia ia eiia?eaeenoe/aneie noaaeee iaiaoeeiai ?acaeoey e auea?aoue
aeaaiue ec aiciiaeiuo i?ecia — aa?aioe?iaaiiia aeaaioneie yeniaineae
aeanoe ia Ainoiea ainiiaenoai iaae Aa?iiie, a aeaaiaea?y yoiio — iaae
anai ie?ii. Ii enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi iiaeaeaiiue caiiie oa? anei?a oaea
ia aeano aiciiaeiinoe caaiaaaoue eaeoth-ieaoaeue eiia?eth, a iineieueeo
ii anaaaea iuneee eaoaai?e/aneeie aeueoa?iaoeaaie, oi aio
i?aaenoaaeyeinue, /oi oaeae Aa?iaiee — eeai noaoue ie?iaie aea?aeaaie,
eeai aea “ caaa?oeoue nouanoaiaaiea… eae aoi?ay Aieeaiaeey e eae
aoi?ay Oaaeoea?ey “, a iiaeao auoue, aeaaea e “ en/aciooue n eeoea caiee
eee noaoue ia?iaeii – ?aaii, ianeoaeeaathuei ae?oaeo “. Oi niia?aaeaiea,
/oi aai caiunae aei aaciaaeaaeiiai i?aaeaea ia?aiai?yaae neeu e
aiciiaeiinoe no?aiu, ieeae ia iiaei neieue-ieaoaeue na?ueacii
iaaniieieoue aai, eai ii n/eoae, /oi caaea/a ooo caeeth/aaony a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue a oii, /oiau “ canoaaeoue eieaaethueeny ia?aae eeoeii naiae
noaeueau iaiaoeeee ia?iae iieoe naiei iooai e aaee/eth “. Iuneue i
naycaiiii n yoei ?enea aeaaee Aa?iaiee aucaaea o iaai ai a?aiy aieiu
eeoue caia/aiea : “oiaaea aoaeao ana ?aaii”.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iaoeeiiaeeci Aeoea?a oaeaea ia aue iaeiicia/ai, eai
ii, ia caaeoiuaaynue, aioia aue iinooieoueny n eioa?anii iaoeee. Ii oai
ia iaiaa, yoio iaoeeiiaeeci aue aeinoaoi/ii eioaineaiui, /oiau aucaaoue
anaiauaa nii?ioeaeaiea. Iioiio /oi oioy Aeoea? /anoe/ii e au?aaeae
caueoiua yiioeee a?aiaie e eiioeiaioa, a aai eicoiae ieacuaaee
aicaeaenoaea aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeaie no?aiu, oae /oi e Aa?iaiee Aeoea?a n
oaaaeaieai, aio oae ieeiaaea e ia oaeaeinue i?eaeaoue yoiio naiaio
iai?iieoaeueiiio ia/aeo ia/oi aieueoaa iaaeaee oceee e aeanoeee
iaoeeiiaeueiue i?ioeeue. A oiaea naieo aoiea?iuo iaaeeoaoeee aaniie 1945
aiaea ii eae-oi iacaae naay “ iineaaeiei oainii Aa?iiu “ e iiiuoaeny a
yoie nayce ii?aaaeaoue i?eiaiaiea ianeeey ii ioiioaieth e eiioeiaioo : “
Iia ia iiaea auoue iiei?aia oa?iii eee neeie oaaaeaeaiey. *oiau aa
caeiaoue, ioaeii auei aa ecianeeiaaoue”. Ii aio eiaiii oainii Aa?iiu
Aeoea? e ia aue : ia auei oaeiai iiiaioa, eiaaea ii niia au, ia?aoaaioa
/a?ac naay, aieoe a ea?o aeaenoaeoaeueii a ?iee iieeoe/aneie
aeueoa?iaoeau. ?acaa oieueei ai a?aiy aieiu, eiaaea ?a/ue oea i
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii ia eeoaiiie ia?niaeoeau iiiuoea i?eaeaoue eaiiaiee
i?ioea Niaaoneiai Nithca aa?iiaeneoth aeaeeiinoue, ii ?ane?ueny eae oio
caeeyoue a?aa eioa?iaoeeiiaeecia, eaeei ii ia/eiae, — /aeiaaeii ec, oae
neacaoue, aeoaieie aa?iiaeneie i?iaeioeee.

Oai naiui aci? aua ?ac ia?auaaony e aei no?aiiinoe i?ioeai?a/eaiio
ianoo Aeoea?a ai a?aiaie. Ianiio?y ia anth naith iai?iieoaeueioth a
i?eioeeia iiceoeeth, ii aeieaia a?aiy n/eoaeny i?ia?anneaiie ii naiae
nooe, nia?aiaiiie oeao?ie yiioe, e ie?oaeaaoee aai i?aie iaoeaeaiiinoe
ia aoaeouaa aue oiaaea a niciaiee aieueoeinoaa aai nia?aiaiieeia noieue
aea iainii?eiui, eae e oa i?e?iaea, eaeiaie ii iaeaaeaao a aeacao
iiaeaaeythuae /anoe iuiaoiaai aini?eyoey. Nia?aiaiiuie e ioaa/aaoeie
aeooo a?aiaie eacaeenue 20-i e 30-i aiaeai e oaoieea, e eieeaeoeaiua
i?aaenoaaeaiey i ii?yaeea, e iiioiaioaeueiua i?iii?oeee, e aieinoaaiiua
iiceoeee, e ai?aeinoue /aeiaaea ec iannu, e ao?a “ caacaeu “ ; e iaeiie
ec i?e/ei oniaoa iaoeeiiae – nioeeaeecia auei oaeaea eae ?ac oi, /oi ii
eiaei i?enaiee naaa ana yoe yeaiaiou. A oii aea ?yaeo noiyee e
eiiaiaeiua aeanou e?oiiuo ee/iinoae ; a?aiy ainoiaeaeaiey e oniaoia
Aeoea?a a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?ioaeaei iiae ciaeii oeaca?enoneeo
oaiaeaioeee, aeioiaeeaoeo aei oioaeeoa?iiai eoeueoa aiaeaey a noaeeineii
Niaaoneii Nithca e aaoie?aoe/aneiai noeey ?ocaaeueoa. Ia yoii oiia
Aeoea?, ioe?uoi e n i?eioeeieaeueiie ino?ioie cayaeaoee i naiae
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e oaeiio oeio aeanoeoaey, eacaeny neaiaeii iiauo a?aiai
: ii aue ?aeeaiiui ueoii iaoina e niae?iaaiey oao aaeeeeo o?eaoiia “
aaea iann “, i?eoiae eioi?uo i?aaeaauae yoie yiioa Oiaiaea?.
I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi aeey ioaeeee Aeoea? e iiae/a?eeaae-oi anaaaea
neeueiaa iioeienoe/aneee, ia?auaiiue e aoaeouaio oa?aeoa? iaoeeiiae –
nioeeaeecia, a ia aai ?aa?anneaiua /a?ou, eioi?ua noaee i?aaeiaoii caaio
aeaaiui ia?acii Aeiiea?a, Aea??a, a oaeaea iiiaeanoaa ynynianeeo /eiia.

Ia naiii aea aeaea, iaeiaei, Aeoea? iiaaeaaeny aoaeouaai ; a “
Canoieueiuo aanaaeao “ a noaaea oth?a?a ii eae-oi cayaee, /oi ?aae, /oi
aio aeiaaeinue aeeoue oieueei a ia/aea oaoie/aneiai aaea, aieaa iicaeiea
iieieaiey oaea ia aoaeoo ciaoue, “ eae i?ae?anai aue eiaaea-oi yoio ie?
“. Ianiio?y ia anth naith i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia i?ia?ann iico ii aue
/?acau/aeii caiicaeaaoae iaoo?ie, i?eaa?aeaiiie a iniiaiii ia?acai,
ii?iai e einoeieoai XIX aaea, eioi?ue ii e aini?eieiae eae iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiue ia?eiae a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Aea e a naiie aai eii/eia,
eaeie au iaoaea/ii o?eaeaeueiie e oaao?aeueiie iia ie iieacaeanue,
io?aceeenue oa aeaa noi?iiu yiioe, eioi?ay aai ainoeuaea e eioi?oth ii
iaeiia?aiaiii aua ?ac i?aaenoaaee : ooo auei ia/oi io aa a?aio/aai
aeanea, iaoaaeoaai naia au?aaeaiea a i?iaee?eaee?iaaiiii ei ii iioeaai
aeaaee aiaia oeiaea, ii auei e ia/oi io aa iioeiaaoiai oa?aeoa?a, eiaaea
ii ia iaia? iioa?iaaoaai oeanei ea?iea eaaeae ia?oaaoeii ia aeeaaia a
aoiea?a ?yaeii n iao?annie, noaaoae aai ioeoeeaeueiie aeaiie. Yoi
yaeeinue oeiaeii, i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaaoei aai auiaaeaiea ec a?aiaie e aua
?ac ?ane?uaoei anth a?oae/iinoue naiiai aai nouanoaa.

Oaiiiai canoueinoe, n eioi?ui oae /anoi noaeeeaaaoueny ia i?ioyaeaiee
anae yoie aeecie, e ia?aoaao eiaiii ia oaeii oiia naia enoeiiia cia/aiea
: ii oioae inoaiiaeoue oi iaiiaoi?eiia iaiiaaiea, eaeia yaeye niaie ie?
a ii?o aai, Aeoea?a, noaiiaeaiey. A ioee/ea io oaoenoneiai oeia aiiaua,
io Ionnieeie, Ii??ana eee aeaaea Aeiiea?a, Aeoea? aue niaeaciai ia
enoi?eae, a oai, /oi ia?aaeee ii a ia?eiae naiaai oi?ie?iaaiey, —
iciiaii n/anouey e no?aoa. Iiyoiio e nianaiea, eioi?ia ii no?aieeny
i?eianoe, iai?aiaiii aeieaeii auei eaeoe iiae ciaeii aaeeeiai XIX aaea.
Any ea?oeia ie?a Aeoea?a, aai iaieaeaeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i ai?ueaa ca
aeeciue, i ?ana, i?ino?ainoaa, eae e nio?aieaoaany o iaai aei naiiai
eiioea ainoeuaiea eaeieaie e aaeeeeie ioaeaie aai iieiaeinoe, aea e
aiiaua aaeeeeie ioaeaie, /ueei i?inoui ?aoeaenii aiee e i?aaenoaaeyeanue
aio enoi?ey aieioue aei iineaaeieo aai aeiae, aei aano?aeiuo aai
iaaeaaeae, naycaiiuo ni nia?oueth ?ocaaeueoa a ai?aea 1945 aiaea, —
eiaiii yoi, eae e iiiaia ae?oaia, e oa?aeoa?ecoao anth ia?o aai
oeenaoeee. Oi aea naiia neacuaaaony e a iiiai/eneaiiuo o?oaeiinoyo,
iaoaaoeo aio i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ai?eciiou oaeouaai aaea : iinoiyiii
anieuaaaoay a aai aunooieaieyo ioaathuay oeeo?a — 140 aeeoaeae ia iaeei
eaaae?aoiue eeeiiao?, — eioi?ie ii no?aieeny ii?aaaeaoue naie
i?eoycaiey ia ?anoe?aiea “ aeeciaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa “, ?ane?uaaao aai
ianiiniaiinoue iaeoe nia?aiaiiua ii naiae nooe ?aoaiey, iai?aaeaiiua ia
caaiaaaiea, oae neacaoue, aioo?aiiaai aeeciaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa, n?uaaao
n iaai ianeo iiai?ieea iiaea?iecaoeee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, /anoe/ii, eae
anaai eeoue iieaciie ao?eaoo. A oeaeii aea ie?, oaea noiyaoee oiaaea ia
ii?iaa aoiiiiai aaea, inoaaaeny a aai i?aaenoaaeaiee eaeaioe/iui oiio,
ia eioi?ue — oae cayaeye ii ia aac iooaiea aeaaiaea?iie
i?eciaoaeueiinoe aua a oaa?aea 1942 aiaea — eiaaea-oi ioe?ue aio aeaca
Ea?e Iae.

Aea e nooue aaee/ey eae oaeiaiai ii iiieiae ia eoai/iue eaae, a noeea
noa?uo i?eeeth/ai/aneeo ?iiaiia, — a ia?aca naa?o/aeiaaea – iaeeii/ee. E
aai ea?oeia ie?a ioiineony oio iiiaio, /oi ii oioae auoue ia i?inoi
aaeeeei, a aaeeeei a iaia?a, noeea e oaiia?aiaioa /aeiaaea eneonnoaa, e
eiaaea ii a iaeiie ec naieo ?a/ae i?iaicaeanee “ aeeeoaoo?o aaiey “, oi
yaii eiae i?e yoii a aeaeo i?aai ia ainiiaenoai ethaeae eneonnoaa.
I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi naia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aaee/ee ii aeaeae a ia?acao
O?eae?eoa Aaeeeiai e ?eoa?aea Aaaia?a — aeaoo yaeaiee, ?aaiui ia?acii
naycaiiuo n ooaeiaeanoaaiiie e iieeoe/aneie noa?ie, e ii?aaeaeye aai eae
“ aa?ie/aneia “. A i?eioeeia ii ?anniao?eaae aaee/ea eae eaoaai?eth,
au?aaeathuoth noaoe/iinoue e iaoaaeooth iaeeo/oaa aiieiuaiea a
iaiyoieeao, e ia o?aaoaony ieeaeeo ianoiyoaeueiuo iiiuoie enoieeiaaiey,
/oiau iaia?oaeeoue ooo ineoiiaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?. Ioia/aoie yoiai eaaeae
ia anai iiaaaeaiee aieaaiai /aeiaaea, eae iii auei onaiaii ei, Ii
neieueei aea ne?uaaeinue ca yoei aiaoee, ia?aoeoaeueiinoe e ia?aiciinoe.
Iiaeiaiui aea ia?acii eneonnoaaiiie e iaooaeiie auaeyaeaea aai
aii?aeueiinoue, eioi?ie ii ioioiaa anaai i?aaeae au oieiaeiinoue
naiaiaeiie, iaeaaeathuae a?oaie neeie iaoo?u — iaoo?u /aeiaaea-
ainiiaeeia, /oiau ne?uoue, neieueei oaeiie no?anoe e aiciacaeeth
ia?aiieiyei aai. Ianiio?y ia anth naith iaeeaaaeeenoneoth aieueiinoue,
/ai ii oae i?aaeeny naiiio naaa, ii, eiia/ii aea, ia aue naiaiaeai io
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ni noi?iiu ii?aee. Aioo?aiiee oieiae, neaainoue ia?aia,
eiiiaine?oaiay iiaaaeeaie naa?o/aeiaaea, — e a yoii ?aniiciaaony naycue
Aeoea?a n iicaeiae ao?aeoaciie yiioie XIX aaea, a?aiaiaie Aaaia?a e
Ieoeoa.

Iaeiaei oa?aeoa?iui aeey yoie nayce yaeyaony eae ?ac oi. /oi iia auea
iieia eceiiia e iaiau/iinoae : ianiio?y ia ana naie iaeeiao?aeoaciua
iaeeiiiinoe, ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia i?eiaaeeaaeae e yoiio ie?o, ai
anyeii neo/aa, aai ei?ie ieeiaaea ia aeinoeaaee ooo aeinoaoi/iie
aeoaeiu, /oiau ii ?acaeyaeae ia?aie/aiiinoue, i?enouoth aio. Ii yoie aea
i?e/eia aai iai?iieoaeueiay ?aaeoeey e auea i?aeniieiaia oaeeo
iai?eyciaiiuo /oanoa, e iiyoiio-oi ii aeiaae iai?iio ie?a, i caueoa
eioi?iai aiai?ee, aei ?ac?ooaiey yoiai ie?a.

E ana aea ii?aceoaeueiui ia?acii yoio ia?auaiiue a i?ioeia, niaa?oaiii
i/aaeaeii noi?ie?iaaiiue XIX-i aaeii /aeiaae auaae Aa?iaieth, ?aaii eae
e iaiaeua /anoe ca?aaeaiiiai aai aeeiaieciii ie?a, a XX-a noieaoea :
ianoi Aeoea?a a enoi?ee eoaea aeeaea e aaeeeei ?aaiethoeeiia?ai, iaaeaee
e oi?iiceaoei aa, eiina?aaoeaiui aeanoue eiouei. Eiia/ii, naie ?aoathuea
noeioeu Aeoea? /a?iae ec no?aieaiey aini?aiyonoaiaaoue i?eoiaeo iiauo
a?aiai e iooai aianaiey aaeeeie, anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneie iii?aaee
aa?iooueny e enoiaeiie oi/ea anao eiaeiuo aei?ia e caaeoaeaeaiee : ii —
eae yoi ii nai noi?ioee?iaae — aunooiee ?aaiethoeeiia?ii i?ioea
?aaiethoeee. Ii oa iiaeeecaoeey nee e aiee e aeaenoaeth, eioi?uo
iio?aaiaaea aai iia?aoeey ii nianaieth, /?acau/aeii onei?eea i?ioeann
yiaineiaoeee, a ia?aiai?yaeaiea aaoi?eoaoa, noeey, ii?yaeea, naycaiiia n
aai aunooieaieai, eae ?ac e ineaaeei acyoua eie ia naay iaycaoaeuenoaa e
i?eaaei e oniaoo oa aeaiie?aoe/aneea eaeaieiaee, eioi?ui ii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeye oaeoth io/ayiioth yia?aeth. Iaiaaeaey ?aaiethoeeth, ii
noae, ia aeaea, iaiaoeeei oaiiiaiii ?aaiethoeee.

Eiia/ii, naiia iicaeiaa oaea n 1918 aiaea a Aa?iaiee oae i?ioeann
ino?uo ia?aiai. Ii yoio i?ioeann i?ioiaeee iieiaei/aoi e /?acau/aeii
ia?aoeoaeueii. E oieueei Aeoea? i?eaeae aio oo ?aaeeeaeueiinoue, eioi?ay
e naeaeaea i?ioeann ii nooe ?aaiethoeeiiiui e ea?aeeiaeueii eciaieea
canouaooth e oaea?aeeaaaioth a ?aieao ii?aaeaeaiiuo aaoi?eoa?iuo
nioeeaeueiuo no?oeoo? no?aio. Oieueei oaia?ue, iiae aicaeaenoaeai
i?eoycaiee oth?a?neiai ainoaea?noaa, ?ooioee ii/oaiiua einoeooou, auee
au?aaiu ec i?eau/iuo naycae ethaee, ono?aiaiu i?eaeeaaee e ?ac?ooaiu ana
aaoi?eoaou, ia enoiaeeaoea io naiiai Aeoea?a eee ia naieoeeiie?iaaiiua
ei. I?e yoii aio oaeaeinue eeai iiaaneoue no?aoe, eioi?ua
nii?iaiaeaeatho iau/ii ?ac?ua n i?ioeui, eeai i?aia?aciaaoue eo a
yia?aeth ia iieueco iauanoaa, iineieueeo ii oiae aeinoaoi/ii
aeinoiaa?iui ia?acii i?aiiaeianoe naay iannai a ea/anoaa anaiauaiethuaai
aaoi?eoaoa, ii aeaaiui ooo yaeeinue oi, /oi ii eeeaeaee?iaae iaeaieaa
eiie?aoioth oi?io i?iyaeaiey no?aoa ia?aae ?aaiethoeeiiiui aoaeouei.

Eiia/ii, auei iouaii a oiae ianeeea. Ii ii ieeiaaea — n naiiai ia/aea
— ia aeaeae noaaeo oieueei ia a?oaoth neeo. N iaiiiai aieueoei oniaoii
Aeoea? i?ioeaiiinoaaee ieoo i ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee e ia ii?aaeaeythuae
oiae enoi?ee neea i?ieaoa?eaoa naith nianoaaiioth, eiieo?e?othuoth n
yoei eaeaieiaeth. Eea?a Oeaoeei aeaeaea i?eaa?aeaioeaa oaoecia a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue a ?aci/a?iaaiiuo ethaeyo anao neiaa, a “ iaeaieaa ona?aeiuo,
neeueiuo, ?aoeoaeueiuo, ioaaaeiuo yeaiaioao anao eeannia “, e aio
Aeoea?o e oaeaeinue iauaaeeieoue eo anao a iiaii iiuiii ianniaii
aeaeaeaiee. Ai anyeii neo/aa, eaeaieiae/aneay eieoeeaoeaa a 30-a aiaeu
ia?aoea ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy io Iineau e Aa?eeio, e ooiiey i eeanniaii
i?eie?aiee ieacaeanue ianoieueei yaii neeueiaa ooiiee i aeeeoaoo?a
iaeiiai eeanna iaae anaie ae?oaeie, /oi Aeoea? niia i?eaea/ue ia naith
noi?iio cia/eoaeueiua io?yaea aeaaea aucuaaaoaai oaeie no?ao
i?ieaoa?eaoa e aeeth/eoue eo a iano?ue ninoaa naieo noi?iiieeia, aaea
auee ethaee anao eeannia, anao eaoaai?ee niciaiey e eiouanoaaiiiai
iieiaeaiey.

Eae oeao?a nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee Aeoea?, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie yaeaiea, /uea iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/aaoayny “ aeaieiay
nooue “ ia i?iyaeyaony ieaaea noieue yanoaaiii, eae eiaiii a yoie nayce.
Eai iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ?aaiethoeey, eioi?ay auea aeaeii aai ?oe,
neo/eeanue yeiau aii?aee aai iaia?aieyi : ?aaiethoeeiiiay iuneue ia “
iaiiaeaiee “, i i?aia?aciaaiee ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa a naiaiaeioth io
eiioeeeoia, ii-aiaaiio niei/aiioth “ ia?iaeioth iauiinoue “ auea
aeiieie?othuae anaaaea. Iaeaaeae Aeoea? e aieae e ia?aiaiai, e
i?aaenoaaeaieai i oeaee, e aioiaiinoueth e niaaeeiaieth aiaaeeii oiai e
ae?oaiai. Niioonoaiaaaoea ianoiyoaeuenoaa iaoeeiiae – nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee, aa i?yiay ?aaeeeaeueiinoue e eaaeouayny eeoaiiie i?ia?aiiu
anayaeiinoue eaaei iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaaieai aeey oiai, /oiau iacaaoue
aa aaeioiiaeoaey e ?oeiaiaeeoaey ?aaiethoeeiia?ii, eai n aieaa aeeceiai
?annoiyiey ii/oe ana i?ioeannu ianeeuenoaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee aeaeyony “
e?iaaaui oa?eaoainoaii “. Iiyoiio e ainiiaenoai Aeoea?a neaaeoao, iiaeao
auoue, ?anniao?eaaoue ia eciee?iaaiii, a eae oa??i?enoe/aneoth, a
ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea yeiaeineoth oaco a oiaea oie oe?ieiianooaaiie
nioeeaeueiie ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay i?eaaea Aa?iaieth a OO-e aae.

E ana-oaee ooo ia iiaeao ia aicieeiooue niiiaiea : ia auea ee yoa
?aaiethoeey a aieueoae noaiaie neo/aeiie, neaiie e eeoaiiie oeaee, ia
eaaeaee ee a iniiaa ia?aiai ia aeieaia ?aciuoeaiea, a eeoue aiethioa?eci
e aaciaeyaeiinoue Aeoea?a, iaaeinoaoi/iia iiieiaiea ei oiai, /ai aaea
Aa?iaiey a ieaia aa nioeeaeueiiai, enoi?e/aneiai e ineoieiae/aneiai
naiaia?acey, e ia eiae ee ii a aeaeo, acuaay e y?eei ia?acai i?ioeiai,
anaai-iaanaai ionoie o?aaeeoeeiiaeeci, iiiiaaaoee aio ne?uaaoue ca
aeaei?aoeeyie a oieueeei?iii aeooa oaean ia?aae aoaeouei ?

Ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue yoe niiiaiey ii?iaeaeathony neeiiiinoueth
iaoeeiiae – nioeeaeecia eaeaieiae/anee ?yaeeoueny a iaeneiaeueii “
eiina?aaoeaiua “ iaeaaeaeu. Aio /oi ii ia iaia?aaaeny aeaeaoue ie i?e
eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, oae yoi ?anoaa?e?iaaoue aeieiaeono?eaeueiia
ainoaea?noai i?eaeeaaee, e ieeaeea ianea?aaeu ia aeieaeiu caoiaaaoue oio
oaeo, /oi ii — aii?aee naiae aiaeoeee ainnoaiiaeoue iaiaoeeia i?ioeia,
aai aeinoieinoai, aai a?enoie?aoeth — n iiiiuueth ?aaeeeaeueiiai ianeeey
aoieeioe no?aio a nia?aiaiiinoue e ?ac e iaanaaaea io?acae ia?aoiua iooe
a oi aaoi?eoa?ii – ainoaea?noaaiiia i?ioeia, eioi?ia aeaaiaea?y
io?aieoaeueiiio oaiia?aiaioo iaioeaa aea?aeaeenue ioe?uouie ianiio?y ia
ana nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey. Ia?aaeienaeueii, ii oieueei n iei a Aa?iaiee
caaa?oeeny XIX-e aae. E eaeia au aia/aoeaiea ia i?iecaiaeee Aeoea?, ii
aue nia?aiaiiaa eee oioy au ?aoeoaeueiaa ii naiae i?eaioaoeee ia
nia?aiaiiinoue, /ai ana aai aioo?eiieeoe/aneea aioaaiienou. O?aae/iinoue
eiina?aaoeaiiai Nii?ioeaeaiey eae ?ac e caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi o aai
o/anoieeia iiieiaiea ii?aee ai iiiaii i?aainoiaeeei iiieiaiea iieeoeee :
oai aaoi?eoa?iay, aeoaiei iia?ycoay a naiae ?iiaioe/aneie caiicaeaeinoe
Aa?iaiey aaea aania?niaeoeaioth aieio n nia?aiaiiinoueth. I?aainoiaenoai
Aeoea?a iaae anaie aai niia?ieeaie, aeeth/ay e nioeeae – aeaiie?aoia,
iniiauaaeinue eiaiii ia oii, /oi ii ino?aa e ?aoeoaeueiaa eo iniciae
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aiai. Io?eoeaiea ei nia?aiaiiiai ie?a i?ioiaeeei eae
?ac iiae ciaeii nia?aiaiiinoe, a naiaio aooaeoo ii i?eaeae /a?ou aeooa
a?aiaie. Aea e oio ?aceaae, /uea aea?oaie noae ii eae ?aaiethoeeiia?,
aiieia ei iniciaaaeny ; n iaeiie noi?iiu, ii aicaeaaae aeieaeiia
caneoaai aa?iaineie nioeeae – aeaiie?aoee ca oi, /oi a 1918 aiaeo auea
ono?aiaia iiia?oey, ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aiai?ee i “ oyaeeeo
no?aaeaieyo “, eioi?ua i?e/eiythony ethaui iauanoaaiiui iiai?ioii. A a
eiia/iii aea n/aoa aioo?aiia aeaeaiea iacaaoue aai ?aaiethoeeiia?ii
oeaeeeii naycaii, iaaa?iia, n oai, /oi eaeay ?aaiethoeee i?aaenoaaeyaony
niciaieth a oaniii aaeeinoaa n eaeaae i?ia?anna. Ii ainiiaenoai Aeoea?a
ia inoaaeei iacao?iiooie e oa?ieiieiaeth, e iaeiei ec iineaaenoaee yoiai
ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue yaeyaony e oi, /oi iiiyoea ?aaiethoeee
eeoeeinue ooo oie ii?aeueiie aiaeoeee, ia eioi?oth iii aeieai
i?aoaiaeiaaei.

Iaeiaei iaoeeiiae – nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey caoaaoeea e ?ac?ooeea
ia oieueei onoa?aaoea nioeeaeueiua no?oeoo?u ; ia iaiaa aeoaieeie auee
aa ineoieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey, e , aiciiaeii, eiaiii a yoii
caeeth/aeny aa aaaeiaeoee aniaeo : iia ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieea ana
ioiioaiea iaioeaa e iieeoeea. Aei yoiai iaiaoeeee ia?iae /oaeaeaeny
iieeoeee e i?eaioe?iaaeny ia /anoiua acaeyaeu, ea/anoaa e oeaee ; oniao
Aeoea?a aue /anoe/ii naycai n yoei. A a?inathuaany a aeaca ia
i?ioyaeaiee aeeeoaeueiuo ia?eiaeia ionoonoaea ethaeae, aunooiathueo
eeoue i?e neo/aa e eae au ecaeaeaea eae ianneaiue yeaiaio, eae
eino?oiaio eee aeaei?aoeey, io?aaeaao /oi-oi io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
iaiaoeeiai aicaea?aeaiey io iieeoeee, /oi a ineoieiae/aneii ieaia oae
ea?aei ia ?oeo ?aaeeio e auei oiaei eniieueciaaii ei. Eai a oeaeii
iaoeey, eioi?ie ?ac?aoaeinue oieueei ia?oe?iaaoue, oyiooue a ciae
i?eaaonoaey ?oee e aieiaee?iaaoue, aini?eieiaea naay ia noieueei
Aeoea?ii aueeth/aiiie ec iieeoeee, neieueei ecaaaeaiiie io iaa. Anaio
iaai?o oeaiiinoae — oaeeo eae “ o?aoee ?aeo “, ia?iaeiay iauiinoue,
aiaeaeeci, noaeueaa eee aaee/ea — auee aa?aioe?iaaiu ianniaua
?oeiieaneaiey ia a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue eae ?ac iioiio, /oi iie
icia/aee ioeac io iieeoeee, io ie?a ia?oee e ia?eaiaioia, io oeiaie e
eiii?iiennia. Iaei /oi aini?eieiaeinue e iiieiaeinue noieue niiioaiii,
eae neeiiiinoue Aeoea?a iuneeoue eaoaai?eyie aa?ieee, a ia iieeoeee,
o?aaeee, a ia nioeeaeueiinoe e caiauaoue Aoeueaa?ioth
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue iiaeaaeythueie ienoe/aneeie no??iaaoaie. I ?eoa?aea
Aaaia?a neacaii, /oi ii aeaeae iocueo aeey ethaeae aac iocueaeueiiai
neooa, n oai aea i?aaii iiaeii neacaoue, /oi Aeoea? aeaeae iieeoeeo aeey
aiieeoe/iuo.

A?aaeaeaaiia ioiioaiea iaioeaa e iieeoeea Aeoea? eniieueciaae aeaiyeei
ia?acii : aia/aea ii iai?a?uaiie oioaeueiie iiaeeecaoeeae canoaaee
ethaeae aoyiooueny a iauanoaaiioth noa?o, e oioy yoi a iiaeaaeythuae
noaiaie oei iiae ciaeii iaeo?iaieaathueo ianniauo i?acaeianoa, eioi?ua
eae ?ac e eiaee naiae oeaeueth ecaanoe aanue iieeoe/aneee eioa?an, ii
ana aea ia iia aini?aiyonoaiaaoue oiio, /oi oai naiui auea ii?iaeaeaia
iiaay noa?a ia?aaeeaaiee : aia?aua iaoeey iineaaeiaaoaeueii
io/oaeaeaeanue io naiaai i?eaaoiiai ie?a. Ionoue ?aaeei aeiioneae eee
o?aaiaae eeoue ?eooaeueiuo oi?i o/anoey — ii niciaiea-oi iie ana-oaee
eciaiyee. A ?acoeueoaoa aea , a iiae?uaiuo aeaenoaeyo nioeeaeueiie
?aaiethoeee, ?ooeeny e aanue i?eau/iue iaiaoeeee eioa?uea?, any noa?a
ee/iiai aeiaieuenoaa auoeai n aa ia/oaie, aa io/oaeaeaiiui io anaai
ie?neiai n/anoueai e oineie ii iieeoeea aac iieeoeee.

Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, e oie iieeoe/aneie e ii?aeueiie eaoano?iou,
oaioiaaiiue Aeoea?ii no?aia, iiaeeye ia eciaiaiea aa niciaiey. Inaaioeei
yaeeny neiaieii oeanei i?eaaoiiai iaiaoeeiai ie?a e aai yaioeaio?e/aneie
naiicaaaaiiinoe. Eiia/ii, yoi i?aaaea, /oi aieueoeinoai iaioeaa ie/aai
ia ciaei i oii, /oi oai?eeinue a eaaa?yo oie/oiaeaiey e oae, ai anyeii
neo/aa, auei eoaea ooaea inaaaeiieaii ia yoii, iaaeaee ie?iaay
iauanoaaiiinoue, n eiioea 1941 aiaea iai?a?uaii iieo/aaoay ana iiaua
o?aaiaeiua naeaeaoaeuenoaa yoiai ianniaiai i?anooieaiey. N iaiaoeeie
noi?iiu yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony o?acie Aeiiea?a ian/ao oiai, /oi iaiaoeeay
iauanoaaiiinoue yaeyaony iieeoe/anee iaaeinoaoi/ii c?aeie, /oiau iiiyoue
ia?u ii eno?aaeaieth, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, NN iaycaiu “ oianoe oaeio n
niaie a iiaeeo “. Ionoonoaea o ethaeae ?aaeoeee ia oiaeeaoea neooe
iaeuecy iiiyoue, ia i?eieiay ai aieiaiea o?aaeeoeeth, eioi?ay ecaeaaia
n/eoaea noa?o iieeoeee eneeth/eoaeueiie eiiiaoaioeeae ainoaea?noaa.

A oie aea ieineinoe eaaeeo e iaeia ec i?e/ei oyae iaioeaa e oiio, /oiau
caauoue ana, /oi auei aei 1945 aiaea. Iioiio /oi auoaniaiea ec naiae
iaiyoe Aeoea?a icia/aei — oioy au /anoe/ii — e i?aiaeieaiea eaeie-oi
oi?iu aeecie, ?annoaaaiea n ee/iui ie?ii e oai oeiii eoeueoo?u, eioi?ue
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy i?aaenoaaeye yoio ie?. E ana-oaee a Aa?iaiee,
aea e a ae?oaeo no?aiao oiaea, oaoenoneea eee ?iaenoaaiiua ei
oaiaeaioeee i?iaeieaeatho aeeoue : a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaeioi?ua
ineoieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee, ionoue e ia eiathuea eaaei ?aniiciaaaaiie
nayce n iaoeeiiae – nioeeaeeciii eee aeaaea aunooiathuea iiae
iai?eau/iuie, aieueoae /anoueth eaauie ciaiaiaie, ?aaii eae e
ii?aaeaeaiiua nioeeaeueiua e yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey. Iaeiaiaa aeeao/eie
ieacaeenue eaeaieiae/aneea i?aaeiinueee, oaeea eae, iai?eia?,
iaoeeiiaeeci iaaeaiaiiie ii?u, iaaniieiaiiinoue ii iiaiaeo oo?aou
noaoona aaeeeie aea?aeaau eee iaie/aneee aioeeiiioieci. A ea/anoaa
?aaeoeee ia ia?aoiae io noaaeeueiuo, oeene?iaaiiuo ii?yaeeia e eeoaiiiio
oaa?aeuo aa?aioee aoaeouaio nia?aiaiiuo iauanoa ioaeaeueiua oaeoi?u,
aeaaii?eyonoaiaaaoea oaoenoneei ?aoaieyi, aoaeoo ano?a/aoueny aei oao
ii?, iiea aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny e?ecen i?eniiniaeyaiinoe. Ii aeaaioneay
oaiue, eioi?oth ioa?anuaaee eaaa?y oie/oiaeaiey, caoiaaaao iiciaiea
oiai, a eaeie ia?a yaeaiey, i eioi?uo eaeao ?a/ue, naycaiu n
yiioaeueiuie eee aeaaea anaiaueie iio?aaiinoyie ethaeae, ni no?aoaie
ia?aae aoaeouei, iioeaaie nii?ioeaeaiey, /oiau ana iiaei noaoue
ii-ae?oaiio e ainnoaiiaeeanue naiaai ?iaea anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea.

Yoe aniaeou niauoee aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeenue iooaniaiiuie a oaiue.
I?aanoaaiiia aiciouaiea caneiiyei iiieiaiea oiai, /oi oa, eoi oae ca
Aeoea?ii, eoi i?aaieciauaae oi?aeanoaa e aa?aa?neea i?anooieaiey, auee
ethaeueie, a ia /oaeiaeuaie. A i?ieaoeaoeany ii anaio ie?o aieiaiey
eiioea 60-o aiaeia aiiaue auyaeee iiiaea yeaiaiou, n eioi?uie oi e aeaei
ano?a/aaoueny a iienaieyo ianoaiiaee i?aaeoaoenoneeo a?aiai : aooaeo,
iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea oeeaeeecaoeee, oyao e noeoeeiinoe, oiiaiiinoe e
ia?aciinoe, aacoaea?aeiinoue iieiaeaaee e ynoaoecaoeeth ianeeey. Aa?ii,
eiia/ii, /oi ooo ana ?aaii inoaaony aeenoaioeey ia?iiiiai ?acia?a, aea e
ana niaiaaeaiey iaaeaeo yoeie yaeaieyie e oaie ?aiieie aeaeaeaieyie
eii/athony oai, aaea anoaao aii?in i neaauo e oaiaoaiiuo — aii?in, ia
eioi?ue o oaoecia iao ioaaoa. Eiaaea Aeoea? iacaae naay “ aaee/aeoei
inaiaiaeeoaeai /aeiaa/anoaa “, oi ii i?eia/aoaeueiui ia?acii nineaeny ia
“ ecaaaeythuaa o/aiea i ie/oiaeiinoe ioaeaeueii acyoiai /aeiaaea “.
Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao oaeaea caauaaoue, /oi a i?ioeii oaoenoneee neiae?ii
aaeaa ee aunooiae eiaaea-eeai a /enoie, niaea?aeauae ana aai yeaiaiou
oi?ia e /oi anaaaea aiciiaeai aai ?aceee ia?aoiae a iiaua
?aciiaeaeiinoe.

Iineieueeo oaoeci ooiaeeo naieie ei?iyie a /oanoai e?ecena yiioe, ii
ia?aoao naie eiiaoe oieueei n naiie yiioie. Oae eae ii a noieue
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aaeoeeth e io/ayiiue
iai?iieoaeueiue ?aoeaen, oi naiie aai i?e?iaea i?enoua, /oi
i?aaeiinueee, ia eioi?uo ii aace?oaony, e yaeythony anaai eeoue
i?aaeiinueeaie, oi anoue oaoenoneea aeaeaeaiey ioaeaeathony aieueoa,
iaaeaee eiua iieeoe/aneea a?oiie?iaee, a auaeathuainy aiaeaea. Eiaiii ii
aeeoioee?oao ana io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee, iacuaaao ii eiaie a?aaia,
ia?auaao aeai?anneth a iiueyiaiea e i?eaiaeeo aanneeea e niciaieth ei
naiae neeu. E iaeaieaa aiooeoaeueiui aeinoeaeaieyi Aeoea?a e ioiineony
eae ?ac oi, neieue aieueoea ia?niaeoeau noiae oaaaeaoue ii a e?ecena
ia?aia e eniieueciaaoue eo ; eae ieeoi ae?oaie, noiae ii iiae/eieoue
naaa eaeaieiae/aneea e aeeiaie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe iaaeaiaiiuo eao. Ii n
aai eiioeii ana yoi iaecaaaeii ?ooioei, e aicaaaeaiiua a noaiaiue,
noieone?iaaiiua e oeaeaono?aieaiii aaiaeeaoeany a aeaenoaea /oanoaa
iaiaaeeaiii aa?ioeenue e naiaio ?anneaaeaiiiio, iaoii?yaei/aiiiio
ia?aiia/aeueiiio ninoiyieth.

Yoa ianiiniaiinoue e auaeeaaieth iuooeia ia anao o?iaiyo. Eae au ie
iiae/a?eeaae Aeoea? iaaeee/iinoiue aniaeo naiae caaea/e, eae au ie
iaie?ae ii ia naith ienneth e eae au ie auaeaaae naay ca i?oaeea
I?iaeaeaiey, auoa naiaai a?aiaie ii oae e ia iiaeiyeny. Iineieueeo ii ia
iia aeaoue ie aiooathuae aa?o ea?oeiu a?yaeouaai ninoiyiey ie?a, ie
iaaeaaeaeu, ie aaeioiiaeythuae oeaee, oi ie iaeia ec aai iuneae ia
ia?aaeeea aai. E eaeae, eioi?ua ii anaaaea eniieueciaae eeoue a ea/anoaa
eino?oiaioia, inoaeenue iinea iaai iio?aiaiiuie e neiii?iiaoe?iaaiiuie.
Yoio aaeeeee aeaiaaia ia inoaaee iinea naay ie aaeeiiai neiaa, ie
aaeeiie caiiieiathuaeny oi?ioeu, oi/ii oae aea ia aeioei aei
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy ie aaeeiiai aai no?iaiey, a ii aaaeue noieue
aeaaeaeae noaoue aaee/aeoei a?oeoaeoi?ii anao a?aiai ; ia inoaeinue
aeaaea caieaie?iaaiiuo ei aaee/anoaaiiuo ?oei. A i/a?aaeiie ?ac ooo
i?iyaeeinue, eaeia ?iiaioe/aneia iaaei?acoiaiea eaaeaei a iniiaa
niia?aaeaiee, eioi?ua oaea anei?a iinea oae iacuaaaiiai caoaaoa aeanoe
noaee auaeaeaaoueny iaeaieaa ?ueyiuie ?aaeeeaeaie a ?yaeao INAeAI: “
ia?oaue Aeoea? aeaeaeaieth ioaeiaa, /ai aeeaie “ ; eiaaea-ieaoaeue aio
neaaeiaaei au en/aciooue a ooiaia eaaaiaeu, e aai o?oi ia aeieaeai auoue
iaeaeai, aeaau ii “ aeey aa?othueo iann caaa?oeeny oaeiie “. Iao, aiiaue
iiaeoaa?aeeeinue — e yoi noaei iniaaiii yniui ia ia?aeiiiii yoaia
aieiu, — /oi aac eaoaeece?othuae neeu Aeoea?a ia auei au ie/aai, a aac
ee/iiai i?enoonoaey “ aaeeeiai “ oth?a?a iaiiaaiii ?ooioei ana : aiey,
oeaeue, niei/aiiinoue. O Aeoea?a ia auei oaeiu, eioi?ay auoiaeeea au ca
?aiee aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ianoiyuaai. Ethaee, /uey i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e
ainoeuaiea auee ei caaiaaaiu, oee ia ca aeaeaieai — iie anaaaea oee ca
neeie, e a ?ao?iniaeoeaa yoa aeeciue i?aaenoaaeyaony iai?a?uaiui
aua?inii aeaaioneie yia?aee. Aicaeaenoaea yoie yia?aee auei ia?iiiui,
no?ao, eioi?ue iia aiooaea, — aani?eia?iui, ii naa?o yoiai a iaiyoe
iaei /oi inoaeinue.

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