.

Проблема истории формирования караимской общины в Евпатории

Язык:
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3135
Скачать документ

1. I?iaeaia enoi?ee oi?ie?iaaiey ea?aeineie iaueiu a Aaiaoi?ee.

2. No?oeoo?a ea?aeineie iaueiu.

3. Aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aeineie iaueiu a Aaiaoi?ee.

4. Ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaa e ea?aeiai.

5. Iaiyoieee ea?aeineie eoeueoo?u a E?uio e eo nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea.

Caeeth/aiea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aaaaeaiea

Oa??eoi?ey E?uineiai iieoino?iaa, ianiio?y ia naie ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoea ?acia?u, eiaao i/aiue ?aciiia?aciia a yoie/aneii niunea
ianaeaiea. Ooo niaianoii i?iaeeaatho i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aciuo ia?iaeia,
eioi?ua a oiaea naiae aeecie neeaaeuaatho i/aiue eioa?anioth enoi?eth
?iaeiiai e?ay. Ii, oai ia iaiaa, eaaeaeue ia?iae, ianiio?y ia oaeia
eiiiaeoiia i?iaeeaaiea, nio?aiyao naie o?aaeeoeee e naiiauoiinoue.
N?aaee oaeiai ?aciiia?acey ia?iaeia yei auaeaeythony ia oiia inoaeueiuo
ea?aeiu. E?uineea ea?aeiu iaeaaeatho aiaaoie eoeueoo?ie, eioi?ay
anaaaea aucuaaea eioa?an. A a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, eiaaea
iaoeeiiaeueiui aii?inai oaeaeyaony aieueoia cia/aiea, iaeieco/aiiay
enoi?ey e?uineeo ea?aeiia i?eia?aoaao iniaoth aeooaeueiinoue. Oaia
aeaiiie ?aaiou iinayuaia enoi?ee ea?aeineie iaueiu a Aaiaoi?ee a OIO
aaea. Oeaeueth aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony eco/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe
ea?aeineie iaueiu a Aaiaoi?ee a OIO aaea. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeacaiiie
oeaee aaoi? noaaeo neaaeothuea caaea/e: Eco/aiea oi?ie?iaaiey ea?aeineie
iaueiu a Aaiaoi?ee. ?anniio?aiea no?oeoo?u ea?aeineie iaueiu.
Oa?aeoa?enoeea aeayoaeueiinoe ea?aeineie iaueiu a Aaiaoi?ee. Eco/aiea
ioiioaiey ainoaea?noaa e ea?aeiai a OIO aaea. Enneaaeiaaiea iaiyoieeia
ea?aeineie eoeueoo?u a E?uio e eo nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey. No?oeoo?a
?aaiou auoaeaao ec iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/.

A oiaea naiaai enneaaeiaaiey aaoi? eniieueciaae iienaoaeueiue,
oaenoieiae/aneee, oi?iaeueii- eiae/aneee e n?aaieoaeueiue iaoiae.

Enoi?eia?aoey.

Ea?aeiu – iaei/eneaiiue ia?iae n i/aiue eioa?aniie enoi?eae e
eoeueoo?ie. E niaeaeaieth, enoi?ey ea?aeiia yaeyaony iaeieco/aiiie,
aeaaea ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue inoaaony iiiaeanoai aaeuo iyoai. Iiiaea
iiiaiou ec enoi?ee ea?aeineiai ia?iaea inoathony iaenneaaeiaaiiuie,
nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai aii?inia, ia eioi?ua eae naie ea?aeiu, oae e
enoi?e/aneay iaoea a oeaeii, iaaeathony a aoaeouai iieo/eoue ioaaou. Ii,
oai ia iaiaa, neaaeoao aicaeaoue aeieaeiia oai enneaaeiaaoaeyi,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iu eiaai iaiiiai/eneaiiua naaaeaiey ia yoii ia?iaea n
aai eioa?aniui i?ioeui. Iaeiei ec ia?auo ia/ae i?ioanneiiaeueii
niae?aoue iaoa?eae ii enoi?ee e?uineeo ea?aeiia a niaaoneia a?aiy
Aeaenaiae? Iieeaiia (1884-1971 aa.). Aai noa?aieyie auei nio?aiaii
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai iaiyoieeia eneonnoaa, eiea, aeieoiaioia. A.
Iieeaiia aaoi? aieaa noa ?aaio ii enoi?ee, a?oaieiaee, yoiia?aoee E?uia.
A aieaa ?aiiee ia?eiae aai ?aaiou ia ecaeaaaeenue. Oieueei a eiioea 80-o
aiaeia auea iioaeeeiaaia ?oeiienue A. Iieeaiiaa. Iia auea aeiiieiaia
iiauie aeaiiuie e ?aaeeeie oioia?aoeyie ec ee/iuo a?oeaia. TH?ee
Aeaenaiae?iae/ Iieeaiia (?.1935 a.) ?acaeaeye iao/iua eioa?anu iooea e
i?iaeieaeae aai aeaei. A naiae enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaioa ii enoi?ee
ea?aeiia ii iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyao yoiiaaiaco, oieueeei?o,
aa?ieniiaaaeaieth, ia?yaeai e iau/ayi yoiai ia?iaea. Aeaiiua o?oaeu
ioee/athony aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaiui eceiaeaieai iaoa?eaea ii eca?aiiie
oaia. Aieueoie eioa?an aucuaatho ?aaiou Ieoaeea Na?a/ (?.1910 a.). Ii
caieiaeny aii?inaie yoie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ?aeeaee ea?aeiia.
Oaeaea ii aunooiae ?aaeaeoi?ii «Ea?aeineie ia?iaeiie yioeeeeiiaaeee»,
eioi?ay yaeyaony i/aiue aaaeiui aeey ea?aeineie enoi?ee ecaeaieai, oae
eae iia iaiauaao ?aaioo ?aciuo enneaaeiaaoaeae ii eiie?aoiui aii?inai,
/oi naii ii naaa yaeyaony aaaeiui aeey oaeie iaeienneaaeiaaiiie iaeanoe
enoi?ee. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi a ia?aii oiia yioeeeeiiaaeee
i?enoonoaoao aeaaa, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaao ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaa e
ea?aeiai, eiaiii yoi i?aaenoaaeyao oeaiiinoue aeey aeaiiie ?aaiou.
Oaeaea neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ioaeaeueiua ?aaiou, iai?eia?,
o?oae Aeaenaiae?a Eeuee/a Ooee «Ea?aeiu – nuiiauey e aei/a?e ?innee».
Yoa ?aaioa i/aiue iiae?iaii iienuaaao ea?aeiia-aa?iaa, eioi?ua
i?ineaaeeenue a aiyo ca ?iaeeio. Ii e?iia yoiai aii?ina a aeaiiii
ecaeaiee, e niaeaeaieth, ia ?anniao?eaathony i?iaeaiu ea?aeineie
enoi?ee. I/aiue ianoiyoaeueiuie yaeythony noaouee Neaaaaie A., eioi?ay
iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaao aua?aiiua aii?inu ea?aeineie enoi?ee. Aucuaatho
eioa?an noaouee Ieaaa Ai?eniae/a Aaeiai ii enoi?ee ea?aeineiai ia?iaea.
Aai ioaeeeaoeey ia Enioaoiaie aeieeia yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaiie e
aucuaaao eioa?an ia oieueei o enoi?eeia. Iniaia aieiaiea i?eaeaeaao
?aaioa Yieeee Enaaeiaiu Eaaaaeaaie iiae iacaaieai «I/a?ee ii enoi?ee
e?uineeo ea?aeiia». Yoa ?aaioa eioa?ania oai, /oi iia cao?aaeaaao eae
ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaa e ea?aeiai, oae e aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aeiia a
E?uio, /oi aucaaei eioa?an ni noi?iiu aaoi?a aeaiiie ?aaiou.
I?eaeaeaoaeueia noaouey Oaeoaia E. «Aaeoa-Oeeiac»[iiia? ec nienea],
eioi?ay, iaeia ec iaiiiaeo, ?anneacuaaao i ae?aaiai ea?aeineii
eeaaeaeua. Ae?aooea ?ane?uou no?aieoeu ea?aeineie enoi?ee a noaouea
Eoooeue N. «ss ethaeth Aaiaoi?eth». E?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo nouanoaoao ianna
noaoae ii ioaeaeueiui aii?inai enoi?ee ea?aeiia, ii iao ie iaeiiai
enneaaeiaaiey, eioi?ia au a iieiie ia?a inaaoeei aeeciue ea?aeineie
iaueiu Aaiaoi?ee a XIX a. Oaeaea ionoonoaotho ?aaiou, iinayuaiiua
enoi?ee oi?ie?iaaiey ea?aeineie iaueiu Aaiaoi?ee aei ia/aea XIX a. Yoi,
eiia/ii aea, yaeyaony aieueoei i?iaaeii. Eae iu aeaeei, ii/oe ana ?aaiou
iinayuaiu iao/iiio aeeniooo ii i?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey ea?aeiia. Aaoi?
aeaiiie ?aaiou iaaeaaony, /oi i?iaaaeaiiia ei enneaaeiaaiea iiiiaeao
iiae?iaiaa inaaoeoue eae aeeciue Aaiaoi?eeneie ea?aeineie iaueiu, oae e
aeeciue Aaiaoi?ee a XIX a. a oeaeii. 1. Enoi?ey oi?ie?iaaiey iaueiu
A?aiy iiyaeaiey ea?aeiia a Aaiaoi?ee oi/ii iaecaanoii. Iniiaiay aea eo
ianna, ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa enoi?eeia, iiyaeeanue caeanue a eiioea
OVIII- ia/aea XIX aa. Nia?aiaiiua ecaeaiey n/eoatho, /oi ii iaeioi?ui
enoi?e/aneei enoi/ieeai a?aiy iiyaeaiey ea?aeiia a Aaiaoi?ee aeaaea XIII
e IX aa. [eo?i?o-aai n. 59, 60] Ii anae aeaeeiinoe iie iiyaeeenue
caeanue iinea oiai, eae iieeioee *oooo-Eaea. [Aa?iao N. 120] N eiioea
XVIII a. aeeoaee *oooo-Eaea ia/aee iinoaiaiii iieeaeaoue ai?iae –
e?aiinoue e iinaeyoueny a ?acee/iuo ai?iaeao, a oii /enea e a Aaiaoi?ee.
Yoi ?annaeaiea aeaaioai?ii neacaeinue ia o?iaia aeecie ea?aeiia e
caiaoii iiauneei eo eoeueoo?iue o?iaaiue.[ ooee n 21-22] Aianoa n
aieueoae /anoueth e?uineeo ea?aeiia a Aaiaoi?eth ia?aianoeeenue eo
aeooiaiua e eoeueoo?iua oeaio?u. [Aa?iao N. 120] Ooo iaoiaeeeenue:
o?aiiaue eiiieaen eaian, ?aceaeaioeey aaoaia, iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaeeioaea,
auei ioe?uoi Aeaenaiae?ianeia aeooiaiia o/eeeua. Eoae, aannii?iui
yaeyaony oaeo ia?aianaiey oeaio?a e?uineeo ea?aeiia ec *oooo-Eaea a
Aaiaoi?eth a XIX a., ii a enoi?e/aneie iaoea aaniethoii ia ?anniio?aiu
i?e/eiu yoiai ia?aianaiey eiaiii a Aaiaoi?eth, a ia a eaeie-eeai ae?oaie
ai?iae E?uia. Oaeaea iaecaanoii, ianeieueei auea ?acaeoa ea?aeineay
iaueia Aaiaoi?ee aei yoiai a?aiaie. Ii anae aeaeeiinoe, a yoii ai?iaea
nouanoaiaaea aeinoaoi/ii aieueoay iaueia, /oi e iaoneiaeei iacia/aiea
Aaiaoi?ee iiaui oeaio?ii ea?aeiia. Nei?aa anaai, yoa iaueia auaeaeyeanue
ia oiia anao inoaeueiuo e?uineeo ea?aeineeo iauei. Anee yoi oae, oi
aicieeaao aii?in i iiyaeaiee ea?aeiia a Aaiaoi?ee e a?aiaie iniiaaiey
caeanue iaueiu. Yoa i?iaeaia ia aeaiiue iiiaio yaeyaony iniai
aeooaeueiie, oae eae iao ie iaeiiai aeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiiiai
enoi?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ii aeaiiiio aii?ino. Ii ianiio?y ie ia /oi,
auootho ?acee/iua acaeyaeu ii yoiio iiaiaeo, eioi?ui ia oaaoaao
enoi?e/aneiai iainiiaaiey. A yoii aii?ina yaii ia oaaoaao yniinoe, oae
eae iiiaea noaouee ii enoi?ee ea?aeineiai ia?iaea iaienaiu aac o/aoa
?anniio?aiey yoiai i?iaeaiaoe/iiai aii?ina, a iiiaea noaouee iaienaiu
aiiaua e?aaaaaeaie-ethaeoaeyie. *anoi iiaeii ano?aoeoue iiaeiaiua
noaeaeaiey: iaueia e?uineeo ea?aeiia iiyaeyaony a Aaiaoi?ee ia iicaea
XVII a., a a eiioea XVIII – ia/aea XIX aa. oaaee/eeanue ca n/ao
i?eauaoeo ec *oooo-Eaea. [Eno e eoeueo e? ea?// e?uiea?aeea?] Yoe
ooaa?aeaeaiey aiieia iiaoo io?aaeaoue enoi?e/aneoth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue,
ii, ii iiaieth aaoi?a aeaiiie ?aaiou, iie iaaeinoaoi/ii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu
eaeeie-eeai enoi?e/aneeie oaeoaie, aoaeue-oi iienaiey iooaoanoaaiieeia
oiai a?aiaie eee ae?oaea naaaeaiey nia?aiaiieeia iienuaaaiuo niauoee.
*oi eanaaony aaoi?a aeaiiie ?aaiou, oi ii n/eoaao oaeo nouanoaiaaiey
ea?aeineie iaueiu a Aaiaoi?ee aei ia/aea XIX a. i/aaeaeiui ii aeaoi
iniiaiui i?e/eiai. Ai-ia?auo, ooo nouanoaiaaea ea?aeineay eaiana, ia
ianoa eioi?ie a ia/aea XIX a. auea nii?oaeaia Iaeay eaiana
(iiaeoaa?aeeoue /ai-ieaoaeue), a o?ai ia iia nouanoaiaaoue aac
ea?aeineie iaueiu, oae eae ii iaycaoaeueii aue aino?aaiaaiiui. A i?anna
iu iiyoue aea ano?a/aai ooaa?aeaeaiey oaeiai oeia: Iaeay eaiana auea
nii?oaeaia ia ianoa i?aaeiae, oiiiyiooie a aeieoiaioao XVIII a.
Aa?iyoiaa anaai, oaeea aeieoiaiou nouanoaotho, ii iaiaoiaeeii eiie?aoiaa
aiai?eoue i noieue cia/eiuo aeey enoi?ee oaeoao. [e?uiea?aeea?, n. 17
E?. Nioeaaoea iaoe.eoeueo.] Ai-aoi?uo, ec anao ai?iaeia E?uia aeey
ia?aianaiey oeaio?a e?uineeo ea?aeiia auea eca?aia Aaiaoi?ey. Ai?iae, a
eioi?ii ia nouanoaoao ea?aeineie iaueiu ie a eiai neo/aa, ii iiaieth
aaoi?a aeaiiie ?aaiou, ia iia i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iniaua i?eaeeaaee,
iieo/aiiua caeiiii io 3 ia?oa 1837 a. Aeaeeii, ea?aeineay iaueia
Aaiaoi?ee i?eaeaeea aieiaiea naiae /eneaiiinoueth, eioi?ay yaii
auaeaeyeanue ia oiia inoaeueiuo ea?aeineeo iauei ai?iaeia E?uia. Oaeei
ia?acii, inoaaony oieueei i?ineaaeeoue ea?aeineea ei?ie a ai?iaea
Aaiaoi?ey e ii?aaeaeeoue eo ieaeiea o?iiieiae/aneea ?aiee, a /ai e
ninoieo iniiaiay i?iaeaia ?ac?aoaieai eioi?ie e ieaie?oao caiyoueny
aaoi? a oiaea naiaai aeaeueiaeoaai enneaaeiaaiey.2. No?oeoo?a ea?aeineie
iaueiu. E aaccaiai i?aaeuyaeyeenue no?iaea o?aaiaaiey: ioee/iia ciaiea
?aeeaee e ia?yaeia, ?iaeiiai ea?aeineiai, aeaeaeneiai e
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ycuea; aunieay i?aanoaaiiinoue e iacaiyoiaiiay
?aiooaoeey; oi?ioee aiein e neoo; i?aaenoaaeoaeueiinoue e ae?. .[
Iieeaiia iaoea e ?ae n 32-33] Ii Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiiio iieiaeaieth i
Oaa?e/aneii Ea?aeineii aeooiaainoaa io 3 ia?oa 1837 aiaea (aeaeaa –
caeii io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.), Oaa?e/aneia ea?aeineia aeooiaainoai ninoiyei
ec aaoaia, aaccaiia e oaiaoae. Aaoai – yoi aunoaa aeooiaiia eeoei
ea?aeiia, aeeaoueo a iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiii aio ie?oaa.[caeii io 8 ai?aey
1863 a. §2 i. 2] A onoaaa io 3 ia?oa 1837 a. ii?aaeaeaii, /oi aaoai
anoue aeaaa ea?aeineiai aeooiaainoaa, iaeoathuaai a Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee
e ai?iaea Iaeanna. A oaea oiiiyiooii caeiia a §2 i. 28 neacaii, /oi
aeaea, eanathueany e aeooiaiie, e a?aaeaeaineie /anoe, aaoai
?anniao?eaaao eeoue a ioiioaiee aeooiaiii, i?aaeinoaaeyy ana i?i/aa
aoaa?ineiio ia/aeuenoao. Ianoii aeeoaeuenoaa aaoaia iaicia/aeny ai?iae
Aaiaoi?ey. Ooo aea a §1 i. 4 iaicia/aii, /oi niaea?aeaiea aaoai iieo/aao
io ea?aeineeo iauanoa, eioi?ua aeoii io 25 naioya?y 1835 a. iaycaeenue
i?iecaiaeeoue aio a aiae ii aeaa ouny/e ?oaeae. A a aeieoiaioa io 8
ai?aey 1863 a. iu oaea aeaeei ooi/iaiea, a §2 i.5 neacaii, /oi
aaiaoi?eeneee aaoai iieo/aao niaea?aeaiea io ea?aeineeo iauanoa
Oaa?e/aneie e Oa?niineie aoaa?iee. Ecae?aeny aaoai anaie iauanoaaie
ea?aeiia, aoiaeeaoeie a ninoaa aai aaaeiinoaa. Aaiaoi?eeneiai aaoaia
ecae?aee ana ea?aeineea iauanoaa Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee e ai?iaea Iaeannu,
eioi?ua ioi?aaeyee naiaai iiaa?aiiiai a Aaiaoi?eth. [caeii io 3 ia?oa
1837 a.§1 i.5; caeii io 8 ai?aey 1863 a. §2 i.6 ] Ecae?aeny aaoai
iin?aaenoaii aaeeioe?iaaiey, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeeinue iiae iaaeci?ii
ianoiiai ai?iaeneiai ia/aeuenoaa. Iinea ieii/aiey aaeeioe?iaaiey
ecae?aoaeueiue aeo iiaeienuaaeny anaie ecae?aoaeyie e /a?ac ai?iaeie/aai
i?aaenoaaeyeny Oaa?e/aneiio a?aaeaeaineiio aoaa?iaoi?o. [caeii io 3
ia?oa 1837 a.§1 i.6-7; caeii io 8 ai?aey 1863 a. §2 i.7-8 ] Oaa?e/aneee
a?aaeaeaineee ao4aa?iaoi? i aeaoo eaiaeeaeaoao, iieo/eaoeo iaeaieueoaa
/enei aaeeia aeiiinee /a?ac Iiai?inneeneiai e Aanna?aaneiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, Ieieno?o Aioo?aiieo Aeae, auneacuaay i eaaeaeii ec
ieo naia iiaiea. Ieieno? Aioo?aiieo Aeae, a naith i/a?aaeue, ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee iaeiiai ec ieo eaiaeeaeaoia i?aaenoaaeyao
I?aaeoaeuenoaothuaio Naiaoo. [caeii io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.§1 i.8-9; caeii io
8 ai?aey 1863 a. §2 i.9-10] Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei ianeieueei
na?ueacii ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiaeoiaeeei e aii?ino i auai?a
ea?aeineiai aaoaia. Aieioue aei oiai, /oi eioa?aniaaeinue iiaieai
aoaa?iaoi?a i eaiaeeaeaoo?ao, eioi?ua oioaee aicaeaaeoue ea?aeiia. Aua
iaeii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoiio iu oaeaeei, anee ia?aoeiny e §1 i.14 caeiia
io 3 ia?oa 1837 a., aaea neacaii: «Aoaa?ineia ia/aeuenoai iaycaii
ooaa?aeaeaoue a ea?aeineeo aeooiaiuo aeieaeiinoyo eeoue ethaeae,
ecaanoiuo aeia?ie i?aanoaaiiinoueth e i?aaeaiiinoueth i?aaeoaeuenoao».
Oioy, aiciiaeii, oaeei ia?acii ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?inoi oioaei
iinoaaeoue iiae eiio?ieue auai? aaoaiia, /oiau ia yoo aeieaeiinoue ia
auee eca?aiu ethaee, aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo auea iaoaiaeia ?oeiaiaenoao
eiia?ee. A caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a. ia?aa?aoa 2 i. 23 neacaii, /oi
aaoai, eiay iaaeci? ca Oaa?e/aneei Ea?aeineei Aeooiaainoaii e
neiaaiaaie, ia/aony i i?eee/iii eo niaea?aeaiee, i nio?aiaiee
iaaeeaaeauaai ii?yaeea a aiaineoaeaiee, e ia o/?aaeaeaiee o/eeeu i?e
neiaaiaao, iaaethaeay i?eoii eae ca o/aieai. Oae e ca i?aanoaaiiinoueth
o/eoaeae e o/aieeia.

E yoiio ioieoo ieaea anoue i?eia/aiea, a eioi?ii aiai?eony, /oi
o/?aaeaeaiea iiauo neiaaia eee o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, aeiioneaaony ia
eia/a, eae n ooaa?aeaeaiey ia/aeueieeii aoaa?iee iiaeeeiiiai i oii
i?eaiai?a ea?aeineiai iauanoaa, ii i?aaenoaaeaieth aaoaia e ii
iaaeeaaeauai oaeinoiaa?aiee eae a iaiaoiaeeiinoe o/?aaeaeaiey iiaie
neiaaiae, eee o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey, oae e a aeinoaoi/iinoe n?aaenoa aeey
i?eee/iiai eo niaea?aeaiey. A neaaeothuai, 26 ioieoa, neacaii, /oi i?e
iacia/aiee i?eoiaeneeo aeooiaiuo, aaoai iaaethaeaao. *oiau a ieo auea
aeaenoaeoaeueiay iaaeiaiinoue e /oiau iacia/aaiua eiaee ioaeiua
naaaeaiey a iaycaiiinoyo. N yoeie aeieaeiinoyie niaaeeiaiiuo, e auoue
oi?ioae i?aanoaaiiinoe. A 27 ioieoa oeacaii. *oi aaoai eiaao nienie anao
aeooiaiuo aai aaaeiinoaa. Oaeaea e iaycaiiinoyi aaoaia ioiineeinue
?anniio?aiea aicieeathueo a i?eoiaeao aeae i ii?yaeea aiaineoaeaiey e
ia?yaeia, eni?aaeaiea aeooiaiuo o?aa, caeeth/aiea e ?anoi?aeaiea a?aeia,
iacia/aiea aeaiooaoia aeey caueou eiouanoa, i?eiaaeeaaeauei neiaaiaai e
o/eeeuai. A a eiioea aiaea, ii iieo/aiee iao?e/aneeo oao?aaeae io
i?eoiaeneeo aeooiaiuo, aaoai i?aaenoaaeyao ninoaaeaiiua ec yoeo iao?ee
iauea aaaeiiinoe a Aeaia?oaiaio Aeooiaiuo Aeae eiino?aiiuo eniiaaaeaiee
e Oaa?e/aneiio A?aaeaeaineiio Aoaa?iaoi?o. A yoii aea caeiia neacaii,
/oi ai a?aiy aieacie aaoaia, a aai ionoonoaey eee oaieueiaiey, e a
neo/aa nia?oe, aei eca?aiey iiaiai, canooiaao yoi ianoi iaeei ec noa?oeo
aaccaiia, ii iacia/aieth Oaa?e/aneiai a?aaeaeaineiai aoaa?iaoi?a. A oaea
a caeiia io 8 ai?aey 1863a. e yoiio i. aeiiieiyaony, /oi aei oaeiai
iacia/aiey aeieaeiinoue aaoaia eni?aaeyao noa?oee aaccai, eee eaiaeeaeao
ii oniio?aieth Aeooiaiiai I?aaeaiey. Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia yoi,
ia ia?aue acaeyae iacia/eoaeueiia aeiiieiaiea. Anee a caeiia io 3 ia?oa
1837a. iu aeaeei aieaa aeanoeee eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa, oi
oaea e 1863a. oioy au ia ei?ioeee n?ie, ii Aeooiaiia I?aaeaiea
naiinoiyoaeueii, ii naiaio oniio?aieth ?aoaao, eoi aoaeao eni?aaeyoue
aeieaeiinoue aaoaia. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi ca yoio n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoie io?acie a?aiaie Aeooiaiia I?aaeaiea ii?aaaeaei iaaeaaeaeu
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia ana aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeyao aeaeai ea?aeiia e ii
aiciiaeiinoe ieacuaaao ei i?eaeeaaee. Ii aa?iainy e ninoaao ea?aeineiai
aeooiaainoaa. A iaai, eae oaea auei oiiiyiooi, e?iia aaoaia aoiaeeee
aaccaiu e oaiaoe. I?e eaaeaeie neiaaiaa ninoiyei aeaa aaccaia: noa?oee e
ieaaeoee. E?iia oiai, auea aeieaeiinoue oaiaoa, iaaece?aoaey ca
eiouanoaii neiaaiae. Aaccaiu e oaiaoe ecae?aeenue iauanoaii,
eniuouaaeenue a ciaiee caeiiia aaoaiii e, ii i?aaenoaaeaieth aai,
ooaa?aeaeaeenue a aeieaeiinoe ianoiui aoaa?ineei ia/aeuenoaii. [caeii io
3 ia?oa 1837 a.§1 i.11-13] Oaeaea i oii, /oi i?e eaaeaeie neiaaiaa
aeieaeiu ninoiyoue aeaa aaccaia e ii iaeiiio oaiaoo neacaii a
eiia?aoi?neii oeaca io 25 ia?oa 1844 a.(A?OEA 241,1,3) A §2 i. 29 caeiia
io 3 ia?oa 1837a. oeacaiu neaaeothuea iieiiii/ey noa?oaai aaccaia:
ia?acaiea ieaaeaioeaa ioaeneiai iiea, ia?a/aiea eiai, niaa?oaiea e
?anoi?aeaiea a?aeia. A i. 30 yoiai aea ia?aa?aoa neacaii, /oi oaeaea a
iaycaiiinoe noa?oeo aaccaiia aoiaeeei aaaeaiea iao?e/aneeo eiea e
i?aaeinoaaeaiea eo a eiioea aiaea aaoaio. Ieaaeoee aaccai, a naith
i/a?aaeue, ioi?aaeyao iieeoau e eniieiyao aeooiaiua iio?aau i?eoiaeai.
Ooo aea iaiaa?eaaaony, /oi a neo/aa ionoonoaey eee aieacie noa?oaai
aaccaia, ia?acaiea e a?ae iiaee auoue niaa?oaiu aai iiiiuieeii eee
ieaaeoei aaccaiii. Ii a §3 i. 30 caeiia io 8 ai?aey 1863 a. ii iiaiaeo
iaycaiiinoae noa?oaai e ieaaeoaai aaccaiia neacaii neaaeothuaa:
«Ia?acaiea ieaaeaioeaa ioaeneiai iiea aaoai i?aaeinoaaeyao oiio ec
ea?aeiia, eoi ii yoie /anoe ecaanoai naiath iiuoiinoueth, ia aica?aiyy,
iaeiaei, auai? oaeiai eeoea naieie ?iaeeoaeyie ieaaeaioeaa. Ia?acaiea
niaa?oaaony eee a i?enoonoaee noa?oaai aaccaia, eee aea n iniaiai,
eaaeaeue ?ac ienueiaiiiai aai ?ac?aoaiey. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue a
i?aaeeueiinoe ioiaoee a iao?e/aneie eieaa i niaa?oaiee naai ia?yaea
inoaaony ia noa?oai aaccaia. Ia?a/aiea eiai, niaa?oaiea e ?anoi?aeaiea
a?aeia i?aaeinoaaeyaony noa?oei aaccaiai, a ioi?aaeaiea iieeoa e
eniieiaiea aeooiaiuo iio?aa aeey i?eoiaeai – eae noa?oei, oae e
ieaaeoei. Ai?i/ai, a neo/aa ionoonoaey eee aieacie noa?oaai aaccaia, ana
iaycaiiinoe aai iiaoo auoue eniieiaiu e ieaaeoei». Anee aaccai ia
caieoao a iao?e/aneoth eieao eaeea-eeai noaouee, iiaeeaaeauea caienaieth
a yoie eieaa, oi ii iiaeaa?aaaony aeaiaaeiiio acuneaieth ca eaaeaeiai
i?iiouaiiiai ioae/eio ia aieaa 15 ?oaeae, a ca aeaiueio – ia aieaa 7
?oaeae 15 eiiaae. [Oeiaeaiea i iaeacaieyo…, caeii io 15 aaaonoa, no.
1915] Eoae, aaccaiu eniieiyee e a?aaeaeaineea aeou, noa?aynue
onoaiiaeoue ?aeeaeicioth aeeciue a iauanoaa. [ea? ia? yioe o 2 n 74]
Anee ia?aoeoueny e aiaoiaio iaeeeo aaccaiia, iaeaaeaea o ieo auea
i?aeiouanoaaiii /a?iiai oeaaoa, a ai a?aiy aiaineoaeaiey iie iineee
aaeue ia?yae n auoeoui cieioii ai?ioieeii.[n 99 Iiee E? ea? Ia?eae95]
Iaiaeiaaaeiua ooieoeee auiieiyee oaiaoe. A iaycaiiinoe oaiaoae, eee
iaaece?aoaeae, aoiaeeo: iao/aiea i?eoiaeyueo aeey yoiai a neiaaiao
aeaoae; oi?aaeaiea oicyenoaaiiuie aeaeaie neiaaiae; niio?aiea ca
eiouanoaii e i?aaenoaaeaiea a eiioea eaaeaeiai aiaea aaoaio io/aoa i
iinooieaoeo, ?anoiaeiaaiiuo e inoaaoeony noiiao. [caeii io 3 ia?oa 1837
a.§2 i.31] A oiiaea 241, ii. 1, ae. 266 Ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeaa A?E
o?aieony ?aii?o io 4 aeaeaa?y 1879 a. Oaa?e/aneiai e Iaeanneiai
ea?aeineiai aaoaia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiue Oaa?e/aneiio Aoaa?ineiio
I?aaeaieth, aaea neacaii neaaeothuaa: «Ieacuaaaony, /oi i?e anao ii/oe
neiaaiaao iao ooaa?aeaeaiiuo a aeieaeiinoyo oaiaoae, e aeieaeiinoe yoe
aiceaaathony iauanoaaie ia /anoiuo eeoe eeoue oieueei a ioiioaiee
niaethaeaiey /enoiou a neiaaiaao e naa?aaeaiey a ieo eiouanoaa, naii aea
?anii?yaeaiea noiiaie neiaaiae auiieiyaony iauanoaaie, eca?aiiuie ec
n?aaeu aaaaaaa». Ec yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi aeieaeiinoue
oaiaoa i?aaeiieaaaeanue ii caeiio io 3 ia?oa 1837 a., ii ?aaeueii ii
eaeei-oi i?e/eiai. A aieueoeinoaa neiaaia iia ionoiaaea, a iaycaiiinoe
auiieiyeenue iauanoaaie aaaaaaa. Oaeiau iaycaiiinoe aaoaia, aaccaiia e
oaiaoae. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y ouaoaeueiiio ioai?o eaiaeeaeaoia, yoe
aeieaeiinoe anaaaea caieiaee ioaaonoaaiiua e aeia?iniaanoiua ethaee, /oi
niinianoaiaaei ii?yaeeo aioo?e iaueiu e aa aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. §3
i. 30 caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a. ii?aaeaeyao ii?yaeie oi?aaeaiey
aeooiaiuie aeaeaie Oaa?e/aneiai ea?aeineiai iauanoaa. Ooo neacaii, /oi
aaoai a oi?aaeaiee aeooiaiuie aeaeaie ea?aeineeo iauanoa niaauaaony n
aaccaiaie aaiaoi?eeneie neiaaiae; aeey yoiai iie eaaeaeoth iaaeaeth, ii
iacia/aieth aaoaia, i?eoiaeyo e iaio aeey niaaoa e ?annoaeaeaiey i
aeaeao. Eiaiii ec yoeo o?ao eeoe e ninoiyei Oaa?e/aneia Ea?aeineia
Aeooiaiia I?aaeaiea. A i?eia/aiee e yoiio ioieoo oeacuaaaony, /oi
Oaa?e/aneia Ea?aeineia I?aaeaiea eiaao naith ia/aoue n iaaeienueth,
aiaeiae/iie aai iacaaieth e ecia?aaeaieai aa?aa Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee.
Aeaea a Oaa?e/aneii Ea?aeineii aeooiaiii I?aaeaiee i?aaeeaaaeenue e
neooaieth aaoaiii. Iinea oiai, eae aaoai auneooeaae aeaei, aaccaiu
auneacuaaee naia iiaiea ii yoiio iiaiaeo. Aeaeaa aaoai iinoaiiaeye naia
caeeth/aiea ii yoiio aeaeo, eioi?ia i?eaiaeeeinue a eniieiaiea aai
iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiui aeooiaiui. Anee aaccaiu n/eoaee, /oi caeeth/aiea
aaoaia ii eaeiio-eeai aeaeo yaeyaony ianiaeaniaaiiui n iaueie
ainoaea?noaaiiuie ocaeiiaieyie eee i?aaeienaieyie aunoaai ia/aeuenoaa,
oi iie aeieaeiu auee a oa/aiea o?ao aeiae niiaueoue ia yoii Oaa?e/aneiio
A?aaeaeaineiio Aoaa?iaoi?o. AEaeiau ia ?aoaiey aaoaia ?anniao?eaaeenue
ianoiui aoaa?ineei ia/aeuenoaii. Anee iii cao?oaeiyeinue a ?aoaiee ii
ioaeaeueiui aeaeai, oi eo ?anniao?eaae Ieieno? Aioo?aiieo Aeae.[ §3 i.
32-37 caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.] I?aaenoaaeoaee ea?aeineiai ia?iaea,
caieiaaoea aeooiaiua aeieaeiinoe inaiaiaeaeaeenue ia a?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey
a yoeo aeieaeiinoyo io anyeiai ?iaea iiaeaoae e iiaeiiinoae. E?iia oiai,
iie iieueciaaeenue eae ee/iuie, oae e ioiinyueieny e nianoaaiiinoe,
i?aaaie naiaiaeiiai ninoiyiey.[ §2 i.17 caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.]
Ocaeiiaieyie ?inneeneie eiia?ee oaeaea ii?aaeaeai ii?yaeie eeoaiey
aeooiaiiai caaiey. A caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a. neacaii, /oi eeoe,
caieiaaoeo aeooiaiua aeieaeiinoe, iiaee eeoeoue caaiey ca iinooiee,
i?ioeaiua eo aeooiaiui iaycaiiinoyi, ii neaaenoaeth, aeieacuaathuaio eo
aeio, e ii ?anii?yaeaieth aeanoe, io eioi?ie caaenaei eo ooaa?aeaeaiea.
Ii oaea a caeiia io 8 ai?aey 1863 a. iu aeaeei aeiiieiaiea e yoiio
ioieoo, a eioi?ii aiai?eony i oii, /oi iauanoaai ea?aeiia ii enoa/aiee
o?ao eao i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?eaiai?ii 2/3 ecae?aoaeae oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue
ia oaeaeaiee aeooiaiiai eeoea. Oaeaea i?aai i?aaeinoaaeyeinue e
aoaa?ineiio ia/aeuenoao, anee yoe aeooiaiua eeoea naiei ia?acii
aeaenoaee ia caneoaeeaaee iieiiai iaeia?aiey. Yoi aua ?ac iiae/a?eeaaao
oi, /oi aeey ?inneeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa auei i/aiue aaaeii, /oiau
aeieaeiinoe ea?aeineiai aeooiaainoaa caieiaee ioaaonoaaiiua ethaee.
Eiaiii aeey yoiai, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, n oa/aieai a?aiaie ?anoe?ythony
aiciiaeiinoe, eae ni noi?iiu naieo ea?aeineeo iauanoa, oae e ni noi?iiu
aoaa?ineiai ia/aeuenoaa oaeaeyoue n aeieaeiinoe iaaeinoieiuo aeooiaiuo
eeoe. Aaoai, aaccaiu e oaiaoe i?e anooieaiee a aeieaeiinoue i?eiineee
i?enyao a oacaeiuo noaeao a i?enoonoaee oacaeiiai no?yi/aai.[ §2 i.16
caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.] A caeiia io 7 yiaa?y 1842 a. ia iniiaaiee
yoiai iieiaeaiey auea ii?aaeaeaia oi?ia i?enyae. Eae a a?aaeaeaineeo,
oae e a oaieiaiuo aeaeao noaeeee ea?aeineeo aeooiaiuo ii iauei caeiiai
ainoaea?noaa.[ §2 i.20 caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.] Anee Aaoai
iiaeaa?aaeny noaeo, oi ?aoaiea i iai iieo/aei iaaeeaaeauaa eniieiaiea ia
eia/a, eae ii ooaa?aeaeaiee i?eaiai?a I?aaeoaeuenoaothuei Naiaoii.[ §2
i.21 caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.] A caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a. iaiai?aii,
/oi Aaoai ie a eiai neo/aa ia iiaeeaaeeo oaeaniiio iaeacaieth. A a
caeiia io 8 ai?aey 1863 a. neacaii: «caieiathuea e caieiaaoea
aeieaeiinoe ea?aeineeo aaoaiia, aaccaiia e oaiaoae ia iiaeeaaeao
oaeaniiio iaeacaieth». Noaey ii yoei eciaiaieyi a ioiioaiee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie eiia?ee e ea?aeiai, eo aeooiaainoai
iieuecoaony ana aieueoei ?aniieiaeaieai ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa. Ii anae
aeaeeiinoe yoi naycaii n oai, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aeineeo iauei auea
iai?aaeaia ia oieueei ia aeaai naiaai ia?iaea, ii e ioaa/aea eioa?anai
anae eiia?ee a oeaeii. Anoanoaaiii yoi ia iiaei inoaoueny iacaia/aiiui
i?aaeoaeuenoaii ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia i?aaeinoaaeyei ea?aeiai, a oii
/enea e ea?aeineiio aeooiaainoao, ana aieueoea i?eaaeaaee
3.Aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aeineie iaueiu. A XIX a. Ea?aeineay iaueia
caieiaeanue aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ay auea iai?aaeaia ia
oieueei ia aeaai naiaai ia?iaea, ii e ia i?ioeaaoaiea ?iaeiiai ai?iaea.
Oaeaea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue aaiaoi?eeneeo ea?aeiia
auoiaeeea ca i?aaeaeu Aaiaoi?ee. Iai?eia?, aeayoaeueiinoue Eiaaia N.A.,
iniiaaiea ei a 1861 a. iaaieueoiai oaaa/iiai caaiaea a Eeaaa iicaeiaa
ia?a?inoaai a aieueooth oaa?eeo.[Eaiaaneee Oaa aaia?ae]Aiai?y ia
enoi?e/aneeo aeayoaeyo Aaiaoi?ee XIX a. iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue
aeayoaeueiinoue aaoaiia ea?aeineie iaueiu. A ia/aea XIX a.
i?aaeaiaeeoaeai aaiaoi?eeneie ea?aeineie iaueiu aue Nieiiii Aaaiae/,
eioi?ue i?aaeinoaaee iaiaeua n?aaenoaa ia nii?oaeaiea a 1804 – 1807 aa.
Aaiaoi?eeneie Niai?iie eaianu, eioi?ay e nae/an yaeyaony a?oeoaeoo?iui
aeinoiyieai ai?iaea. [n 15 ia? e eoeueo] Iinea nia?oe Nieiiiia Aaaiae/a
a 1812 a. ea?aeineoth iaueio aicaeaaee aai a?ao Naioee Aaeaaae/ Aaaiae/,
eioi?ue aue oaeaioeeaui ciae/ei e aeaaiui no?ieoaeai Aaiaoi?eeneie
Niai?iie eaianu. Oaeaea iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii a 1807 – 1815 aa. auea
ainnoaiiaeaia Aaiaoi?eeneay Iaeay eaiana, noiyuay iai?ioea Niai?iie
eaianu. [n 11-12 ia? e eoeueo] I?e iai, aa?iyoii, a Aaiaoi?eth auea
ia?aianaia oeiia?aoey n *oooo-Eaea. Oi/iay aeaoa ia?aianaiey oeiia?aoee
a Aaiaoi?eth ia ecaanoia. ?ac?aoaiea ia ioe?uoea oeiia?aoee iinooieei ec
Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae a 1830 aiaeo. [I?eaeiaa ea? ei ecae a aai]
Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, oeiia?aoey auea ia?aianaia a 1832 a. [n 189 ia? e
eoeueo] Ei??aeoe?iaae ecaeaaaaiua ni/eiaiey Aeaaeae aae Ii?aeaoae
Eieecia. Iaeaieaa ?aiiyy ec nio?aieaoeony eiea yoie oeiia?aoee “Ieeue
aeoo” auoea a 1834 aiaeo, aeaaeaeueoeai oeiia?aoee a yoiai a?aiy aue
ssieaeue Oioeeiae/ Oeieaeueiai. A 1836 aiaeo oeiia?aoey ia?aoiaeeo e
iiaiio aeaaeaeueoeo — eoioeo Ii?aeaoath Oe?eoeaio. Iaecaanoii, eiaaea e
ii eaeie i?e/eia oeiia?aoey I.Oe?eoeaia i?ae?auaao naith
aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, yoi i?iecioei a 1836a. [I?eaeiaa
ea? ei ecae a aai] Ia?aui Oaa?e/aneei e Iaeanneei aaoaiii aue Neia
Nieiiiiiae/(1788 – 1855aa.) Aaaiae/. Ii caieiae aeieaeiinoue aaoaia n
1839 ii 1855 aa. Aai aeayoaeueiinoue ai iiiaii oeo/oeea iieiaeaiea
ea?aeineiai ia?iaea, a oaeaea niinianoaiaaea ?acaeoeth ia?aciaaiey e
i?inaauaiey. Ii aeiaeeny inaiaiaeaeaiey a 1827 a. ea?aeineie iieiaeaaee
io ?ae?ooneiai iaai?a, eioi?ue iia i?eaanoe iaei/eneaiiue ea?aeineee
ia?iae e auie?aieth. Oaeaea ii oiaeaoaenoaiaae ia ecaeaiee a 1837 a., ii
i?eia?o ionoeueiai, «Iieiaeaiey i Oaa?e/aneii e Iaeanneii ea?aeineii
aeooiaainoaa» e o/?aaeaeaiey iaeiia?aiaiii aeieaeiinoe Oaa?e/aneiai e
Iaeanneiai ea?aeineiai aaoaia. Oaeaea aeaaiaea?y Neia Aaaiae/o ea?aeiu
o?aaieaaeenue ai iiiaeo aaaeiaeoeo i?aaao n ei?aiiui ?onneei ianaeaieai.
E?iia oiai, ii niaeaenoaiaae auaeaeaeaieth aea?iaeouo o/aiuo e o/eoaeae
(oaeeo eae Aa?aai Eooeeee, Ii?aeaoae Noeoaineee e ae?.). I?e iai auei
o/?aaeaeaii Iauanoai ecaeaoaeuenoaa ea?aeieie eieae, iaia/aoaaoaa ?yae
aaaeiuo iao/iuo o?oaeia auaeathueony ea?aeineeo o/aiuo. Aaoai oaeaea
caieiaeny ae?oaie iauanoaaiii iieaciie aeayoaeueiinoueth, iiaeieiae
ia?aciaaiea naiaai ia?iaea. [n 12-13 ia? e eoeueo] Aoi?ui Oaa?e/aneei e
Iaeanneei aaoaiii aue Aaaaeae Nieiiiiiae/ Aaaiae/(1799- 1882), eioi?ue
caiye naith aeieaeiinoue iinea nia?oe Neiu Nieiiiiiae/a Aaaiae/a a 1855
a. e i?iaue ia iae aei 1879 a. Ii i?iaeieaeae aeaei naiaai
i?aaeoanoaaiieea, aeoeaioe?oy aieiaiea ia ?acaeoee ia?aciaaiey
ea?aeineiai ia?iaea, iie?iaeoaeuenoaiaae o/aiui e i?inaaoeoaeyi naiaai
ia?iaea. [n 9 ia? e eoeueo]

I?e Aaaaeaa Aaaiae/a, a 1858 a., nii?oaeaaony iaiyoiee aieiai, iaaoei a
aith 5 oaa?aey 1855 a. ca inaiaiaeaeaiea Aaiaoi?ee. Iaiyoiee
?aniieaaaaony ia ianoa aiy. Nii?oaeai ii ea?aeineie iaueiie ia naie
n?aaenoaa, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaaeienue ia iaiyoieea, eioi?ue
iaoiaeeony a ?aeiia oiaa?iie noaioeee. [aai cae? 27 ethey 91a]

A Ainoaea?noaaiiii a?oeaa A?E, a oiiaea 241, ii. 1, ae. 1 o?aieony
ienueii aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioa AEoeianeiai, aae?aniaaiiia aaiaoi?eeneiio
ai?iaeie/aio io 7 ethiy 1858 a. A iai aiai?eony, /oi Iiai?inneeneee e
Aanna?aaneee aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? oaaaeiiee aaoi?a iineaiey i oii, /oi
Aaiaoi?eeneiio ea?aeineiio iauanoao aeicaieaii aicaeaeaiooue ia iiaeea
iaaoeo iiae noaiaie Aaiaoi?ee a aeaea 5 oaa?aey 1855 a. aieiia,
i?aii?iue iaiyoiee, n ?ac?aoaieai auienaoue aai ec caa?aieoeu aac
iioeeiu. Eiia?aoi? ecuyaeyao ia yoi naia niaeanea e iiaaeaaaao
iiaeaaiaea?eoue ea?aeineia iauanoai ca yoi. I?e/ai Ieieno? Aioo?aiieo
Aeae ia?ai?iaiaeee ooaa?aeaeaiiue eiia?aoi?ii ?enoiie. Ooo aea
i?aaeeaaaaony yoio ?enoiie auaeaoue ea?aeineiio iauanoao e iauyaeoue aio
aeaaiaea?iinoue.(n 1)

15 aaaonoa 1869 a. a Aaiaoi?ee i?e Aaiaoi?eeneii Oacaeiii o/eeeua auei
ioe?uoi aeaineia o/eeeua aeey aeaaeoe anao caaiee. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao o?aiyuaany a 241 oiiaea, ii.1, ae. 145
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeaa A?E ienueii aeaaiiai niio?eoaey Aaiaoi?eeneeo
o/eeeu, aae?aniaaiiia Oaa?e/aneiio e Iaeanneiio ea?aeineiio aaoaio. A
ienueia neacaii: «… aai(o/eeeua – aaoi?) aoaeouaa nouanoaiaaiea caaeneo
io oniaoa a ia/aoii e io ni/oanoaey caaeeoi/iiai iauanoaa, iiyoiio
n/eoath aeieaii aeieiaeeoue ia yoii ea?aeineiio iauanoao a eeoea Aaoai,
ia iaeaeaony ee aeaeathueo iaaeaeo ea?aeiaie ioaeaoue naieo aei/a?ae
aeey iao/aiey a iaoa aeaineia o/eeeua».

A yoii caaaaeaiee i?aiiaeaaaei iyoue o/eoaeae e o?e eeanniua aeaiu,
iaaethaeaaoea ca iiaaaeaieai o/aieoe, iaeia ec ieo, e?iia oiai, iao/aea
?oeiaeaeeth, ae?oaay – iocuea e o?aioeocneiio ycueo, a o?aouey –
iaiaoeeiio ycueo. Ooo i?aiiaeaaaeenue neaaeothuea i?aaeiaou: caeii
aiaeee, ?onneee ycue, enoi?ey, a?eoiaoeea, aaia?aoey, ?eniaaiea,
/enoiienaiea, a aeey aeaeathueo, e?iia oiai – o?aioeocneee, iaiaoeeee,
a?a/aneee ycuee e iocuea.

A o/eeeua aeaa eeanna e iaeei iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue aeey ia/eiathueo.
Iao/aiea auei ieaoiui. Iii ninoaaeyei 60 ?oaeae a aiae aac iocuee e
ycueia, a ca iocueo ioaeaeueii aeiiea/eaaee 25 ?oaeae a aiae. A
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiii eeanna aiaeiaay ieaoa aac i?aiiaeaaaiey iocuee
ninoaaeyea 25 ?oaeae na?aa?ii.

Caiyoey a yoii caaaaeaiee eaaeaeue aeaiue ia/eiaeenue n «1 1/2 /ano aei
5 /ania iinea iaaaea», oi anoue a 15.30. Aeaa ?aca a iaaeaeth, a
iiiaaeaeueiee e /aoaa?a, a 9 /ania oo?a ia/eiaeenue caiyoey ?oeiaeaeeai
e iocueie.(n 1,2)

Iineaaeiei a XIX a. Oaa?e/aneei e Iaeanneei aaoaiii aue Naioee Iienaaae/
Iaiioeia(1831 – 1911aa.). Ii aicaeaaeye ea?aeiia n 1879 ii 1911 aa.
E?iia oiai, ii 18 eao caieiae aeieaeiinoue ai?iaeneiai aieiau Aaiaoi?ee.
Aai aeayoaeueiinoue iciaiaiiaaia o/?aaeaeaieai a ea?aeineeo iaueiao
iiiaeanoaa aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo iauanoa, nii?oaeaieai eaian a ae?oaeo
ai?iaeao, a eioi?uo i?iaeeaaee ea?aeiu. Noa?aieyie aaoaia Naioeea
Iaiioeiaa a iaa 1885 aiaea auei iieo/aii ?ac?aoaiea Ieienoa?noaa
aioo?aiieo aeae ia ioe?uoea oeiia?aoee. Oioy ia?aiia/aeueii n nicaeaieai
oeiia?aoee naycuaaeenue iaaeaaeaeu ia ecaeaiea ae?aaieo ea?aeineeo
?oeiienae, iia auioneaea ecaeaiey a iniiaiii ia ?onneii ycuea. [I?eaeiaa
ea? ei ecae a aai]

A 1887 a. N.Iaiioeia iiaeienae ?aoaiea ia ioe?uoee i?e Aaiaoi?eeneii
oacaeiii o/eeeua aeaineie i?iaeiiacee ec o?ao eeannia e
Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiiai ioaeaeaiey. Iao/aiea ooo oaeaea auei ieaoiui.

A 80-a aa. a Aaiaoi?ee auea ioe?uoa aeaineay aeiiacey.[n 40-41
eaaaaeaaa]

A 1895 a. Eiaai N.A. iniiaae i?e iiaeaea?aeea Iaiioeiaa «Aanieaoiia
?aianeaiiia ea?aeineia o/eeeua aeey aeaoae anao caaiee eiaie N. Eiaaia»,
aeiaeea a ?acaeoea yoiai o/?aaeaeaiey 140 ouny/ ?oaeae. [E?. eca.? 36 n.
4 2003]

2 ai?aey 1890 a. Eiaai Nieiiii A?iiiae/ ieoao ienueii Iaiioeiao N.I.

A yoii ienueia ii aiai?eo, /oi ii /aeiaae aacaeaoiue, ia eiathuee
iioiinoaa, eioi?ia au i?iaeieaeaei aai ?iae. Aeaeaa Eiaai ieoao
neaaeothuaa: «Iaiyoue iai iia aeieaeia en/aciooue ec ie?a aeeauo aianoa
ni iiith». Ooo aea ii ecuyaeyao aeaeaiea /anoue naiaai eiouanoaa
aeiaeeoue a «oaeia aeaaioai?eoaeueiia e aa/iia o/?aaeaeaiea», eioi?ia
aoaeao iineoue aai eiy, iaaeaynue, /oi yoi oioue a iaeioi?ie noaiaie
iiiiaeao oaeiaeaoai?eoue iaeio ec iiiaeanoaa iio?aaiinoae aaaeiiai
eeanna ea?aeiia. Eiaai aeaeaao ooaa?aeeoue a Aaiaoi?ee, ianoa naiaai
?iaeaeaiey, o/aaiia caaaaeaiea aeey aaaeiaeoeo ea?aeiia ii oeio
ai?iaeneeo o/eeeu Ieienoa?noaa Ia?iaeiiai I?inaauaiey, niaeanii n
i?ia?aiiie iineaaeieo, n iaeiie oieueei ?acieoeae – aianoi o?enoeaineiai
aa?io/aiey e oea?eiaii-neaayineiai /oaiey aeieaeii i?aiiaeaaaoueny
aa?io/aiea ea?aeineia a nayce n ae?aaiaaa?aeneei ycueii. «N yoie
oeaeueth y aea?oaoth 70000 ainoaea?noaaiiuie aeeaoaie
/aou?aoi?ioeaioiiai aioo?aiiaai caeia ii eo iiieiaeueiie oeaia». [n.1
A?OEA241,1,500]

5 ai?aey 1890 a. Aaoai, a naith i/a?aaeue, ieoao oiaeaoaenoai i
nicaeaiee Eiaaiianeiai o/eeeua ia eiy Aee?aeoi?a o/eeeu Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee.[c.2A?OEA241,1,500]

Nouanoaiaaei ianeieueei i?iaeoia iieiaeaiey ia o/?aaeaeaiee a Aaiaoi?ee
eeaaneei eoioeii N.A. Eiaaiii ea?aeineiai o/eeeua. Yoe i?iaeou
ioee/aeenue ae?oa io ae?oaa iaaieueoeie iii?aaeaie, aianaiiuie a aieaa
iicaeiea aa?eaiou.

A ea?aeineii o/eeeua N.Eiaaia aeieaeiu auee ainieouaaoueny aaaeiua
iaeue/eee ea?aeineiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey a eiee/anoaa 30 /aeiaae. Oaeaea
ooo iiaee iao/aoueny aeaoe ca ieaoo, ?acia? eioi?ie ii ia?aiio i?iaeoo
iieiaeaiey aeieaeai aue ninoaaeyoue 12 ?oaeae,[n.9A?OEA241,1,500]
iicaeiaa aea, n o/aoii caia/aiee aee?aeoi?a Ia?iaeiuo o/eeeu, yoa ieaoa
auea ia?auaia a ieieioi, a iiieiaeueiue ?acia? onoaiaaeeaae o/eeeuiue
niaao.[n. 56 A?OEA241,1,500]*enei ainieoaiieeia, iao/aaoeony ia ieaoiie
iniiaa, a niioaaonoaee n ia?aa?aoii 5 i?iaeoa, caaeneo io oneiaee
iiiauaiey caaaaeaiey ii oniio?aieth o/eeeuiiai niaaoa. Ieaea neaaeoao
i?eia/aiea, a eioi?ii iaiaa?eaaaony, /oi aaaeiui o/aieeai aeieaeii
ii?aaeaeyoueny iiniaea aeey «i?eia?aoaiey aeey ieo ieaouey, iaoae e
ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeiuo aauae.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei i?iaeoii. A o/eeeua aeieaeiu auee i?aiiaeaaaoueny
neaaeothuea i?aaeiaou:

? ea?aeineia aa?io/aiea;

? ae?aaiaaa?aeneee ycue;

? ?onneee ycue;

? i?aeoe/aneay aaiiao?ey;

? a?eoiaoeea;

? aaia?aoey e enoi?ey ioa/anoaa n iaiaoiaeeiuie naaaeaieyie ec anaiauae
enoi?ee e aaia?aoee;

? naaaeaiey ec anoanoaaiiie enoi?ee e oeceee;

? /enoiienaiea e /a?/aiea;

? aeiianoeea.

Iaiea aeieaeii auei i?aiiaeaaaoueny a oii neo/aa, anee yoi iicaieyee
n?aaenoaa o/eeeua. Ana i?aaeiaou, e?iia ea?aeineiai aa?io/aiey e
ae?aaiaaa?aeneiai ycuea, i?aiiaeaaaeenue niaeanii i?ia?aiiai,
au?aaioaiiui Ieienoa?noaii Ia?iaeiiai I?inaauaiey aeey ai?iaeneeo
o/eeeu.

Iieiue eo?n iao/aiey ninoaaeye 6 eao. O/aueany ?acaeaeyeenue, niaeanii
naiei iiciaieyi, ia o?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo eeanna, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
aeaeeeny ia aeaa ioaeaeaiey n aiaee/iui eo?nii iao/aiey ia
eaaeaeii.[c.9-10A?OEA241,1,500] A eiioea eaaeaeiai o/aaiiai aiaea
o/aueany i?ioiaeyo eniuoaiey a i?enoonoaee o/eeeuiiai niaaoa.
[c.12A?OEA241,1,500]

A ia?aue eeann aeaoe io naie aei aeanyoe eao iinooiaee aac anyeiai
eniuoaiey; aeaoe aea io iaeeiiaaeoeaoe aei iyoiaaeoeaoe eao
aeeth/eoaeueii iiaee auoue i?eiyou a iaeei ec iineaaeothueo eeannia ii
auaea?aeaiee iaaeeaaeauaai eniuoaiey ec anaai i?ieaeaiiiai ii aeaiue eo
iinooieaiey a oii ioaeaeaiee, a eioi?ia iie iinooiatho.

I?ioaiea i iinooieaiee a o/eeeua iiaeaaony ia i?inoie aoiaaa ia eiy
caaaaeothuaai o/eeeuai. E i?ioaieth i?eeaaaaony iao?e/aneia
naeaeaoaeuenoai e naeaeaoaeuenoai i i?eaeoee iniu. I?eai inouanoaeyaony
iaeei ?ac a aiaeo a ia/aea o/aaiiai aiaea, a ii niioaaonoaothuaio
eniuoaieth e a oa/aiea o/aaiiai aiaea.[c. 12A?OEA241,1,500]

A ia?aiia/aeueiii i?iaeoa i?aaeiieaaaeinue o?e i?aiiaeaaaoaey:

1. i?aiiaeaaaoaeue ea?aeineiai aa?io/aiey e ae?aaiaaa?aeneiai ycuea ai
anao o?ao eeannao;

2. noa?oee o/eoaeue, aeey i?aiiaeaaaiey ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia a aeaoo
noa?oeo eeannao;

3. iiiiuiee noa?oaai i?aiiaeaaaoaey, eioi?ue iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii
caieiaaony a ia?aii eeanna iao/aieth aeaoae ?onneiio /oaieth e ienueio,
iauynieoaeueiui /oaieai e i?aiiaeaao a?eoiaoeeo a ia?aii e ai aoi?ii
eeannao, a /enoiienaiea e /a?/aiea ai anao eeannao.[n. 9-10 A?OEA
241,1,500]

Ii oaea a iiaii i?iaeoa iieiaeaiey iieaaaaony aua aeaa o/eoaey n
iaeeiaeiaui ia?aciaaoaeueiui oeaicii, aianoi iaeiiai o/eoaey e iaeiiai
iiiiuieea, eae yoi auei i?aaeeiaeaii ia?aui aa?eaioii iieiaeaiey.[n.
55A?OEA 241,1,500]

Noa?oee o/eoaeue, ii i?aaenoaaeaieth aee?aeoi?a o/eeeua e n
ooaa?aeaeaiey Iiia/eoaey Iaeanneiai o/aaiiai ie?oaa, iacia/aeny
caaaaeothuei o/eeeuai.

Noa?oei o/eoaeai iiaei auoue eeoei, oniaoii ieii/eaoaa eo?n o/aiey a
iaeiii ec o/eoaeueneeo einoeoooia, a ?aaii e eeoei, auaea?aeaaoaa a
o/eoaeueneii einoeoooa iieiia eniuoaiea, eae a oai?aoe/aneeo iao/iuo
iiciaieyo, oae e a oiaiee i?aiiaeaaaoue a ai?iaeneii o/eeeua.

Ia noa?oai o/eoaea, ooaa?aeaeaiiii a caaiee caaaaeothuaai o/eeeuai,
eaaeeo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeaaininoiyiea o/eeeua ii anai /anoyi, oaeaea
aio iiae/eiythony ae?oaea neoaeauea i?e o/eeeua eeoea. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao
aaeaaiaeii io/ao i ninoiyiee aaa?aiiiai aio o/eeeua aee?aeoi?o o/eeeua.

I?e o/eeeua o/?aaeaeaeny o/eeeuiue niaao, ninoiyuee ec ea?aeineiai
Oaa?e/aneiai e Iaeanneiai aaoaia, eioi?ue i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaae a iai,
ii/aoiiai iiia/eoaey e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae yoiai o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey. A
niioaaonoaee n ia?aui i?iaeoii iieiaeaiey ia o/eeeua, a neo/aa
ionoonoaey eee aieacie aaoaia aeieaeiinoue i?aaenaaeaoaey eni?aaeytho
eeoea, aai caiauathuea.[n. 10-11A?OEA241,1,500] A oaea ii aoi?iio
i?iaeoo, a neo/aa ionoonoaey eee aieacie aaoaia i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoai
i?aaeinoaaeyaony o/eoaeth, caaaaeothuaio o/eeeuai[n. 56A?OEA 241,1,500]

O/eeeuiue niaao ii?aaeaeye aeey o/aueony iaeiiia?acioth oi?io, a eioi?ie
iie aeieaeiu auee iinauaoue caiyoey.

O/aaiue aiae aeeeeny n 7 aaaonoa ii 20 ethiy. Auoiaeiuie aeiyie auee
aunieioi?aeanoaaiiua aeie, noaaiou. Oaeaea ioaeuo i?aaeiieaaaeny a
aeaaiua ea?aeineea (ia?aue e naaeueiie aeaiue i?acaeieea Ianoe, Oaaoio
eee Iaoii-Oi?a, Oa?oa eee ?io-Aaoaia, Eeiio?, ia?aue e ainueiie aeaiue
i?acaeieea Eouae e aoi?ie i?acaeieea Io?ei) e o?enoeaineea (Iiaue aiae,
E?auaiea, ?iaeaeanoai, Naaoeia O?enoiai Aine?anaiea e aeaiue Nayoie
O?ieoeu) i?acaeieee. A inoaeueiua o?enoeaineea i?acaeieee, eioi?ua a
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo Ieienoa?noaa Ia?iaeiiai I?inaauaiey yaeythony
auoiaeiuie, oaeaea eae e a aine?anaiuea, caiyoey i?iaiaeyony oieueei ii
ea?aeineiio aa?io/aieth e ae?aaiaaa?aeneiio ycueo.

I?e o/eeeua aeieaeia auea, a niioaaonoaee n aeaiiui iieiaeaieai,
iaoiaeeony aeaeeioaea. Oaeaea ooo neacaii, /oi o/eeeua eiaao naith
ia/aoue n ainoaea?noaaiiui aa?aii e iaaeienueth «Ea?aeineia o/eeeua
Nieiiiia Eiaaia». [n. 12 A?OEA 241, 1,500]

3 ieoya?y 1890 a. aaoai N.I. Iaiioeia ieoao ienueii aee?aeoi?o ia?iaeiuo
o/eeeu Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee, a eioi?ii ia?a/eneyao eciaiaiey a i?iaeoa
iieiaeaiey ia o/?aaeaeaiee a Aaiaoi?ee eeaaneei eoioeii N.A. Eiaaiii
ea?aeineiai o/eeeua Nieiiiia Eiaaia. Yoe eciaiaiey auee naeaeaiu n
o/aoii caia/aiee aee?aeoi?a ia?iaeiuo o/eeeu Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia ana ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aee?aeoi?a iaoee naia
io?aaeaiea a iiaii i?iaeoa iieiaeaiey. Iai?eia?, aee?aeoi? i?aaeeaaae
aianoi o?ao eeannia iao/aiey a o/eeeua ia?aie/eoueny aeaoiy, ii N. Eiaai
ioeacaeny aianoe oaeiai ieaia iii?aaeo, oae eae iin/eoae aa
iayooaeoeaiie aeey iao/aiey aeaoae. Auee aianaiu iii?aaee. Eioi?ua
iaiaa?eaaeenue aaoi?ii aeaiiie ?aaiou a oiaea eceiaeaiey iniiaiiai
niaea?aeaiey ia?aiai aa?eaioa i?iaeoa iieiaeaiey ia o/eeeua.[n.
54-56A?OEA 241,1,500] Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaeou ioee/aeenue ae?oa io ae?oaa
eeoue iacia/eoaeueiuie eciaiaieyie, aianaiiuie a iaeioi?ua ioieou.
Oaeaea iu aeaeei, /oi a iiaii aa?eaioa iieiaeaiey ia niaiaaeaao n
i?aaeuaeouei eiee/anoai iaaeaeueiuo o?ieia ii ?aciui i?aaeiaoai.(ni.
i?eeiaeaiea )

O/eeeua ?aniieaaaeinue a aieueoii aeaooyoaaeiii aeeeii aeiia n oanaaeii
ia oeeoeo(Aieiaea?neiai, 4); [?oeiienue n 69] Yoio aeii aue iino?iai
niaoeeaeueii aeey ioaeae o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey. Oaeaea eiaeinue caeaiea
aeey oeieu e eaa?oe? caaaaeothuaai o/eeeuai e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae ?aianae.
(Aieiaea?neiai, 13)Caeanue eiaeinue oanoue ianoa?neeo –
neana?ii-eocia/iay, noiey?iay, eieaniay, oiea?iay ii iaoaeeo, oiea?iay
ii aea?aao, a iicaea e /oaoiii-eeoaeiay. Iineaaeiyy auea nicaeaia iinea
nia?oe Eiaaia aai aeaiie Ooiea Enaaeiaiie e iaioeanue ae a 20 ounu/
?oaeae.[ia? e eoeueo n 105] A yoii o/aaiii caaaaeaiee aioiaeee
niaoeeaeenoia aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee.[aai cae? 27 ethey 91a] O/eeeua
i?inouanoaiaaei aei 1919 a. [E?. eca.? 36 n. 4 2003]

Ea?aeineea aeaaooee iiaee iieo/eoue ia oieueei ia/aeueiia, ii e n?aaeiaa
ia?aciaaiea.[n 40-41 eaaaaeaaa]

A 1874 a. ii eieoeeaoeaa N. I. Iaiioeiaa auei iniiaaii «Iauanoai
iiia/eoaeuenoaa i aaaeiuo ea?aeiao». I?e iai iaoiaeeeinue aeaineia
?aianeaiiia o/eeeua. [n 47 eaaaaeaaa]

A eiioea XIX a. ia n?aaenoaa A.I.Aaeaeiae/a auei ioe?uoi aanieaoiia
aeaineia ?aianeaiiia ea?aeineia o/eeeua. Iii iieo/eei iacaaiea «AEaineia
ai?iaeneia o/eeeua aeey aaaeiuo aeaaeoe ei. Aaeaeiae/a». Yoi o/eeeua
aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue aeaaooeai ea?aeineiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey iieo/eoue
iauaa ia?aciaaiea e iaeaaeaoue ?aianeaiiuie iaaueaie ianoieueei, /oiau
iaania/eoue naia nouanoaiaaiea.[n47 eaaaaeaaa]

5 ia?oa 1899 a. Aa?ii Iienaaae/ Aaeaieiae/ ieoao ienueii Oaa?e/aneiio e
Iaeanneiio ea?aeineiio aaoaio, a eioi?ii ii aiai?eo: «… y eiath aeaeaiea
ioe?uoue a Aaiaoi?ee aeey aaaeiuo aeaaeoe aeaineia ea?aeineia
?aianeaiiia i?ioanneiiaeueiia o/eeeua». Ia yoi aeaei Aaeaieiae/
aea?oaoao 1551 aeanyoeio 2083 3/4 eaaae?aoiuo naaeaiae caiee. [n.
1A?OEA241,1,771]

28 ieoya?y 1899 a. aaoai oiaeaoaenoaoao ia ooaa?aeaeaiee yoiai o/eeeua
ia?aae aee?aeoi?ii ia?iaeiuo o/eeeu Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee.[n.
25A?OEA241,1,771]

Aue i?aaeeiaeai i?iaeo, eioi?ue ia iiaeaea?aeae aee?aeoi? ia?iaeiuo
o/eeeu. [n. 40 A?OEA241,1,771]

Iicaeiaa yoio i?iaeo aue i?aia?aciaai a iiaue.

Caiyoey a o/eeeua ia/eiaeenue n 15 aaaonoa e caeai/eaaeenue 20 ethiy.
A?aiy i?iaaaeaiey caiyoee auei neaaeothuei: n 8.00 aei 13.00 e n 15.00
aei 18.00. Auee ooo e eaieeoeu. Iie i?iaeieaeaeenue n 20 ethiy ii 15
aaaonoa, a yoi a?aiy i?iaiaeeeenue caiyoey ?aianeaie n 8.00 aei 12.00.

O/aieee inaiaiaeaeaeenue io caiyoee a aunieioi?aeanoaaiiua aeie e
aeaaiua o?enoeaineea i?acaeieee, a oaeaea a noaaioiea aeie e aeaaiua
ea?aeineea i?acaeieee.

*enei o/aieoe, caieiathueony a o/eeeua aanieaoii, ninoaaeyei 30. Yoi ia
eneeth/aei iao/aiea ooo ia ieaoiie iniiaa, ieaoa a oaeii neo/aa
onoaiaaeeaaeanue o/eeeuiui niaaoii.

A yoii o/aaiii caaaaeaiee auei o?e eeanna n iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuie
i?aaeiaoaie, n aiaee/iui eo?nii iao/aiey a eaaeaeii ec ieo, e aeaa
eeanna eneeth/eoaeueii i?aeoe/aneeo. A ia?aue eeann i?eieiaeenue aeaoe n
8 aei 10 eao aac yecaiaiia, a a inoaeueiua – n 10 aei 16 eao iinea
i?ioiaeaeaiey eniuoaiey.

A o/eeeua i?aiiaeaaaeenue neaaeothuea i?aaeiaou:

? ea?aeineia aa?io/aiea;

? ?onneee ycue;

? a?eoiaoeea;

? /enoiienaiea;

? /a?/aiea e ?eniaaiea.

Oaeaea ooo i?aiiaeaaaeenue oaeea ?aianea:

? oaaeiia;

? aaeioaaeiia;

? auoeaaiea;

? aycaiea;

? iiaeiia ii?oiyaeneia e oeyiiia.

Yoio ia?a/aiue ?aianae iia auoue aeiiieiai.

O/eeeua ?aniieaaaeinue a aeaoo aeiiao e eiaei, niioaaonoaaiii aeaa
ioaeaeaiey: iauaia?aciaaoaeueiia, aeeth/aaoaa a naay /aou?a eeanna e
i?ioanneiiaeueiia, ninoiyuaa ec o?ao eeannia(iaeei aiae iinayuaeny
aaeioaaeiiio ianoa?noao e aeaa – ii?oiyaeiiio, ecaioiaeaieth aeaineie
iaeaaeaeu). [aai cae? 27 ethey 91a]A ia/aea XX a. o/eeeua ia?aeiaiiaaee
a «Ea?aeineia i?ioanneiiaeueiia aeaineia o/eeeua».[n47 eaaaaeaaa]

N 1898 ii 1905 a. oea ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth iauanoaa «Aniiiiuanoaiaaiey
ioaeaeathueiny», oeaeueth eioi?iai auei iiii/ue aaaeiui aeaaooeai a
i?eia?aoaiee i?eaeaiiai i?e auoiaea caioae e ?ani?ino?aiaiea
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai i?aeoe/aneiai ia?aciaaiey n?aaee ea?aeiia iaiaai
iiea. [n 131 yoiiiaaeaaiaeea]

21 oaa?aey (5 ia?oa) 1898 a. a Aaiaoi?ee auei oi?aeanoaaiii ioe?uoi
aaeeinoaaiiia a ?innee ea?aeineia aeooiaiia o/eeeua. Iacaaee aai
Aeaenaiae?ianeei a iaiyoue i nianaiee eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a III e aai
naiuee i?e e?ooaiee iiacaea a Ai?eao a ieoya?a 1888 a.

Nicaeaaaeinue o/eeeua ia n?aaenoaa, nia?aiiua ea?aeineie iaueiie n
?aciuo ai?iaeia eiia?ee. A iauae neiaeiinoe auei nia?aii 200 oun. ?oa.
[n 45 eaaaaeaaa] N. Iaiioeia ?ac?aaioae i?iaeo Iieiaeaiey ia o/eeeua,
i?aaenoaaeaiiue aia/aea a ieienoa?noai ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey, a caoai
ia?aaeaiiue ia ooaa?aeaeaiea eiia?aoi?o.[ieeea?eiu e?]

Aia/aea iii ?aniieaaaeinue a /anoiii aeiia ii oe. Eaca?aaneie (iuia oe.
?aaiethoeee,54) i?eiaaeeaaeauai A.Ea?aeico. Iaeiaei ii ia?a oaaee/aiey
/enea o/aueony i/aiue ino?i anoae aii?in i nianoaaiiii iiiauaiee.
Aeaaiaea?y n?aaenoaai, nia?aiiui iaoeeiiaeueiie iaueiie ec
iiaea?oaiaaiee ea?aeiia anae ?innee, 1913 aiaeo aicaiaeeony caeaiea ii
i?iaeoo a?oeoaeoi?a A.Enaeiae/a.

Ianoi aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa ia neo/aeii auei aua?aii ia oaeo oeeoe
Aeaenaiae?ianeie (nae/an Ieiia?neay) e Aeiiace/aneie (*a?iuoaaneiai). A
yoii ?aeiia a eiioea OIO – ia/aea OO aaea auee aicaaaeaiu caeaiey
ioaeneie e aeaineie aeiiacee, aeaineia ea?aeineia i?ioanneiiaeueiia
o/eeeua. Oi, /oi Aeaenaiae?ianeia o/eeeua ?acianoeee eiaiii caeanue, eae
au iiae/a?eeaaei cia/eiinoue e ?ieue ea?aeineie iaueiu a ai?iaeneie
aeecie.

O/eeeua i?aaeiacia/aeinue aeey iiaeaioiaee nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae,
ea?aeineeo aa?io/eoaeae, e oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee.
Iieiue eo?n iao/aiey aue ?an/eoai ia 7 eao e ?ani?aaeaeai ia 5 eeannia.
[Iaaeaieiaa aaeeinoa a ?in] I?aiiaeaaaiea aaeinue ia ?onneii ycuea.
I?aaeiaou ?aeeaeiciiai oa?aeoa?a iiaee i?aiiaeaaaoue oieueei ea?aeiu. [n
45 eaaaaeaaa] Eco/aeenue eae iauaia?aciaaoaeueiua i?aaeiaou – ?onneee
ycue e neiaaniinoue, aaia?aoey, enoi?ey, a?eoiaoeea, iaiaoeeee ycue e
/enoiienaiea – oae e niaoeeaeueiua – aeiaiaoe/aneia e i?aanoaaiiia
aiaineiaea, yoeea, yecaaaoeea, ae?aaiaaa?aeneee ycue.

Ia?aiia/aeueii aue ioe?uo oieueei iaeei eeann, a eioi?ii iao/aeinue 32
o/aieea – 18 ec Aaiaoi?ee, inoaeueiua – ec Iaeannu, Oa?ueeiaa,
Ieeieaaaa, Iineau, Neioa?iiiey.

Ia?aui einiaeoi?ii o/eeeua iacia/aaony noaoneee niaaoiee Eeuey Eeuee/
Eacan, ?aiaa i?aiiaeaaaaoee a Neioa?iiieueneie eeanne/aneie aeiiacee,
aunieiia?aciaaiiue /aeiaae, aaoi? ?yaea o/aaieeia. Yoi aue oaeaioeeaue
iaaeaaia e e?oiiue o/aiue, oeeieia, ienaoaeue e iiyo. ?oeiaiaeee
o/eeeuai E.E.Eacan – ni aeiy aai ioe?uoey e aei 1907 aiaea(12 eao).
?yaeii n iei ?aaioaee oaeaioeeaua e ciathuea iaaeaaiae ec ianoiuo
ioaeneie e aeaineie aeiiacee – A.E.Noaoaiianeee, E.I.Naieoeeee,
E.A.Iocaiia, E.E.Ain, E.Eoeaoaae/.

Iinea ?aaiethoeee o/eeeua auei ?anoi?ie?iaaii. [Iaaeaieiaa aaeeinoa a
?in]Iii i?inouanoaiaaei 25 eao. Iineaaeiee auione aue a 1918 a. [n 45
eaaaaeaaa]

4. Ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaa e ea?aeiai.

Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey E?uia e ?innee ea?aeiu e eo aa?ieniiaaaeaiea
aucaaee i?enoaeueiue eioa?an aeanoae, aeooiaainoaa e o/aiuo. Iie
iinoaiaiii ia/eiatho ?annaeyoueny ii oa??eoi?ee eiia?ee.[n 111 ?on- ea?
?acaiai?iee] Aua a 1795a. Aeaoa?eia II naiei oeacii i?e?aaieaaea
ea?aeiia e i?i/ei aeeoaeyi E?uia, iiaaeaa ei ieacuaaoue ii aiciiaeiinoe
«auaiaeu e iaeaa/aiey». Yoi auei aeinoeaiooi aeaaiaea?y i?ioaieth
e?uineeo ea?aeiia.[eueoa a aeaeee aai cae? 14 aaa 1997] A ?innee
ea?aeiia n/eoaee «n naiiai i?eiyoey eo a naia iiaeaeainoai ?aaiii?aaiui
i?i/ei a?aaeaeaiai ?inneeneie eiia?ee, iieuecothueieny iaeeiaeiaui
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii iaueo caeiiia».

I iieiaeeoaeueiii ioiioaiee e ea?aeiai ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa e
i?aaineaaiie oea?eae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho neaaeothuea oaeou. Ana auaoea a
E?uio oea?e, /eaiu eo naiae, e ana aeaau Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee
i?enoonoaiaaee ia aiaineoaeaieyo a eaianao, auaaee a ea?aeineeo aeiiao.
Ai a?aiy iinauaiey Aeaenaiae?ii I a 1818 a. Aaiaoi?ee ii inoaiiaeeny a
aeiia Oaaeaee Aae Aaaiae/a. Ieeieae II n naiueae ai a?aiy iineaaeiaai
aeceoa a E?ui a 1916 a. iinauae a Aaiaoi?ee aeii ai?iaeneiai aieiau N.
Aeoaaia. [Iaoea e ?aeea 9 naio 93 n. 33]

*oi eanaaony ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, oi aai ioiioaiea e
ea?aeineie iaueia eiaao oa?aeoa? nei?aa io?eoeaoaeueiue, /ai
iieiaeeoaeueiue. Anee i?eiyoue a ?an/ao eiee/anoai ?inneeneeo ocaeiiaiee
eanaoaeueii i?aa e ninoiyiey ea?aeiia, ecaeaiiuo a i?iaeieaeaiee oeaeiai
ii/oe noieaoey, oi iaeuecy ia oaeeaeoueny iacia/eoaeueiinoe yoiai
eiee/anoaa, iniaaiii anee n?aaieoue aai n iannith ?aciuo iinoaiiaeaiee e
i?aaee, ?aaoee?othueo ioiioaiey iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo eiiaa?oeaa, iaeoathueo
a ?innee. Yoi cia/eo oieueei oi, /oi ?inneeneia eiia?neia I?aaeoaeuenoai
n/eoaao ea?aeiia, n naiiai i?eiyoey eo a naia iiaeaeainoai,
?aaiii?aaiuie ni anaie i?i/eie a?aaeaeaiaie ?inneeneie eiia?ee,
iieuecothueieny iaeeiaeiaui iie?iaeoaeuenoaii iaueo caeiiia, a iioiio e
ia aeaeaei iaaeiaiinoe a eaeie-eeai iniaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee, niaoeeaeueii
eanaaoaeny /eaiia ea?aeineie iaueiu. Iiyoiio, anee ec?aaeea e
iiyaeyeenue oaeea ocaeiiaiey, oi iie aucuaaeenue, eae i?aaeei, eeoue
iaaei?acoiaieyie aeeoaeneie i?aeoeee, neo/aeii ?anoiaeeaoaeny n
iniiaiuie, i?eioeeieaeueiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie aicc?aieyie. Aeaiiua
caeiiu a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa io?eoeaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a: eie
iaueiiaaiii ono?aiythony io ea?aeiia oa eee eiua ia?aie/aiey.[nai?i noa?
a?ai n XVIII-XIX]

A Ainoaea?noaaiiii a?oeaa A?E a o.241, ii.1, ae.1 o?aieony iiiaeanoai
oiaeaoaenoa ea?aeineiai ia?iaea i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ei eueaio e
i?aeiouanoa, a oaeaea eiiee aeieoiaioia e ia?aienee ii yoiio aii?ino.

19 ieoya?y 1821 a. Ieieno? aeooiaiuo aeae e ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey
eiycue Aeaenaiae? Aieeoeui ieoao oiaeaoaenoai i i?aaao ea?aeineiai
ia?iaea ia eiy Oaa?e/aneiai A?aaeaeaineiai Aoaa?iaoi?a.

Ooo neacaii, /oi «… e?uineea ea?aeiu caaaee iaoe?iua aeiia?aaeiua naaeu.
E a iiiiuue aeey ia?aaaouaaiey iiuo iaieiaee iiiaue/ueeo e?anoueyi e
ae?oaeo ethaeae». Caeanue aea eiycue Aieeoeui aiai?eo, /oi iie i?inyo,
/oiau ei auei iicaieaii «iaieiaoue ec o?enoeai ?aaioieeia aeey
caieaaeaeue/anoaa e aeey iiacaeie, eioi?ua iie eiatho ii oi?aiaui
aeaeai».

A yoii aea iineaiee Aieeoeui eioa?anoaony o aae?anaoa, aeaenoaeoaeueii
ee ea?aeiu eiatho aieueoia naaeiaiaenoai e aac iiiiue ?aaioieeia ec
o?enoeai iii iiaeao ?anno?ieoueny. Oaeaea eiycue iaaiaeeo ni?aaee, i
oii, ia auee ea?aeiu caia/aiu a i?anooieaieyo. Oi anoue Aieeoeui, ii
nooe, ni?aoeaaao i iiaaaeaiee yoiai ia?iaea, oae eae ii ia?aaeaao aai
i?inueao.(A?OEA N 17,241,1,1)

A 1825 a. ia eiy eiia?aoi?a auei iaienaii oiaeaoaenoai ni noi?iiu
ea?aeiia. A yoii iineaiee iie «…iieyo: I?ino?e Aaeeeee Ainoaea?ue aci?
ieeina?aeey oaiaai ia ian, ea?aeiia, oaeiauo anao, eae e oaoa?,
i?e?iaeiuo aeeoaeae E?uia, iiaaee iaeaa/eoue noieue ia?aaiia iaoa n
oaoa?aie, e ii niaianoiiio niaeeoeth n ieie oyainoiia aeey ieo a
ioiioaiee i?iecaiaenoaa oi?aiaee e i?iiuneia iieiaeaiea». Ooo aea iie
i?inyo i aea?iaaiee ea?aeineiio aeooiaainoao iaanaaaea, ii i?eia?o anao
i?i/eo ?aeeaee, ecuyoey io iiaeaoae e iiaeiiinoae.

Iiaeienaii yoi iineaiea: «Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey
ea?aeiu».(A?OEA N 19,241,1,1)

Oaeaea a Ainoaea?noaaiiii a?oeaa A?E o?aiyony ienueia ea?aeiia e a?aoo
Ai?iioeiao, eiycth Aieeiineiio(n. 30), Ieieno?o Aioo?aiieo Aeae
Ia?ianeiio(n.30) e ae?oaei ecaanoiui ethaeyi. Iaeioi?ua iineaiey aac
eiai aae?anaoia(n.109,110). Ana yoe ienueia i?eia?ii iaeiiai
niaea?aeaiey. I?eaaaeai oeeoaoo ec ienueia e a?aoo Ai?iioeiao, a eioi?ii
iie i?inyo iineaaeiaai «…oiaeaoaenoaa Aaoaai ia?aae i?anoieii Aaeeeiai
Ainoaea?y i aea?iaaiee ea?aeiai, niia?acii eo i?aaai, iniaie Auni/aeoae
a?aiiou, iiaouae iaanaaaea ia?aaeeoue eo niieienoaea».( A?OEA
N29,241,1,1)

Io 15 aeaeaa?y 1827 a. a Ainoaea?noaaiiii a?oeaa A?E o?aieony eiiey
ienueia ia eiy Ai?iaeneiai Eni?aaeythuaai Aeieaeiinoue Oaa?e/aneiai
A?aaeaeaineiai Aoaa?iaoi?a. Oai neacaii, /oi aaoi?a iineaiey oaaaeiieyao
oi?aaeythuee Ieienoa?noaii Aioo?aiieo Aeae i oii, /oi Eiia?aoi?
iiaaeaaaao i?einoaiiaeoue iaai? ?ae?ooia ec aa?aaa-ea?aeiia a
Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee, oae eae oai ia aa?oo ?ae?ooia oaeaea ec oaoa?.
Aaoi? ienueia, ia iniiaaiee yoiai, ecaauaao Oaa?e/aneiai A?aaeaeaineiai
Aoaa?iaoi?a i iiaaeaiee eiia?aoi?a e i?ineo i?enooieoue e auiieiaieth
Auni/aeoae Aiee. Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi eae naie ea?aeiu a naieo
oiaeaoaenoaao, oae e oeacu ioiineoaeueii eo iieiaeaiey, iinyo
n?aaieoaeueiue n oaoa?aie oa?aeoa?, iaaeaeo yoeie ia?iaeaie i?iaiaeeony
ia?aeeaeue, oioy a aieaa ?aiiee ia?eiae eo n?aaieaaee n aa?ayie.

3 ia?oa 1837 a. aue ecaeaii «Auni/aeoaa ooaa?aeaeaiiia iieiaeaiea i
Oaa?e/aneii Ea?aeineii Aeooiaainoaa». Yoi eiaiiie oea?neee oeac,
ia?aaeaiiue Naiaoo.

Oiaeaoaenoaoy aua a 1835a. ia «ono?iaiee ninoiyiey eo aeooiaainoaa»
ea?aeiu i?ineee i aea?iaaiee ei oaeeo aea i?aa, eioi?uie iieueciaaeinue
ianoiia iaaiiaoaineia aeooiaainoai. Oaeei ia?acii, e aeey ieo ii i?eia?o
oaoa? auei o/?aaeaeaii Oaa?e/aneia ea?aeineia aeooiaiia i?aaeaiea a
Aaiaoi?ee. Naiao i?iaae iieioth ea?a?oe/aneoth aiaeiaeth iaaeaeo
ionoeueiaineei e ea?aeineei aeooiaainoaii. [ea? yioeeee o 1 n 113 – 114]

Ia?aui ia?aa?aoii yoiai caeiia ii?aaeaeyaony ninoaa ea?aeineiai
aeooiaainoaa e ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey eeoe, e iaio i?eiaaeeaaeaueo. A
ninoaa Oaa?e/aneiai ea?aeineiai aeooiaainoaa aoiaeeee: aaoai, aaccaiu e
oaiaoe. Ianoii aeeoaeuenoaa aaoaia ii?aaeaeyaony ai?iae Aaiaoi?ey.
Iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaaony ii?yaeie eca?aiey aeaau Oaa?e/aneiai
Ea?aeineiai Aeooiaainoaa, aaccaiia e oaiaoae.

Ai aoi?ii ia?aa?aoa yoiai iieiaeaiey iu iiaeai iciaeiieoueny n i?aaaie e
iaycaiiinoyie ea?aeiia, caieiathueo aeooiaiua aeieaeiinoe. Ooo
iaiaa?eaaaony ii?yaeie eeoaiey caaiey yoeo eeoe, inoaeaeaiey ea?aeineeo
aeooiaiuo. Oaeaea a yoii ia?aa?aoa ii?aaeaeaiu iaycaiiinoe aaccaiia e
oaiaoae, i?e/ai caeanue /aoei ?aca?aie/aiu iieiiii/ey Noa?oaai e
Ieaaeoaai aaccaiia. Ooo aea iaiai?aii, /oi a neo/aa ionoonoaey eee
aieacie Noa?oaai aaccaia, ia?acaiea e a?ae iiaoo auoue niaa?oaiu aai
iiiiuieeii eee Ieaaeoei aaccaiii.

O?aoee ia?aa?ao ii?aaeaeyao i?yaeie oi?aaeaiey aeooiaiuie aeaeaie
Oaa?e/aneiai ea?aeineiai iauanoaa. Ooo oeacai ii?yaeie ?anniio?aiey aeae
a Oaa?e/aneii ea?aeineii Aeooiaiii I?aaeaiee.

Ecaeaiea yoiai caeiia nua?aei aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie ea?aeiia
Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee e ai?iaea Iaeannu, oae eae iie iieo/eee ioaao ia
naia oiaeaoaenoai. Oaeaea yoio caeii yaeyaony i/aiue aaaeiui, iioiio /oi
Aaiaoi?ey ioeoeeaeueii iauyaeyaony oeaio?ii ea?aeiia Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee e ai?iaea Iaeannu.

4 ai?aey 1839 a. aue ecaeai naiaoneee caeii «I eaiaeeaeaoao ia
aeieaeiinoue aaoaia ea?aeineiai a Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee e ai?iaea
Iaeanna».

A yoii aeieoiaioa aiai?eony i ?aii?oa auaoaai Ieieno?a Aioo?aiieo Aeae,
a eioi?ii ii o Naiaoa ni?aoeaae ?ac?aoaiey ia ooaa?aeaeaiee
Aaiaoi?eeneiai 1 aeeueaeee eoioea Neiu Aiaiae/a aaoaiii ea?aeineiai
Aeooiaainoaa a Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee e ai?iaea Iaeanna. Ia iniiaaiee
Auni/aeoa Ooaa?aeaeaiiiai 3 ia?oa 1837 a. iieiaeaiey i Oaa?e/aneii
Ea?aeineii Aeooiaainoaa e niaeanii oaea oiiiyiooiio ?aii?oo, eca?aiiue
eaiaeeaeaoii Aaiaoi?eeneie 1 aeeueaeee eoioea Neia Aiaiae/
ooaa?aeaeaaony aaoaiii ea?aeineiai aeooiaainoaa a Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee e
ai?iaea Iaeanna. A yoii aea aeieoiaioa Naiao ii?o/aao Iiai?inneeneiio e
Aanna?aaneiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o o/eieoue ?anii?yaeaiea, /oiau ia
aoaeouaa a?aiy ecae?aaiu auee a yoo aeieaeiinoue ii aeaa eaiaeeaeaoa,
eae yoi neacaii a caeiia io 3 ia?oa 1837 a.

8 ai?aey 1863 a. aue ecaeai caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeo, a eioi?ii auei
oeacaii, /oi ea?aeiu, iaoiaeynue iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii iaueo caeiiia
eiia?ee, iieuecothony anaie i?aaaie ?inneeneeo iiaeaeaiiuo, niio?y ii
nineiaeth, e eioi?iio eaaeaeue ec ieo i?eiaaeeaaeeo. Oaeei ia?acii, yoio
caeii ieii/aoaeueii ooaa?aeee ?aaiii?aaea ea?aeiia n ei?aiiui ?onneei
ianaeaieai. [ea? yioeeee o 1 n 113 – 121, 122- 123]

10 aeaeaa?y 1839 a. auei i?eiyoi Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiia iieiaeaiea
eiieoaoa ieieno?ia, ?anioaeeeiaaiiia 26 yiaa?y 1840 a. «I aeicaieaiee
ea?aeiai, a Oaa?e/aneie e ae?oaeo aoaa?ieyo aeeoaeuenoaothuei,
i?eieiaoue a oneoaeaiea o?enoeai, a i?eacaeathuei ec-ca a?aieoeu
anooiaoue a ?inneeneia iiaeaeainoai». A yoii aeieoiaioa ea?aeiai
aeicaieyaony i?eieiaoue a oneoaeaiea o?enoeai, /aai ?aiaa ea?aeiu ia
eiaee i?aaa aeaeaoue. A yoii aea aeieoiaioa i?eacaeathuei ec-ca a?aieoeu
ea?aeiai ?ac?aoaeinue anooiaoue a ?inneeneia iiaeaeainoai ia iniiaaiee
iaueo i?aaee.

A oiiaea 241, ii. 1, ae. 1 Ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeaa A?E iu iiaeai
oaeaeaoue nienie n i?aaeeiaeaiey Iiai?inneeneiai e Aanna?aaneiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a e Oaa?e/aneiio a?aaeaeaineiio aoaa?iaoi?o io 10
yiaa?y 1840 a. Ooo neacaii, /oi eiia?aoi? iiaaeae: aeicaieeoue ea?aeiai
a Oaa?e/aneie e ae?oaeo aoaa?ieyo aeeoaeuenoaothuei, i?eieiaoue ai
oneoaeaiea o?enoeai e i?eacaeathuei ec caa?aieoeu anooiaoue a ?inneeneia
a?aaeaeainoai, ia iniiaaiee iaueo ii naio i?aaeiaoo i?aaee.

Iiaeienaii yoi iineaiea I?aaeoaeai Eaioeaey?ee.(A?OEA n 86)

30 ieoya?y 1840 a. Oaa?e/aneee e Iaeanneee aaoai N. Aiaiae/ iaienae
ienueii Iiai?inneeneiio e Aanna?aaneiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o. A yoii
iineaiee aaoai ieoao, /oi eiaaea ii iinauae Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a 21 ethiy
yoiai aiaea e ano?a/aeny n eiia?aoi?ii, oi iiia?o eioa?aniaaeny, i?aaaea
ee /oi *oooo-Eaea iieeaeatho aeeoaee. Aaoi? ienueia iiaeoaa?aeee, /oi ec
yoiai ai?iaea i?ienoiaeeo aeoeaiia ia?anaeaiea a ae?oaea ai?iaea, ia /oi
eiia?aoi? neacae, /oiau ea?aeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaee e?aiinoue Eaea. N.
Aiaiae/ ieoao, /oi n/eoaao aeieaeiui niiaueoue ia yoii Iiai?inneeneiio e
Aanna?aaneiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o. Ooo aea aaoai i?ineo aeicaieaiey
nicaaoue ii/aoiaeoeo ec anao ea?aeineeo iauanoa ia niaauaiea, eioi?ia
aoaeao ianoaeaeaoue yoio aii?in. Niaauaiea i?aaeeaaaao i?iaanoe a
Aaiaoi?ee eee *oooo-Eaea.

Yoi ienueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oi, /oi n ia/aea XIX a. aeeoaee *oooo-Eaea
aeoeaii ia?anaeyeenue a ae?oaea ai?iaea eiia?ee. Anoanoaaiii, yoi
i?eaiaeeo e oiaaeeo e?aiinoe. Yoa i?iaeaia neeueii icaaea/eaaao
Oaa?e/aneiai e Iaeanneiai ea?aeineiai aaoaia, a a aai eeoea, ii anae
aeaeeiinoe, e anao e?uineeo ea?aeiia, eioi?ua iuoathony iaeoe ?aoaiea
yoiai aii?ina.(A?OEA o.241,1,1 n 156)

Ooo aea, a a?oeaa, o?aieony caienea Neiu Aiaiae/a, iaienaiiay a iaa 1842
a. A iae aiai?eony, /oi Oaa?e/aneia aoaa?ineia ia/aeuenoai a iaeioi?uo
aeaeao iiaeaiaeeo ea?aeiia iiae iinoaiiaeaiey, nouanoaothuea eiaiii aeey
aa?aaa. Ooo ii i?eaiaeeo a?aoiaiou, aeieacuaathuea ioee/ea ea?aeiia io
aa?aaa. Yoa caienea aae?aniaaia a?aoo, eioi?iai aaoai i?ineo
oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue ia?aae eiia?aoi?ii i ?acee/aiee ea?aeiia io
aa?aaa.(A?OEA 241,1,1)

7 yiaa?y 1842 a. auei ?anniio?aii Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiia iieiaeaiea
Eiieoaoa ieieno?ia «I iiaie oi?ia i?enyae aeey ea?aeiia», iioaeeeiaaiiia
1 ai?aey. Naiao neooae ?aii?o Ieieno?a Aioo?aiieo Aeae, eioi?ue aue
ninoaaeai ia iniiaaiee 16 iieiaeaiey caeiia 3 ia?oa 1837 a. Ii yoiio
?aii?oo oi?io i?enyae aeey ea?aeiia ia aa?iinoue neoaeau, a oaeaea oi?io
ea?aeineie naeaeaoaeueneie i?enyae, ieacaaoaeny iaiaoiaeeiie ii aeaeai
oaieiaiui e neaaenoaaiiui, eioi?ua iiaoo eanaoueny ea?aeiia ii, Ieieno?
Aioo?aiieo Aeae, aiinee a Eiieoao ieieno?ia. Ieieno? Aioo?aiieo Aeae
i?aaenoaaee aeaa yecaiiey?a i?enyae ia aa?iinoue neoaeau: iaeei ia
aa?aeneii, a ae?oaie ia oaoa?neii ycuea aa?aeneeie aoeaaie. Aiaeiae/iay
neooaoeey auea e n naeaeaoaeueneie i?enyaie. Yoe aa?eaiou auee
ooaa?aeaeaiu eiia?aoi?ii.

15 iiya?y 1843 aiaea auei Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaii iiaiea
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa «I ?ani?ino?aiaiee ia ea?aeiia i?aaee i
ii/aoiii a?aaeaeainoaa», ?anioaeeeiaaiiia 31 aeaeaa?y.

Caeanue neacaii, /oi ea?aeiu aicaiaeyony a ii/aoiia a?aaeaeainoai ia
iniiaaiee iaueo i?aaee, aac ia?aie/aiee, eioi?ua auee onoaiiaeaiu aeey
aa?aaa.

A yoii aea aeieoiaioa neacaii, /oi I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, a iauai
nia?aiee ia?auo o?ao Aeaia?oaiaioia, ii auneooaiee caienee ec aeaea i
aicaaaeaiee aaiaoi?eeneiai ia?aie aeeueaeee eoioea Neiu Aiaiae/a a
ii/aoiia a?aaeaeainoai e i i?aaao ea?aeiia ia yoi caaiea, 5 oaa?aey e 7
iay 1843 a. ii?aaeaeee: I?aaeoaeuenoaothuee Naiao, a iauai nia?aiee
ia?auo o?ao Aeaia?oaiaioia, ?anniio?aa ianoiyuaa aeaei, iaoiaeeo, /oi a
aeaea yoii i?aaenoaaeyaony e ?ac?aoaieth aii?in: iiaoo ee eoioeu ea?aeiu
auoue oaeinoaeaaaiu ii/aoiiai a?aaeaeainoaa ia iniiaaiee iaueo i?aaee,
iinoaiiaeaiiuo aeey ?inneeneiai eoia/aneiai nineiaey.

Yoio caeii yaeyaony i/aiue aaaeiui, oae eae a niioaaonoaee n iei ia
eoioeia-ea?aeiia iiaoo auoue ?ani?ino?aiaiu iauea i?aaeea, iinoaiiaeaiey
aeey aicaaaeaiey a ii/aoiia a?aaeaeainoai ?inneeneiai eoia/aneiai
nineiaey.

11 yiaa?y 1850 a. aue ecaeai Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiue onoaa i
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaayoie ia?iaeiie ia?aiene.

A yoii aeieoiaioa a ia?aa?aoa 1 i. 5 neacaii: «… aeey iaeiiai n/aoa
ia?iaeiianaeaiey, i?iecaiaeeony a iaeeiaeiaua n iauae ia?iaeiie
ia?aienueth n?iee, ii ioaeaeueii e ia iniauo i?aaeeao, en/eneaiea
nayuaiii e oea?eiaiineoaeeoaeae, n aeaiaie e aeaoueie iaiaai iiea,
i?aaineaaiiai e anao i?i/eo o?enoeaineeo eniiaaaeaiee».

Ooo aea a i. 56 aiai?eony, /oi aiana ecuaiethony io aianaiey a
ia?aienue:

eeoea, e ?aciui nineiaeyi i?eiaaeeaaeauea:

a) – i)

i) ea?aeiu, caieiathuea aeooiaiua aeieaeiinoe, ai a?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey a
yoeo aeieaeiinoyo.

Yoio aeieoiaio a i/a?aaeiie ?ac iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai
?inneeneie eiia?ee ia auaeaeyei ea?aeiia ec iannu ae?oaeo ia?iaeia,
ianaeyaoeo ainoaea?noai.

15 ia?oa 1850 a. aaia?ae-eaeoaiaio Ianoaeue ieoao iineaiea
eni?aaeythuaio aeieaeiinoue iiai?inneeneiai e Aanna?aaneiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a. A iai aiai?eony, /oi *oooo-Eaea i?eoiaeeo a
oiaaeie, aeecei e iionoioaieth, iiyoiio ea?aeiu i?inyo i?eiyoue ia?u,
eioi?ua iiiiaoo ecaaaeaoue aeoeaiiai ia?anaeaiey n e?aiinoe *oooo-Eaea.
Ieaea iie ia?a/eneytho oa ia?u, eioi?ua, ii eo iiaieth, iaiaoiaeeiu aeey
yoiai.(A?OEA241,1,1n 157-158)Oeacaiiua ia?ii?eyoey auee ocaeiiaiu
iieiaeaieai Eiieoaoa ieieno?ia io 15 iay 1851 a.

13 iiya?y 1850 a. auei Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaii iiaiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
Niaaoa «I ono?ienoaa aeooiaiie /anoe o ea?aeiia Caiaaeiuo aoaa?iee»,
?anioaeeeiaaiiia 11 aeaeaa?y.

Ii yoiio caeiio anao ea?aeiia, iinaeaiiuo a Caiaaeiuo aoaa?ieyo eiia?ee,
i?e/eneytho e aaaeiinoao Oaa?e/aneiai Ea?aeineiai Aeooiaiiai I?aaeaiey,
n ?ani?ino?aiaieai ia ieo a iieiie neea Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiiai 3
ia?oa 1837 a. «Iieiaeaiey i ea?aeineii aeooiaainoaa a a Oaa?e/aneie
aoaa?iee.

Yoi aiai?eo ia aaoi?eoaoa aaoaia Oaa?e/aneiai ea?aeineiai aeooiaainoaa
ia oieueei a naiae aoaa?iee e ai?iaea Iaeanna, ii e ai anae eiia?ee.

11 aeaeaa?y 1850 a. auoei Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiia iiaiea
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa «I iaaini?auaiee aa?ayi ea?aeiai i?iaeaaee
ai?y/eo iaieoeia e aeeoaeuenoaa ii aea?aaiyi e naeaieyi».

A yoii caeiia Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao iieiaeee: «… ie aeeoaeuenoaa ii
aea?aaiyi e naeaieyi a ei?/iao, ie i?iaeaaee ai?y/eo iaieoeia
aa?ayi-ea?aeiai ia aini?auaoue».

Yoei aeieoiaioii i?aaeoaeuenoai a i/a?aaeiie ?ac iiae/a?eeaaao ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo aa?ayie e ea?aeiai, eioi?ui auei ?ac?aoaii ana auoaoeacaiiia a
aeieoiaioa, ioaeaaay yaiua i?eaeeaaee ea?aeiai.

11 iay 1851 a. auei Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaii iieiaeaiea Eiieoaoa
Ieieno?ia. Iauyaeaiiia Oi?aaeythuei Ieienoa?noaii Aioo?aiieo Aeae.

I aea?iaaiee ianoa/eo *oooo-Eaea eueaiou io ai?iaeneeo e caineeo
iiaeiiinoae, e ia ioianaiee ia Oaoa?neee nai? eni?aaeaiey aei?iae e
niaea?aeaiey a yoii ianoa/ea ea?aeineiai o/eeeua. Eiia?aoi? iiaaeae:
1)Aea?iaaoue ianoa/eo *oooo-Eaea 25-eaoithth eueaioo io ai?iaeneeo e
caineeo iiaeiiinoae, n i?aaeinoaaeaieai oaeiaie eueaiou ni a?aiaie
i?i/iiai aiaeai?aiey e oai, eoi iiaeaeaao ?annaeeoueny a *oooo-Eaea;
eoioeia aea inaiaiaeaeaoue io ieaoaaea aeeueaeaeneeo
iiaeiiinoae.2)Ioianoe ia Oaoa?neee nai?, ai?aaeue aei oiai, iiea
iineaaeiee aoaeao nouanoaiaaoue , aeey ono?ienoaa Oaa?e/aneiai
iieoino?iaa: a)eni?aaeaiea aei?iae, eaeouae io Aao/ena?ay aei *oooo-Eaea
/a?ac Enioaoiao aeieeio; a)ioione 500 ?oaeae na?aa?ii a aiae ia
niaea?aeaiea a *oooo-Eaea ea?aeineiai o/eeeua, a oii /enea ia
aeaeiaaiuea o/eoaeth aa?aeneiai ycuea e caeiia 230 ?oaeae, o/eoaeth
?onneiai ycuea 150 ?oaeae e ia o/aaiua iiniaey e ?aiiio o/eeeuiiai aeiia
120 ?oaeae; a)o/eeeua yoi iiae/eieoue aeaaiiio aaaeaieth Aee?aeoeee
Oaa?e/aneeo o/eeeu, a oicyenoaaiiia oi?aaeaiea o/eeeua aiceiaeeoue ia
o/eoaey aa?aeneiai ycueaie caeiia; a)eiaaea o/eeeua i?i/ii ooaa?aeeoueny
i?aaeinoaaeoue aai ia/aeuenoao i?aai oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue, anee ieaaeaony
ioaeiui, ia onoaiiaeaiee ca iao/aiea oia?aiiie ieaou.

Ii yoiio caeiio iu aeaeei, /oi nicaeathony aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
ia?anaeaiey a *oooo-Eaea, oai iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ia?aciaaiea. Yoe ia?u,
noaey ii anaio, i?eieiathony a nayce n oai, /oi ai?iae e yoiio a?aiaie
oaea aeoeaii iieeaeatho aeeoaee.

26 ethey 1853 a. auoae eiaiiie oeac, iauyaeaiiue Naiaoo Oi?aaeythuei
Ieienoa?noaii THnoeoeee, «I aeicaieaiee ea?aeiai i?e/eneyoueny e
ii?oiaui ai?iaeai naaanoiiieueneiai aa?aaa *a?iiai ii?y , aeeoue e
aeaaeaoue a iiuo nianoaaiiinoueth»

A yoii aeieoiaioa eiia?aoi? iiaaeaaaao ii oaea nouanoaothuaio ia?aa?aoo
15 Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiiai 15 aeaeaa?y 1846 a. «Iieiaeaiey i canaeaiee
naaanoiiieueneiai aa?aaa *a?iiai ii?y», aini?auaiea aa?ayi eiaoue
iinoiyiiia aeeoaeuenoai a ii?oiauo ai?iaeao yoiai aa?aaa, ia
?ani?ino?aiyoue ia ea?aeiia. A yoii aea aeieoiaioa ea?aeiai aeicaieyaony
i?e/eneyoueny e ii?oiaui ai?iaeai oeacaiiiai aa?aaa, aeeoue e aeaaeaoue
a yoeo ai?iaeao nianoaaiiinoueth.

Yoei aeieoiaioii eiia?aoi? ieacuaaao ea?aeiai i?eaeeaaee, eioi?uo iie
?aiaa auee eeoaiu ec-ca ioeai/iiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia ea?aeineee ia?iae
caeiiia, eanathueony aa?aaa.

A «Nai?ieea noa?eiiuo a?aiio e ocaeiiaiee ?inneeneie eiia?ee eanaoaeueii
i?aa e ninoiyiey ?onnei-iiaeaeaiuo ea?aeiia»i?eaaaeaia Auienea ec
Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiiai aeo?iaea eiieoaoa ia ono?ienoaa aa?aaa io 3
iay 1855 a. «I ia?ani?ino?aiaiee ia ea?aeiia, iieo/athueo o/aiua e
iaaeeoeeineea noaiaie, ia?aie/aiee, iinoaiiaeaiiuo aiiaua aeey aa?aaa
ioiineoaeueii anooieaiey a neoaeao».

A yoii aeieoiaioa eiia?aoi? oeacuaaao, /oi ia?aie/aiey, iinoaiiaeaiiua
aeey aa?aaa aiiaua, ia ioiinyony e ea?aeiai. Ooo aea neacaii, /oi iao ie
iaeaeoaai i?aiyonoaey aeicaieeoue ea?aeiai, iieo/athuei o/aiua e
iaaeeoeeineea noaiaie, iinooiaoue a neoaeao ia iaueo ni anaie ae?oaeie
i?aaeeaie. A oae eae iiaoo ano?aoeoueny e /anoi ano?a/athony, /anoiua
aii?inu ia ecuyoee ea?aeiia ec oao eee eiuo ia?aie/aiee, aeey aa?aaa
iinoaiiaeaiiuo, oi i?aaenoaaeoue Aoi?iio Ioaeaeaieth Nianoaaiiie Aai
Eiia?aoi?neiai Aaee/anoaa Eaioeaey?ee, ii iauei caeiiai ii?aaeaeeoue
aiiaua, eaeiai ?iaea ia?aie/aiey, aeey aa?aaa onoaiiaeaiiua, ia aeieaeiu
?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia ea?aeiia.

Oaeei ia?acii, yoei caeiiii eiia?aoi? /aoei ?aca?aie/eaaao aa?aaa e
ea?aeiia, e ii?aaeaeyao, eoi aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoue aii?inu, naycaiiua
n i?eiaiaieai e ea?aeiai ia?aie/aiee, ioiinyueiny e aa?ayi.

3 ethiy 1857 a. aue Auni/aeoa ooaa?aeaeai Onoaa i i?iecaiaenoaa aeanyoie
ia?iaeiie ia?aiene. Ioiineoaeueii yoie ia?aiene oaeaea aue auiouai oeac,
a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue, /oi aa?aeneay aa?a ia eiaao iniaaiiiai aeooiaiiai
nineiaey, e iiyoiio eeoea yoiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, e?iia ea?aeiia,
iiaeeaaeao ?aaecee ia iauai iniiaaiee. Oaeaea iaiaa?eaaeinue, /oi aiana
ecuaiethony io aianaiey a ia?aienue ea?aeiu, caieiathuea aeooiaiua
aeieaeiinoe, ai a?aiy iaoiaeaeaiey a yoeo aeieaeiinoyo.[Nai?i n.167-168]

18 ia?oa 1858 a. Naiaoo aue aeai eiaiiie oeac, ?anioaeeeiaaiiue 8
ai?aey. Yoio caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeo eanaeny i?iecaiaenoaa ia?iaeiie
ia?aiene a Aanna?aaneie iaeanoe.

Ooo auei neacaii, /oi aeey iaeiiai n/aoa a ia?aienue aoiaeyo : 1); 2)
Nayuaiii- e oea?eiaiineoaeeoaee o?enoeaineeo eniiaaaeaiee, eneeth/ay
neoaeaueo ii iaeio e ia iiaeeaaeaueo e aeooiaiiio nineiaeth. Ieaea
neaaeoao i?eia/aiea, a eioi?ii iaicia/aii, /oi aa?aeneay aa?a ia eiaao
iniaiai aeooiaiiai nineiaey e iiyoiio eeoea yoiai ?iaea, e?iia ea?aeiia,
aoiaeyo a ia?aienue aeey ieaoaaea iiaeaoae. [Nai?i n.169-170]

1 ethey 1868 a. Oaa?e/aneee e Iaeanneee ea?aeineee aaoai ieoao ienueii
Oaa?e/aneiio e Iaeanneiio Ea?aeineiio Aeooiaiiio I?aaeaieth, a eioi?ii
ii i?eaiaeeo oeeoaoo ec noaouee 270 IV oiia onoaaa i caineeo
iiaeiiinoyo, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie io aiaiiiai iinoiy
inaiaiaeaeathony: i. 5 … a oaeaea ea?aeineea neiaaiae e o/eeeua n
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie e iei caeaieyie. Ooo aea aaoai i?aaeeaaaao Oaa?e/aneiio
e Iaeanneiio Ea?aeineiio Aeooiaiiio I?aaeaieth i?ineoue Aaiaoi?eeneoth
Ai?iaeneoth Aeoio inaiaiaeeoue ea?aeineia aeooiaainoai io ieaoaaea
eaa?oe?iuo e ae?oaeo iiaeiiinoae n aeiiia, aaea iie
o/eoaeuenoaotho.(A?OEA 241,1,120 n 1)

5 iiya?y 1881 a. Ieieno? Aioo?aiieo Aeae iaienae ioiioaiea Iaeanneiio
A?aiaiiiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o «I oii, /oi ia?aie/eoaeueiua aeey aa?aaa
iinoaiiaeaiey ia ?ani?ino?aiythony ia ea?aeiia».

Ooo neacaii, /oi aaiaoi?eeneee ea?aeineee aaoai oiaeaoaenoaoao i
?acuyniaiee iiaeeaaeauei o/?aaeaeaieyi, /oi oiiiyiooua a caeiia
iinoaiiaeaiey aeey aa?aaa e ea?aeiai i?eiaiyaiu auoue ia iiaoo. Ooo aea
oeacaii, /oi, ii neiaai aaoaia, a iaeioi?uo aoaa?ieyo aicieeatho
iaaei?acoiaiey ioiineoaeueii i?aa ea?aeiia, i?e/ai aaeieieno?aoeaiua
o/?aaeaeaiey i?e?aaieaatho ea?aeiia e aa?ayi e i?eiaiytho e iei
nouanoaothuea a caeiia aeey iineaaeieo ia?aie/aiey.

A yoii aeieoiaioa Ieieno? Aioo?aiieo Aeae i?ineo Iaeanneiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a ?acuynieoue iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiui aio aaeieieno?aoeaiui
o/?aaeaeaieyi e eeoeai, /oi ia?aie/eoaeueiua iinoaiiaeaiey,
caeeth/athueany Naiaea Caeiiia ioiineoaeueii aa?aaa, ia aeieaeiu auoue
i?eiaiyaiu e ea?aeiai.

Aeieoiaiou aiaeiae/iiai niaea?aeaiey auee iineaiu e Eeaaneiio,
Iiaeieueneiio, oa?ueeianeiio e ae?oaei aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ai.

Ec yoiai aeieoiaioa iu aeaeei, /oi, ianiio?y ia aiineiua a caeiiu
iii?aaee ioiineoaeueii ea?aeiia, ia ianoao eo /anoi i?eieiaee ca aa?aaa
e i?eiaiyee niioaaonoaothuea caeiiu.

7 iiya?y 1881 a. auoei ?anii?yaeaiea Ieienoa?noao Aioo?aiieo Aeae.

Aneaaenoaea cayaeaiey aaiaoi?eeneiai ea?aeineiai aaoaia, Ieieno?
Aioo?aiieo Aeae i?ineo ianoiua aeanoe ?acuynieoue iiaeaaaeiinoaaiiui ei
ianoai e eeoeai, /oi ia iniiaaiee caeiia, ea?aeiu iieuecothony anaie
i?aaaie, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuie ei?aiiui ?onneei iiaeaeaiiui, e i?eiaaeeaaeao
e i?eciaiiiio eniiaaaeaieth, ioee/athuaiony io aa?ieniiaaaeaiey aa?aaa.

A 70-o aa. oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai ea?aeineie iieiaeaaee a n?aaeieo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo. Ieii/ea eo ea?aeiu, eae e ana, iinooiaee ia
ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao, eoaea eiaee naiaiaeiue e aani?aiyonoaaiiue
aeinooi. N?aaee ea?aeiia ia/aee ano?a/aoueny o/eoaey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, /eiiaieee e o. ae.

A /anoue ei?iiaoeee eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a III a 1883 a. auei
iiaeaeiaaii Oaa?e/aneiio iaaiiaoaineiio ioooeth e Oaa?e/aneiio
ea?aeineiio aaoaio caaiea «Auni/anoai». Yoei aeoii i?aaeoaeuenoai aua
?ac iiaeoaa?aeaeaao naie acaeyae ia ?aaiicia/iinoue aeooiaiie aia?oee
oaoa? e ea?aeiia, eae yoi auei a 1837 a.

Ca ei?ioeia a?aiy oea?noaiaaiey eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a III (1881 – 1894)
, iniaaiii iie?iaeoaeuenoaiaaaoaai ea?aeiai, /enei eioaeeeaaioeee n?aaee
ieo a E?uio cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeinue, oae eae iieiaeaaeue ioioii
iinooiaea ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao. [ea? yioeeee o 1 n 113 – 121,
122- 123] N?aaee ea?aeiia eiaeenue /eaiu Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa e
Aeoiu, ai?iaeneea aieiau. [Iaoea e ?aeea 9 naio 93 n. 33]

I?aaenoaaeoaee ea?aeineiai aeooiaainoaa, auaay a noieeoea,
iieueciaaeenue ainoai?eeinoaii oea?neie naiuee. Aaoaiu N. Iaiioeia e O.
N. O. Oaioae eiaee i?aai aeaaineiaeyoue oea?neiai ianeaaeieea ia ?iaeiii
ea?aeineii ycuea, iieiaeea aio ?oeo ia aieiao. A 1883 a. ii neo/ath
ei?iiaoeee Aeaenaiae?a III aaoaio N. Iaiioeiao auei iiaeaeiaaii aunieia
caaiea. E 300-eaoeth Aeiia ?iiaiiauo ea?aeineiai aaoaia, aeaao
Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee, iaa?aaeeee ?inneeneei i?aeaiii.

Ea?aeiu, eo aiaaoay eoeueoo?a e enoi?ey, anaaaea aucuaaee i?enoaeueiue
eioa?an ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaeoaeae. I?e iinauaiee aeaaaie
ainoaea?noaa E?uia a i?ia?aiio iaycaoaeueii aeeth/aeinue iinauaiea
iaiyoieeia ea?aeineiai ia?iaea. Iniaia aieiaiea anaaaea oaeaeyeinue
e?aiinoe *oooo-Eaea.

A 1817a. e?aiinoue iinaoee Aaeeeee Eiycue Ieoaee Iaaeiae/, nui
Eiia-?aoi?a Iaaea. A 1818 a. e a 1824 a. Eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? aeaaaeaeu
iinaoee *oooo-Eaea e aeooiaioth noieeoeo ea?aeineiai ia?iaea a.
Aaiaoi?eth, ii aue ii/aoiui ainoai o ciaoiuo ethaeae, a /anoiinoe o
Oaaeaee Aaa Aiaiae/a, eioi?ue oiaaea aue ai?iaeneei aieiaie, a n 1837
a.-aeooiaiui aeaaie ea?aeiia. A 1837 a. i?eacaeae Eiia?aoi? Ieeieae ? n
naiueae a nii?iaiaeaeaiee Aaeeeiai Eiycy Eiinoaioeia Ieeieaaae/a.

A 1841 aiaeo Aaeeeay Eiyaeiy Ia?ey Ieeieaaaia iinaoeea *oooo-Eaea aianoa
n Aaeeeie Eiyaeiae Ia?eae Ieoaeeiaiie A 1851 e 1854 aa. enoi?e/aneea
ianoa iinaoeee Aaeeeea Eiycuey Eiinoaioei Ieeieaaae/ e Ieoaee
Ieeieaaae/, a ai a?aiy E?ueineie aieiu a 1856 a. caeanue niiaa iiauaae
Eiinoaioei Ieeieaaae/. A 1858 a., iaoiaeynue a ?innee, i?eioe
i?onneee Aeuea?aoo ia iia i?iaoaoue ieii e?aiinoe *oooo-Eaea. Eiia?aoi?
Aeaenaiae? II a ia?aue ?ac iiauaae caeanue ni naiei iooeii a 1837 a. e
aiiaue i?eaue a 1861 aiaeo aianoa n noi?oaie Eiia?ao?eoeae Ia?eae
Aeaenaiae?iaiie, eioi?ie ea?aeiee i?aiiaeianee iieiue iiaeaaia/iue
ia?yae iaaanou. Aiineaaenoaee yoio iiaea?ie iia ia?aaeaea a Aeaoeianeee
coiia?aoe/aneee iocae a Iineaa.

A 1863 a. e?aiinoue iinaoee Oeana?aae/ Ieeieae Aeaenaiae?iae/. A
1866 a. a ainoe e ea?aeiai i?eaoae Eiia?aoi? Aeaenaiae? II a
nii?iaiaeaeaiee Eiia?ao?eoeu Ia?ee Aeaenaiae?iaiu, Aaeeeie Eiyaeie
Aeecaaaou Oaaei?iaiu, Ianeaaeieea i?anoiea Ieeieay Aeaenaiae?iae/a,
Aaeeeeo Eiycae Aeaenay Aeaenaiae?iae/a, Na?aay Aeaenaiae?iae/a, Iaaea
Aeaenaiae?iae/a, i /ai niiauaeinue a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii aanoieea. A 1866
a. caeanue iiauaaee Aaeeeea Eiycuey Ieeieae Eiinoaioeiiae/, Na?aae
Aeaenaiae?iae/ e Iaaae Aeaenaiae?iae/.

A 1867 a. ai a?aiy i?aauaaiey Aaeeeiai Eiycy Aeaaeeie?a Aeaenaiae?iae/a
a *oooo-Eaea, a caoai a Aaiaoi?ee aio aue i?aiiaeianai iaoeeiiaeueiue
einothi ea?aeineiai ioae/eiu, eioi?ue iicaeiaa aue ia?aaeai a iocae
yoiia?aoee.

A /enea eiino?aiiuo oea?noaothueo inia, iinaoeaoeo *oooo-Eaea, aue
Eiia?aoi? A?aceeee Aeii-Iaae?i ni naiae naiueae

A 1887 a. n ii/aoii ano?a/aee a Aeaeooo-Eaea Ei?ieaao Na?aee Iaoaeueth,
i?eauaooth n nuiii Aeaenaiae?ii.[ ooee n 20-21]

5. Iaiyoieee ea?aeineie eoeueoo?u e eo nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea.

Aiai?y i iaiyoieeao ea?aeineie eoeueoo?u, eae i?aaeei, auaeaeytho
ai?iae-e?aiinoue *oooo-Eaea n i?eeaaathuei ?iaeiaui eeaaeaeuai
Aaeoa-Oeeiac, ae?aaiaa eeaaeaeua i?e Iaiaoi-Eaea; eiiieaen o?aiia-eaian
a Aaiaoi?ee.[e? eca 16 ai? 97]

Ea?aeineee o?aiiaue eiiieaen Aaiaoi?ee. Eiiieaen ninoieo ec Aieueoie
(niai?iie) e Iaeie eaian. ?aniieiaeaiu iie ia oeeoea Ea?aeineie, 68.
I?eaioe?iaaiu eaianu n naaa?a ia tha.[e?iiioia]

E aieueoie e iaeie eaianai aaaeoo o?e aeai?eea, yaeythueany
i?iaeieaeaieai iaeei ae?oaiai. A ia?aii aeai?eea – ei?eaei?a, neaaa io
aoiaea ?aniieiaeai i?aii?iue oiioai. Ii neoaeeo aeey iiiaaiey ?oe ia?aae
iieeoaie. Aeai? oe?aoai i?iaiaioe?iaaiiuie aaeuie i?aii?iuie ieeoaie n
iaaeienyie ia ae?aaiaaa?aeneii ycuea. A ieo ioia/aiu e?oiiaeoea niauoey
ec aeecie ea?aeiia, auna/aiu eiaia o/aiuo, iauanoaaiiuo aeayoaeae eiaia
ea?aeiia, naeaeaaoeo iiaea?oaiaaiey ia no?ieoaeuenoai eaian, ea?aeineeo
oeie e ae?oaeo iino?iae.

Aeaeaa neaaeoao I?aii?iue aeai?ee, caeanue ia i?aii?iuo aeineao iaienaiu
noeoe ?aeeaeiciiai niaea?aeaiey.

Naiue i?inoi?iue – aeai?ee iaeeaeaiey. Ii auaeaeyaony ia oiia inoaeueiuo
naiae ia?yaeiinoueth. Aai noaiu oe?aoaiu a?eaie ia eieiiiao e i?aii?iuie
aeineaie, iaaeiene ia eioi?uo io?aaeatho aaaeiua niauoey ea?aeiia. Ooo
aea iaoiaeyony neaiuee, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ioaeuoa a iaeeaeaiee
ia/aea iieeoau.

Eaiana a ieaia i?yiioaieueiay, aeoa?ai i?eaioe?iaaia ia tha. Aioo?aiiyy
ioaeaeea eaianu ioee/aaony aiaaonoaii, ouaoaeueiie ?acueaie ii aea?aao,
iniaaiii ia iioieea. [A aai ca caei?]

Eae e ethaie ea?aeineee o?ai, Aaiaoi?eeneay eaiana aeaeeony ia o?e
/anoe:

Aaoae (aeoa?ue), aaea o?aieony iaeoue na?aa?ii eeaio, a eioi?ii
iiiauaaony ienaiiia ia ia?aaiaioa Iyoeeieaeea.

Ooe – oai – ianoi aeey i?eoiaeai, eoaea aoiaeyo iieyueany, niya iaoaue.

Iioao – caeaiei (ianoi aeey noa?oeaa); caeanue ia neaiueyo neaeyo
noa?eee, a oaeaea oa, eioi?ua iinyo o?ao? ii aeeaeaeoei ?iaenoaaiieeai
o?ao? e ii iau/ath ia aoiaeyo a iauea ianoa aeey i?eoiaeai. Iaae
ioaeaeaieai «Iioao – caeaiei» iaoiaeeony iniaia iiiauaiea n ioaeaeueiui
aoiaeii, i?aaeiacia/aiiia aeey aeaiuei, ioeoaea iie niio?yo ia
aiaineoaeaiea /a?ac ?aoaoee e aeaeyo ana, i?e yoii naie, inoaaaynue
iaaeaeeiuie aeey ioae/ei.[n18oaioae ea? a e?]

A ia/aea OO a. eaianu auee cae?uou. Nae/an eiiieaen ?anoaa?e?oaony
aaiaoi?eeneie iaueiie i?e iiaeaea?aeea anao ea?aeiia E?uia. [Aa?iao n.
120]

*oooo-Eaea (a ia?aaiaea n e?ueinei-oaoa?neiai — “Eoaeaeneay
e?aiinoue”)-ai?iae-e?aiinoue iaoiaeyueeny ia thai-ainoi/iie ie?aeia
Aao/ena?ay. Ai?iaeeua ?aniieaaaaony ia neaeenoii io?iaa, ie?oaeaiiii n
o?ao noi?ii ioaaniuie ia?uaaie aunioie aei 50 i. Oa??eoi?ey *oooo-Eaea
?acaeaeyaony ia o?e /anoe. Aieueoay ii ieiuaaee iacano?iaiiay /anoue
ieaoi — Ao?oi/ae (a ia?aaiaea n oaoa?neiai «iunie») — 36 aa, Noa?ue
ai?iae (7 aa), ioaeaeaiiue io ionoe?y iaaunieie ia?aaeie, e Iiaue ai?iae
(3 aa), ?aneeioaoeeny iaaeaeo N?aaeiae e Ainoi/iie iai?iieoaeueiuie
noaiaie.[aa? e? n 23]

Iacaaiea *oooo-Eaea iiyaeeinue a eiioea 18 aaea. ?aiueoa e?aiinoue
iacuaaeanue Eu?e — A?, yoi auei i?eiyoi n 14 aaea, iinea iaeaaeaiey
oaoa?aie E?uia.[Ii?iaiineay aii? i eoeueo ea?]

Nae/an ia ianoa iaeiaaea i?ioeaaoaaoaai ai?iaea inoaeenue oieueei ?oeiu,
eioi?ua i?eaeaeatho eioa?an naiae iiioiaioaeueiinoueth.

Aia?aua a?oaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey *oooo-Eaea auee i?aaei?eiyou a
1853 a. ecaanoiui ?onneei a?oaieiaii A. N. Oaa?iaui. Iicaeiaa
enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeee oaeea ecaanoiua o/aiua, eae A. A. Aaeia?i, A.
A. E?iiioeei, I. ss. *i?ao, A. A. Aa?oeai, TH. I. Iiaa?e/aa.[ aa? e? n
23]

N ainoi/iie noi?iiu *oooo-Eaea caiueaaony aieueoeie ianneaiuie ai?ioaie
«Aethe – eaio», iaeouie a?oauie eoneaie aeaeaca. Yoe ai?ioa iino?iaiu
500 eao iacaae. Io yoiai ianoa ia caiaae, aei ae?oaiai eiioea ai?iaea
eaeao oeeoea, caeai/eaathuayny oceeie iioaeiuie ai?ioaie «Ee/ee – eaio»
(Iaeua ai?ioa). Iaaeaeo aieueoeie e iaeuie ai?ioaie a na?aaeeia ai?iaea
iaoiaeyony «I?oa – eaio», /oi cia/eo n?aaeiea ai?ioa. Ii aieai eo
nio?aieeenue ae?aaiea noaiu, eiaaea – oi auaoea ia?oaeiuie.

Iino?ieeo «Aethe – eaio» ia/ae ea?aei Iaiaaai – Aai – Iioa, a caeii/ee
eo nii?oaeaiea Yeueca? – Aai – Enaae. Iino?iaiea ia?oaeiuo noai, aaoai e
«Aethe – eaio» ioiineony e eiioeo OIV aaea. A?aiy nii?oaeaiey ai?io
«I?oa – eaio» e noai, e iei i?eiueathueo, iaecaanoii.[n 16-17 oaio ea? a
e?]

A ai?iaeeua nio?aieeenue aeaa eaianu. Aei ia/aea XX a. iieaeueiua aeiia
ea?aeiia eiaiiaaeenue neiaaiaaie. Iacaaiea eaiana aia?aua caoeene?iaaii
a eeoa-?aoo?a a 1910 a.

Iie iaoiaeyony ai aeai?eea ca eaiaiiui caai?ii. N oeeoeu, iinyuae
oneiaiia iacaaiea Eaianneie. Aoiaeyuee a aeai?ee ieacuaaaony ia?aae
aeaoiy eaianaie, i?aaenoaaeythueie a ieaia i?yiioaieueiua eaiaiiua
caeaiey iiae aeaoneaoiie /a?aie/iie e?uoae. Aieueoay eaiana auno?iaia
aieaa ouaoaeueii e iiioiaioaeueii. Aoiae a iaa aeoeaioe?iaai eaiaiiie
a?eaaeie, iiaeaea?eaathuae iaaan e ia?acothuae aa?aiaeo ia?aae aeaa?iui
i?iaiii. I a?aiaie nii?oaeaiey yoie eaianu auneacuaaeenue ?acee/iua
i?aaeiieiaeaiey. O?aaeeoeeiiiay aeaoa — XIV a., enoiaeyuay ec onoiie
ea?aeineie o?aaeeoeee, aucuaaao niiiaiey. Iino?ieea a aeioaaeoai aei ian
aeaea eiaao au?aceoaeueiua /a?ou ciae/anoaa XVII a.

Iaeay eaiana ne?iiiaa e i?iua ia?aie, iino?iaia iia a eiioea XVIII a.,
eiaaea iaiaoineay ea?aeineay iaueia iieeioea i?eoaaeoee a oiaaeie ai?iae
e /anoueth ia?aa?aeanue a *oooo-Eaea. Iaoa?eaeu e iai?oaeiaaiea aeey
yoie eaianu aueee auaacaiu n Iaiaoia. Ia?aae aieueoie eaianie noieo
eaiaiiue ?aca?aoa? aeey aiaeu n iaaieueoei neeaiui ioaa?noeai. Aa?iyoii,
yoi inoaoee ieeau.

Ia oa?ainoaa eaian iiaeii noaeeoue ni neia iooaoanoaaiieea eiioea XVIII
— ia/aea XIX a. I. Noia?ieiaa: ” Neiaaiaa a Ae/oooo-Eaea oi?ioi
nii?oaeaia. Oe?aoaiea aa ninoieo a ianeieueeeo na?aa?yiuo iaieeaaeeeao,
eaiiaaeao, eia?ao e Aeaeee, o?aieiie a aa?oaoiii eia/aaa n aiaaouie
i?eai?aie”. Ii nai?io aioo?aiiaio ono?ienoao eaianu *oooo-Eaea ia
ioee/athony io ae?oaeo ea?aeineeo eaian. Aua iaeei iooaoanoaaiiee eiioea
XVIII, aeaaeaiee Iaeean, ieoao, /oi «ieiei oi?ioaai no?iaiey neiaaiae
?acaaaeai iaeaiueeee naaeee, ia a?aiy i?acaeieea eouae».[ n 81 Iaeean]

Aeiia aeeoaeae *oooo-Eaea oiai aea oeia, /oi o ae?oaeo ia?iaeia E?uia.
Aieueoae /anoueth iie auee aeaooyoaaeiuie n aaeeii/eeaie (nioa), ieiaie
ai aeai?. E?uoe auee /a?aie/iuie. Eiiiaou ioaieeaaeenue ia/aie —
oaiaeu?aie, ono?iaiiuie a caiea, eee ia?aiiniuie aea?iaiyie, aa?oiee
yoaae aue aeeeui, a a ieaeiai ?aniieaaaeenue eiithoiy e oeaa. Ana aeiia,
ii naeaeaoaeuenoao Iaeeana, iaianaiu aunieeie noaiaie ec eaiiy ia aeeia.
Ii aea i?eaiaeeo i?eia?iia eiee/anoai aeiiia ia *oooo – Eaea – 200.[ n
81 Iaeean]

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie ia *oooo-Eaea iieiinoueth nio?aieeny eeoue iaeei
aeii, aaea a XIX a. aeee ecaanoiue ea?aeineee niae?aoaeue ae?aaieo
oaenoia A. N. Oe?eiae/. .[ aa? e? n 28-29]

Aaeoa-Oeeiac (a ia?aaiaea – «Oiii? ia einiaony»)- ae?aaiaa ?iaeiaia
eeaaeaeua ea?aeineiai ia?iaea, iaoiaeyuaany aaeece *oooo-Eaea, a
Einaoaoiaie aeieeia. [E? eca ?19 98] Iii ?aniieiaeaii ia aeaoo aanueia
e?oouo neeiiao aeieeiu, aonoi ii?inoae eanii. [ aa? e? n 29] Io
e?aiinoiuo ai?io e eeaaeaeuo aaaeao aei?iaa. Iii auei iai?iaeaii
eaiaiiie noaiie n oceei a?i/iui aoiaeii, neiaieece?iaaaoei a?aiiinoue
auoey e iaia?aoeiinoue nia?oe. Aicea ai?io iaoiaeeeny aeii niio?eoaey.
Io ai?io eeaaeaeua aaeoaue aaaeao ecaeeenoay aeeay, ii iaa noi?iiu
eioi?ie aaa?o ii neeiiai iiaeieiathony iaaea?iaey.[aao/ena?n. 50] Aai
oa??eoi?ey auoyioiooa n caiaaea ia ainoie. Aei neo ii? ia onoaiiaeaii
oi/iia eiee/anoai iaaea?iaee, ii i?eaeeceoaeueiui ioeaieai eo ia iaiaa 5
ou ny/. Eae iieacaee ?aneiiee, i?iaiaeeaoeany caeanue a i?ioeii aaea,
iiiaea iaaea?iaey iuia ne?uou caieae.

Einaoaoiaa aeieeia auea ii/eoaaiui ianoii ia?aaaiey, eoaea i?eaiceee
oia?oeo aeaaea ec ae?oaeo ai?iaeia.[ aa? e? n 29] Oia?oaio e
iioi?iiaiiiio a aeaee io *oooo-Eaea noaaeee aaciiaeeueiue iaiyoiee a
aeaea aa?oeeaeueiie i?yiioaieueiie noaeu.[n 37 Iiee ia? e iau/] Oaeea
iaiyoieee iacuaathony eaiioaoaie.[aao/en n. 50] A aeieeia ?inee aaeiaua
aeoau, eioi?ua, aeaeeii, aeaee eeaaeaeuo iacaaiea: „Aaeoa-oeeiac”. Yoei
aea?aaueyi iieeiiyeenue, ai a?aiy canoo aicea ieo i?ieciineeenue
iieeoau. Naaiaeiy aua iiaeii aeaeaoue aei aeanyoea ae?aaieo aeoaia, a
iniiaiii aea oa??eoi?ey eeaaeaeua ii/oe iieiinoueth ca?inea eonoa?ieeii
e iieiaeui eanii.[ aa? e? n 29]

Ia eeaaeaeua nio?aieeinue iiiaeanoai iaiyoieeia. ?aniieiaeaiu iie
oaioe/ii, ii anee i?eniio?aoueny, oi iiaeii oaeaeaoue neaaeu ieaie?iaee.
Oi?iu iaaea?iaee ?aciiia?aciu: yoi e i?inoua i?yiioaieueiua
ai?eciioaeueii eaaeauea ieeou, e iaaea?iaey aeiieeiia?aciie oi?iu,
aeao?iaea e iaeii?iaea iiioiaiou, noaei- e a?iaiia?aciua iaiyoieee,
iaaeenee, aa?oeeaeueii noiyuea ieeou, ae?oaea oeiu.[Aao/ena?ae n. 50]
Oi?ia iaiyoieeia, eae oaea auei neacaii, ?aciiia?acia, iia
aeaeieciaiyeanue a caaeneiinoe io yiioe. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee
n/eoatho iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iuie naaeeiaeaeiua iaiyoieee e a aeaea ayoeea
(aeaoneay eieuaaeue). [E? eca ?19 98]Ae?oaea aea auaeaeytho
i?yiioaieueiua, aeiieeiia?aciua e a?iaiia?aciua oi?iu iaaea?iaee.
Yieoaoee ia iaiyoieeao auiieiaiu a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa ia ea?eoa,
oioy anoue e ia ea?aeineii, ii aa?aeneeie aoeaaie. Iaaea?iaey eiioea
i?ioeiai — ia/aea iuiaoiaai aaea, eae i?aaeei, eiatho aeaoycu/iua
iaaeiene, ia ?onneii e ea?eoa. [ aa? e? n 29-30]

Iaaeiene ?aciauaiu ia naaa?iie oi?oeaaie noi?iia. Ionoonoaea yieoaoee ia
iaeioi?uo iiaeeao iauyniyaony oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui n?aaee ea?aeiia
eoeueoeae?iaaieai aneaoe/aneiai ia?aca aeecie. A iaaeienyo iau/ii
oeacuaaee eiy, ?iaeiaoth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue, aeaoo nia?oe, ?aaea – aa
i?e/eio. Eiiaaea i?eaiaeeee i?ioanneth e ae?oaea naaaeaiey.ia?aaeei
iaaeiene aeeth/atho e?aoeea iaioonoaey oniioaio.[n36 ia? e iau/
iieeaiia] Ec?aaeea ia iiaeeao ano?a/athony oeeoaou ec Aaooiai
Caaaoa.[aao/ena?n 50]

Aeaaeaiee Iaeean a naiai ecaanoiii iooaoanoaee ii E?uio oae iienuaaao
Aaeoa – Oeeiac: «Iaaea?iaiua iaiyoieee aai (eeaaeaeua), oi?ioi
enna/aiiua ec eaiiy, naeaeaiu ii/oe ana ii iaeiiio ia?acoeo e
iaiiieiatho aeae na?eioaaia, ia eiioea eioi?uo iaoiaeeony aicauoaiiay
ieeoa a aeaea o?iioiia ia aeiiao. Ana iaiyoieee noiyo ?yaeii, ia iiiaeo
ec ieo enna/aiu aa?aeneea iaaeiene ».[ n 81 Iaeean]

Oa?aeoa?iay i?eaioe?iaea iiaee – n naaa?a ia tha.[n36 ia? e iau/
iieeaiia] Oe?aoaiey ia iaaea?iaeyo, eae i?aaeei, ionoonoaotho, ec?aaeea
ano?a/aaony i?inoie aaiiao?e/aneee i?iaiaio eeai noeeeciaaiiua
noaiaoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey aea?aaueaa.[n36 ia? e iau/ iieeaiia]

Ia iaeioi?uo iaaea?iaeyo iiaeii oaeaeaoue ?aciiia?aciua neiaieu.
Eeia?enu (neiaie nei?ae) e ?icaoee (neiaie oi? aeanoaa e ?aaeinoiie
aeecie) io?aaeatho iaeiaceeneea ei?ie eoeueoiaie ia?yaeiinoe. Iaeioi?ua
iaaeiiaeeueiua iaiyoieee a aeaea i?yiioaieueiuo noae n iieonoa?e/aneei
ye?aiii iaiiieiatho a?iyineea oa/ea?u (ii anae aeaeeiinoe yoi naycaii n
oai, /oi a *oooo-Eaea auea a?iyineay iaueia). Anoue iaaea?iaey oeia
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a XV-XVIII aa. Iniaaiii
iieacaoaeueiu iaiyoieee, ?acei aueuaeythueany ii a?oeoaeoo?a e
i?iaiaioaeueiui iioeaai, thaeiay i?eaioaoeey eioi?uo oeacuaaao ia
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eiiio iia?aaaeueiiio ia?yaeo, iaaeaee ea?aeineee. A
yieoaoeyo /anoi i?eaiaeyony e?aoeea oeeoaou ec Oaiaoa.

Iacaaiea ianoiinoe, aaea iaoiaeeony eeaaeaeua — Einaoaoiaa aeieeia, —
oiiieiaaony iooaoanoaaiieeaie n eiioea XVIII a. Ii i?aaeaieth, iii
iiyaeeinue a iaiyoue i naiuea, auoaaeoae ec Ea?onaeeia, i?iaeeaaaoae ia
*oooo-Eaea e iioi?iiaiiie ia yoii eeaaeaeua. Anee aa?oiyy
o?iiieiae/aneay a?aieoea nouanoaiaaiey eeaaeaeua onoaiaaeeaaaony aac
iniauo i?iaeai — aoi?ay iieiaeia XIX a., a iineaaeiea caoi?iiaiey — 50-a
aa. XX aa., oi i?iaeaia a?aiaie aicieeiiaaiey iae?iiiey noieo i/aiue
ino?i.

Aii?in i a?aiaie iiyaeaiey eeaaeaeua inoaaony ia?aoaiiui. Iii
a?oaieiae/anee ia enneaaeiaaeinue, ia i?iaiaeeeinue e na?ueaciie ?aaiou
ii nenoaiaoecaoeee e onoaiiaeaieth aeaou aieueoeinoaa iaiyoieeia. [ aa?
e? n 29-30]

Iinea oiai eae aeeoaee iieeioee *oooo-Eaea, eeaaeaeua ia caa?anuaaeinue,
a iaiai?io, noaiiaeeinue a iaeioi?ii ?iaea iaoeeiiaeueiie
onuiaeueieoeae. Caoi?iiaiea caeanue n/eoaeinue ii/aoiui. Eiaiii a yoi
a?aiy iiyaeeenue iaiyoieee, auiieiaiiua ec aei?iaeo ii?iae eaiiy,
iinoaaeaiiua iaae iiaeeaie aiaaouo ea?aeiia. *eaiu aao/ena?aeneie
ea?aeineie iaueiu i?iaeieaeaee oi?iieoue oia?oeo ia yoii eeaaeaeua aei
50-o aa. XX a.

A iaoa a?aiy eeaaeaeua iinoeaea ia/aeueiay o/anoue. Iii i?aeoe/anee ia
eco/aii, ii iaoiieeii ?ac?ooaaony a?aiaiai e /aeiaaeii. A oa/aiea
aeieaeo eao ie?anoiua aeeoaee caeanue aeiauaaee eaiaiue, oi?aaeiyeenue
eeaaeieneaoaee, eioi?ua ?ac?uaaee iiaeeu, ?acaeaaee e ii?ieeaeuaaee
iaiyoieee a iieneao ianouanoaothueo nie?iaeu.[aao/ena? n 50-51]

Iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaoue yoio aii?in. Iaiyoiee ea?aeineie eoeueoo?u o?aaoao
ouaoaeueiiai a?oaieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, eia/a iiiaea aii?inu
ea?aeineie enoi?ee oae e inoaioony aac ioaaoia.

Caeeth/aiea

Oaeei ia?acii, aaoi? aeaiiie ?aaiou a oiaea ?ac?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo a
ia/aea enneaaeiaaiey caaea/, i?eoae e neaaeothuei auaiaeai.

1. Enoi?ey aaiaoi?eeneie ea?aeineie iaueiu yaeyaony oaeoe/anee
iaenneaaeiaaiiie, iao ie iaeiiai o?oaea, iinayuaiiiai aeaiiie oaia.
Ano?a/athony eeoue ioaeaeueiua oiiieiaiey ii yoiio aii?ino a ?aaioao,
iinayuaiiuo enoi?ee e?uineeo ea?aeiia, oae eae iaaiciiaeii, ?anniao?eaay
enoi?eth yoiai ia?iaea ia oaeaeeoue aieiaiea ea?aeineie iaueia
Aaiaoi?ee. Eioa?aniui oaeaea yaeyaony oio oaeo, /oi o/aiua, ?aaioathuea
a yoie iaeanoe oaeoe/anee ia oaeaeytho aieiaiea aeecie e aeayoaeueiinoe
ea?aeineie iaueiu Aaiaoi?ee aei oiai, eae yoio ai?iae noae oeaio?ii
e?uineeo ea?aeiia, oi anoue aei XIX a. Iaeiaei e iinea ia?aiina
ea?aeineie noieeoeu aieiaiea enneaaeiaaoaeae iaei nin?aaeioi/aii ia
aeecie iaueiu, ia nouanoaoao enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ioaeeeaoeee ii yoiio
aii?ino. Yoi, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaony aaeui iyoiii, eae enoi?ee Aaiaoi?ee,
oae e enoi?ee E?uia a oeaeii. Anee i aeecie aaiaoi?eeneie ea?aeineie
iaueiu, ia/eiay n XIX a. iu iiaeai /a?iaoue eia-eaeea naaaeaiey ec
ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe, naycaiiua n aeoeaiie iauanoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoiai ia?iaea, oi i aeecie iaueiu aei
yoiai ia?eiaea a eeoa?aoo?a aiiaua ionoonoaotho eaeea-eeai aeaiiua.
Iiyoiio aei neo ii? iaecaanoii n eaeiai a?aiaie ea?aeiu iiyaeeenue a
Aaiaoi?ee, oioy yoio aii?in yaeyaony i/aiue eioa?aniui, oae eae, ii anae
aeaeeiinoe, aeey ia?aianaiey eoeueoo?iiai oeaio?a ea?aeiia n *oooo-Eaea
eiaiii a yoio ai?iae o aeanoae eiia?ee auee na?ueaciua iniiaaiey. Iaaei
iieaaaoue, aei yoiai a?aiaie a Aaiaoi?ee auea aeinoaoi/ii aieueoay ii
/eneaiiinoe iaueia. Oaeaea i oii, /oi caeanue nouanoaiaaea ea?aeineay
iaueia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oi, /oi a ai?iaea oaea nouanoaiaae ea?aeineee
o?ai, eioi?ue iia auoue aicaeaeaioo oieueei a neo/aa aeinoaoi/ii
ieioiiai ianaeaiey ai?iaea ea?aeiaie. Eoae, yoio aii?in yaeyaony i/aiue
i?iaeaiaoe/iui e o?aaoao ouaoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey. A nayce n yoei
aaoi? aeaiiie ?aaiou ieaie?oao ?anoe?eoue naia enneaaeiaaiea a yoii
iai?aaeaiee.

2. ?aeeaeiciay e naaoneay aeanoue a ea?aeineie iaueia inouanoaeyeanue
aaeeiui i?aaiii. I?aaenoaaeoue no?oeoo?o ea?aeineie iaueiu a oeaeii iu
iiaeai, ?anniio?aa no?oeoo?o aeooiaiiai oi?aaeaiey. Aeaaie ea?aeiia
Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee e ai?iaea Iaeannu aue aaoai, oi anoue ii aicaeaaeye
ea?aeineea iaueiu anao ai?iaeia, iaoiaeyueony ia iiaeaeanoiie aio
oa??eoi?ee.

Oae eae e naaoneia e aeooiaiia i?aaeaiea iaueiu nin?aaeioa/eaaeanue a
?oeao iaeieo e oao aea eeoe, a a iineaaeiaa, e?iia aaoaia, aoiaeeee
aaccaiu e oaiaoe, oi neaaeothuei no?oeoo?iui yeaiaioii yaeythony
aaccaiu. A oeaca io 3 ia?oa 1837 a. aaccaiu e oaiaoe ia?a/eneythony
oaeoe/anee /a?ac caiyooth. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai a naieo
iinoaiiaeaieyo noaaeo eo ia iaeei o?iaaiue. Aaoi? aeaiiie ?aaiou
n/eoaao, /oi anee iiiuoaoueny auno?ieoue ea?a?oeth i?aaeaiey a
ea?aeineie iaueia, oi, ianiio?y ia oeacaiiia auoa ianoiyoaeuenoai, ia
aoi?ia iinea aaoaia ianoi iaiaoiaeeii iinoaaeoue aaccaiia. Aeey aeaiiiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey aaoi? ?aaiou n/eoaao aeinoaoi/iui neaaeothuaa iainiiaaiea:
oio oaeo, /oi ?aeeaeiciia e naaoneia i?aaeaiea niaiaaeaao, aiai?eo i
aeinoaoi/iii, iiaeii aeaaea neacaoue i/aiue neeueiii aaoi?eoaoa
aeooiaiuo eeoe a iaueia. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi oaiaoe, oaeaea eae e
aaccaiu, ioiinyony e ea?aeineiio aeooiaainoao, iie ana-oaee caieiaee
aeieaeiinoue, eioi?ay iiin?aaeiaaiii aeeyao ia i?eoiaeai, a aaccaiu, eae
nayuaiieee, ianiiiaiii eiaee aieueooth aeanoue a iaueia a nayce ni naiei
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeooiaiui aeeyieai ia aa?othueo. I?e eaaeaeie
ea?aeineie eaiana auei aeaa aaccaia: Noa?oee e Ieaaeoee. Iaeiicia/ii
neacaoue, eoi ec ieo eiae aieaa aaniiia iieiaeaiea, ii iiaieth aaoi?a,
iaaiciiaeii. Ii, noaey ii anaio, Noa?oee aaccai auiieiye aieaa cia/eiua
aeey i?eoiaeai iaycaiiinoe, oaeea eae: ia?acaiea iaeue/eeia-ieaaeaioeaa
(ia?aiia/aeueii), ia?a/aiea eiai. Caeeth/aiea e ?anoi?aeaiea a?aeia,
aaaeaiea iao?e/aneeo eiea. *oi eanaaony Ieaaeoaai aaccaia, oi ii
eni?aaeye iieeoau e auiieiye aeooiaiua iio?aau i?eoiaeai. Ai a?aiy
ionoonoaey eee aieacie Noa?oaai aaccaia aai iaycaiiinoe auiieiye
Ieaaeoee.

Eoae, o?aoueei no?oeoo?iui caaiii ea?aeineie iaueiu yaeyeenue oaiaoe,
iaaece?aoaee ca eiouanoaii eaian. A eo iaycaiiinoe aoiaeeei: iao/aiea
aeaoae i?e eaiana, iaaeci? ca eiouanoaii eaian e i?aaeinoaaeaiea a
eiioea aiaea aaoaio io/aoa i iinooieaoeo, ?anoiaeiaaiiuo e inoaaoeony
noiiao.

3. Aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aeineie iaueiu Aaiaoi?ee a XIX a. auea i/aiue
aeoeaiie. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai yoiio yaeyaony ioe?uoea caeanue oeiia?aoee,
nii?oaeaiea iaiyoieea aieiai, iaaoei a aith 5 oaa?aey 1855 a. ca
inaiaiaeaeaiea Aaiaoi?ee. Ii naiie y?eie, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, yaeyaony
ia?aciaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aeineiai ia?iaea a yoio ia?eiae.
Ianiiiaiii, aeey Aaiaoi?ee auei aieueoei aeinoieinoaii iiiaeanoai
ioe?uouo ea?aeiaie o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. Oaeaea a yoio ia?eiae auee
nii?oaeaiu ea?aeineea eaianu, eioi?ua e ii nae aeaiue yaeythony iaeiei
ec e?aneaaeoeo a?oeoaeoo?iuo nii?oaeaiee ai?iaea.

4. A XIX a. ioiioaiea ainoaea?noaa e ea?aeiai auei iieiaeeoaeueiui, a
ioee/ea io ioiioaiey e inoaeueiui iao?enoeaineei ia?iaeai. Ia yoii iu
iiaeai noaeeoue ec caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, iinayuaiiuo i?aaai ea?aeiia.
A yoio ia?eiae ecaeaaony iiiaeanoai aeieoiaioia, eioi?ua iinyo oa?aeoa?
?aca?aie/aiey aa?aaa e ea?aeiia. Eo ecaeatho n oeaeueth iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
oao eee eiuo i?aa ea?aeiia eae iiaeaeaiiuo ?inneeneie eiia?ee, oae eae
ia ianoao e iei i/aiue /anoi i?eiaiyeenue caeiiu, ecaeaiiua
eneeth/eoaeueii aeey aa?aaa.

5. Aiai?y i iaiyoieeao ea?aeineie eoeueoo?u, iau/ii auaeaeytho e?aiinoue
*oooo-Eaea, iaoiaeyueany ?yaeii n iae ea?aeineia eeaaeaeua Aaeoa-Oeeiac
e ea?aeineea eaianu a Aaiaoi?ee. Ana yoe iaiyoieee auee ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu
a yoie ?aaioa. Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia iea/aaiia ninoiyiea
Aaeoa-Oeeiac, eioi?ia ana aieueoa e aieueoa ?ac?ooaaony a?aiaiai e
ioaeaeaaony a ouaoaeueiie ?anoaa?aoeee. Neooaoeey n *oooo-Eaea iaiiiai
iieo/oa, a oii /enea e aeaaiaea?y oneeeyi ea?aeineeo iauei ?aciuo
ai?iaeia, eioi?ua i?iyaeytho eieoeeaoeao a ainnoaiiaeaiee e?aiinoe naieo
i?aaeeia. *oi eanaaony ea?aeineeo eaian Aaiaoi?ee, oi iie
ainnoaiaaeeaathony oieueei oneeeyie ianoiie ea?aeineie iaueiu.
Ieaie?oaony ?anoaa?aoeey Eaoaae?aeueiie eaianu, a Iaeie eaiana ?aaoey?ii
i?ioiaeyo aiaineoaeaiey.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aa?iao I. A. A Aaiaoieth – ca caei?iaueai. Iooaaiaeeoaeue – ni?aai/iee.
– Neio.: Aecian – eioi?i, 1999. – 160 n. 12 e. ee.

Aao/ena?aeneee enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iue caiiaaaeiee: Iooaaiaeeoaeue/
?aae.-nino. TH.I. Iiaa?e/aa. – Neio.: Oaa?ey, 1995. – 64 n. ee.

Aaiaoi?ey eae eo?i?o e eeeiaoe/aneay noaioeey. – Ecaeaoaeuenoai
Aaiaoi?eeneie ai?iaeneie oi?aau, 1910. – 32 n.

Aa?ae E?uia. I/a?ee enoi?ee. Iiae ?aae. Eoiaaa Ae. – Neio., 1997. – 127
n.

Ea?aineay ia?iaeiay yioeeeeiiaaeey. Iiae ?aae. Na?a/ I. N. A 10-oe
oiiao. O. 1. – I., 1995. – 243 n.

Ea?aineay ia?iaeiay yioeeeeiiaaeey. Iiae ?aae. Na?a/ I. N. A 10-oe
oiiao. O.2. – Ia?eae, 1996. – 169 n.

E?ui iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue. Nino. Noaiaiiaa I. A. – Neio.: Oaa?ey, 1988. –
144 n.

E?uineay ANN? (1921 – 1945). Nino.Ai?aoiia TH. E. – Neio.: Oaa?ey, 1990.
– 320 n.

E?ui. Nioeaaoea iaoeeiiaeueiuo eoeueoo?. O?aaeeoeee, iau/ae, i?acaeieee,
ia?yaeu. Nino. I.A. Iaeuoaaa, I.I Aieiuoe – Neio.: Aecian-Eioi?i, 2003.
– 400 n. N ee.

Eaaaaeaaa Y.E. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee e?uineeo ea?aeiia-oth?eia. – Neio.,
2000. – 146 n.

Iaoa?eaeu e na?ee «Ia?iaeu e eoeueoo?u». Auione 14.Ea?aeiu.Ei. 2.
Ea?aeineee aeia?aoe/aneee neiaa?ue (io eiioea VIII a. aei 1960 a.).
Neiaa?ue ninoaaee Aeueyoaae/ A. N. – I., 1993th – 238 n.

Iieeaiia TH. A. Ea?ae – e?uineea ea?aeiu – oth?ee. Enoi?ey. Yoiia?aoey.
Eoeueoo?a. – Neio., 1997. – 146 n.

Iieeaiia TH. A. Ea?ae – e?uineea ea?aeiu (ea?ae – ei?aiiie iaei/eneaiiue
oth?eneee ia?iae E?uia). – Ia?eae,1995. – 245 n.

Iieeaiia TH. A. Ia?yaeu e iau/ae e?uineeo ea?aeiia-oth?eia. AEaieoueaa,
?iaeaeaiea ?aaaiea, iioi?iiu. – Aao/ena?ae, 1994. – 52 n.

Iieyeia A. E?ui. Noaeueau ia?iaeia e ethaeae. Neio., 1998. – 270 n.

Iueyieia A.A. Any Aaiaoi?ey. Aae?an – Eaeaiaea?ue- Ni?aai/iee ca 1913 a.
n i?eeiaeaieai ieaia ai?iaea Aaiaoi?ey. – Aaiaoi?eeneay oeiia?aoey E.O.
?aeoaeueniia, 1913. – 76 n.

Nai?iee noa?eiiuo a?aiio e ocaeiiaiee ?inneeneie eiia?ee eanaoaeueii
i?aa e ninoiyiey ?onnei-iiaeaeaiuo ea?aeiia. Ecaeaiea Oe?eiae/a C.A. –
NIa.: Eaoooeianeay Ia?iaay Nei?iia/aoiy I.I. ssaeiineiai, 1890.-223 n.

Niooiee ii ai?iaeo Aaiaoi?ey. Ecaeaiea ai?iaeneie oi?aau. – 1916. – 36
n.

Neaicue aaea. Ia?iaeu E?uia. Auione aoi?ie. Iiae ?aae. Ieeieaaiei I. e
ae?. – Neio., 1996. – 87 n.

O?ouaa A. E. , Aaaaeaeaiyi I. A. Eo?i?o – Aaiaoi?ey. – Neio., 2003. –
?en. 45, oaae. 52, oioia?. 279.

Ooee A. Ea?aeiu – nuiiauey e aei/a?e ?innee. – I.: Eioa?i?eio, 1995. –
152 n.

Oaioae N. Ea?aeiu a E?uio. E?aoeee i/a?e. Neio., 2003. – 48 n.

sseia/ee A. N. ?onnei-ea?aeineee ?acaiai?iee – O?oneua?ae eaeuu?aeueueu.
– Neio.: Oaa?ey, 1993. – 112 n.

Noaouee

Aaaao A. E?uineea ea?aeiu – oth?ee. // E?uineea ecaanoey. – 1997. – 16
ai?aey.

Aaeue I.A. Ec enoi?ee ea?aeineie iaueiu E?uia a eiioea VIII- ia/aea XIX
a. // E?uineee iocae. – 1995. – ?1(1994.)

Eaiaaneee N. Oaaa/iue aaia?ae.//AN. – 2003. – ?48(16 aeaeaa?y).

Ea?aeiu a O?aeae (O?e noaouee ec O?aeaeneie ?aeiiiie aacaou 1957 aiaea)
Iauanoai io?aiu iaiyoieeia e e?aaaaaeaiey Eeoianeie NN?.Naeoeey
ea?aeiiaaaeaiey O?aeaeneiai ioaeaeaiey. – O?aeae, aeaeaa?ue 1969 aiaea.

E?uineea ea?aeiu-oth?ee (e?uineea ea?ae)// A?ae?iaeaeaiiy. – 1997. – ?
2.

Eoooeue N. Eueoa a Aeaeee. I oaiaeaioeeiciinoe a aii?ina yoiina e?uineeo
ea?aeiia .// Aaiaoi?eeneay cae?aaieoea. – 1997. – 6, 12, 13, 14 aaaonoa.

Eoooeue N. N ethaiaueth e Aaiaoi?ee.// Aaiaoi?eeneay cae?aaieoea. –
1991. – 26, 27,31 ethey.

Iaaeaieiaa I.Aeaenaiae?ianeia ea?aeineia aeooiaiia o/eeeua a
Aaiaoi?ee.// Ieeea?eiu E?uia. – inaiue1999. Iaoa?eaeu IV Iaaeaeoia?.
iao/.-i?aeo. eiio.: A 2 o. – Neio.: E?uineee A?oea, 2000.

Iaaeaieiaa I. Aaeeinoaaiiia a ?innee.// Aaiaoi?eeneay cae?aaieoea. –
1995. – 25 ia?oa.

Iieeaiia TH. Aa?ieniiaaaeaiea ea?aeineia. // Iaoea e ?aeeaey. – 1993. –
9 naioya?y.

Iieeaiia TH.A. Eoeueoo?a e?uineeo ea?aeiia: a/a?a, naaiaeiy, caao?a.//
Eoeueoo?a E?uia ia ?oaaaea aaeia (XIX – XXaa.). Iaoa?eaeu
?anioaeeeaineie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee 27 – 29 ai?aey 1993.- 120 n.

Iiiiyo eaiie Aeaeooo – Eaea neaae iaeiai, ii neaaiiai ia?iaea.//
E?uineea ecaanoey. – 2003. – ?36 (25 oaa?aey).

Iooaoanoaea ii E?uio aeaaeaieea Iaeeana a 1793 e 1794 aiaeao.//Caienee
eiia?aoi?neiai Iaeanneiai iauanoaa enoi?ee e ae?aaiinoae. O. 12. –
Iaeanna, 1881. – 208 n.

I?eaeiaa N. Ea?aeineea eieae, ecaeaiiua a Aaiaoi?ee.//

?aaeueeeia E. E. Yoiiiaaeaaiaeea ea?aeiia E?uia. Iiiia?aoey. E.:
Iaaeaaia?/ia i?ana, 2000. – 195 n.

Naiua ei?aiiua.// ?onneee ie?. – 2002. – ?19.- 9 aaaonoa.

Noa?eeia N. Ia?auaynue e enoi?ee.// E?uineea ecaanoey. – 2000. – ? 15. –
27 yiaa?y.

Oaeoai E. Aaeoa – Oeeiac.// E?uineea ecaanoey.- 1998. – ?19 (31 yiaa?y).

Oaeoai E.A. I noaeueaao ea?aeineeo eaian a E?uio.//Iauaineay aacaoa. –
1994. – ? 22(26 ia?oa).

E?iiioia A.N.Enoi?ey ea?aeiia. – 2001. – 171 n.(?oeiienue / aeaeeioaea
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ea?aeineiai iauanoaa «

I?eeiaeaiea

*enei iaaeaeueiuo o?ieia a «Ea?aeineii o/eeeua Nieiiiia Eiaaia»
(i?eeiaeaiea i?eaaaeaii a ia?aiia/aeueiii i?iaeoa iieiaeaiey ia
o/?aaeaeaiee o/eeeua)

Aeaooaiaee/iua eo?nu Anaai

I

eeann II

eeann III

eeann

Ea?aeineia aa?io/aiea e ae?aaiaaa?aeneee ycue 7 9 9 25

?onneia /oaiea e ienueii e ?onneee ycue 9 5 4 18

A?eoiaoeea 6 3 3 12

I?aeoe/aneay aaiiao?ey – – 2 2

Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey e aaia?aoey – 4 3 7

Anoanoaaiiay enoi?ey e oeceea – 2 2 4

*enoiienaiea e /a?/aiea 3 2 2 7

25 25 25 75

Enoi/iee: Ainoaea?noaaiiue a?oea A?E. O. 241: – Ii.1. – Ae. 500. – E.
13.

I?eeiaeaiea

*enei iaaeaeueiuo o?ieia a «Ea?aeineii o/eeeua Nieiiiia Eiaaia»
(i?eeiaeaiea i?eaaaeaii a eciaiaiiii i?iaeoa iieiaeaiey ia o/?aaeaeaiee
o/eeeua)

Aeaooaiaee/iua eo?nu Anaai

I

eeann II

eeann III

eeann

Ea?aeineia aa?io/aiea e ae?aaiaaa?aeneee ycue 9 8 8 25

?onneia /oaiea e ienueii e ?onneee ycue 8 6 4 18

A?eoiaoeea 5 4 3 12

I?aeoe/aneay aaiiao?ey – – 2 2

Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey e aaia?aoey – 2 3 5

Anoanoaiaaaeaiea – 2 2 4

*a?/aiea e ?eniaaiea 3 2 2 7

25 25 25 75

I?eia/aiea 1: eaaeaeue o?ie i?iaeieaeaeny 1 /an;

I?eia/aiea 2: iaiea e aeiianoeea iieaaathony aia eeanniiai a?aiaie, e ia
ieo iacia/aaony ii o?e /ana a iaaeaeth.

Enoi/iee: Ainoaea?noaaiiue a?oea A?E. O. 241: – Ii.1. – Ae. 500. – E.
38.

2 Aiaeiniaaaeaiea Aace?aa

2.1 Enoi?ey eco/aiey.

N?aaeiaaaeiaay nenoaia aiaeiniaaaeaiey ai?iaea au? iaei eco/aia. Anee
aai iacaiiua iano?ieee iiaeii iaeoe ia ieaiao 18 a., a a?oeaiuo aeaiiuo
iaoa?eaeao e iienaieyo iooaoanoaaiieeia, oi ne?uoua a caiea
aeae?ioaoie/aneea eiiioieeaoeee i?ineaaeeaathony oieueei a?oaieiae/anee.

Iacaiiua aeae?ioaoie/aneea nii?oaeaiey oiiieiathony a iienaieyo ai?iaea
17-18 aa. Oo?aoeeee iooaoanoaaiiee 17 a. Yaeey *aeaae i?eaiaeeo aeaiiua
i eiee/anoaa aeae?ioaoie/aneeo nii?oaeaiee Aace?aa e aea?o
ianoi?aniieiaeaiea iaeioi?uo ec ieo. I. N. Iaeean e I. E. Noia?ieia a
eiioea 18 a. oiiieiatho oaea ?ac?ooaiioth nenoaio aiaeiniaaaeaiey.

Ii?aaeae?iioth eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii ecaea/ue ec ieaiia ai?iaea
ninoaaeaiiuo a 18 ia/. 19 a. Ec anao ecaanoiuo ieaiia ai?iaea eeoue 11
niaea?aeao aeaiiua ii ?anniio?aieth yoiai aii?ina. Yoe aeaiiua
iauaaeeiaiu a noaio ia iniiaa ieaia 1771 a.

E niaeaeaieth, ia?aue ?inneeneee «Ieai e?aiinoe e aaaaie e?uineiai
ai?iaea Eiceiaa», ninoaaeaiiue ai a?aiy caiyoey ai?iaea aieneaie Ieieoa
a 1736 a., i/aiue noaiaoe/ai aeaeo e?aoeia?aiaiiinoe i?aauaaiey aiene.
Ia iai iaicia/aiu eeoue ia/aoe, eiioo?u e?aiinoiuo noai e i?eai?iaeu.
Enoi/ieee ieoueaaie aiaeu ia ioia/aiu, oioy ec ainiiieiaiee o/anoieea
E?uineiai iioiaea ecaanoii, /oi «… ii aei?iaa e Eiceiao aaeeeee aue a
aiaea iaaeinoaoie. »

Ia?aua oiiieiaiey i nenoaia aiaeiniaaaeaiey ano?a/athony ia ieaia «…
ai?iaea Eiceiaa n iieacaieai aioo?e e aia aai no?iaiee, eioi?ue io
?inneeneeo aiene caiyo aue 1771 aiaea ethiy 21 aeiy». A i?aaii ieaeiai
oaeo ieaia i?eaaaeaiu aeaa ?ac?aca «aannaeiia». Iaa aannaeia iaianaiu
ia?aaeie e ?aniieiaeaiu ?yaeii ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Inoaeueiua ieaiu ai?iaea auiieiaiu iaa?aaeii: eneaaeaia eiioeao?aoeey
noai, au/a?/aiiiio i?aii?ueeii Ea?eiiii; «… a aeece n i?aniie aiaeie
?a/ae ia eiaaony, a aeiaieuenoaoaony oi?ioae aiaeie ec eieiaeoeaa, eieo
ia aei?iaao aeiaieueii.»

A 1775 a. ia/a?/ai au? iaeei ieai ai?iaea n « iayaeauath ieiei aai aei
oao aa?no neooaoeeath», oaeaea niaea?aeauee iaicia/aiey «aannaeiia» e
eieiaeoeaa. Eioa?anai ia aeaoe?iaaiiue ieai n oane?iaeie noai e?aiinoe.
Ia iai ioia/aiu 4 oiioaia e aaiy i?ioea oaineie ia/aoe.

A ia/aea 1784 a. aaia?aeii ii?o/eeii I. A. Eaaeueno?iiii a e?uineea
ai?iaea auee ?acineaiu i?aeaia n o?aaiaaieyie iienaiey ai?iaeia,
e?aiinoae e ae?oaeo aeinoieiuo aieiaiey caeaiee. Aace?a aue ii?o/ai
iieeiaieeo Naeeaanoi?o, eioi?ue n?aco aea ?aii?oii iino?iee i?eneaoue
ioeoea?a aeey ninoaaeaiey ieaia ai?iaea.

Ia iaeaeai e ieai eiioea 18 a., ninoaaeaiiue aeecaeia?ii
eaa?oe?iaenoa?ii, ii?o/eeii AEoeiaui. Nio?aieeny eeno i?eeiaeaiey e
aeaiiiio aeieoiaioo n ieaiaie e aeaeaie Oaineie ia/aoe, oanoe oiioaiia,
«icia/aiiuo ia ieaia oeeo?aie», a oaeaea ?ac?aca e ieaia, yiu ca
Aeaia/aoneei oo?o?aoii, ec eiae iin?aaenoaii eieana, e eioi?iio
oiio?aaeyeenue /aou?a eioaaee aeey aani?a?uaiiai aeaeaeaiey, auoyaeaaee
aiaeo, eioi?ay ?anoiaeeeanue ii anai ai?iaeneei oiioaiai, a oaia?ue oaea
ianeieueei eao iiay aacaeaenoaey e iaaaeeaaeanue»

Iineaaeothuea ieaiu ai?iaea e aai o/anoieeia eiioea 18- ia/. 19 a. a
iniiaiii oaeaeyao aieiaiea ia noieueei ai?iaeo neieueei iino?iaieyi aia
aai ie?oae eaca?iai Aaeaaaneiai iieea, ea?aioeio, ?aaeooai e
i?iaeaioneei neeaaeai.

A 30-o aa. 18 a. a nayce n iaoaaoeie aiaeu a ai?iaea i?aaei?eieiaeenue
iiiuoee ainnoaiiaeoue oaoa?neoth nenoaio aiaeiniaaaeaiey. A ethia 1832
a. /eiiaiee ii eneonnoaaiiie /anoe a?oeoaeoi? TH. A?eaeeeia ioe?uaaao
o/anoie ae?aaiaai aiaeii?iaiaea e i?ineo o Oaa?e/aneiai a?aaeaeaineiai
aoaa?iaoi?a A. E. Eacia/aaaa n?aaenoa aeey aai ainnoaiiaeaiey. ?aaiou
i?iaiaeeeenue a 1832-1833 aa. e a 1835a.

Iaoiaeee ea?aie/aneeo o?oa aucaaee aieueoie eioa?an, eae o aeeoaeae
ai?iaea, oae e o iooaoanoaaiieeia. Iinaoeaoee Aaiaoi?eth a 1836 a. I.
Io?caeaae/ ia?aaiaeee oaeia oaoa?neia iacaaiea ai?iaea Aace?aa eae
«iiaecaiaeuea», ioia/ay, /oi «…inoaoee aiaeii?iaiaeia, eioi?uie ai?iae
eciaeeiaae i?e aeaaeaiee oaoa?, ninoaaeytho oaeea iiaecaiaeuey…» . Ii ia
aeaeueiaeoaa enneaaeiaaiea aiaeii?iaiaei, oai aieaa ia aai
ainnoaiiaeaiea, aeaiueae ia auee ioiouaiu. Aa?iyoii, yoi naycaiii n oai,
/oi a 1834 a. a ai?iaea aue ioe?uo a?oaceaineee ai?eciio. Ia?aue
a?oaceaineee eieiaeaoe, aeoaeiie aei 60 naaeai, aeaaae a nooee ieiei
8000 a?aea? aiaeu.

Ianiio?y ia yoi, eioa?an e ae?aaiei aiaeii?iaiaeai ia en/ac. A
«Ecaanoeyo» Oaa?e/aneie aoaa?iee a?oaieiae/aneie eiiennee ano?a/athony
niiauaiey i aeaea ? 161 Oaa?e/aneiai aoaa?ineiai i?aaeaiey io 2 ai?aey
1840 a., ec eioi?iai neaaeoao, /oi: «…eni?aaeythuee aeieaeiinoue
aaiaoi?eeneiai aoaa?ineiai caieaia?a Eaiaoaae/ aucaaeny ioe?uoue a
Aaiaoi?ee ae?aaiaeoee aiaeii?iaiae. Aoaa?iaoi? i?eienae ai?iaeneie aeoia
ioionoeoue aio ia ?anoiaeu aei 25 ?oaeae. Eaiaoaae/ ia/ae ?uoue ia
?aciuo oeeoeao e ai aeai?ao e, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, ioe?ue aannaei, eioi?ue
a?oeoaeoi?ii Aeaai aue iaeaeai eioa?aniui ii ae?aaiaio aai ono?ienoao.
II iieeoeey iiaeaeiaaeanueTH /oi Eaiaoaae/ ?ac?ue oeeoeu e aeaeaao eo
iaoaeiaiuie; ai?iaeneay Aeoia oiaea ia aac iniiaaiey niiiaaaeanue a
iieueca iieneia Eaiaoaae/a, e aeaei oai e caeii/eeinue.» Aoaa?ineee
a?oeoaeoi? Aeaai i?iaeoe?iaae a 1839-1842 aa. oiioai e i?e a?oaceaineie
neaaaeeia a Aaiaoi?ee.

Ii e iinea yoiai iaoaea/iiai iiuoa iiaecaiaeuey noaee i?eaeaeaoue
aieiaiea enneaaeiaaoaeaeA. O. Eiiaea?aee a 80-o aiaeao 19 a. ioia/aao
iyoue iiaecaiiuo oiaeia, Naycuaay eo iino?ieeo n ae?aaiaa?a/aneie
Ea?eeiaoeaeie. Ii eeoue iaeei ec ioia/aiiuo ei oiaeia, ?aniieiaeaiiue ai
aeai?a aiaoieeeoea*eiaa?i, auoiaeeaoeo e eieiaeoeo, eiaao einaaiiia
ioiioaiea e aiaeiniaaaeaieth.

A 1914a. Oaa?e/aneee aoaa?ineee noaoanoe/aneee eiieoao ?annueaao
oee?eoey?iua ienueia n o?aaiaaieyie i?aaeinoaaeaiey naaaeaiee «…i
ae?aaieo e?aiinoiuo, iiaecaiiuo nii?oaeaieyo, i i?aaeaieyo e ?anneacao
nouanoaothueo i iaua?ao, ?acaieie/ueeo eeaaeao, iiaecaiiuo oiaeao i
i?iaaeao ii/au e ae?oaia. » E eeoue a 1916-1917aa. ai a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey
/eaiii eiia?aoi?neie a?oaieiae/aneie eiiennee E. A. Ianaaaui «
Enneaaeiaaiey a ioiioaiee ai?iaeneeo enoi/ieeia», ei iiiooii n aioe/iuie
iaiyoieeaie auee iaia?oaeaiu neaaeu ae?aaieo aeae?iaee/aneeo nii?oaeaiee
ii ie?aeia Aaiaoi?ee. Ii aea aia?aua niiinoaaee aaiaoi?eeneea aaea?ae n
e?aineie nenoaiie aiaeiniaaaeaiey – ey?ecaie.

E niaeaeaieth, ?acoeueoaou yoeo enneaaeiaaiee auee iioaeeeiaaiu a aeaea
e?aoeiai aeieeaaea. Iieaaua aeiaaieee 1916-1917 aa. niaea?aeao eeoue o?e
eenoa, oiiieiathueo i iiaecaiaeueyo.

A e?aaaaae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ioiaoei aoi?ia ecaeaiea iooaoanoaaiieeia ii
ai?iaeo A. A. Eiaaneiai, aaea i?eaaae?i o?aaiaio noaouee Ia?/aiei e
aeaia e?aoeay enoi?ey enneaaeiaaiey aace?aneiai aiaeii?iaiaea.

E?iia yoiai, a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai iaaethaeaiey ca oiaeii
caiaeueiuo ?aaio a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao ai?aea, auyaeaiu ioaeaeueiua
o/anoee aii/a?iiai aiaeii?iaiaea, acyou ia?acoeu o?oa.

A 1990a. ey?ecu ?aoaieai iaeanoiiai eniieeiia acyou iiae
ainoaea?noaaiioth io?aio eae enoi?e/aneee iaiyoiee, /oi ia iaoaao
nioneaoue a ieo eaiaeecaoeeth eee na?anuaaoue ioni?. A /anoiinoe,
aoiaeiie eieiaeaoe ii oeeoea Ae?iuoaaa, 79 oaea canuiai no?ieoaeueiui
ioni?ii.

Iaiauay auoaeceiaeaiiua aeaiiua e aeiiieiyy eo iaoo?aeueiuie
ianeaaeiaaieyie, iu i?eoiaeei e auaiaeo /oi aeae?ioaoie/aneea
nii?oaeaiey Aace?aa ninoiyee ec eieiaeoeaa, aiaeii?iaiaeiuo iaoaieciia,
aiaeii?iaiaeia (a aeaea i?ieiaeaiiuo a aaea?ayo ey?ecia e i?inoi
oeiaeaiiuo iiae caie?e aii/a?iuo o?oa, aueiaeaiiuo eaiiai eaiaeia) e
aiaei?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai nii?oaeaiey, ioeoaea aiaea iiaeaaaeanue e
ai?iaeneei oiioaiai ia oeeoeao, i?e ia/aoyo, aaiyo iinoiyeuo aeai?ao.
?anniio?ei ii iiae?iaiaa yoe nii?oaeaiey.

2.2 Ey?eciay nenoaia

Ey?ecu ano?a/athony a E?aia, Naaa?iie Ao?eea, Oo?oeee, Aoaaienoaia,
N?aaeiae Acee e a Ainoi/iii Caeaaeacuea. A E?uio ey?ecu iaia?oaeaiu a
Aaiaoi?ee e Noa?ii E?uio.

A ianoiyuea a?aiy a Aaiaoi?ee ecaanoiu aeaa o/anoea iaeiiai e oiai aea
ey?eca, ?acaeae?iiui o/anoeii aaea?ae: caiaaeiie e ainoi/iie.

Caiaaeiue o/anoie eo/oa nio?aieeny. Aai aeeeia 346 i. Ii ia/eiaaony a
?aeiia aeiia ?53 ii oe. 13-ai Iiya?y, e ninoieo ec eieiaeoeaa,
niaaeei?iiuo iaaeaeo niaie au?oaeaiiuie a ecaanoiyeiaie neaea aaea?ayie.

Anaai auyaeaii 9 caeiaeaiiuo eieiaeoeaa a?aiaie nii?oaeaiey ey?eca. Iie
neoaeeee ioi?aaiuie ioieoaie a auai?a iai?aaeaiey ey?eca. Iie neoaeeee
ioi?aaiuie oi/eaie a auai?a iai?aaeaiey aaea?ae, ?aai/eie oaooaie aeey
auaiee a?oioa e aaioeeyoeee. E?iia oiai, a iicaeiaeoaa a?aiy a aaea?ath
ey?ecu i?eaeou aeaa eieiaeoea aeey aiaeu.

A ieaia oneiaiay eeiey, niaaeeiythuay ey?eciua eieiaeoeu, eiaao ieaaiue
ecaea. No?ieoaee ey?eca iaioee n naaa?a aicauoaiiinoue, oyiouayny n
thai-ainoiea ia naaa?i-caiaae, iia e nae/an i?ineaaeeaaaony ii oe.
Oiea?aaa iaaeaeo ia?ae??noeaie n oe. Aaaa?eia e 13-ai Iiya?y, ii ieaio
1784a. ia yoie aicauoaiiinoe aeeaea e ai?iaeo ?aniieaaaeinue
ionoeueiaineia eeaaeaeua. I?ioiaeyuee ii ieceia ia?o?oo nie?auae aeoaeio
eieiaeoeaa. Aa?iyoii, eieiaeoeu ? 8,9 ?ueenue ?yaeii n oaea
nouanoaothueie iino?ieeaie.

?anniio?ei ia i?eia?a iaeiiai ec eieiaeoeaa oaoieeo i?ioiaeee aaea?ae.
Noaie eieiaeoea aeeaiao?ii ieiei 1.3-1.4 i, iioneaynue aei o?iaiy
iioieea aaea?ae, ia?aoiaeeo a iiae i?yiioaieueiia iiiauaiea 2.35 i,
neoaeeaoaa ia?aiia/aeueii eaia?ie au?aaioee. Aai aeii (iiaa?oiinoue
ia?aiai yoaia au?aaioee) ia aeioiaeeo aei aeia aaea?ae ia 1.2 i.
Neaaeothuee iioneaeny ieaea ia 1111.2-1.4 i. e o?e aneaae ca ia?aui.
Eiiaaea ca n/ao ?acieoeu a oe?eia eaia?u au?aaioee ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo
nicaeaaaeanue ieiuaaeea aeey iiaeioau eeaaeee i?iaeieueiuo noai
eieiaeoea. A iineaaeothuai, ia yoe noaiu oeeaaeuaaeinue ia?ae?uoea e
auoaeaaeauay oaooa eieiaeoea aei onouey canuiaeenue eaiiai (a?oio ai
a?aiy aeiaeaeae iia aeaaaoue i?ioa/eo e caa?yciyoue aaea?ath). Eeaaeea
noai iinoaeenoay, n nio?aiaieai ?yaeiinoe, ianooi. I?aaeiieiaeaiea i
oii, /oi i?iiaaeooie iaaeaeo eeaaeeie e neaeueiie noaiie eieiaeoea
caaooiauaaeny ia iiaeoaa?aeeeinue, /a?ac auaae eaiiy naaa?i-caiaaeiie
noaiu eieiaeoea e iaeaeai aoi?ie neie eeaaeee.

Aeey inaauaiey no?ieoaee iieueciaaeenue naaoeeueieeaie, aeey eioi?uo a
noaieao aaea?ae au?oaaeenue iaaieueoea (0.17o 0.2o 0.17 i.) auaiee. Iie
ano?a/athony ia oieueei a i?e iioiei/iie /anoe aaea?ae, ii e ia
?annoiyiee 0.8-1i. ieaea iioieea. Ionoonoaea e?oiiuo iyoai iaai?i ia
iioieea oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi oaeaeu ia i?eiaiyeenue ec-ca aieueoiai
iiaeiuaiey eenei?iaea i?e nai?aiee.

Noaiee aaea?ae eciaioou, eiiaaea oiae ?acai?a/eaaaony aieueoa /ai ia
90. Anee ?annoiyiea e ii i?yiie iaaeaeo eieiaeoeaie ? 4 e ? 5 – 30 i, oi
aeeeia aaea?ae iaaeaeo ieie- 41.5 i. I/aaeaeii a ioee/ee
n?aaeiaaceaoneeo ey?ecia, aaea eieiaeoeu ?ueenue iineaaeiaaoaeueii, ii
ia?a nii?oaeaiey oiaea, ey?ecu ia caiaaeiii o/anoea au?oaaeenue a
neeaaea aeaoiy a?eaaaeaie, iaeiia?aiaiii eaeouei ae?oa e ae?oao.
Iinoaiaiii naeeaeaynue, iie ii caoeo ii?aaeaeyee ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea
ae?oaie a?eaaaeu e ei??aeoe?iaaee iai?aaeaiea. Noiaeyueany einua neaaeu
au?oaie io/?oeeai aeaeiu ia noaiao aaea?ae. ?aaioa aeaoiy a?eaaaeaie ia
oieueei nie?auaea a?aiy i?ioiaeee, ii e oiaiueoaea aeeeio au?aaioee,
iaeaa/ay aaioeeyoeeth. Noaey ii neaaeai ca?oaie ia noaiao oe?eiie 3 ni.,
aeey ?aaiou eniieueciaaeanue ee?ea, aiaeiae/iay oai, /oi e nae/an
i?eiaiythony n?aaeiaaceaoneeie ey?ecieeaie

Ecaanoiye ioaeaeyeny ioaeaeueiuie neiyie iinea ?ac?oaee aa?oeeaeueiuo
eaiaaie aaeieue noai Iioieie aaea?ae oaeaea eiaao neaaeu iiaeo?nee.

Aunioa aaea?ae ia caiaaeiii o/anoea( io caaaea iiae aeai?ii aeiia ?53/54
ii oeeoea 13 Iiya?y aei eieiaeoea a aeai?a aeiia ?79 ii oeeoea Ae?iuoaaa
) io 1.4 aei 2 i. oe?eia 0.6 aei 0.8 i. Aeoaeia eieiaeoea-9 i. Aeaeaa e
ainoieo, aei caaaea iiae aeiiiaeaaeaieai ?17 ii oeeoea E. Oienoiai,
aunioa onooiii ieiei 1 i. iaaeaeo eieiaeoeaie 8 e 9 au?anoaao aei 9.3i.,
a oe?eia a ioaeaeueiuo ianoao aei 1 i. Aieueoay aunioa aaea?ae naycaia
ni no?oeoo?ie ecaanoiyea, eioi?ue e ainoieo io eieiaeoea ?7 auoa 1.5-2
i. io iiea aaea?ae eiaao aieaa iyaeoth no?oeoo?o ca n/ao aieueoie
i?eiane ia?aaey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai e?iaey a caaia e?aneeanue e a?
o?iaaiue i?eoiaeeeinue iiaeieiaoue aei oao ii?, iiea ia iiiaaeaeanue
ieioiay i?ineieea. Oaie iaaeaiey ieanoia ecaanoiyea e thai-caiaaeiiio
ieiei o??o a?aaeonia. Oeeii eiaea aaea?ae a n?aaeiai 1/2000

Iinea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie «nooie» i?ioiaeee aaea?ae a a? eiaea au?oaaeenue
eaiaaee aeey ea?aie/aneeo o?oa, Iie ia ii oeaio?o aaea?ae, iiaoi?yy a?
ecaeau, ii e?io/aeoae eeiee. O?oau aeeeiie 0.4 i. e aeeaiao?ii
0.14-0.16i. n iiiiuueth aooeee ninoueiauaaeenue ae?oa n ae?oaii, oia
ni/eeiaiey caiieiai ecaanoiyeiaui ?anoai?ii. Iinea iiioaaea eaiaaea
ia?ae?uaaeanue eaiiai e i?enuiaeanue neiai ioana oieueiie 0.15-0.35 i.
I?e oeo?iaea a ioana eaeiai-eeai a?oaieiae/aneiai iaoa?eaea ia iaeaeaii.
Canuiue caiaaeiiai e ainoi/iiai ooieeia niaea?aeeo iaoa?eae ia ?aiaa
ia/aea 20 aaea (o?aaiaiou noaeeyiiie iinoaeu, iaoaeee/aneie noaiee
e?iaaoe e o. ae.)

A 0.35i. e ainoieo io caeiaeaiiiai eieiaeoea ?8 iaia?oaeai aiaeinoieiee
i?ioeeaeoe/aneie i/enoee aiaeii?iaiaea io eea. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaaieueooth /aou??ooaieueioth ieoo (0.32o0.2o0.46 i.) ia?ae?uooth
aunooiathuai iaae iieii ieeoie 0.24 i. o. a. eo iiaeioaa eaaeeo ia
iiaa?oiinoe aei ea?aie/aneie o?oau. Ieaea eaaeauay iiaa?oiinoue
aiaeii?iaiaea-neaeueiay iie?uoay aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiui ?anoai?ii. (I?e
no?ieoaeuenoaa aeae?ioaoie/aneeo nii?oaeaiee eniieueciaaeenue ?anoai?u
«oi?anae» -nianue aeae?aaee/aneie ecaanoe n oie/aiiie ea?aieeie e «eae»
aiaeiiai?iieoeaaiay yeanoe/iay caiacea ec niane iaaao?iiie ecaanoe n
aa?aiiui ianeii e oeii/aoie aoiaaie.) Iiaeiaiua niio?aaua eieiaeoeu
ecaanoiu a E?uio au? ni a?ai?i aioe/iinoe.

Caiaaeiue o/anoie i?ieaeai aei iiaeaaea iiae aeiiiaeaaeaieai ?17 ii
oeeoea E. Oienoiai, aaea a aaea?ath i?iaeoa neeaiay o?oaa nia?aiaiiiai
ooaeaoa, e oiae ia i?ioyaeaiee 9.5i. caiieiai oaeaeeyie. Ec-ca
aicaeaenoaeyie eaiaeecaoeeiiiuo neeaia ia ecaanoiye iiaa?oiinoue noai
ia?ooaaony e aeii aua?aaiie yiu iie?uoi inuiaaoainy ni noai eaiiai.
Naaa?i-ainoi/iay noaiea aua?aaiie yiu i?aaenoaaeyao niaie onooi,
iiieaeathuee iioieie aaea?ae ia 1.8 i. Ia o?iaia ca?eaea neeaiuo aiae
aeaeii i?iaeieaeaiea oiaea. I?e ii?ina ianoiuo aeeoaeae auynieeinue, /oi
a 1900aiaeo ai aeai?a iai?ioea (?26 ii oeeoea E. Oienoiai) i?e
no?ieoaeuenoaa iniio?aiiie yiu aue iaeaeai o/anoie aaea?ae caiieiaiiie
oaeaeeyie, o. a. iai?yioth naycaiiue n aua?aaiie yiie aeiia ?17. E
niaeaeaieth ii aue canuiai e caeeo oeaiaioii.

Caiaaeiue e?ae aaea?ae ia?aoiaeeo a i?yiioaieueiia iiiauaiea, caaaeaiiue
no?ieoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii. A iai oaeaeinue i?ineaaeeoue o/anoie naaa?iie
noaiu aeeeiie 3.5i. e ainoieo e 2.5 i. e thao. Oaeu iiiauaiey iiea ia
iaeaeaiu, ii auyaeaiiua ?acia?u neeoeii aaeeee aeey i?iiaaeooi/iiai
eieiaeoea, aa?iyoii, yoi iiiauaiea niioaaonoaoao ano?a/aaoaiony ia
ieaiao 18 aaea «aannaeio». Ia ieaia 1771aiaea ioia/aiu aeaa ie?oaeiuo
noaiu -thaeiue e naaa?iue. I?e niaiauaiee ieaia 1784 aiaea n nia?aiaiiui
ieaiii ai?iaea ainoi/iue aannaei n iaaieueoie iai?i/iinoueth ?aciauaaony
a ?aeiia aeiiia ?53-57 ii oeeoea 13-ai Iiya?y, o. a. caiaaeiiai e?ay
ey?eca. Ia ?enoiea AEoeiaa aeai ieai e ?acia? yiu –i?yiioaieueiiai
oaeoaeaiey, aac ia?aaeu n aiaeiiiaeuaiiui eieanii aiaeiae/iue
n?aaeiaaceaoneiio «/eae?th». Aai aeeaiao? o?e naaeaie (ieiei 4 i.), o.
a. aunioa, ia eioi?oth iiaeii iiaeieiaoue aiaeo, ia i?aauoaea o?ao
iao?ia, e i?e aeoaeia iiiauaiey 5 i. io oiaaeaoiae aeiaaiie iiaa?oiinoe,
eieani ia aeinoaaaei aei ca?eaea aiaeu. Aa?iyoii, ?enoiie ia aiieia
oi/ai, ?acia?u yiu (12.6o8.6o2.5i.) aeeaea e aeeeia caiaaeiiai aannaeia
(11i. ia i?ioeea ?5 ieaia 1771a.)

Ca/ai iiiaaeiaeeinue no?ieoue aeaa ?yaeii ?aniieiaeaiiuo aannaeia
ai?ei?ii iiaeii iauynieoue oai, /oi ia?aiia/aeueii aue iino?iai
ainoi/iue aannaei,a n oaaee/aieai iio?aaeaiey aiaeu aeey aai iiaeieoee
no?ieony caiaaeiue aannaei n aiaeiiiaeuaiiui eieanii. Caeanue oianoii
i?eaanoe iienaiea Iaaea Noia?ieiaa «…I?aaeaea eiaaea nae ai?iae ia
iioa?iae ?aci?aiey, oi i?e oii eieiaeoea, ec eiaai ii iui/a iieo/aao
aiaeo, ii?aaeaeaiiua ethaee iinoaiaiii iiaeieiaee a? eioaaeueth a
aannaei, ec eioi?iai iia oea ia ae?oaie aannaei, ec naai aea iia
?anoiaeeeanue ii iiaecaiiui o?oaai, iie iuia iiiai iia?aaeaeaiu, iaeiaei
aea, iiaeii iaaaeeeei eaeaeeaaieai i?eaanoe iiua a ii?yaeie». Aeiaaaei,
/oi ai a?aiy E?uineiai oainoaa ca yoeie nii?oaeaieyie neaaeeee
ai?iaeneea /eiiaieee.

Aeey ieii/aoaeueiie eaeaioeoeeaoeee iiiauaiey ia thai-caiaaeiie
ieiia/iinoe aaea?ae iaiaoiaeeia a? ?an/enoea, /oi iiea iaaiciiaeii ec-ca
aeaooyoaaeiiai aeiia iaae iae, iino?iaiiiai a 1940 aiaeo. Eioa?anii
ioiaoeoue, /oi ianoiua aeeoaee au? a aeiaiaiiia a?aiy iieueciaaeenue
eieiaeoeaie a yoii ?aeiia. ?acoiaaony iaeuecy ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ninoaa
e o?iaaiue aiaeu a ai?iuo eieiaeoeao, caaenyueo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia, ia
iaiyeny ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia. A aeaeueiaeoai i?e ?aeiino?oeoeee iacaiiie
cano?ieee, aa?iyoii, iiyaeony aiciiaeiinoue ooi/ieoue naa?oo ?acia?u
i?aaeeaaaaiiai «aannaeia».

Ainoi/iue o/anoie ey?ecu ai niiaiii ?aniieiaeai iiae i?iacaeae /anoueth
oeeoeu 8 Ia?oa io caaaea ai aeai?a ?17 aei ia?ae?anoea ii oeeoea A.
Ei?iaeiaa, aaea oiae oie?aaony a aaoiiioth caeeaeo iniiaaiey
nia?aiaiiiai eieiaeoea aiaeii?iaiaea. Aieaa oiai aaea?ay ia 3/4
caiieiaia eeenoui a?oioii, caoaeoei ec caeeaa. A a? ainoi/iii o/anoea
ieiei caaaea aue caeiaeai oo?o aei iiea aaea?ae. Aunioa aaea?ae 2.3 i.,
oe?eia ii ieaeiae /anoe 0.61-0.8, ainoi/iue o/anoie ii/oe i?yiie,
eiathuee a ieaia eaaeee ecaea. Yaeey *aeaae a 17 aaea ieoao i eaa?oaea n
50 aeiiaie e naaeaie, ?aniieiaeaiiiio iaaeaeo ai?ioaie Ae-iieea-Eaio
(nia?aiaiiue ia?ae?anoie ii oeeoea Aei. Oeueyiiaa, Aieiaea?neiai e
Ea?aeineie) e Ao-eaio (nia?aiaiiue ia?ae?anoie oeeoe Aeaiuoaaa e
Ieiia?neie) . Niaiauay ieai ey?eca n ieaiii 18 aaea iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ii iiaoi?ye iai?aaeaiea oaea nouanoaothuae oeeoeu.

O/anoie i?ieeaaeuaaeny ioe?uoui niiniaii, aeey eieiaeoeaa (eieiaeoeu 10,
11 ia noaia- oneiaiua oi/ee. Oi/ea 10 nia?aiaiiue aiaeii?iaiaeiue
eieiaeaoe iai?ioea aeiia ? 12 ii oeeoea 8 Ia?oa, /a?ac iie eioi?iai
iiaeii i?iieeiooue a aaea?ath, oi/ea 11 – oaeaea nia?aiaiiue eieiaeaoe,
ia?ae?uaoee aaoiiiie caeeaeie aaea?ath ey?eca.) Aeey yoiai a
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii au?uoie o?aioae aicaiaeeeanue eeaaeea noai e iinea
iiioaaea o?oa e ieeo ia?ae?uoey o?aioay i?enuiaeanue caieae. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy oieueia a?oiiu iaae ieeoaie anaai 1.4 i., i?eia?ii ia yoie aea
aeoaeia e ieaea caeaaaao iiaa?oiinoue niieu – «eieiae» iaaeinoaoi/ii
i?i/iue aeey noai aaea?ae. Iiyoiio aa?oiyy /anoue noaiu aei aeoaeiu
0.6-0.85 i. Io iiaeioau ieeou ia?ae?uoey aueiaeaia ec auoiaiai eaiiy.
Ieeou ia?ae?uoey i?yiioaieueiie oi?iu (aei 1.2o0.6o0.25i.). Ia?ae?uoey
ia?aae eieiaeoeai 10 iiieaeaaony onooiii aunioie 0.39 i. I?iaeieaeaiey
aaea?ae a ainoi/iii iai?aaeaiee iiea ia iaeaeaii, o/eouaay iiieaeaiea
?aeueaoa, aeaeaa aiaeii?iaiae oaeiaiaa auei aanoe a aii/a?iie o?oaa,
oeiaeaiiie a eaiaiiii ieaia, aiaeiae/iiai aiaeii?iaiaeo ea?aeineiai
oiioaia a Oaiaeinee. A nayce n yoei, aniiiiei ionoieiee o eieiaeoea 8,
iaoiaeyuaainy iina?aaeeia enneaaeoaiiai o/anoea ey?eca (Iauay aeeeia
ey?eca ii i?yiie eeiee ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia – 495 i., ionoieiee
?aniieiaeai a 241 i. io caiaaeiiai e?ay)

Aeey naiioaea aiaeu ec ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ?aciuo /anoyo ai?iaea e ia
?aciie aunioa oiioaiia iaiaoiaeei aue i?iiaaeooi/iue aiaeii?iaiaeiue e
aiaei?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue ?aca?aoa? – /aou?aooaieueiue «oaaaei». Nei?aa
anaai ii ?aniieaaaeny a nia?aiaiiii eaa?oaea ? 59 iaaeaeo oeeoeaie
E?aniia?iaeneie e ia?aoeeii Aaiiui. Caeanue ia ieaia ai?iaea 1811 aiaea
ioia/aii «ae?aaiaa aiaeio?aieeeua» Iiiauay eieiaeoeu e oiioaiu n ieaiia
18 aaea ia nia?aiaiiue ieai ai?iaea, iii?iaoai i?ineaaeeoue aiciiaeiia
iai?aaeaiea ey?eca. N?aco ca ainoi/iui e?aai (caaaeii) ey?eca ia ieaia
1784 aiaea a ?aeiia nia?aiaiiiai aeai?a ? 8 ii oeeoea 8 Ia?oa ioia/ai
eieiaeaoe, aeaeaa – eieiaeaoe ai aeai?a aeiia ? 9 ii oeeoea
Eiiniiieueneie. Caoai oiioai ia ia?ae?enoea oeeoeu Iaca?ianeie e
?uaaoeeie. Aeaeaa oiioai ia ia?ae?anoea oeeoe Aieiaea?neiai,
I?iniooeeiuo e I?ieaoiie, ioooaea o?oau oee e aiaei?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiio
?aca?aoa?o. Ioiaoei,/oi Iienaaa n/eoae eiia/iie oi/eie ey?eca noa?ua
oaineea aaie, aeiioneay, /oi yoi aai iacia/aiea aoi?e/ii.

2.3 Aiaeii?iaiae e oiioaiu

Eae aea ioia/aeinue auoa a Aaceaaa nouanoaiaaea ia oieueei ey?eciay
nenoaia, ii e aiaeii?iaiae ec i?ieiaeaiiuo ia caiea aii/a?iuo o?oa,
enneaaeiaaiiue TH. A?eaeeeiaii a 1832-1833 aiaeao e a 1835 aiaeo. E aai
?aii?oo io 5 ieoya?y 1832aiaea i?eeiaeai ieai aiaeii?iaiaea. II
iaaethaeaieyi A?eaeeeiaa, aiaeii?iaiae, ninoiyuee ec ea?aie/aneeo o?oa
aeeeiie (aac aooeee) 0.35i. e aioo?aiiai na/aiee 0.09i, oeiaeaiiuo a
eaiaea ec ioanaiiiai eaiiy ia aeoaeio io 3.5 aei5 a?oei (io 2.5 aei 3.55
i.) ia/eiaeny a ?aeiia eaca?i e eieiaeoeaa, niaaaeathueo ai?iae aiaeie,
e i?ioiaey iiae /anoiuie aeiiaie no?iaieyie e ooiaeaiaioii e?aiinoiie
noaiu, /a?ac «oiioaiiue aannaei» ai aeai?a Aianoanueaaa, auoiaeee ia
aa?aao ii?y o Oaiiaeaiiie i?enoaie. ?yaeii n iae, caiaaeiaa ia ieaia
eiioea 18 aaea ioia/ai oiioai. Eae e a ey?ecao, o?oau ne?aieyeenue
ecaanoeiaui ?anoai?ii.

A?eaeeeiao oaeaeinue i?ineaaeeoue iai?aaeaiea aiaeii?iaiaea iiae
/anoiuie no?iaieyie e ooiaeaiaioii e?aiinoiie noaiu e naaa?i-caiaaeo,
aaea a ?aeiia nia?aiaiiiai ia?ae?anoea oeeoe Aeaiuoaaa e Ei?iaeiaa (o.
a. ?yaeii n naaa?i-ainoi/iui e?aai ey?eca) ei aue ioe?uo i?iiaaeooi/iue
aannaei a eioi?ii «…ia?anaeaeinue aeaeueiaeoaa i?ioyaeaiea aeoaeiie o?oa
ia?acii e?oaeiai aannaeia a aeaea yeeina, oaeoaeaiiiai ieaea
aiaeii?iaiaea, eiathuaai a aeeaiao?a aieaa aeaoo a?oei (1.41 i.)
neiaeaiiiai ec oanaiiuo eaiiae ia ecaanoe, a ca iei ieacaeinue eeth/aaua
enoi/ieee a o?ao ?oeaaao eaiaiiuo eaiaeia, oe?eiith eaaae?aoiiai aei 8
aa?oeia (0.35), ec eieo aeaa eiatho i?ioyaeaiiinoue ia aieaa aeaoo
naaeaiue e ieai/eaathony iaaiaeiui eaiaeii, a o?aoee, eiathuee
iai?aaeaiea e thai – caiaaeaaeiie noi?iia, i?ioyaeaaaony aeaeaa e
iiaeoiaeeo iiae ooiaeaiaioii, eiaeaaaiiiai caaiaea e ne?uaaaony a caiea.
(Ia /a?oaaea oeacaii caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea, e aiaiiui eaca?iai, oioy
eiaeaaaiiua caaiaeu aeaenoaeoaeueii ?aniieaaaeenue a thai-caiaaeiii
i?eai?iaea). A yoii ianoa eaiae aue caaeo ia o?e iiaiiiuo naaeaie
oanoueth, ii /enoea eioi?ie aicuiaea aeaeaeaiea a aeaoo enoi/ieeao oae,
/oi aannaei aue anaaaea iaiieiai, a ec iaai enoaeaea a aiaeii?iaiaeiua
o?oau eiee/anoaii ii/oe a iieoaeeaiao?a iiuo e, i?iaaaay o?oaaie 200
naaeaiue i?ioyaeaieai, ne?uaaeinue ia ieiia/iinoe a ian/aiii a?oioa.
Aeaeaa A?eaeeeia auaeaeaaao i?aaeeiaeaiea i oii, /oi iaeaeaiiue ei
aiaeii?iaiae ia aaeeinoaaiiue oeacuaay ia «o?e neo/ay»: «…ia?aue, /oi ii
i/enoea aiaeii?iaiaea: iieacaeinue n aieo a aeeceii ?annoiyiee a iaeiii
eieiaeoea neeueiia oa/aiea aiaeu, eioi?ia aiineaaenoaee i?ia?aaoenue
neaicue ianee, iiyaeeinue iaaeaeo ea?aioeiii e Oaiiaeaiiie i?enoaiueth;
aoi?ia, /oi nouanoaothuee a oeaio?a ai?iaea noa?ue oiioaiiue aannaei aue
iino?iai, eiia/ii aea, aeey nae oeaee; e o?aoee, /oi caeiaeaiiue, ii ia
ioe?uoue au? a aeaeueiai ?annoiyiee io naai nooie eaiaiiue aiaeii?iaiae
n e?oiiui aannaeiii ai aeai?a aeeeiai no?iaiey eiaao iai?aaeaiea e
aiaeio?aiyuaio aannaeio…» (Aa?iyoii eiaaony a aeaeo
aiaei?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiue ?aca?aoa?). Iaiauay auoaeceiaeaiiia iiaeii
neacaoue i ia?aeeaeueiie ey?eco eeiee aiaeii?iaiaea, i?ioiaeyuae io
eieiaeoeaa e i?iiaaeooi/iiio aannaeio a ?aeiia nia?aiaiiiai ia?ae?anoea
oeeoe Aeaiuoaaa e Ei?iaeiaa, eoaea niae?aeanue aiaea ia oieueei o
eieiaeoeaa a ?aeiia eaca?i, ii e ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia thai-caiaaeiie
ie?aeia ai?iaea. Iie oiiieiathony ia ieaia 1836 aiaea, eae eieiaeoeu
«aia ai?iaea». Ia yoie ie?aeia ia ieaia 1784 aiaea ioia/aii iaaieueoia
ica?i, /oi eeoiee ?ac oeacuaaao ia aiaeiiiniue neie. I?eiaiaiea a?oiiu
ninaaeieo iaaeaeo niaie eieiaeoeaa ano?a/aaony a aaioycneii
aiaeii?iaiaea a Oaiaeinee. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi iienaiiue aiaeii?iaiae aue
naycai n ey?ecii, iai?eia?, o?oaa ey?eca auea a?acaia a oaea
nouanoaothuee eaiaiiue eaiae aiaeii?iaiaea.

Io i?iiaaeooi/iiai aannaeia aiaeii?iaiae o?e e oiioaio i?e ia/aoe (a
?aeiia nia?aiaiiiai ia?aoeea ?aaiethoeee e I?eii?neie), aeaeaa oiioaio
(eieiaeoeo) o Oaiiaeaiiie i?enoaie ainoi/iay aa?aaiaay eeiey
Ea?aioeiiiai iuna a 20 aaea iaiiiai eciaieeanue, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
eieiaeaoe iaoiaeeony ia oa??eoi?ee naiaoi?ey II) e Oaineie ia/aoe,
eiia/iue ioieo aiaei?acaeaeeoaeueiia nii?oaeaiea. Ia?auaao aieiaiea oi,
/oi enneaaeoaiue A?eaeeeiaii aiaeii?iaiae, a ioee/ee io ey?ecia, ia
o?aaoao aiaeiiiaeu?iiuo iaoaieciia, aa?iyoii, ii niae?ae aiaeo iooai
eaioaaea ec aiaeiiiniuo neiaa ecaanoiyea.

E niaeaeaieth ie iaeei ec oiioaiia Aaceaaa ia nio?aieeny, ecaanoiu eeoue
eo e?aoeea iienaiey e i/aiue neoaeiue a?aoe/aneee iaoa?eae. Yaeey *aeaae
ioiaoee naiue enoi/ieeia aiaeu (oiioaiia) e aeaaaeoeaoue i?e?iaeiuo
eieiaeoeaa. Ii iacuaaao aeaa «iaeaieaa i?ae?aniuo». Ia?aue ?aniieaaaeny
aioo?e oaia (iinoiyeiai aeai?a) Eneai- Ae?ay, iino?iaiiiai a 1662 aiaeo.
Yoio iinoiyeue aeai? i?eiueathuee n ainoiea e Oaineie ia/aoe, ioia/ai ia
ieaia 1784 aiaea. Aoi?ie enoi/iee Eneai-Ae?ae i?aaeaoee a 1644-1654aa.
Yoi /aou?aooaieueiue iie?uoue eoiieii oiioai, noiye ia ?uiea a oeaio?a
ai?iaea, aeaoa aai iino?ieee caia/aoeaia a o?iiia?aiia: «Enoi/iee aiae
aeeaioai?iuo, na?aeoea e?aiyuee e aeeaiue» – 1661 aiae oeaeae?u. O. a.
1650-1651 o?enoeaineiai eaoien/eneaiey. Ieeoa n aiaeiae/iie iaaeienueth
(ia?aaiae A?eai?ueaaa A. I., Ainoi/iue oaeoeueoao EAO) e aeaoa 1661a. a
eaaii, ieaeiai oaeo a ianoiyuea a?aiy aiiioe?iaaea a ainoiniue, aiaoiee
ieo?aa Oaineie ia/aoe, eoaea iia, aa?iyoii, iiiaea ai a?aiy iaeiie ec
?anoaa?aoeee ia/aoe.

A 80-o aiaeao 18 aaea i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiuoee ii/eiee oiioaia o
Oaineie ia/aoe, a i?aea?a A. A. Iioaieeia Eaaeueno?iio oeacuaaao, /oi
«…E?uineee aeioiae, iieo/aaiue n auaoaai aeiia Aneai- Ae?ay, n aieueoie
aaie Eiceianeie e n ianoa, e ia/aoe oai i?eiaaeeaaeauaai, inoaaeyth y a
iieueco oie ia/aoe e ia iii?aaeaiea oiioaia.»

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa a ai?iaea a yoi a?aiy nio?aieeinue oanoue
oiioaiia, Noia?ieia oiiieiaao ooeaeaaoea e enii?/aiiua oiioaiu eae
iaaeaenoaothuee. A 1798 aiaeo a?oeoaeoi?ii Aanoa aue iaiieiai /a?oaae
oanaaea e ieai ec oiioaiia.

A eiioea 20-o aiaeia I. Aaeeoeyi canoae oiioai ai aeai?a ia/aoe Oai-
aeaeaie a ?acaaeeiao. Ii oiiieiaao i 12 enoi/ieeao, ca n/ao aeioiaeia, n
eioi?uo aue a 1752 aiaeo iino?iai Noeo Oai. Iineieueeo ai?iaeneea
aeeoaee iieueciaaeenue aiaeie aanieaoii TH. A?eaeeeiaii a 1832 aiaeo
ioia/aeinue eeoue «oiioaiiue aannaei», o. a. Iacaiiay /anoue oiioaia
oaea auea ?ac?ooaia. Eiiaea?aee a 70-o aa. 19 aaea oiiieiaao
ianio?aieaoeany oiioaiu ieiei Oaineie ia/aoe e noa?ie ii/oiaie eiioi?u,
aa?iyoii, eiay a aeaeo oiioai ia ia?ae?anoea oeeoe Aieiaea?neiai e
I?ieaoa?neie.

Iaiauei auoa ia?a/eneaiiua aeaiiua. I?aaeaea anaai, iaeaeaiui
ianoi?iaeaeaieai ioia/aiiui ia ieaia 18 aaea oiioaiia ia nia?aiaiiie
noaia ai?iaea:

1. Oiioai ia ia?ae?anoea oeeoe Iaca?ianeie e ?uaaoeeie.

2. Oiioai a ?aeiia nia?aiaiiiai ia?ae?anoea I?ieaoa?neie e Eiiena?neie,
?yaeii (thaeiaa) ia/aoue.

3. Oiioai ia ia?ae?anoea oeeoe Aieiaea?neiai, I?iniooeeiuo e
I?ieaoa?neie, oaeaea e naaa?o io ia/aoe.

4. Oiioai iai?ioea iuiaoiaai aeiia ? 46 ia oaeo oeeoeu ?aaiethoeee
(ainoeieoea «E?ui»).

5. Oiioai ai aeai?a Oaineie ia/aoe.

6. Oiioai (1651-1652 aa.) ainoi/iaa Oaineie ia/aoe aioo?e iinoiyeiai
aeai?a Eneai – Ae?ae.

7. Oiioai i?e ia/aoe a ?aeiia nia?aiaiiiai ia?ae?anoea Oeeoe
?aaiethoeee e I?eii?neie.

Aeaeaeae Ennaae auaeaeyao o?e oeia oiioaiia: «/aoiy», «naaee»,
«oaae?eaai».

Ia?aue iaeaieaa i?inoie «/aoia». Ii ninoieo ec i?aii?iie i?eno?ieee e
noaia, caeai/eaathueeny a ieaeiae /anoe iaeaiueeei aannaeiii. N oueueiie
noi?iiu oiioaia ono?iai eaiaiiue ?aca?aoa? aeey aiaeu. *anoi iaae /aoia
i?eno?iai iaaan – «na/ae». *aoia ono?aeaaeenue ia oieueei i?e o?aiao,
aaca?ao, ii e ai aeai?ao aeiiia. A aaiaoi?eeneeo ea?aeineeo eaianao, i?e
aoiaea, a caiaaeiie noaia nio?aieeny aiaeiai aeey iiiaaiey a oi?ia
/aoia, iino?iaiiue ia iiaea?oaiaaiea Oioao, aei/a?e auaoaai a
1815-185aa. aaoaiii N. Aiaiae/a. Aua iaeei oiioai 1832 aiaea ?aniieiaeai
a naaa?i – ainoi/iii oaeo «aeai?eea iaeeaeaiey» eaian. Yoi iaaieueoay
(1.0o0.8o0.6 i.) eaiaiiay oeenoa?ia, aianoeiinoueth ieiei 0.2 eoaa,
ano?iaiiay niiiiuueth a?i/iie ieoe a ainoi/ioth noaio aeai?eea. Iia
au?oaeaia ec oeaeueiiai aeiea ecaanoiyea e ia?ae?uoa i?yiioaieueiie
ieeoie (1.0o0.8o1.4 i.) n aeaoiy ioaa?noeyie aeey iaeeaaiey aiaeu:
?aniieiaeaiiia ii/oe a oeaio?a ie?oaeia ioaa?noea e i?eiueathuea n
oi?oea oeenoa?iu i?yiioaieueiia ioaa?noea. Neea n iaoaeee/aneie o?oaie
i?i?oaeai ia o?iaia aeia. Aiaea ec o?oa oaeea a i?aii?ioth aaiii/eo ni
neeaiui ioaa?noeai. ?yaeii, iiae oie aea noaiie, ai aioo?aiiai «/a?iii»
aeai?eea iaeie eaianu, au?uo eieiaeaoe, noaie eieiaeoea aeecie e
aa?aoaii ia?aciie oi?ia. Iaae eieiaeoeai a noaia oaeaea ono?iai a?i/iue
i?iai, o. a. Au?uo aei no?ieoaeuenoaa noaiu. E?iia oiai, a 1998-2000 aa.
i?e ?anoaa?aoeee ea?aeineeo eaian, iiae o?aiaie auei iaia?oaeaii o?e
eieiaeoea, iaeei ec ieo aue ?aniieiaeai ia ?annoiyiee 2.75 i. e caiaaeo
io ae?aaiaai i?iaia naaa?iiai aoiaea niai?iie eaianu, i?yii o oana
noaiu. I?e no?ieoaeuenoaa naaa?iie noaiu o?aia aaiaoe eieiaeoea aue
ia?ae?uo ieineei eaiiai. Aai aeoaeia (io onouey aei ca?eaea aiaeu – 3.45
i.). Onouea eieiaeoea iaaeueiia, oe?eiie 0.5 i., ooiaeaiaio o?aia
ia?ae?uaaao naaa?ioth /anoue onouey, e iinea aicaaaeaiey noaiu
iieueciaaoueny eieiaeoeai noaei iaaiciiaeiui. Noaie eieiaeoea
iaeaieueoae oe?eiie 1.15 i., aueiaeai iaeeei ?aaiui eaiiai. Oaooa
aa?aoaiiia?aciie oi?iu. Yoa oi?ia ia oieueei oiaiueoaea ?anoiae
no?ieoaeueiiai eaiiy, ii e iioa?e aiaeu io enia?aiey.

Iiiooii ioiaoei aua iaeii iacia/aiea eieiaeoeaa: iie neoaeeee oaaaeeuai
a ia?eiae iianiinoe. I?e ?uouea eioeiaaiia noieiaiai aeiia i?anoa?aeuo
ethaeae ?yaeii n a?iaeneie oea?eiaueth a 1990 aiaeo iaia?oaeaiu o?e
eieiaeoea a neaeueiie noaia ianeieueei auoa ca?eaea aiaeu i?iaeo aoiae a
iaaieueoia iiiauaiea, aeaa iiiauaiey auee ainniaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie
oceei oiaeii.

Aoi?ie oei oiioaia – «naaee» – ?aniieaaaeny a ethaeiuo ianoao ieiei
ia/aoe. Ii ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo eiiiao, iaoiaeyueiny iiae iaaeci?ii
noi?iaea, eioi?iio ii?o/aii iaiieiyoue iiaeaaoaiiua ia oeaii/ea e
?aoaoea naaeea a?iiciaua noaeai/eee e?iia oiai, Ynnaae ioia/aao o?aoee
oei aiaeiaia – «oao?eaae». Yoi aannaei n aunieeie e?ayie e iaaanii,
ie?oaeaiiue aeaeaciie naoeie, /oiau a iaai ia aeaoaee ioeoeu .
I?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey iiiaaiey, ii iau/ii ?aniieaaaeny ai aeai?a ia/aoe,
iai?ioea aoiaea. Ia ai?oo aannaeia, ii na?aaeeia eeiee i?iaeaeaiu e?aiu.

Oiioaiu auee ca?eniaaiu ii?o/eeii AEoeiaui, a iniiaiii aeeaea anaai e
oeio «/aoia». ?anniio?ei eo iiae?iaiaa.

? 1 – /aou?aooaieueiua, n aa?oeeaeueiui oaeoaeaieai, aac ia?ae?uoey.
Oe?eia – 2.15 i. Aunioa – 2.15 i.

? 2 – /aou?aooaieueiue ia?ae?uoea ionoonoaoao.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020