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Развитие письменности и школьного образования Осетии в первой половине XIX в.

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Aaaaeaiea

N/eoaaony, /oi ienueiaiiinoue ?iaeeeanue a aeaea eeeiiiene ia aeeiyiuo
oaaee/eao o ooia?ia iyoue eee oanoue ouny/ eao iacaae. A? ?acaeoea ca
ouny/aeaoey i?eaaei e nicaeaieth iaeaieaa aeinooiiiai e yeiiiiiiai
niiniaa caiene ?a/e n iiiiuueth caoeia, oi anoue e aeoaaeoiiio ienueio.

Ae?aaiainaoeineay ienueiaiiinoue

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie n/eoaeinue, /oi o i?aaeeia inaoei ia auei naiae
ienueiaiiinoe, /oi ia?aue aeoaaeo aeey inaoei aue ninoaaeai aeaaeaieeii
Uaa?aiii a na?aaeeia XIX aaea ia iniiaa ee?eeeeoeu. Eco/ay enoi?eth
i?aaeeia inaoei, y oniiieeny a oii, /oi oaeie ae?aaiee ia?iae iia ia
eiaoue ienueiaiiinoe. Niaa?oaiii neo/aeii iia iiiaeanue a ?oee eieaa
A.O. Oo?/aieiiaa “Ae?aaiea e n?aaeiaaaeiaua iaiyoieee inaoeineiai
ienueia e ycuea”, ec eioi?ie y ociae iiiai iiaiai aeey naay. I?iaiaey
enneaaeiaaiey ii yiea?aoeea aaoi? i?eoae e eioa?aniui auaiaeai.
Aiciiaeii, eoi-oi aua iiaeao caeioa?aniaaoueny yoei aii?inii, iiyoiio
?aoee i?aaenoaaeoue caeanue iaaieueooth noaoueth ii auoaoiiiyiooie
eieaa, i?eaiaey a iniiaiii oeeoaou ec i?aaeeneiaey e eieaa ni naieie
eiiiaioa?eyie.

Eoae, aio /oi ieoao Oo?/aieiia:

«Inaoeineay yiea?aoeea – iaoea iieiaeay. Ae eaeeo-ieaoaeue aeaaaeoeaoue
eao. Ia?aay ioaeeeaoeey iaiyoieeia nianoaaiiiai inaoeineiai ienueia auea
naeaeaia iaie a 1964 aiaeo.

… A ?ao?iniaeoeaa iia oa?aeoa?ecoao inaoeineoth ?a/ue a aa ?acaeoee n
VIII a. aei i. y. ii XIV a. i. y., e niaeaeaieth, iiea /oi ni
cia/eoaeueiuie eaeoiaie ii aaeai.

… Iaee/ea ienueia o i?aaeeia inaoei, e eaeie au a?oaieiae/aneie
eoeueoo?a iie ia ioiineeenue, aei neo ii? iaoea auei iaecaanoii. Neainen
e iaaa?ea a yoie iaeanoe oaaee/eaathony oai, /oi a?oaieiae, eae i?aaeei,
ieacuaathony iainaaaeiieaiiuie a enoi?ee ?acaeoey ienueiaiiie eoeueoo?u,
a oeeieiae e enoi?eee ienueia ia anaaaea ae?oaeao n a?oaieiaeae e aeaaea
n yiea?aoeeie, oioy iineaaeiyy – iaiieiaeio oeeieiae/aneay iaoea.

… A oeaeii yoi ienueii ieacaeinue ienueiii a?aiaeneiai aeoeoa, ii
ianeieueei naiaia?aciie oi?iu. Naiaia?acea aai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
ienueii, ca ?aaeeei eneeth/aieai, /eoaaony neaaa iai?aai, aoeau a iai ia
anaaaea caieiatho iau/iia iieiaeaiea a no?iea; a ienueia ii/oe
ionoonoaotho neiai?acaeaeu, e i?e anao naieo iniaaiiinoyo iaaeienae a
ieo i?aiaeaaeaao nei?iienue.»

Oo?/aieiiaui caia/aia aua iaeia iniaaiiinoue ienueiaiiinoe o i?aaeeia
inaoei: yoi oi, /oi iineoaeai ienueiaiiinoe aue aanue ia?iae, a ia
eaeea-oi ioaeaeueiua aai a?oiiu eee eeannu:

«… i?ioeann nicaeaiey aeaeaeeie i?aaeeaie inaoei naiaai ienueia ia
a?aiaeneie a?aoe/aneie iniiaa aue i?ioeannii oai?/aneei. Nicaeaoaeai e
iieueciaaoaeai ienueia aue i?inoie ia?iae, ionthaea auoiaie, aeeoaeneee
oa?aeoa? anao ecaanoiuo iai iaaeienae ae?aaia-inaoeineiai ienueia,
iacaaeneii io oiai, ioiineeenue ee iie e n?oaiie eee neeoi-na?iaoneie
eoeueoo?a.»

A eieaa i?ineaaeeaaaony, eaeea ?acee/ey eiaea ienueiaiiinoue ?aciuo
e?aii-ycu/iuo ieaiai, eae eciaiyeanue ae?aaia-inaoeineay ienueiaiiinoue
a i?ioeanna n oa/aieai aaeia, e eae iiaeeyea ae?aaia-inaoeineay
ienueiaiiinoue ia noaiiaeaiea ienueiaiiinoe o ninaaeieo ia?iaeia:

«Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi oio ycueiaie iaoa?eae, eioi?ue i?eaaaeai iaie
auoa a iieueco nouanoaiaaiey anee ia e?iineiai aeeaeaeoa, oi ia/aoeia
aai ia Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea, aiieia aeinoaoi/ai.

… e?iinoai inaoeineie ?a/e auei oai ia?aeiiiui iiiaioii, n eioi?iai
ia/aeny iiaue, n?aaeiaaaeiaue ia?eiae inaoeineie enoi?ee e enoi?ee
inaoeineiai ycuea. Ia/aeny ii a Naaa?iii I?e/a?iiii?uea, e
iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue nua?ae caeanue Oaiaen. Iiaua aoeaaiiua ciaee,
eioi?ua iu ano?aoeee a aeaeueiaeoai a n?aaeiaaaeiaii inaoeineii ienueia
A. Naeoiaa e Iayoeeiai ai?iaeeua VIII—X aa., a oaeaea a aeaineeo
iaaeienyo Iaaeue-Nai-Ieeeioa X a., aia?aua iiyaeythony a Naaa?iii
I?e/a?iiii?uea a inaoeineeo iaaeienyo, auiieiaiiuo e?aniie e?aneie ia
aioi?ao ianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa II—III aa. i. y. 46 Ii naiui ethaiiuoiui
ieacuaaaony oio oaeo, /oi yoe i?eaeiaeueiiai oa-aeoa ciaee oyioo ian a
N?aaeithth Aceth, a I?ea?aeuea, a ae?aaiaa aeaineia ainoaea?noai
ssiueoeae, nouanoaiaaaoaa caeanue, ii eeoaeneei” enoi/ieeai, ai II a.
aei i. y.— IV a. i. y. Eae iieacaea Oaeanneay yiea?aoe/aneay iaoiaeea,
i?ea?aeueneea aeaiu eiaee naia,i?eaeiaeueiiai oaaeoa ienueii,
nouanoaiaaaoaa caeanue aua a XII a. i. y. Naia ainoaea?noai
i?ea?aeueneea aeaiu iacuaaee Iiai-Aneae, a naay anaie/ynaie.

Iiyaeaiea oa?ieia an/yn a noaiiuo i?inoi?ao Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey e
ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca iu naycuaaai n yeniaineae n?aaeiaaceaoneeo aeai a
yoe ianoa. Yeniainey, aa?iyoii, i?ioiaeeea a?aiy io a?aiaie, aieiaie.
Naiie aieueoie aieiie, n eioi?ie nthaea oeuioee iaeeueiua iannu
n?aaeiaaceaoneeo aeai, auei aoiineia iaoanoaea. I?ea?aeueneea aeaiu
i?eianee n niaie naia ienueii, caeanue iii aeeeinue a oaea
nouanoaiaaaoaa ae?aaia-inaoeineia ienueii ia a?aiaeneie a?aoe/aneie
iniiaa. Oae iieo/eeenue iiaua ecaiaeu inaoeineiai ienueia A. Naeoiaa e
Iayoeea VIII—X aa. i. y.

Aieaa /ai aa?iyoii, /oi yoe a?aoaiu iiaee auoue i?eianaiu …
n?aaeiaaceaoneeie i?ea?aeueneeie aeaiaie, aoiaeeaoeie a ninoaa aoiineeo
i?ae, eee iie auee caeinoaiaaiu ec aoiineiai ienueia, i eioi?ii, iu, e
niaeaeaieth, ie/aai ia ciaai, ii eioi?ia, … aa?iyoii, nouanoaiaaei.

… E?ui (Oaa?eaea) e naaa?i-ainoi/iue oaie I?e/a?iiii?uey a V-X aa., o.
a. iinea aoiineiai iaoanoaey, i?aaenoaaeytho aeey enoi?eea aiiaua e
enoi?eea ienueiaiiie eoeueoo?u iniaue eioa?an. A yoeo ianoao a
icia/aiiua noieaoey aeeciue i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iiiaioeaaoiue, neiaeiue
eeoaie iaaeyoie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Caeanue noaeeeaaeenue eioa?anu iiiaeo
ia?iaeia e ieaiai: iioiieia i?e/a?iiii?neeo a?aeia (oaiaeaeia,
ieueaeeoeaa e ae?.), iioiieia neeoi-na?iaoia – n?aaeiaaaeiauo inaoei,
i?aaeeia nia?aiaiiuo eaaa?aeeii-/a?eania – eaniaia, ?aiieo ainoi/iuo
neaayi, iaaeuey? e oth?ie (iai?., oaca?).

E?iia a?a/aneeo eieiienoia, naiiauoiie ienueiaiiinoueth a yoeo ianoao
iaeaaeaee oieueei iioiiee neeoi-na?iaoia – n?aaeiaaaeiaua inaoeiu.
Eaniaeneea, ?aiiea ainoi/iineaayineea e oth?eneea (oaca?neia) ienueiaia
auee i?iecaiaeiuie io n?aaeiaaaeiaiai inaoeineiai.

… VIII-X aaea auee oai a?aiaiai, eiaaea acaoee no?ieeenue ia iniiaa
oaea aioiaiai /oaeiai ienueia, i?eniiniaeaiiiai e naiei ioaeaeai. Iooue
i?eniiniaeaiey aue neiaeiui e ia iai?a?uaiui, oae aea, eae neiaeiuie e
ia iai?a?uaiuie auee acaeiinayce ianaeythueo Iiaeiiuea e Naaa?iia
I?e/a?iiii?uea ia?iaeia. A VIII-X aaeao caeanue a iaeanoe ienueia iaae
anaie aeiaeaea ii-i?aaeiaio e?aineay no?oy. N?aaeiaaaeiaia inaoeineia
ienueii auei oaea ia oieueei enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeiny, ii e naiui noa?ui
ec anao ae?oaeo ienueiaiiinoae yoiai ?aaeiia.

Iaoiaeee iiauo iaiyoieeia n?aaeiaaaeiaiai inaoeineiai ienueia
iiaeoaa?aeeee iaoo iuneue, auneacaiioth aua a 1964 aiaeo: “O
n?aaeiaaaeiauo inaoei E?uia, Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca e Iiaeiiuey, iacaaeneii
io oiai, eiaiiaaeenue ee iie aeaiaie, anaie eee ynaie, nouanoaiaaea
aaeeiay ienueiaiiay eoeueoo?a”. A?aoe/aneay aeeaeaeoaeueiinoue a aeaiiii
neo/aa ia aa?aony a ?an/ao.

A 60 aiaeo IX a. E?ui, Na?eae e Ieaeiaa Iiaeiiuea iinaoee n
?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneie ienneae Eiinoaioei (Ee?eee) Oeeinio. O?oaeii
iiaa?eoue, /oi caoaa/aiiue eaeaae nicaeaiey neaayineie ienueiaiiinoe, ii
ia iieioa?aniaaeny naiui i?enoaeueiui ia?acii nouanoaiaaaoeie caeanue
oaea ienueiaiiinoyie, oai aieaa, /oi iaeei ia?iae ec iineoaeae
ienueiaiiinoe – inaoeiu (ynu) – ieacaeny o?enoeaineei.

Aeinoaoi/ii acaeyiooue ia niiinoaaeoaeueioth oaaeeoeo aoea inaoeineeo,
eaniaeneeo, aeaeaiianeie e ae?oaeo iaaeienae, /oiau oaaaeeoueny, /oi
neaayineee i?inaaoeoaeue ia i?ioae ieii i?aaeinoaaeaoaeny aio
aiciiaeiinoe oaeaeaoue ienueii a i?aeoeea iianaaeiaaiiai
eniieueciaaiey.»

Enoiaey ec auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi oieueei neaaay
eco/aiiinoue aii?inia enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u i?aaeeia inaoei niinianoaiaaea
aicieeiiaaieth caaeoaeaeaiey i oii, /oi o ieo ia auei naiae
ienueiaiiinoe. Yoa eieaa aua ?ac iieacuaaao, eae iiiai aua iaeco/aiiuo
aii?inia a enoi?ee ae?aaieo inaoei, e eaeia iaoe?iia iiea aeayoaeueiinoe
ioe?uaaaony ia?aae enneaaeiaaoaeai, acyaoeiny ca yoe aii?inu, aoaeue oi
oeeieia, eee enoi?ee. I?eoiaeeony oieueei niaeaeaoue i oii, /oi iaoea
iaoa naaiaeiy iaoiaeeony a aanueia iea/aaiii ninoiyiee, e i?e iaee/ee a
Naaa?i-Inaoeineii ainoaea?noaaiiii oieaa?neoaoa e eaoaae?u enoi?ee, e
eaoaae?u oeeieiaee, ia neuoae ie i eaeeo nieue-ieaoaeue cia/eiuo
enneaaeiaaieyo a yoeo iai?aaeaieyo

Oo?/aieiia A.O. “Ae?aaiea e n?aaeiaaaeiaua iaiyoieee inaoeineiai ienueia
e ycuea” Aeaaeeeaaeac “E?” – 1990a. (240 n.)

?acaeoea i?inaauaiey o inaoei

Ia/aei ?acaeoey i?inaauaiey o inaoei ioiineony ei aoi?ie iiei-eeia XVIII
a. — e ia?eiaeo ?acaeoey ?onnei-inaoeineeo ioiioaiee. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa
aaaeiuo niauoee oiai a?aiaie yaeeinue ioe?uoea a 1764a. a Iicaeiea
ia?aie inaoeineie oeieu, iniiaaiiie Inaoeineie aeooiaiie eiienneae. Yoa
oeiea i?aaeiacia/aeanue aeey iiaeaioiaee ienneiia?ia ec ei?aiiuo
ia?iaeia, aianoa n oai iia ciaeiieea aeaoae ai?oeaa-inaoei n ?onneie
a?aiioie, niinianoaiaaea iiyaeaieth ia?auo a?aiioiuo ethaeae a naiuo
ioaeaeaiiuo ianoao ai?iie Inaoee. Noaey ii aaaeiiinoe ca 1767 a.,
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai o/aueony oeieu auee e Oeaio?aeueiie Inaoee.
Ai a?aiy iniiaaiey oeieu a iae ian/eouaaeinue 6 o/aieeia, a a eiioea
XVIII a. — oaea 46. O/aieee, oniaoii ieii/e ieoa oeieo, iinueaeenue aeey
i?iaeieaeaiey o/aau a Ano?aoaineoth naieia?eth. Oae, ii aeaiiui I. A.
Aooeiaa, a 1784a. a naieia?ee iao/eeinue 9 inaoeineeo iaeue/eeia, a
/enea eioi?uo aue e Iaaae Aaioeao?ia, iicaea iaeei ec ninoaaeoaeae
ia?aie inaoeineie ia/aoiie eieae.

A naiii eiioea XVIII a. i?iecioei i?aia?aciaaiea Iicaeieneie inaoeineie
oeieu a ai?iaeneia o/eeeua, aaea iao/aiea aaeinue ia ?onneii e
a?oceineii ycueao.

Aiai?y i ?acaeoee i?inaauaiey a Inaoee oiai a?aiaie, iaeuecy ia
ioinoeoue aeeyiey ninaaeiae A?ocee, noiyaoae ia cia/eoaeueii aieaa
aunieii eoeueoo?iii o?iaia ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iaeanoyie Naaa?iiai
Eaaeaca. ?yae iaiyoieeia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aua i?aaeee inaoei
aeaeaee iiiuoee nicaeaoue naith ienueiaiiinoue. A iineaiiiaieueneee
ia?eiae a?oceineay a?aiioa i?iaeieaeaea ?ani?ino?aiyoueny n?aaee thaeiuo
inaoei, aeey eioi?uo a?oceineee ycue ecaeaaia noae aoi?ui ?iaeiui
ycueii. Oioy iao oi/iuo aeaiiuo, ii iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi aeaaiui
enoi/ieeii ?ani?ino?aiaiey a?oceineie a?aiiou auee iiianou?e, aaea
ainieouaaeinue iaiaei inaoeineeo aeaoae. Oae, ecaanoiue i?inaaoeoaeue
Inaoee XVIII a. Eaai sseaoceaeca (Aaaa?aaa) ec nae. Caeaea a
THai-Inaoee, i?ae?anii ciaaoee inaoeineee, a?oceineee e ?onneee ycuee,
aaoi? iiyiu «Aeaoceaie» e ae?oaeo i?iecaaaeaiee e o/aaiuo iiniaee,
ia?aiia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea iieo/ee a a?oceineii iiianou?a. Aeaoe
iaeioi?uo aeeyoaeueiuo inaoei iaoiaeeee i?etho aeaaea i?e aeai?a
a?oceineiai oea?y, aaea iie iieo/aee ia oieueei ia?aciaaiea, ii e iaauee
?acae?aoueny a neiaeiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaeao. Ecaanoii,
/oi_ainieoaiea aeaau inaoeineiai iinieuenoaa a Iaoa?ao?aa (1749-1759
aa.) Co?aaa Aeeoaiiaa (Iaaeaaaa) ec nae. Ca?aiaa i?ioiaeeei a aeiia
auaeathuaainy ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey A?ocee oea?y Aaooaiaa VI. A
A?ocee iieo/ee ia?aciaaiea e ae?oaie nio?oaeiee yoiai iinieuenoaa,
Aeenae Eoee/ Oaoaaia (Aeaa Eanaaa) ec nae. Eanaoeeao.

Ia?aiia/aeueiia ciaeiinoai inaoei n ?onneie a?aiioie ioiineony oieueei
ei aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII a., i?e/ai i?aaeaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
aanueia iacia/eoaeueiii ?ani?ino?aiaiee ?onneiai ycuea a yoio ia?eiae
n?aaee inaoei. A inaoeineii oieueeei?a aiai?eony, /oi eo?oaoeioeu,
iieo/ea ienueii io Aeaoa?eiu II, yeiau ia niiaee aai i?i/anoue naie e,
nia?aaoenue anai iauanoaii ia iuoana, ?aoeee iineaoue aai /a?ac auai?iuo
a Oeaio?aeueioth Inaoeth Ea?acao Iaieaao, eae aaeeinoaaiiiio /aeiaaeo,
oiaaoaio /eoaoue ii-?onnee. Neoaeaa a ?onneie a?iee a yoio ia?eiae, eae
e a aeaeueiaeoai, niinianoaiaaea ciaeiinoao inaoei n ?onneie a?aiioie e
?onneei ycueii. Iaeiaei yoi einioeinue eeoue ia iiiaeo, aieueoeinoai ia
ciaei aiiaua ieeaeie a?aiiou. Oe?ieia ?acaeoea oeieueiiai ia?aciaaiey a
Inaoee ia iniiaa ?onneiai ycuea ia/eiaaony oieueei a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX
a., iinea ia?anaeaiey inaoei ia ?aaieio.

Aaaeioth ?ieue nua?ae a. Aeaaeeeaaeac, noaaoee, ii neiaai Einoe
Oaoaao?iaa, «oinoaaiiui e aaeieieno?aoeaiui oeaio?ii inaoei». Aieueoia
/enei oeie e o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, iniiaaiiuo caeanue, niinianoaiaaei
?ani?ino?aiaieth n?aaee inaoei a?aiioiinoe e iiyaeaieth ia?aciaaiiuo
ethaeae a ?aciuo iaeanoyo ciaiee. Iaeiaei iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
oeie inaoei auee aeooiaiuie e aei 1860 a. iaoiaeeeenue a aaaeaiee
Inaoeineie eiiennee.

A na?aaeeia XIX a. ia/eiaao oneeeaaoueny aeeyiea ionoeueiainoaa ia
Naaa?iii Eaaeaca, a /anoiinoe a Naaa?iie Inaoee. A 1860 a. e Oeo eena
auei nicaeaii Iauanoai ainnoaiiaeaiey i?aaineaaiiai o?enoeainoaa ia
Eaaeaca, eioi?ia, ii neiaai Einoa Oaoaao?iaa, ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo
aeanyoeeaoee «?aaiinoii i?iaeieaeaei aeaei ianaaeaeaiey a Inaoee
o?enoeainoaa e i?inaauaiey», ia/aoia Inaoeineie aeooiaiie eiienneae. Yoi
iauanoai ioe?uei ?yae iiauo oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneeo oeie e naieia?ee ia
oieueei a Inaoee e Aeaaeeeaaeaca, ii e a iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ai?iaeao
Eaaeaca, iai?eia? a Oeoeena e Noaa?iiiea.

E o/aaiui caaaaeaieyi, iaoiaeeaoeiny ai Aeaaeeeaaeaca, neaaeoao ioianoe
i?aaeaea anaai Aeaaeeeaaeacneia inaoeineia /aou?aoeeanniia aeooiaiia
o/eeeua, ioe?uoia a 1836a., aaea iao/aeinue ia ?onneii e inaoeineii
ycueao 33 inaoeia; iiiaea ec ieo iinea ieii/aiey o/eeeu, oaoaee
i?iaeieaeaoue iao/aiea a ae?oaea ai?iaea.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey inaoei eiaei oaeaea ioe?uoea a 1874a.
Aeaaeeeaaeacneiai ?aaeueiiai o/eeeua, aeaaoaai aiciiaeiinoue iiiaei
inaoeiai iinea aai ieii/aiey iinooieoue a aunoea naaoneea o/aaiua
caaaaeaiey.

A naeueneeo ianoiinoyo iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie auee
oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneea oeieu, iiyaeaoeany a ia/aea 30-o aiaeia XIX a. ii
anae Naaa?iie e THaeiie Inaoee. Ii aeaiiui 1872 a., a Naaa?iie Inaoee
oaeeo oeie ian/eouaaeinue 16, a oii /enea o?e aeaineeo; ai anao yoeo
oeieao iao/aeinue 446 iaeue/eeia e 111 aeaai/ae. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi e
eiioeo XIX a. /enei oaeeo oeie oaaee/eeinue anaai ia iyoue, a iauaa
/enei o/aueony aeinoeaaei 1163 (n?aaee iaeue/eeia) e 238 (n?aaee
aeaai/ae). Ii oaea ia?aae Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeeae a Naaa?iie
Inaoee auei 51 iaeiieeanniay e 11 aeaooeeanniuo oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneeo
oeie.

?ino oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneeo oeie i?ienoiaeeo e a THai-Inaoee; a 1864a.,
caeanue auei anaai 11 oeie, a a 1913 a.— 37. Ianiio?y ia aanueia
ia?aie/aiioth o/aaioth i?ia?aiio, oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneea oeieu ana aea
aeaaaee ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea. Iaeiaei yoe oeieu ia iiaee ioaaoeoue
anao aeaeathueo o/eoueny, iniaaiii a ai?ao, aaea naeaiey ia?aaeei
?aniieaaaeenue ia i/aiue aieueoii ?annoiyiee io ieo e aaea no?iaay e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiay ceia niaa?oaiii eeoaea aiciiaeiinoe aeaoae ec
ioaeaeaiiuo nae o/eoueny a ieo. Aieaa oiai, yoe oeieu iaoiaeeeenue a
aanueia oyaeaeuo auoiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo oneiaeyo. Iiiaea ec ieo ia
eiaee aeaaea iiiauaiey e thoeeenue a /anoiuo aeiiao eee aea a iaaieueoeo
aeiieeao, iioiaeeo «nei?aa ia oeaa, /ai ia i?inaaoeoaeueiia
o/?aaeaeaiea». O?oae o/eoaeae e iniaaiii o/eoaeueieoe iiea/eaaeny
«ieuaineei iiaeayieai a 120 ?oaeae a aiae».

Ia?yaeo n oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneeie oeieaie a Inaoee iieo/eee
?ani?ino?aiaiea, a iniiaiii ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX a., e oae iacuaaaiua
ieienoa?neea oeieu, eiaaoea o/aaioth i?ia?aiio n aieaa iiauoaiiuie
o?aaiaaieyie. A THai-Inaoee ia?aay ieienoa?neay oeiea auea ioe?uoa a
1881 a. a Oeoeiaaee. Yoe oeieu nicaeaaaeenue ii eieoeeaoeaa e i?e
iaoa?eaeueiie iiaeaea?aeea e?anoueyi. A eiioea XIX a. a THai-Inaoee eo
auei ainaiue n iauei /eneii o/aueony 332, ec ieo iaeue/eeia 207 e
aeaai/ae 125.

Eae a oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneeo, oae e a ieienoa?neeo oeieao iao/aiea aaeinue
ia ?onneii ycuea; eeoue a iaeioi?uo aeaoe iao/aeenue ia inaoeineii.

Caiaoiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a Inaoee iieo/eei e aeaineia ia?aciaaiea.
Ia?aay inaoeineay aeaineay oeiea auea ioe?uoa a 1862 a. nayuaiieeii E.
Eieeaaui a aai aea aeiia e auea ecaanoia iiae iacaaieai «i?etho». A 1886
a. ii eieoeeaoeaa A. Eieeaaa oeiea auea i?aia?aciaaia o?aoeeanniia
aeaineia o/eeeua n i?ethoii e niaea?aeaeanue ia n?aaenoaa, auaeaaaaoeany
Iauanoaii ainnoaiiaeaiey o?enoeainoaa ia Eaaeaca. A yoo oeieo iinooiaee
o/eoueny ec naiuo ioaeaeaiiuo ai?iuo nae (Ia?, Ca?aiaa, Ieco? e ae?.)
Inaoee, a iae aioiaeee o/eoaeueieoe aeey naeueneeo oeie. «Iia
ianaaeaeaea, — ienae Einoa Oaoaao?ia, — a ioaeaeueiuo oaieeao ai?iie
Inaoee iaoayaeaaiua ca?iaeuoe i?inaauaiee… aeaaaea iaooiieiuo
o?oaeaieoe aeey naeueneeo oeie… Noaiiaeeanue ianouiie iio?aaiinoueth
anaai ia?iaea». A iae aei 1890a. ieii/eee iieiue eo?a 69 o/aieoe. Ii/oe
ana iie ?aaioaee a oeieao eee aeaaaee /anoiua o?iee. Eco/ay ?oeiaeaeea,
ainieoaiieoeu oeieu niinianoaiaaee ?ani?ino?aiaieth yoiai eneonnoaa
n?aaee inaoeiie. A 1890a. ii i?iecaieo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae Iauanoaa oeiea
auea cae?uoa. Iaeiaei ?aoeoaeueiue i?ioano, au?aaeaiiue ia?aaeiaie
inaoeineie eioaeeeaaioeeae, a /enei eioi?ie aoiaeeee Einoa Oaoaao?ia,
a?aouey Oaiaaau, N. Eieeaa e ae?., auioaeee aaeieieno?aoeeth Iauanoaa
ioeacaoueny io naiaai iaia?aiey.Ia/aei aeaineiai ia?aciaaiey a
THai-Inaoee ioiineony oaeaea e 60-i aiaeai XIX a. Caeanue ia?aay
aeaineay oeiea auea iniiaaia a 1866 a. a nae. Aeaeaae. Oe?iei auee
ecaanoiu oaeaea Oeoeicaeueneia e Aoaeueai?neia aeaineea o/eeeua,
ioe?uoua a 80-o aiaeao XIX a.

?acaeoea ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey a Inaoee auei iaiuneeii aac aeoeaiiai
o/anoey inaoeineie eioaeeeaaioeee e iniaaiii ecaanoiuo ia?iaeiuo
o/eoaeae A. Eaeoiaciaa, N. Aiaaeiaa, N. Eieeaaa, I. Aa?aeaiiaa, A.
Eaioeiaa, O. Aiaeaaa e ae?oaeo ninoaaeoaeae ia?auo inaoeineeo aoeaa?ae.

A iiaeaioiaea o/eoaeueneeo eaae?ia inaoei iniaaiii aieueooth ?ieue
nua?aea A?aeiineay aeooiaiay naieia?ey, noaaoay a eiioea XIX a. iaeiei
ec e?oiiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee a Inaoee. Iniiaaiiay n oeaeueth
iiaeaioiaee nayuaiieeia-inaoei e ianaaeaeaiey o?enoeainoaa, yoa oeiea ia
auiieieea aiceiaeaiiuo ia iaa caaea/. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
o/aueony inaoei, ieii/eaoeo A?aeiineoth naieia?eth, noaiiaeeenue
o/eoaeyie eee aea oacaeaee aeey i?iaeieaeaiey o/aau a ae?oaea ai?iaea.

?ino iaoeeiiaeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee, aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea ia?aaeiaie
?onneie eoeueoo?u, iaeiiaoe o?oaeu ?onneeo o/aiuo, i?aaeaea anaai Anaa.
Ieeea?a e I. Eiaaeaaneiai, niinianoaiaaee iiyaeaieth n?aaee inaoei aua a
oneiaeyo oea?neiai ?aaeeia aieueoie oyae e ia?aciaaieth e iaoea. Yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho ia oieueei iiiai/eneaiiua i?ioaiee inaoeineeo iauanoa
ia eiy ianoiuo aeanoae ia ioe?uoee iiauo oeie, ii e auneacuaaiey iiiaeo
aei?aaiethoeeiiiuo aaoi?ia. Aio /oi niiauaeinue a aacaoa «Eaaeac» ca
1887 a.: «Inaoeiu ioioii aa?oony ca eieao, ana oeieu, o/eeeua e aeiiacee
Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca ia?aiieiaiu iannie o/auaeny iieiaeaaee inaoeineiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eioi?ay aeaaiaea?y i?e?iaeiiio oio naieo iooeia eaeao
iaia/aiiuie oaaaie ii iooe i?ia?anna, neoaea aio /anoii e iaoeeiiii».
Ii/oe oi aea naiia ioia/ae Einoa Oaoaao?ia.

A iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae a nayce n iauei iiaeuaiii anaai oicyenoaa e
oe?aieaieai iaoa?eaeueiie aacu nicaeaeenue aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey
aieaa oniaoiiai ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u e i?inaauaiey inaoei. Ca
n?aaieoaeueii ei?ioeee ia?eiae Inaoey i?aa?aoeeanue a no?aio aunieie
a?aiioiinoe e eoeueoo?u. Ii ia?aiene 1959 a., iauay a?aiioiinoue
ianaeaiey aeinoeaea a Naaa?iie Inaoee 98,8%, a a THai-Inaoee — 98,7%.
Any oa??eoi?ey ?anioaeeee iie?ueanue oe?ieie naoueth oeie. A 1966 a. a
Iii?iie Inaoee ooieoeeiie?iaaei 238 oeie, ec ieo 109 n?aaeieo; /enei
o/aueony yoeo oeie ninoaaeyao 85,5 oun. E?iia oiai, a ?anioaeeea e
iithony 14 oeie-eioa?iaoia n iauei /eneii o/aueony 5519 e 12
niaoeeaeueiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, a eioi?uo o/aony 10,4 oun. nooaeaioia.
A THai-Inaoee ian/eouaaaony 237 ia/aeueiuo, 59 niaoeeaeueiuo, 14
ainueieeaoieo, 37 n?aaeieo oeie, iaeia oeiea-eioa?iao, o?e niaoeeaeueiuo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiey n iauei /eneii o/aueony 19 415.

A Inaoee ?aaeee oaia?ue naiuee, aaea au ia auei /aeiaaea ni n?aaeiei e
aunoei ia?aciaaieai. A a oaeeo naeao, eae Einoa, Aeeai?a (iuia a.
Aeeai?a) e Aeaeaae, a eaaeaeie o?aoueae naiuea eiaaony iaeei eee
ianeieueei /aeiaae n aunoei ia?aciaaieai. A 1964a. ia eaaeaeua 10 oun.
/aeiaae ianaeaiey a Naaa?iie Inaoee i?eoiaeeeinue 269 nooaeaioia, /oi a
2 aieueoa, /ai a NOA, a 6 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a Aiaeee, e a 24 ?aca
aieueoa, /ai a E?aia. Oae, a nae. Einoa, ninoiyuai ec 400 oicyenoa
aunoaa ia?aciaaiea iieo/eee aieaa 500 /aeiaae, ?aaioathueo ai iiiaeo
io?aneyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa e eoeueoo?u. A yoii ioiioaiee ia iaiaa
oa?aeoa?iui yaeyaony e nae. Aeeai?a, aeaaoaa 3 eao?aaoia
Ainoaea?noaaiiii i?aiee, 10 i?ioanni?ia e 18 eaiaeeaeaoia iaoe.

Aieueoay caneoaa a ?ani?ino?aiaiee aunoaai ia?aciaaiey n?aaee inaoei e a
iiaeaioiaea iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaae?ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo noa?aeoei aocai
?anioaeeee — Iaaeaaiae/aneiio e Naeueneioicyenoaaiiiio. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy iiaeaioiaea aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia i?iaiaeeony a
Naaa?iie Inaoee a /aou?ao aocao, a a THaeiie — a iaeiii,
Iaaeaaiae/aneii. A 1966 a. ai anao aocao Naaa?iie Inaoee iao/aeinue
ieiei 25 oun. nooaeaioia, n?aaee eioi?uo 8 oun. inaoei.

Nicaeaiea aieueoiai /enea iaoeeiiaeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue Inaoee ieacaoue a?aoneoth iiiiuue ninaaeiei ia?iaeai,
iniaaiii ia?iaeai Aeaaanoaia e *a/aii-Eiaooaoee, ino?i ioaeaeaaoeiny a
ia?eiae eoeueoo?iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa a eaae?ao. Ec Inaoee iinueaee a
naeueneea ianoiinoe yoeo ?anioaeee o/eoaeae, a?a/ae, ciioaoieeia e o.
ae.

?acaeoea ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey o inaoei auei naycaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii n
ca?iaeaeaieai o ieo ienueiaiiinoe (aoi?ay iieiaeia XVIII a.). Iaeiaei
iiiuoee nicaeaiey naiae ienueiaiiinoe, eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
yiea?aoe/aneea iaiyoieee (a /anoiinoe, Caeai/oeneee, Iocaeueneee e
iaeaeaiiue iaie a 1959 a. a O?onianeii ouaeuea), i?aaei?eieiaeenue aua
i?aaeeaie inaoei.

Aaaeiui niauoeai aoi?ie iieiaeiu XVIII a. yaeyaony ninoaaeaiea a a.
Iicaeiea a?oeaieneiiii Aaai Oaeaiaui e nayuaiieeii Iaaeii Aaioeao?iaui
ia?aie inaoeineie ia/aoiie eieae — «Ia/aeueiia o/aiea /aeiaaeii, oioyuei
o/eoueny, eieaa aiaeanoaaiiiai ienaiey», iaia/aoaiiie a Iineianeie
oeiia?aoee a 1798 a. ae?aaieie neaayineeie aoeaaie. Ecaeaiea oaeie eieae
i?aneaaeiaaei oeaeue iao/aiey o/aieeia Iicaeieneie inaoeineie oeieu ia
?iaeiii ycuea, /oi aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue aieaa oniaoiie iiaeaioiaee eo a
nayuaiieee e ienneiia?u e ioi?aaee eo a ai?u. Aua ?aiueoa iiiuoee
nicaeaiey inaoeineie ienueiaiiinoe (ia a?oceineie a?aoe/aneie iniiaa)
aeaeaeenue e a?oceineeie ienneiia?aie, iaia/aoaaoeie, ii aeaiiui
Aeaeaiaoaeee, a 1753 a. ia?aoth inaoeineoth eieao.Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a
?acaeoee inaoeineie ienueiaiiinoe nua?ae o aanoiue inaoeineee
i?inaaoeoaeue eiioea XVIII — ia/aea XIX a. Eaai sseaoceaeca, i eioi?ii
oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo oaeaea ?yae ia?aaiaeiuo eiea n
a?oceineiai e ?onneiai ycueia, eioi?ua ianiiiaiii niinianoaiaaee
?acaeoeth eoeueoo?iuo naycae iaaeaeo yoeie ia?iaeaie. Iinea nia?oe
sseaoceaeca, a 1830 a., i?ae?aoeeinue ecaeaiea inaoeineeo eiea ia
a?oceineii o?eooa. «Caiaia a?oceineiai aeoaaeoa ?onneei iauaeoeaii
ioe?uaaea aieaa aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey i?eiauaiey inaoei e ?onneie
eoeueoo?a». Aieueoia cia/aiea a yoii ioiioaiee eiaei ia?anaeaiea
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe inaoei ia ?aaieio e aeeceia iauaiea eo n ninaaeieie
ia?iaeaie, a /anoiinoe n ?onneeie iinie aeaeaie, a oaeaea ioe?uoea ai
Aeaaeeeaaeaca e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao Niii?iiai Eaaeaca o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee,
aaea iiiaea inaoeiu iao/aeenue ia ?onneii: ycuea.

Ia?aay iieiaeia XIX a. iciaiaiiaaeanue ia/aeii iao/iiai eco/aiey
inaoeineiai ycuea ?onneei aeaaeaieeii A.I. Oaa?aiii, eioi?ue iinea
aeaooeaoiaai i?aauaaiey (1836 — 1837) a Inaoee iaia/aoae a ecaeaiee
Aeaaeaiee iaoe «Inaoeineoth a?aiiaoeeo n e?aoeei neiaa?ai
inaoeii-?inneeneei e ?inneenei-inaoeineei». Yoa eieaa niinianoaiaaea ii
oieueei ?acaeoeth inaoeineie ienueiaiiinoe ia ?onneie iniiaa, ii e
naeeaeaieth inaoei n ae?oaeie ia?iaeaie, a /anoiinoe n ?onneei.

N 80-o aiaeia XIX a. ia/eiaaony iiaue yoai a eco/aiee inaoeineiai ycuea,
naycaiiue n aeayoaeueiinoueth ae?oaiai ?onneiai o/aiiai, A. O. Ieeea?a,
aianoaai e?oiiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea anae inaoeineie eoeueoo?u. Ii
caieiaeny eco/aieai inaoeineiai ycuea a n?aaieoaeueiii ieaia n ae?oaeie
e?aineeie ycueaie. A. O. Ieeea?, iiiai naeaeae oaeaea a iaeanoe
inaoeineiai oieueeei?a, yoiia?aoee, a?oaieiaee, eaeneee e o. ae.
Aieueoay caneoaa yoiai o/aiiai caeeth/aeanue e a oii, /oi ii, a
niaa?oainoaa aeaaeay aeaoiy aeeaeaeoaie inaoeineiai ycuea, aian
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey a oaa?aiianeee aeoaaeo, noa?aynue
aeinoe/ue aieueoae oi/iinoe a ia?aaea/a inaoeineeo caoeia. A oeaeii
nicaeaiiay Oaa?aiii e Ieeea?ii inaoeineay ienueiaiiinoue iineoaeeea
iiuiui oie/eii aeey ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u e i?inaauaiey a Inaoee. Iia
«?acaoaeeea,— eae ioia/aao A.E. Aaaaa,— ae?aiaaoea neeu iaea?aiiiai
ia?iaea» Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ii/oe any aoi?ay iieiaeia XIX a. e
iineaaeothuee i?aae?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?eiae a Inaoee oa?aeoa?ecothony
iai?a?uaiui ?inoii iaoeeiiaeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee, ainieoaieai eaae?ia a
naiuo ?acee/iuo io?aneyo oicyenoaa. N?aaee ia?aaeiaie /anoe inaoeineie
eioaeeeaaioeee i?iaoaeaeaaony aieueoie eioa?an e enoi?ee naiaai ia?iaea,
aai eoeueoo?a e auoo.

A niaaoneia a?aiy ia/aeny iiaue yoai ananoi?iiiaai enneaaeiaaiey
inaoeineiai ycuea e ?acaeoey inaoeineie ienueiaiiinoe. Iaioeaieiay
caneoaa a ?ac?aaioea iiiaeo i?iaeai inaoeineiai ycuea — aai enoi?ee e
?iaenoaa ni neeoneei ycueii, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiey a iai iaee/ey
eaaeacneiai noano?aoa, aai aeeaeaeoiuo ?acee/ee e o. ae. — i?eiaaeeaaeeo
A.E. Aaaaao, caneoaeeaoaio oe?ieia i?eciaiea naieie ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie
o?oaeaie a iaeanoe inaoeiiaaaeaiey e e?aienoeee a niaaoneie e
ca?oaaaeiie iaoea. Aieueoie aeeaae a eco/aiea ycuea inaoei aian
ecaanoiue a?oceineee e?aieno i?io. A. N. Aoaeaaeeaie, a oaeaea iaeioi?ua
inaoeineea eeiaaenou.

A oiaea eoeueoo?iiai no?ieoaeuenoaa o inaoei, eae e o ae?oaeo ia?iaeia,
auee naie o?oaeiinoe e ioeaee. Iaeiie ec oaeeo e?oiiuo ioeaie, eae
i?aaeeueii ioia/aeinue, yaeyeny ia?aaiae a 1923 a. inaoeineiai aeoaaeoa
n ?onneie ia eaoeineoth iniiao, /oi nicaeaei aeiiieieoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe
a iao/aiee aeaoae, a ia/aoaiee o/aaieeia, eiea, aacao, aeo?iaeia.

Aeey ninaaeieo ia?iaeia, eiaaoeo a?aaneee aeoaaeo, ia?aoiae ia
eaoeineoth iniiao aue aii?aee iiaieth iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia ianiiiaiii oaaii
aia?aae. Iiyaeaiea a 1939 a. iiaiai inaoeineiai aeoaaeoa ia ?onneie
iniiaa eiaei ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey inaoeineie eoeueoo?u. Ia
yoii aeoaaeoa noaee ecaeaaaoue eieae, aeo?iaeu, aacaou, a oaeaea
ia?aaiaeu eeanneeia ia?enecia-eaieiecia, i?eaeiaeueioth
ooaeiaeanoaaiioth eeoa?aoo?o. Iaeiaei a ?acoeueoaoa ia?ooaiey eaieineie
iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a THai-Inaoee aianoi aeoaaeoa ia ?onneie a?aoeea
a 1939 a. aue aaaaeai iiaue aeoaaeo, ninoaaeaiiue ia iniiaa a?oceineiai.
Oaeei ia?acii aue eneonnoaaiii ?acaeaeai iaeei ia?iae, aiai?yuee ia
iaeiii ycuea, eiathuee iaeio eeoa?aoo?o e eoeueoo?o. Ana oi, /oi
ecaeaaaeinue ia yoii aeoaaeoa a THai-Inaoee, auei iaaeinooiii aeey
naaa?iuo inaoei.

Iinoaiaiii noaee ineaaaaaoue eoeueoo?iua nayce iaaeaeo thaeiuie e
naaa?iuie inaoeiaie, nicaeaaaeenue aieueoea o?oaeiinoe a naiie
THai-Inaoee; aeaoyi i?eoiaeeeinue eco/aoue ia iiaii aeoaaeoa o?e ycuea
?iaeiie, a?oceineee e ?onneee, ac?ineiio ianaeaieth ioaeii auei
inaaeaaoue iiaue aeoaaeo, /oiau iao/eoueny /eoaoue e ienaoue. A 1954a.
aue aaaaeai a THai-Inaoee oio aea aeoaaeo, /oi o naaa?iuo inaoei, e
thaeiua inaoeiu aiiaue aioee a eoeueoo?iia niae?oaeanoai ni naieie
naaa?iuie a?aoueyie, oniaoii no?iy aianoa naith iaoeeiiaeueioth
eoeueoo?o.

A.A. Eaeiaa. «Inaoeiu»

Eoeueoo?a ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX a.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ienueiaiiinoe e oeieueiiai ia?aciaaiey
Ca?iaeeaoeany aua a XVIII a. ooiaeaiaioaeueiua iniiau eoeueoo?u —
?acaeoea ienueiaiiinoe, oeieueiiai ia?aciaaiey, eieaiia/aoaiey —
aini?eieiaeenue inaoeineei iauanoaii eae anoanoaaiiua e iaiaoiaeeiua
oneiaey aeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ia?iaea. A Inaoee ia auei ie
?aeeaeiciuo, ie eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo nee, eioi?ua au
i?aiyonoaiaaee nia?aiaiiui aeey oiai a?aiaie oi?iai ?acaeoey inaoeineie
eoeueoo?u. Ia auei e aiaoieo neieueei-ieaoaeue «aa?anneaiuo»
iieeoe/aneeo nee, eioi?ua iaaycuaaee au Inaoee /oaeaeua ae eoeueoo?iua
oeaiiinoe. Nouanoaiaaea noaaeeueiay aioo?aiiyy i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue
ia?iaea e aini?eyoeth iniiaiiieaaathueo aeinoeaeaiee aa?iiaeneie
eoeueoo?u. A ia?iaea iniciaaaeinue ionoaaaiea io yoie eoeueoo?u. Yoi
iniciaiea, a oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue inaoei e eiaeiaa?iiaeneie aaoae
ia?iaeia (a i?ioeii inaoeiu ia?aaeeee iiuioth eoeueoo?ioth yaiethoeeth)
ecaaaeee Inaoeth ia iiaii yoaia iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey io iio?ynaiee a
noa?a eoeueoo?u.

Inaoeineia iauanoai ia?aie iieiaeiu XIX a. iaia?oaeeaaei niiniaiinoue
eioaa?e?iaaoue aeinoeaeaiey eae a iaeanoe ienueiaiiinoe, oeieueiiai
ia?aciaaiey, oae e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e aoiaieoa?iie iaoee —
iaeanoae, iaaeinooiiuo aeey ia?iaeia, caiyouo i?aaiecaoeeae ia/aeueiuo
oi?i eoeueoo?iiai noaiiaeaiey.

A ia/aea XIX a. i?ienoiaeeei aeaeueiaeoaa niaa?oainoaiaaiea inaoeineie
ienueiaiiie eoeueoo?u. Ia iniiaa iieiaeie ienueiaiiinoe iiyaeyeenue
i?aaeaea anaai eieae ?aeeaeiciiai niaea?aeaiey, a oaeaea o/aaiua iiniaey
aeey inaoeineeo oeie. Iiaui yaeyeenue ia?aaiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeoia e
i?eaea/aiea inaoeineiai ycuea e ianeoaeeaaieth
aaeieieno?aoeaii-ainoaea?noaaiiie noa?u. Iai?eia?, a ia/aea XIX a.
aeaeiue iauanoaaiiue e eoeueoo?iue aeayoaeue Inaoee Eaai sseaoceaeca
(Aaaa?aaa), i?aainoiaeii aeaaeaaoee ?onneei ycueii, ia?aaae ia
inaoeineee ycue «Iieiaeaiea i a?aiaiiuo noaeao e i?enyaao».

Inaoeineay ienueiaiiinoue ?acaeaaeanue ia iniiaa ?onneie a?aoeee.
Iaeiia?aiaiii a Inaoee oee iienee a?aoe/aneeo n?aaenoa, iaeaieaa iieii
io?aaeaaoeo eaene/aneea e oiiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe inaoeineiai ycuea.
I?iaiaaeenue, a /anoiinoe, a?aoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe a?oceineie
ienueiaiiinoe. Oio aea Eaai sseaoceaeca ia iniiaa a?oceineie a?aoeee
nicaeae inaoeineoth acaoeo e ecaeae a Oeoeena ia?aue aoeaa?ue ia
inaoeineii ycuea.

Iiuo Eaaia sseaoceaeca a i?eaea/aiee a?oceineie a?aoeee a oeaeyo
?acaeoey inaoeineie ienueiaiiinoe i?eiaiyeny e iicaea. Iaeiaei aeoeaiia
aiaea/aiea Inaoee a eoeueoo?ioth n?aaeo ?innee aeaeaei i?ei?eoaoiui aeey
inaoei ?onneee ycue, a aianoa n iei e aai ienueiaiioth a?aoeeo. Cia/aiea
eiaei e ae?oaia — i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue inaoeineiai e ?onneiai ycueia e
iaeiie e oie aea eiaeiaa?iiaeneie ycueiaie aaoae.

Iaeaieaa iiioey?iie noa?ie eoeueoo?iie aeecie inaoei yaeyeinue oeieueiia
ia?aciaaiea. A ia?aie /aoaa?oe XIX a. a naeao Naieaa, Oiae, Aeaeeiao e
ae?. auee ioe?uou iaaieueoea oeieu. Ieii/eaoea eo iiaee i?iaeieaeaoue
naith o/aao a aeooiaiii o/eeeua Aeaaeeeaaeaca. Aeaoe ninoiyoaeueiuo
?iaeeoaeae iinooiaee oaeaea a Ano?aoaineoth e Oeoeenneoth aeooiaiua
naieia?ee, aioiaeaoea nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae aeey Inaoee.

A 30-o aa. XIX a. ?anoao eioa?an e naaoneiio ia?aciaaieth. Iiiaea
ainieoaiieee Aeaaeeeaaeacneiai aeooiaiiai o/eeeua i?aaeii/eoaee
iinooieoue a aiaiiia eee aea a?aaeaeaineia o/aaiia caaaaeaiea.

A ?ani?ino?aiaiee i?inaauaiey aaaeiia ianoi caieiaee oeieu,
ooieoeeiie?iaaaoea i?e aieineeo iiae?acaeaeaieyo — iieeao, aaoaeueiiao.
Eo iacuaaee aua «oeieaie aiaiiuo ainieoaiieeia», oeaeueth eioi?uo
yaeyeinue aeaoue ia?aciaaiea aeaoyi ii/aoiuo nineiaee. A oaeeo oeieao
aeaoe aei 17 eao iao/aeenue ca eacaiiue n/ao. Ieii/eaoea oeieo iinooiaee
ia aiaiioth eee a?aaeaeaineoth neoaeao. N?aaee aeaoae e ?iaeeoaeae
iniaie iiioey?iinoueth iieueciaaeanue Iaaaaeineay oeiea, nicaeaiiay a
1848 a. ai Aeaaeeeaaeaca aeey aeaoae i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee.

A inaoeineii iauanoaa eioa?an e oeieueiiio ia?aciaaieth aue noieue
aaeee, /oi oaea a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. a Inaoee ianoaeaeaeny aii?in i
aeaineeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo. Ioe?uoea ia?auo oeie aeey aeaai/ae
ioiineony e 50-i aa. XIX a. Iaeia ec ieo, iniiaaiiay
Co?aiiaie-Eoaaoeaaie, i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iaaieueoie iaineii aeey
iiaeaioiaee ec inaoeineeo aeaai/ae «?aeeaeiciuo, iaaiaeiuo iaoa?ae».
Oaeie aea iaineii aue ioe?uo a Naeoaa?aeaia.

Aieaa iniiaaoaeueii aii?in i aeaineii ia?aciaaiee aue iinoaaeai Aeni
Eieeaaui — nayuaiieeii e einiaeoi?ii Aeaaeeeaaeacneiai aeooiaiiai
o/eeeua. Ia naie n?aaenoaa ii ioe?ue aeey inaoeineeo aeaai/ae
ia/aeueioth oeieo, i?aia?aciaaiioth iicaea a Ieueaeineia o?aoeeanniia
o/eeeua.

I?aaiecaoeey aeaineiai ia?aciaaiey a Inaoee noaiiaeeanue aiciiaeiie
aeaaiaea?y i?aaeaea anaai aeaiie?aoe/aneie ii oa?aeoa?o o?aaeeoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?a inaoei. Caaioa i aeaineii ia?aciaaiee yaeyeanue neaaenoaeai
oie aaaeiie iauanoaaiiie ?iee, eioi?ay ioaiaeeeanue aeaiueiai a Inaoee.

Caeeth/aiea

Ecia?aoaiea iiaie ienueiaiiinoe – aeiaaeueiaeoaa aeaei, oeoaie/aneee aeo
oai?/anoaa, /anoi ii?aaeaeythuee eoeueoo?iia e iieeoe/aneia ?acaeoea
ia?iaea (eiia/ii, a oii neo/aa, anee yoa ienueiaiiinoue i?eaeeeanue,
?ani?ino?aieeanue e nio?aieeanue). Nicaeaoaeae ienueiaiiinoae ii/eoatho,
i?e/eneytho e eeeo nayouo e ana oaeia. Eiiaaea, i?aaaea, /anoue
nicaeaiey ienueiaiiinoe i?eienuaatho aaeeeei i?aaeoaeyi, ii iu-oi ciaai,
/oi iie ?aaeei nicaeatho /oi-ieaoaeue naie.

I?i aieueoeinoai ienueiaiiinoae iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi eo eoi-oi ecia?ae.
Iai?eia?, a?a/aneia eee eeoaeneia ienueii ieeoi ia i?eaeoiae; iie
nicaeaaaeenue e niaa?oainoaiaaeenue ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia ?aciuie
/aeiaaeaie. Aea e o ienueia a oeaeii, ianeieueei iiaeii noaeeoue,
aaeeinoaaiiiai nicaeaoaey ia auei, eae e o eieana, ?a/e e iiiaeanoaa
ae?oaeo, e?eoe/iuo aeey enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa ecia?aoaiee.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aaaaa A. E. Inaoeineee ycue e oieueeei?, A. I.— E., 1949

2. Aaaaa A. E. Enoi?eei-yoeiieiae/aneee neiaa?ue inaoeineiai ycuea, o.
1. I.— E., 1958

3. Oo?/aieiia A.O. “Ae?aaiea e n?aaeiaaaeiaua iaiyoieee inaoeineiai
ienueia e ycuea” Aeaaeeeaaeac “E?” – 1990a. (240 n.)

4. A.A. Eaeiaa. Inaoeiu.

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