.

Присоединение российских земель в XVII, XVIII, XIX веках

Язык:
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 865
Скачать документ

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iieiaeaiea ?innee a XVII a. auei neiaeiui. Ia?aae
no?aiie noiye oeaeue ?yae aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo caaea/, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii
auei ?aoeoue. Iaeiie ec ieo auea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aica?auaiey
caiaaeii?onneeo caiaeue ni Niieaineii, iooi?aioouo ?a/ueth Iini?eeoie ii
Aeaoeeineiio ia?aie?eth 1618 a. A 1632 a., ?aoea ainiieueciaaoueny
ianooieaoei a Iieueoa iinea nia?oe iieueneiai ei?iey Neaecioi-aea
“aanei?ieaaueai”, ii ?aoaieth Caineiai niai?a ?inney ia/aea aieio ca
aica?auaiea Niieainea. Ec-ca oicyenoaaiiiai ?aci?aiey no?aiu e
ionoaeinoe ainoaea?noaaiiie e aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ?inney iioa?iaea
ii?aaeaiea a yoie aieia, e 17 iay 1634 a. iaaeaeo ?inneae e Iieueoae aue
iiaeienai Iieyiia-neee ie?, ii eioi?iio ?a/ue Iiniieeoay aica?auaea
eeoue ai?iae Na?iaene e i?eciaea oea?y Ieoaeea ainoaea?ai “anay ?one”.
Aeaaeeneaa ioeacuaaeny io i?aoaicee ia ?onneee i?anoie.

Iaoaea/a a Niieaineie aieia auea aucaaia oaeaea iaaaaii e?uineeo oaoa? a
naiue ?aoathuee aa iiiaio, /oi aua ?ac iaiiiieei i?aaeoaeuenoao ?innee
ia ino?uo e iai?yaeaiiuo ioiioaieyo n Oo?oeeae e aa aannaeii — E?uineei
oainoaii.

A 30-a aiaeu XVII a. ia/aeenue ?aaiou ii nii?oaeaieth iiaie eeiee
oe?aieaiee — Aaeai?iaeneie cana/iie /a?ou. A 1646 a. iia, auaeaeiooay
aeaeaei ia tha, i?ioyioeanue io Aoou?ee /a?ac Aaeai?iae aei Oaiaiaa.
Noa?ay Ooeueneay cana/iay /a?oa auea ia?ano?iaia e oe?aieaia. Iia oea io
aa?oiaueaa ?aee AEecae?a /a?ac Ooeo e ?ycaie e noaea aoi?ie eeieae
iai?iiu io oaoa?neeo iaaaaia; a oueo auee oe?aieaiu canaee ii ?. Iea. A
ai?ueaa n oo?aoeei-oaoa?neie aa?anneae aeaeioth ?ieue ea?aee aeiineea
eacaee, ia oieueei io?aaeaaoea iaaaae, ii e /anoi ia?aoiaeeaoea a
ianooieaiea. Ii iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe io iaaaaia e?uineeo oaoa?
iieiinoueth aeinoeaiooi ia auei. Ai?ueaa ia thaa n oo?aoeei-oaoa?neie
aa?anneae i?iaeieaeaea caieiaoue aaaeiia ianoi ai aiaoiae iieeoeea
?innee e ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII a.

Ainniaaeeiaiea Oe?aeiu n ?inneae

A XVII a. oe?aeineea caiee iaoiaeeeenue iiae aeanoueth ?a/e Iiniieeoie.
Ii Ethaeeineie oiee 1569 a. Aaeeeia eiyaeanoai Eeoianeia, eoaea aoiaeeee
oe?aeineea caiee, iauaaeeieeinue n Iieueoae. Iinea oiee ia oe?aeineeo
caieyo noaee iainiiauaaoueny iieueneea iaaiaou e oeyooa. Ia Oe?aeia
oneeeaaeny oaiaeaeueiue aiao. Oe?aeineea e?anoueyia e ai?iaeneea
?aianeaiieee ?aci?yeenue io ?anooueo iaeiaia e iiaeiiinoae. ?aaeei
aeanoeiai oaiaoaiey ia Oe?aeia aue onoaoaeai oaeaea oai, /oi aua a 1557
a. iaiu iieo/eee io ei?ieaaneie aeanoe i?aai nia?oiie eacie ii
ioiioaieth e naiei e?aiinoiui. Ia?yaeo n oneeaieai oaiaeaeueiiai aiaoa
ianaeaiea Oe?aeiu eniuouaaei iaoeeiiaeueiue e ?aeeaeiciue aiao.

Oneeaiea oaiaeaeueiiai, iaoeeiiaeueiiai e ?aeeaeiciiai aiaoa ia Oe?aeia
ni noi?iiu ?a/e Iiniieeoie auei i?e/eiie iiaeuaia
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey. Ia?aay aai aieia i?eoeanue
ia 20-30-a aa. XVII a., ii auea aeanoiei iiaeaaeaia iieueneeie iaiaie.
Iiaue yoai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey i?eoaeny ia
eiiaoe 40-o — ia/aei 50-o aa. Oeaio?ii aai noaea Caii?iaeneay Na/ue,
aaea oi?ie?iaaeinue aieueiia eaca/anoai. Aicaeaaee ai?ueao oe?aeineiai
ia?iaea auaeathueeny ainoaea?noaaiiue aeayoaeue e iieeiaiaeaoe

Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee. Aai aiey , oi, ioaeanoai, aiaiiue oaeaio,
i?aaeaiiinoue Oe?aeia, nicaeaee aio a?iiaaeiue aaoi?eoao a oe?ieeo neiyo
oe?aeineiai ianaeaiey e, i?aaeaea anaai, eaca/anoaa. Aeaeaeoueie neeaie
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey ia Oe?aeia auei
e?anoueyinoai, eaca/anoai, iauaia (aeeoaee ai?iaeia), iaeeay e n?aaeiyy
oe?aeineay oeyooa.

Ainnoaiea ia Oe?aeia ia/aeinue aaniie 1648 a. Ainnoaaoea a yoii aiaeo
iaianee iieyeai ii?aaeaiea iiae AEaeouie Aiaeaie, Ei?noiai e Ieeyaoeaie.
A oi aea a?aiy Oiaeueieoeeee ia?aoeeny e ?innee n i?inueaie i?eiyoue
Oe?aeio “iiae ?oeo Iineau” e niaianoii aanoe ai?ueao n Iieueoae.
Oaeiaeaoai?eoue aai i?inueao i?aaeoaeuenoai oea?y Aeaenay Ieoaeeiae/a ia
niiaei. ?inney ia auea aioiaa e aieia n Iieueoae: a no?aia aooaaaee
ia?iaeiua ainnoaiey. ?inney, aieiaoaeueii neaaey ca oiaeii niauoee ia
Oe?aeia, ieacuaaea ae aeeieiiaoe/aneoth, yeiiiie/aneoth e aiaiioth
iiaeaea?aeeo.

Iinea n?aaeaiey iiae Caa?aaeai, eaoii 1649 a., aaea ainnoaaoea
iaea?aeaee iiaaaeo, Iieueoa e Oe?aeia ia/aee ia?aaiai?u i ie?a. 8
aaaonoa 1649 a. aue iiaeienai Cai?ianeee ie?. Ii aai oneiaeyi Aiaaeai
Oiaeueieoeeee aue i?eciai ?a/ueth Iiniieeoie aaoiaiii, /eneaiiinoue
?aano?iauo eacaeia (iieo/aaoeo aeaeiaaiuea) ii?aaeaeyeanue a 40 ouny/.
Iieueneia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eciaei naiioi?aaeaiea eacaoeeiai aienea, ca
eioi?ui auee cae?aieaiu Eeaaneia, *a?ieaianeia e A?aoeeaaneia
aiaaiaenoaa. I?aauaaiea ia eo oa??eoi?ee iieueneeo aiene e eacoeoia auei
cai?auaii, iieueneea aea oaiaeaeu iiaee aa?iooueny a naie aeaaeaiey a
yoeo aiaaiaenoaao. A Iieueoa yoio ie? aue ?anoeaiai eae onooiea
ainnoaaoei e aucuaae iaaeiaieuenoai iaaiaoia e oeyoou. Oe?aeineea
e?anoueyia ano?aoeee a oouee aica?auaiea iieueneeo oaiaeaeia a naie
aeaaeaiey. Aeaeueiaeoaa i?iaeieaeaiea ai?ueau ia Oe?aeia auei
iaecaaaeiui.

Aiaiiua aeaenoaey aiciaiiaeeenue aaniie 1650 a. ?aoathuaa n?aaeaiea
i?iecioei a ethia 1651 a. iiae Aa?anoa/eii. Iiaeeoieaiiue iieyeaie
nithciee oe?aeioeaa oai Eneai-Ae?ae oaae naith eiiieoeo, /oi a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a i?aaeii?aaeaeeei ii?aaeaiea ainnoaaoeo e ianooieaiea
aiene ?a/e Iiniieeoie ia Oe?aeio. Aai oaeaeinue inoaiiaeoue oieueei a
naioya?a 1651 a. iiae Aaeie Oea?eiaueth, aaea e aue caeeth/ai ie?.
Oneiaey aai auee oyaeaeuie. ?aano? eacaeia nie?auaeny aei 20 ouny/. A
eaca/ueai naiioi?aaeaiee auei inoaaeaii oieueei Eeaaneia aiaaiaenoai.
Aaoiai eeoaeny i?aaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo aiaoieo niioaiee. Iieueneei iaiai
aica?auaeanue any iieiioa aeanoe iaae caaeneiui ianaeaieai. Ioaaoii ia
yoi auee iiaua aunooieaiey a I?eaeiai?iauea. A 1652 a. iiae Aaoiaii
ainnoaaoea iaea?aeaee iiaaaeo iaae iieueneei aieneii. Iaeiaei ?a/ue
Iiniieeoay, nia?aa aienei a 50 ouny/, iiaaea ianooieaiea ia Oe?aeio,
iieiaeaiea eioi?ie noaiiaeeinue ana aieaa iianiui. A ai?aea 1653 a.
Oiaeueieoeeee aiiaue ia?aoeeny e ?innee n i?inueaie i?eiyoue Oe?aeio a
aa ninoaa.

10 iay 1653 a. Caineee Niai? a Iineaa i?eiye ?aoaiea i?eiyoue Oe?aeio a
ninoaa ?innee. Ooaea ioi?aaeeinue ?onneia iinieuenoai Aooo?eeia. 8
yiaa?y 1654 a. aieueoay ?aaea Oe?aeiu a Ia?ayneaaea i?eiyea ?aoaiea i
ainniaaeeiaiee Oe?aeiu n ?inneae, eioi?ay aioea a aa ninoaa n oe?ieeie
aaoiiiiiuie i?aaaie. Ia Oe?aeia nio?aiyeanue auai?iinoue aaoiaia.
I?eciaaaeenue i?aaiu ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey, nineiaiua i?aaa aeai?yinoaa e
eacaoeeie noa?oeiu. Aaoiai eiae i?aai aiaoieo niioaiee ni anaie no?aiaie
e?iia Iieueoe e Oo?oeee. Onoaiaaeeaaeny eaca/ee ?aano? a 60 ouny/.

?a/ue Iiniieeoay ia niaeaneeanue n ainniaaeeiaieai Oe?aeiu n ?inneae. A
1654 a. ia/aeanue aieia, eioi?ay i?iaeieaeaeanue aieioue aei 1667 a. Iia
caeii/eeanue iiaeienaieai Aiae?onianeiai ia?aie?ey 31 yiaa?y 1667 a., ia
iniiaa eioi?iai aeieaeai aue auoue iiaeaioiaeai ie?iue aeiaiai?. ?inney
iieo/eea Niieaine, Aei?iaiaoae, Aaeoth Oea?eiaue, E?aniue Iaaaeue,
Naaa?neoth caieth n *a?ieaiaui e Noa?iaeoaii. Iieueoa i?eciaea
ainniaaeeiaiea Eaaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu n ?inneae. I?aaiaa?aaeiay Oe?aeia e
Aaei?onney ii-i?aaeiaio aoiaeeee a ?a/ue Iiniieeooth. Caii?iaeneay Na/ue
inoaaaeanue a niaianoiii oi?aaeaiee ?innee e ?a/e Iiniieeoie. Yoe
oneiaey auee ieii/aoaeueii cae?aieaiu a 1686 a. Aa/iui ie?ii n ?a/ueth
Iiniieeoie. Ii yoiio ie?o ?inney e Iieueoa iauaaeeieeenue i?ioea
oo?aoeei-oaoa?neie aa?annee. Oneiaey Aa/iiai ie?a auioaeeee ?inneth
?anoi?aiooue caeeth/aiiue a 1681 a. Aao/ena?aeneee ie? n Oo?oeeae, ii
eioi?iio iaa noi?iiu niaeaoaeenue ia aeaaaeoeaoeeaoiaa ia?aie?ea.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ?onnei-iieueneie aieiie (1654-1667 aa.) ?inney a
1656-1658 aa. aaea aieio ni Oaaoeeae ca aica?auaiea Aaeoeeneiai
iiaa?aaeuey, ioioaaeoaai e Oaaoeee ii Noieaia-neiio ie?o 1617a. Aieia
caaa?oeeanue iaoaea/ii. A 1661 a. a Ea?aeenna (iaaeaeo TH?ueaaui e
?aaaeai) aue iiaeienai ie?, i?iaeeeoiaaiiue Oaaoeeae. Caiee a onouea
Iaau, a oaeaea caaiaaaiiua a oiaea aieiu eeaiineea caiee inoaaaeenue ca
Oaaoeeae.

Ianiio?y ia aeinooaiooua oniaoe a ioiioaieyo n ?a/ueth Iiniieeoie,
?inney a eiioea XVII a. i?iaeieaeaea aanoe ai?ueao n oaoa?neie aa?anneae
e iiaeaioaaeeaaoue iaiaoiaeeiua aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee aeey
ia?aoiaea e ai?ueaa ca auoiae e Aaeoeeneiio ii?th.

A 1682 a. oia? oea?ue Oaaei? Aeaenaaae/, iinea /aai iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
a?oiie?iaeaie ciaoe ?acai?aeanue iaeanoi/aiiay ai?ueaa ca aeanoue.
Enoiae aa ?aoeee no?aeueoeu. A ?acoeueoaoa eo ainnoaiey
oea?yie-nii?aaeoaeyie auee i?iaicaeaoaiu iaeieaoiea Eaai e Iao?
Aeaenaaae/e i?e ?aaaionoaa oea?aaiu Niouee (1682-1689). A 1689 a. Iao?
aeaieeny, oi anoue aeinoea ii iiiyoeyi oiai a?aiaie niaa?oaiiieaoey.
?aaaionoai Niouee aeieaeii auei caaa?oeoueny. Ia aeaeay ?annoaaaoueny n
aeanoueth, Niouey iiaeiyea no?aeueoeia i?ioea Iao?a, iaeiaei ainnoaiea

auei iiaeaaeaii. Nioueth caoi/eee a iiianou?ue, i?anoie ia?aoae e Iao?o
(oi?iaeueiui nii?aaeoaeai Iao?a aue aei naiae nia?oe a 1696 a. Eaai).

Acianeea iioiaeu. Aaeeeia iinieuenoai

Aua a i?aaeaiea Niouee iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii A.A.Aieeoeuia, ?onneea
aienea a niioaaonoaee n Aa/iui ie?ii n Iieueoae i?aaei?eiyee a 1687 e
1689 aa. aeaa iaoaea/iuo iioiaea i?ioea E?uineiai

oainoaa. Noaa oaeoe/aneei i?aaeoaeai ainoaea?noaa, Iao? I i?iaeieaeee
ai?ueao n Oo?oeeae e E?uineei oainoaii. A 1695 a. auea inaaeaeaia
oo?aoeeay e?aiinoue Acia, ii acyoue aa ?onneei aieneai ia oaeaaaeinue.
Ionoonoaea oeioa ia iicaieeei aeiee?iaaoue ii?neoth e?aiinoue, e iia
iiaea iieo/aoue iiiiuue ecaia. A 1696 a. a ?aeiia Ai?iiaaea auei
iino?iaii 30 aiaiiuo ^ ei?aaeae, eioi?ua ii Aeiio auee ia?aaaaeaiu a
Acianeia ii?a. e Aoi?ie Acianeee iioiae, i?aaei?eiyoue a oii aea 1696
a., ‘ caeii/eeny acyoeai Aciaa e iniiaaieai e?aiinoe Oaaai?ia.

Ia/aaoayny aieia n Oo?oeeae iinoaaeea aii?in i nithcieeao,
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaiaaeiuo e?aaeeoia e caeoiea i?oaeey ca a?aieoeae. N
yoie oeaeueth a 1697 a. a Aa?iio ioi?aaeeinue Aaeeeia iinieuenoai, a
ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeee Iao?, /eneeaoeeny iaeiei ec aeanyoieeia io?yaea
aieiioa?ia. A oiaea Aaeeeiai iinieuenoaa ieacaeinue, /oi Aano?ey e
Aaiaoeey — nithcieee ?innee ii aioeoo?aoeeie eiaeeoeee ia iaia?aiu
ieacuaaoue ?innee iiiiuue a aieia n Oo?oeeae.

Naaa?iay aieia

Ia iaeaey nithcieeia aeey aieiu n Oo?oeeae, Iao? I a oi aea a?aiy
auyniee, /oi neiaeeeenue aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ai?ueau ca

Aaeoeeo. Nithcieeaie ?innee a yoie aieia noaee Aeaiey, ?a/ue Iiniieeoay
e Naeniiey (Naaa?iue nithc). 13 aaaonoa 1700 a. ?inney caeeth/eea ie? n
Oo?oeeae, a 14 ethey iauyaeea aieio Oaaoeee, e 23 naioya?y ?onneea iieee
ia/aee inaaeo e?aiinoe Ia?aa.

A aaaonoa 1700 a. oaaaeneee ei?ieue Ea?e XII, aunaaeea aeanaio,
aiiaa?aee?iaae Eiiaiaaaai e auioaeee Aeaieth aueoe ec aieiu. Aienea
oaaaeia aeaeioeenue e Ia?aa. N?aaeaiea iaaeaeo

oaaaeneeie e ?onneeie aieneaie i?iecioei 19 iiya?y 1700 a. e
caeii/eeinue iieiie iiaaaeie oaaaeia. ?inney iioa?yea 6000 /aeiaae, anth
a?oeeea?eth e eeoeeanue aunoaai ioeoea?neiai ninoaaa, ninoiyaoaai ec
iaaiieeia-eiino?aioeaa. Ea?e XII ia noae i?iaeieaeaoue aiaiiua aeaenoaey
i?ioea ?innee, a iai?aaee a?ieth a Iieueoo i?ioea Aaaonoa II, aaea, ii
neiaai Iao?a I, iaaeieai oayc.

A yoi a?aiy Iao? aeoeaii nicaeaao ?aaoey?ioth a?ieth, ainnoaiaaeeaaao
a?oeeea?eth. A A?oaiaaeuenea no?iyo aiaiiua ei?aaee, eioi?ua aieieii
/a?ac Ea?aeeth ia?ai?aaeytho a Eaaeiaeneia ica?i. A 1702 a. n iiiiuueth
yoeo ei?aaeae ?onneea e acyee e?aiinoue Iioaao?a (?onneee ai?iae
I?aoae). Ii aue iacaai Oeennaeueao?aii. Aaniie 1703 a. a onouea Iaau
auea acyoa e?aiinoue Ieaioaioe, e a iaa oiai aea aiaea aue iniiaai
ai?iae Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. A 1704 a. ?onneay a?iey acyea Ia?ao e Aea?io.
Yoe iiaaaeu, a iauai, ia i?iecaaee aeieaeiiai aia/aoeaiey ia Ea?ea XII,
i?iaeieaeaaoaai aiaiiua aeaenoaey a Iieueoa e Naeniiee. Ei?ieai ?a/e
Iiniieeoie noae noaaeaiiee Ea?ea XII Noaieneaa Eaueineee. A 1706 a.
Aaaono II io?aeny io iieueneie ei?iiu.

Iinea yoiai ia?aay a?iey oaaaeia iioea e ?eaa, a Ea?e XII n iniiaiuie
neeaie aeaeioeny ia Iineao. Iaoieeioaoenue ia neeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea ia
a?aieoea ?innee, oaaaeneee ei?ieue naa?ioe ia Oe?aeio, aeaau aeaoue
aieneai ia?aaeuoeo. O Ea?ea XII ia oaaoaei i?iaeiaieuenoaey,
aiai?eiania, a?oeeea?ee. Ec ?eae ia iiiiuue aio auoae n ia?iiiui iaicii
oanoiaaeoeaoeouny/iue ei?ion aaia?aea Eaaaiaaoioa. Iao? ?aoee ia aeaoue
aio niaaeeieoueny n Ea?eii XII. Aue noi?ie?iaai 12-ouny/iue “ei?aaeaio”
— eaoo/ee io?yae, eioi?ue ai aeaaa n Iao?ii aeaeioeny iaano?a/o
Eaaaiaaoioo.

28 naioya?y 1708 a. ?onneea ia?ooeeenue ia oaaaeia o aea?aaie ^^niie
iaaeaeaei io ai?iaea I?iiienea. Ei?ion Eaaaiaaoioa aue ?acaeo, iioa?ya
8000 /aeiaae e aanue iaic.

Aaoiai Oe?aeiu Eaai Iacaia ia?aoae ia noi?iio Ea?ea XII, iaauaa aio
a?oeeea?eth, 50 ouny/ eacaeia, i?iaeiaieuenoaea. Ii ie/aai yoiai
oaaaeneee ei?ieue ia iieo/ee. 2 iiya?y 1708 a. io?yae A.Ae.Iaiueoeeiaa
acye Aaoo?ei — ?aceaeaioeeth Iacaiu. Iiiuoee Ea?ea XII eaeoe ia Iineao
ii Io?aaneiio oeyoo auee ioaeou ?onneeie aieneaie.

Oiaaea oaaaeu ?aoeee inaaeeoue Iieoaao, aaea eiaeenue caianu
i?iaeiaieuenoaey e aiai?eiania. Io Iieoaau iacaueuaiiua aieneaie aei?iae
aaee ia Iineao eee ia tha. Aaooay e?aiinoue Iieoaau, aeaaiaea?y
ioaeanoao 6,5 ouny/iiai aa?ieciia, auaea?aeaea 3-iany/ioth inaaeo,
ia/aaoothny a ai?aea 1709 a., iiea Iao? I n iniiaiuie neeaie ia iiaeioae
e Iieoaaa.

27 ethiy 1709 a. ninoiyeanue Iieoaaneay aeoaa, caaa?oeaoayny iieiui
?aca?iiai oaaaeia. Ea?e XII e Iacaia aaaeaee a Oo?oeeth. Iioa?ya
nooiiooioth a?ieth, Oaaoeey nio?aiyea iiuiue oeio ia Aaeoeea e
i?iaeieaeaea aieio.

A 1710 a. Oo?oeey, ia nie?eaoenue n iioa?ae Aciaa, iauyaeea aieio
?innee. Aienea Iao?a I, iaaeayaoaainy ia iiiiuue oaiaoaiiuo ia?iaeia
Iniaineie eiia?ee, aeaeioeenue e ?aea I?oo. Ianoiyoaeuenoaa iaeiaei
neeaaeuaaeenue aeey ?onneeo iaoaea/ii. Iiaeiyoue ia ai?ueao aaeeaineea
ia?iaeu ia oaeaeinue, a oo?ee oe?aieeenue ia Aeoiaa. Aienei Iao?a
ieacaeinue ie?oaeaiiui ia ?aea I?oo. Aeaaiaea?y aeeieiiaoe/aneiio
eneonnoao niiaeaeaeieea Iao?a I Oaoe?iaa oaeaeinue iiaeienaoue ie? n
Oo?oeeae 12 ethey 1711a. ?inney ioaeaaaea Oo?oeee Acia, eeeaeaee?iaaea
Oaaai?ia.

Ia naaa?i-caiaaea ?inney aioiaeeanue e ii?neei aaoaeeyi ni • Oaaoeeae.
Nicaeaaaeny Aaeoeeneee oeio, eioaineaii oea aiaaay iiaeaioiaea aai
ee/iiai ninoaaa. 25-27 ethey 1714 a. a n?aaeaiee o iuna Aaiaoo oaaaeneee
oeio iioa?iae ii?aaeaiea. A ia/aea 1720 a. iyoeouny/iue ?onneee io?yae
aunaaeeeny a Oaaoeee. 27 ethey oiai aea aiaea ?onneea ii?yee
I.I.Aieeoeuia ?acaeee oaaaeneee oeio aeoea-aaeie?aea Oaaeaoa o ino?iaa
A?aiaai.

?onneea nooiiooiua aienea i?iaeieaeaee oniaoiua aiaiiua aeaenoaey a
Oaaoeee, /oi auioaeeei aa nanoue ca noie ia?aaiai?ia. 30 aaaonoa 1721
aiaea aue caeeth/ai Ieooaaeoneee ie? iaaeaeo ?inneae e Oaaoeeae. E
?innee ioioee Ynoeyiaeey, Eeoeyiaeey, Eia?ey n Iaoa?ao?aii e /anoue
Ea?aeee. ?inney iieo/eea auoiae a Aaeoeeneia ii?a e noaea aaeeeie
ii?neie aea?aeaaie.

N?aaee ae?oaeo aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee Iao?a neaaeoao iacaaoue
Ia?neaeneee iioiae 1722-1723 aa. ?inney iieo/eea caiaaeiue aa?aa Eaniey,
iaeiaei a aeaeueiaeoai ae i?eoeinue ioeacaoueny io naieo i?eia?aoaiee.

Iiaeuai yeiiiieee no?aiu, nicaeaiea ?aaoey?iie a?iee e oeioa, iiaaaea a
Naaa?iie aieia oe?aieee iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iieiaeaiea ?innee. Oneeaiea
?innee aaniieieei ia oieueei aa ninaaeae Oaaoeeth, Iieueuo, Oo?oeeth, ii
e e?oiiua aa?iiaeneea no?aiu — Aiaeeth, O?aioeeth, Aano?eth. ?inney a
?aoaiee naieo aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo caaea/ eniieueciaaea i?ioeai?a/ey,
aicieeaaoea iaaeaeo aea?aeaaaie.

A ia?aie /aoaa?oe XVIII a. auea ?aoaia iaeia ec aeaaiuo
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo caaea/ — caaiaaai auoiae a Aaeoeeneia ii?a.
Ia?aoaiiuie inoaaaeenue aeaa neaaeothuea aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea caaea/e.

Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea ai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo niauoeyo na?aaeeiu XVIII a.
eiaea Naieeaoiyy aieia. A Aa?iia oneeeeanue aa?anneaiay iieeoeea
I?onnee, i?aaenoaaeyaoay oa?ico eioa?anai ?innee. Eaioeea?
A.I.Aanooaeaa, ?oeiaiaeeaoee ?onneie aiaoiae iieeoeeie a 40-50 aa..,
i?eeiaeee iaiaei oneeee aeey nicaeaiey aioei?onneie eiaeeoeee, a
eioi?oth aioee Aano?ey, O?aioeey, ?inney, Oaaoeey, Naeniiey. Aieia
ia/aeanue a 1756 a. iaiaaeaieai I?onnee ia Naeniieth e ?aca?iiii
aano?eeneie a?iee. Eaoii 1757 a. a aieio anooieea ?inney. 19 aaaonoa
1757 a. ?onneea aienea ?acaeee

i?onnaeia iiae A?inn-Aaa?naei?oii. Ainoi/iay I?onney auea anei?a caiyoa
?onneeie aieneaie.

Iiaia ii?aaeaiea i?onnaee iioa?iaee 14 aaaonoa 1758 a. i?e Oei?iaei?oa.
1 aaaonoa 1759 a. ?onneay a?iey auoea e Iaea?o e ?aca?iieea i?onneiai
ei?iey O?eae?eoa II o Eoia?naei?oa. A 1760 a. ?onneea aienea caiyee
Aa?eei. I?onney ieacaeanue ia a?aie eaoano?iou. Io yoiai aa nianea 25
aeaeaa?y 1761 a. nia?oue eiia?ao?eoeu Aeecaaaou. Iao? III, aiaioai?eaoee
O?eae?eoa II, a iaa 1762 a. caeeth/ee n iei ie?, aa?ioa I?onnee ana
caaiaaaiiua ?inneae oa??eoi?ee. Iinea aioea?aiey Aeaoa?eiu II ?inney
aiioee?iaaea caeeth/aiiue Iao?ii III nithc n I?onneae. A ?acoeueoaoa
Naieeaoiae aieiu n i?onneie oa?icie auei iieii/aii ia iiiaea
aeanyoeeaoey.

?onnei-oo?aoeeea aieiu (1768-1774;1787-1791)

A 1768 a. iiaeno?aeaaiay e noaneaee?oaiay O?aioeeae Oo?oeey ?aoeea
aiciaiiaeoue aa?anneth ia Oe?aeia e Eaaeaca. Iaiaaeaiea Oo?oeee aeey
?innee ieacaeinue

iaiaeeaeaiiui, e aiaiiua aeaenoaey 1768-1769 aa. auee iaoaea/iu aeey
?onneie a?iee. Iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue a 1770 a., eiaaea ia i?eoieao ?aee
I?ooEa?aa e Eaaoea I.A.?oiyioeaa iaea?aeae e?oiiua iiaaaeu. ?onneay
yneaae?a A.A.Nie?eaeiiiaa, aueaey ec Aaeoeee, ?aca?iieea 25-26 ethiy
1770 a. oo?aoeeee oeio a *aniaineie aoooa. A 1771 a. ?inneeneea aienea
caiyee ana iniiaiua oeaio?u E?uia. Iinea iaeioi?iai caoeouey aiaiiua
aeaenoaey a 1773 a. aiiaue aeoeaece?iaaeenue. A 1773 a. aienea
A.A.Noai?iaa acyee e?aiinoue Oa?ooeae, a a 1774 a. iaea?aeaee iiaaaeo
i?e Eiceoaeaea.

Oo?oeey auioaeaeaia auea iiaeienaoue 10 ethey 1774 a. ie?iue aeiaiai? a
aea?aaia Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeaee. Ii yoiio ie?o eeeaeaee?iaaeanue
caaeneiinoue E?uia io Oo?oeee. ?inney iieo/eea caiee iaaeaeo Aeiai?ii e
THaeiui Aoaii, Ea?/ue e i?aai aani?aiyonoaaiiiai ieaaaiey ?onneeo
oi?aiauo noaeia ii *a?iiio ii?th. Aaniie 1783 a. i?ae?aoeei
nouanoaiaaiea E?uineia oainoai, ?onneea aienea aioee a E?ui, e ii aue
aeeth/ai a ninoaa ?innee. A 1783 a. a?oceineee oea?ue E?aeeee II
iiaeienae n ?inneae o?aeoao a a. Aai?aeaanea, ii eioi?iio A?ocey
ia?aoiaeeea iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoai ?innee, eioi?ay aa?aioe?iaaea ae
oa??eoi?eaeueioth oeaeinoiinoue e aaciianiinoue a?aieoe.

Ia aeaeay ie?eoueny n oo?aoie aac?acaeaeueiiai ainiiaenoaa ia *a?iii
ii?a, Oo?oeey ia/aea a 1787 a. iiaoth aieio n ?inneae. A 1787 a.
A.A.Noai?ia ?aca?iiee oo?aoeeee aeanaio a ?aeiia Eeiao?ia, iinea /aai
?onneay a?iey inaaeeea I/aeia e a eiioea 1788 a. acyea aai. A 1789 a.
Noai?ia iaea?aeae iiaaaeu iaae oo?eaie o Oieoai e i?e ?uiieea. 11
aeaeaa?y 1790 a. aienea A.A.Noai?iaa ooo?iii acyee e?aiinoue Eciaee —
?onneei aieneai aue ioe?uo iooue ia Noaiaoe. Oniaoiuie auee aeaenoaey
iieiaeiai *a?iiii?neiai oeioa, eioi?ui eiiaiaeiaae O.O.Ooaeia. A 1790 a.
ii iaian oo?aoeeiio oeioo ii?aaeaiea a Ea?/aineii i?ieeaa e o oi?oa
Aaaeaeeaae. A 1791 a. Ooaeia ?aca?iiee oo?aoeeee oeio o iuna Eaeeae?ey.
A 1791 a. a ssnnao iaaeaeo Oo?oeeae e ?inneae aue iiaeienai ie?.
A?aieoea iaaeaeo Oo?oeeae e ?inneae onoaiaaeeaaeanue ii Aeiano?o. E
?innee auee i?eniaaeeiaiu ia?iiiua caiee aciai-/a?iiii?neiai iiaa?aaeuey
(Iiai?inney e E?ui-Oaa?eaea).

?inney e Caiaae

A 70-a aiaeu XVIII a. ?inney ai a?aiy aieiu ca iacaaeneiinoue
naaa?iaia?eeaineeo ooaoia n Aiaeeae aunoo

ieea n Aeaeea?aoeeae i aii?oaeaiiii iaeo?aeeoaoa.

Ainiieueciaaaoenue aeoaieei e?ecenii e aia?oeae a ?a/e Iiniieeoie,
Aano?ey,I?onney e ?inney a 70-90-a aa. XVIII a. i?iaaee o?e ?acaeaea
Iieueoe, eeeaeaee?iaaa aa ainoaea?noaaiiinoue. Ii ia?aiio ?acaeaeo 1772
a. e ?innee ioioee ainoi/iay /anoue Aaei?onnee “ii Caiaaeiie Aeaeia e
Aa?oiaio Aeiai?o. Ii aoi?iio ?acaeaeo 1793 a. ?inney iieo/eea
I?aaiaa?aaeioth Oe?aeio e oeaio?aeueioth /anoue Aaei?onnee n Ieineii. A
1794 a. iieueneea iao?eiou ai aeaaa n Oaaeaooai Einothoei ia/aee
ainnoaiea, no?aiynue ionoiyoue iacaaeneiinoue Iieueoe. Iii auei
iiaeaaeaii ?onneei oea?eciii. A 1795 a. i?iecioae o?aoee ?acaeae
Iieueoe, ii eioi?iio e ?innee ioioee Eeoaa, Caiaaeiay Aaei?onney,
Aieuiue e th?eaee/anee cae?aieaia Eo?eyi-aeey.

E ia/aeo XIX a. ?inney noaea iiaouanoaaiiie aea?aeaaie. Aa i?aaeaeu
ioaaoeee ia?iiiua i?ino?ainoaa Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e Naaa?iie Acee, /anoue
Naaa?iie Aia?eee (Aeyneo). ?anoe?aiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oa??eoi?ee
i?iaeieaeaeinue e a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. — n 16 aei 18 iei. ea. ei ca
n/ao i?eniaaeeiaiey Eaaeaca, Caeaaeacuey, N?aaeiae Acee, Oeieyiaeee,
/anoe Iieueoe, iiauo caiaeue ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea. Noieue aea onoie/eaie
auea e oaiaeaioeey ?inoa ianaeaiey: 18 iei. /aeiaae a 1747 a., 36 iei. —
a 1796, 74 iei — e na?aaeeia XIX a.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie ai aiaoiae iieeoeea ?innee ia?aie /aoaa?oe XIX
a. auee caiaaeiia e ainoi/iia. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ianoaiiaea a Aa?iia e ia
Aeeaeiai Ainoiea ii?aaeaeyea aeaenoaey ?onneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
?ac?aoaiee oao eee eiuo aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo eiioeeeoia.

Ainoi/iue aii?in

Oiaaeie Iooiiaineie eiia?ee i?eaae e ai?ueaa aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa ca
i?aiaeaaeaiea ia Aaeeaiao e a Oo?oeee.

Iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe a?aieoe e iiaeaea?aeaiea aaoi?eoaoa ia Aaeeaiao
niinianoaiaaee o/anoeth ?innee a ?acaeaea Iooiiaineie eiia?ee.

A 1806 a. ia/aeanue ?onnei-oo?aoeeay aieia, i?iaeeeaoayny oanoue eao.
Iiaiaeii e aieia iineoaeeei iono?aiaiea oo?aoeeei noeoaiii ainiiaea?ae
Iieaeaaee e Aaeaoee io aeanoe (aii?aee ssnneiio ie?iiio aeiaiai?o 1791
a.) e iacia/aiea ia eo ianoi noaaeaiieeia Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa.

Ec-ca iaaeinoaoea ?ano?nia e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aaaeaiey aiaiiuo aeaenoaee
ia o?e o?iioa (n o?aioeocaie e ia?naie) ?onnei-oo?aoeeay eaiiaiey
i?eia?aea caoyaeiie oa?aeoa?. Iaeiaei ?yae oniaoiuo iiaaae ia nooa
(acyoea e?aiinoae Aaiaea?u, Aeea?iai, Aaeaoe, Aooa?ano) e ia ii?a
(aaeie?ae Ae.I.Naiy-aei ?aca?iiee oo?aoeeee oeio a Aea?aeaiaeueneii e
Aoiineii n?aaeaieyo a 1807 a.) e oaea/iay aeeieiiaoe/aneay ienney
I.E.Eooociaa a Oo?oeee niinianoaiaaee caeeth/aieth auaiaeiiai aeey
?innee Aooa?anoneiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?a a 1812 a. E ?innee iooiaeeee
Aanna?aaey e ?yae iaeanoae Caeaaeacuey, auee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu i?eaeeaaee
Iieaeaaee, Aaeaoee, Na?aee e

i?aai ?innee ia iie?iaeoaeuenoai o?enoeai — iiaeaeaiiuo Oo?oeee.

E?iia oiai, auee iaaciianaiu ?onneea thaeiua a?aieoeu, /oi aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaanoe /anoue aiene ia caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea.

A 1801-1804 aa. e ?innee auea i?eniaaeeiaia aieueoay /anoue A?ocee.
Aeeyiea ?innee ia Eaaeaca e a Caeaaeacuea oaaee/eeinue, /oi i/aiue
aaniieieei Aiaeeth. Aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?aoeei i?aaeioa?aoeoue
aeaeueiaeoaa i?iaeaeaeaiea ?innee a Caeaaeacuea, noieeioa aa n E?aiii
(Ia?neae).

Ia?neaeneee oao i?aaeuyaee ?innee oeueoeiaooi i auaiaea ?onneeo aiene ec
Caeaaeacuey e ia/ae aiaiiua aeaenoaey i?ioea A?ocee. ?onneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai anoaei ia noi?iio A?ocee e ioeeiieei oeueoeiaooi oaoa.
Yoi i?eaaei a 1804 a. e ia/aeo ?onnei-e?aineie aieiu.

A 1807 a. O?aioeey caeeth/eea ie?iue aeiaiai? n E?aiii e iaycaeanue
iinoaaeyoue aio i?oaeea a ai?ueaa i?ioea ?innee. Niaeaenoaea oaoo
ieacuaaea e Aiaeey.

Iaeiaei ?yae iiaaae ?onneeo aiene a Caeaaeacuea niinianoaiaae
i?eniaaeeiaieth e ?innee ianeieueeeo oainoa: Aaiaeaeee-neiai,
Ea?aaaoneiai, Oaeeineiai, Oe?aaineiai, Aea?aaioneiai, Eoaeineiai,
Aaeeineiai e Oaeuoneiai.

A 1813 a. ?onnei-e?aineay aieia auea caeii/aia e iiaeienai ie?iue
aeiaiai? a Atheenoaia, ii eioi?iio ca ?inneae inoaaaeenue ana
caaiaaaiiua ath caiee, eioi?ua auee i?aia?aciaaiu a aeaa aoaa?iee:
Aaeeineoth e Aeecaaaoiieueneoth. Oaeei ia?acii, A?ocey e Aca?aaeaeaeai
ieii/aoaeueii aioee a ninoaa ?innee. E?iia oiai, ?inney iieo/eea
eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai eiaoue oeio ia Eaniee.

Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea a ?onneie aiaoiae iieeoeea

Iineaaiaiiay aiaoiyy iieeoeea

A1813-1814 aa. ?onneay a?iey aianoa n nithcieeaie i/enoeea io
iaiieaiiianeeo aiene Oeaio?aeueioth e Caiaaeioth Aa?iio. 18 (30) ia?oa
1814 a. ?on

neee iieeiaiee I.O.I?eia i?eiye eaieooeyoeeth Ia?eaea. A 1814-1815 aa.
ninoiyeny Aaineee eiia?ann aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa, ia eioi?ii auee
oaeiaeaoai?aiu oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eoycaiey no?ai-iiaaaeeoaeueieoe.
Aaineee eiia?ann iieiaeee ia/aei nouanoaiaaieth Nayuaiiiai Nithca
(Aano?ey, I?onney, ?inney), eioi?ue aue ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieai a Ia?eaea
26 naioya?y 1815a. Iinea iaaeaiey eiia?ee Iaiieaiia I Nayuaiiue Nithc
eiae eneeth/eoaeueii ?aaeoeeiiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. A aai caaea/e
aoiaeeei iiaeaaeaiea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo e iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiuo
aeaeaeaiee a Aa?iia. Nayuaiiue Nithc naieoeeiie?iaae iiaeaaeaiea
?aaiethoeee a Iaaiiea (1820-1821 aa.), Iueaiiioa (1821 a.), a Eniaiee
(1820-1823 aa.). ?inney caieiaea a yoii Nithca aaaeouaa ianoi. Oaeei
ia?acii, aiaoiyy iieeoeea ?innee iinea Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu eiaea ioe?uoi
?aaeoeeiiioth iai?aaeaiiinoue.

Iiaaaea a Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia e oaea/iia caaa?oaiea caa?aie/iuo iioiaeia
?onneie a?iee, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?uo aue ?aca?ii a?iee Iaiieaiia,
i?eianee ?innee ?yae oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?eia?aoaiee (e ?innee ioioea
oeaio?aeueiay /anoue Iieueoe) e oi?i/eee aa iaaeaeoia?iaeiia iieiaeaiea
eae neeueiaeoae aa?iiaeneie aea?aeaau. Aeeyiea ?innee ia iieeoeeo a
Aa?iia noaei i?aaaee?othuei, e?iia oiai, ?onneay a?iey niaa?oeea
aeaai?iaeioth ienneth, inaiaiaeea Aa?iio io o?aioeocneiai ainiiaenoaa.

Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1812 a. iieacaea eo/oea ea/anoaa ?onneiai ia?iaea,
aai iao?eioeci, ioaeanoai. Ia caueoo ?innee iiaeiyeenue ana nineiaey,
iauaaeeiaiiua iauae oeaeueth — inaiaiaeaeaieai Ioa/anoaa. Iiaaaeu
?onneie a?iee i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee anae Aa?iia oaeaio ?onneeo
aiaia/aeueieeia, neeo e iiuue ?onneiai i?oaeey, o?aa?inoue ?onneeo
nieaeao.

Eaaeac e Caeaaeacuea

Ia/aei oea?noaiaaiey Ieeieay I iciaiaiiaaeinue aieiaie a Caeaaeacuea,
oniaoiuie aeey ?innee. Aieia n E?aiii

(1826-1828 aa.) caaa?oeeanue Oo?eiai/aeneei ie?iui aeiaiai?ii: e ?innee
ioioee Y?eaaineia e Iaoe/aaaineia oainoaa. Aieia n Oo?oeeae (1828-1829
aa.) caaa?oeeanue Aae?ea-iiiieueneei ie?iui aeiaiai?ii: e ?innee ioioee
Aiaia, Iioa, Aoaeoeeo e Aoaeeaeaee. A ?acoeueoaoa auei caaa?oaii
i?eniaaeeiaiea Caeaaeacuey e ?innee.

A nayce n yoei iaecaaaeiui noaiiaeeinue iiae/eiaiea ?innee Eaaeaca.
Ianooieaiea ?innee ia ai?iue Eaaeac aucaaei a n?aaea ai?oeaa-ionoeueiai
aeaeaeaiea ith?eaeia — ai?oeia ca aa?o. Iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii aiaeaey —
eiaia — ith?eaeu aaee i?ioea iaaa?iuo (o?enoeai) nayuaiioth aieio —
aacaaao. A 1834 a. eiaiii aue i?iaiaeaoai Oaieeue, nicaeaaoee a
Aeaaanoaia e *a/ia neeueiia oaie?aoe/aneia ainoaea?noai. A 1830-1840 aa.
Oaieeth oaeaeinue iaea?aeaoue ?yae iiaaae iaae ?onneeie aieneaie.
Iaeiaei no?iainoue aioo?aiieo ii?yaeeia a ainoaea?noaa Oaieey, aeanoieee
aiao i?eaeeaeaiiuo eiaia iinoaiaiii ?aceaaaee eiaiao ecioo?e. A 1859 a.
aienea Oaieey auee ieii/aoaeueii ?acaeou, a nai ii iiiae a ieai.
Caaa?oeeinue i?eniaaeeiaiea Eaaeaca e ?innee a 1864 a.

Aa?iiaeneay iieeoeea e ainoi/iue aii?in

A aa?iiaeneie iieeoeea Ieeieae I neaaeiaae caaaoai naiaai a?aoa —
iniiaaoaey Nayuaiiiai Nithca Aeaenaiae?a I: ii no?aieeny caueuaoue
eaaeoeiiua ( caeiiiua ) i?aaeoaeue

noaa io ?aaiethoeeiiiiai iaoenea. Ia yoie ii/aa Ieeieae nio?oaeie/ae n
Aano?eae e I?onneae.

?aaiethoeey 1830 a. ai O?aioeee e Aaeueaee, ?aaiethoeeiiiay aieia 1848
a. a Aa?iia aucaaee o Ieeieay I iunee i aiaiiii

iioiaea ia Caiaae. Inouanoaeoue yoio caiunae a iieiie ia?a ia oaeaeinue.
A 1849 a. ?onneea aienea, caueuay aeanoue aano?eeneiai eiia?aoi?a,
iiaeaaeee ainnoaiea a Aaia?ee.

Aa?iiaeneea ?aaiethoeeiiiua ao?e iaoiaeeee iocaoe a i?aaeaeao ?inneeneie
eiia?ee. A 1830 a. — /a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa iinea o?aioeocneie e
aaeueaeeneie ?aaiethoeee — ainnoaea Iieueoa. ?oeiaiaeeoaee ainnoaiey —
iieueneea aeai?yia — o?aaiaaee ainnoaiiaeaiey “Iieueoe io ii?y aei ii?y”
(n aeeth/aieai Eeoau, Aaei?onnee, I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu). A ia/aea 1831
a. ainnoaiea auei iiaeaaeaii ?onneeie aieneaie, eiinoeoooeey 1815 a.,
niaeanii eioi?ie Iieueoa iieueciaaeanue oe?ieie aaoiiiieae, oi?acaeiaia.

Oeaio?ii aiaoiae iieeoeee ?innee ai aoi?ie /aoaa?oe XIX a. noae
ainoi/iue aii?in — aii?in i noaeueaa Iniaineie eiia?ee, ?aaeeia
/a?iiii?neeo i?ieeaia, i iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiie ai?ueaa
aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia.

Iiaaaea ?innee a aieia n Oo?oeeae 1828-1829 aa. cae?aieea aaoiiiieth
Na?aee, A?aoeee, Iieaeaaee e Aaeaoee, oi?i/eea aaoi?eoao ?innee. Aneaae
ca oai Ieeieae I ieacae iiiiuue noeoaio a ai?ueaa i?ioea iyoaaeieea —
i?aaeoaey Aaeioa, e a 1833 a. iaaeaeo ?inneae e Oo?oeeae aue caeeth/ai
Oiey?-Enea-eanneeneee aeiaiai?. Noeoai iaycaeny a neo/aa aieiu cae?uoue
i?ieeau aeey aiaiiuo noaeia caiaaeiuo aea?aeaa. A 1840-1841 aa.,
iaeiaei, niaeanii Eiiaeiineei eiiaaioeeyi, noaeioiaenoai a i?ieeaao auei
iinoaaeaii iiae iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiio?ieue; i?ieeau iauyaeyeenue
cae?uouie aeey aiaiiuo noaeia eae aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, oae e ?innee.

E eiioeo 1840-o aa. cia/eoaeueii iaino?eeenue i?ioeai?a/ey ia Aeeaeiai
Ainoiea iaaeaeo ?inneae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, Aiaeeae e O?aioeeae — n
ae?oaie. E?iia oiai, Ieeieae I caiye aieaa aeanoeoth iiceoeeth ii
ioiioaieth e Oo?oeee, no?aiynue ia?aniio?aoue i?aaiaie ?aaeei i?ieeaia.

A 1850 a. ia/aeny eiioeeeo iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e ?inneae, iiaiaeii e
eioi?iio iineoaeeee nii?u eaoiee/aneiai e i?aaineaaiiai aeooiaainoaa
ioiineoaeueii i?aa ia Nayoua ianoa a Ea?onaeeia. Ieeieae 1 n/eoae, /oi
O?aioeey, ineaaeaiiay aioo?aiiei a?iaeaieai (iinea 1848 a. caeanue auea
i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeea, iaeiaei a 1852 a. aa i?aceaeaio Eoe Aiiaia?o
iauyaee naay eiia?aoi?ii), ia noaiao no?aieoueny e aieia

Ieeieae oaeaea ?ann/eouaae ia aeaaineeiiiinoue Aano?ee (a
aeaaiaea?iinoue ca iiaeaea?aeeo i?e iiaeaaeaiee aaiaa?neiai ainnoaiey);
n Aiaeeae aea ii oioae aeiaiai?eoueny, ioaeaa ae /anoue iniaineie
oa??eoi?ee.

Ia aeaea aea Eoe Aiiaia?o — eiia?aoi? Iaiieaii III, — no?aiynue
oe?aieoue naie ?aaeei, aeaaeaeae iiaaaeiiiniie aieiu;

Aiaeee aeiaiaa?eaaoueny n ?inneae auei iaauaiaeii, a Aano?ey, eiaaoay
naie eioa?anu ia Aaeeaiao, aiyeanue oneeaiey ?innee ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea.
?inney ieacaeanue a iieeoe/aneie ecieyoeee.

A 1853 a. Oo?oeey, iie?aynue ia iiaeaea?aeeo Aiaeee e O?aioeee, ioaa?aea
oeueoeiaooi ?innee ioiineoaeueii Nayouo iano. ?onneea aienea anooieee a
Iieaeaaeth e Aaeaoeth; oo?aoeeee noeoai iauyaee aieio ?innee. Ia/aeanue
E?uineay aieia (1853-1856 aa.).

A iiya?a 1853 a. ?onneay yneaae?a iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai I.N.Iaoeiiaa
?aca?iieea oo?aoeeee oeio a Neiiineie aoooa. A 1854 a. Aiaeey e O?aioeey
iauyaeee aieio ?innee, Aano?ey iio?aaiaaea io ?innee i/enoeoue
Iieaeaaeth e Aaeaoeth. Aiaei-o?aiei-oo?aoeeea aienea aunaaeeeenue a
E?uio e ia/aee ianooieaiea ia Naaanoiiieue. ?onneay a?iey iiae
eiiaiaeiaaieai eiycy A-N.Iaioeeiaa iinea n?aaeaiey ia ?aea Aeueia
ionooieea aaeoaue iieoino?iaa.

Iai?iio Naaanoiiiey aicaeaaeee aaeie?aeu A.A.Ei?ieeia, I.N.Iaoeiia,
A.E.Enoiiei; cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue nua?ae aiaiiue eiaeaia? Y.E.Oioeaaai.
Iiiuoee ?onneie a?iee iiii/ue inaaeaeaiiiio Naaanoiiieth (n?aaeaiea iiae
Eiea?iaiii, ianooieaiea ia Aaiaoi?eth, aeoaa i?e *a?iie ?a/ea) oniaoa ia
eiaee. A aaaonoa 1855 a. iinea 11-iany/iie inaaeu aue acyo
ainiiaenoaothuee iaae Naaanoiiieai Iaeaoia eo?aai, e ?onneea aienea
auioaeaeaiu auee inoaaeoue ai?iae. A oi aea a?aiy a Caeaaeacuea ?onneei
aieneai oaeaeinue acyoue neeueioth oo?aoeeoth e?aiinoue Ea?a.

Eoiae E?uineie aieiu iiaeaae Ia?eaeneee ie?iue aeiaiai? (1856 a.).
I?iaicaeaoaeenue iaeo?aeecaoeey *a?iiai ii?y oi anoue e ?innee, e
Oo?oeee cai?auaeinue eiaoue caeanue aiaiiue oeio, a?naiaeu e e?aiinoe.
Iineieueeo aoiae a *a?iia ii?a — i?ieeau — aue a ?oeao Oo?oeee,
iiaeiaiay neooaoeey na?ueacii oa?iaeaea aaciianiinoe ?innee. ?inney
eeoeeanue thaeiie /a

noe Aanna?aaee n onoueai Aeoiay, i?aaa iie?iaeoaeuenoaiaaoue Na?aee,
Iieaeaaee e Aaeaoee.

Aa?iiaeneay iieeoeea. Ainoi/iue aii?in

Oeaio?ii ?inneeneie aiaoiae iieeoeee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a.
yaeyeny ainoi/iue aii?in — aii?in i ?aaeeia /a?iiii?neeo i?ieeaia e
noaeueaa aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia,

iaoiaeyueony iiae aeanoueth Oo?oeee. Caaa?oeaoee E?uineoth aieio
Ia?eaeneee ie? (1856) i?iaicaeaoae, eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, i?eioeei
iaeo?aeecaoeee *a?iiai ii?y: ?innee e Oo?oeee cai?auaeinue eiaoue
caeanue e?aiinoe e aiaiiue oeio. Oaeia ?aoaiea iaiineei oaea? ii
aaciianiinoe ?innee. Iiyoiio aeaaiie caaea/ae ?inneeneie aiaoiae
iieeoeee iinea ieii/aiey E?uineie aieiu noaea ai?ueaa ca ioiaio
ia?aie/eoaeueiuo noaoae Ia?eaeneiai ie?a.

Aeey auiieiaiey yoie caaea/e ?innee iaiaoiaeeii auei iaeoe nithcieeia a
Aa?iia. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1850-o aa. iaiaoeeinue naeeaeaiea ?innee n
O?aioeeae; iaeiaei aiineaaenoaee noaee oe?aieyoueny nayce ?innee n
I?onneae. Yoiio niinianoaiaaee e iiiuoee O?aioeee iiaeaea?aeaoue
inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea iieyeia, e iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoue I?onnee a
aeeaeiaainoi/iuo aeaeao, e aeeianoe/aneea nayce ?onneiai e i?onneiai
aeai?ia (Aeaenaiae? II aue ieaiyiieeii i?onneiai ei?iey Aeeueaaeueia).

?inney caiyea aeaaiaeaeaoaeueioth ii ioiioaieth e I?onnee iiceoeeth ai
a?aiy aa aieiu n O?aioeeae e ai?ueau ca iauaaeeiaiea Aa?iaiee. Iie?aynue
ia nithc n I?onneae, eniieueciaaa ?aca?ii O?aioeee a o?aiei-i?onneie
aieia, ?inneeneee ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae ei. A.I.Ai?/aeia iauyaee a
1870 a. ia ioiaia iaeo?aeecaoeee *a?iiai ii?y. *a?ac aiae yoi ?aoaiea
auei ooaa?aeaeaii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie Eiiaeiineie eiioa?aioeeae.

A 1873 a. aue caeeth/ai aeiaiai? ?innee, Aano?i-Aaia?ee e Aa?iaiee —
“Nithc o?ao eiia?aoi?ia”. A oi aea a?aiy, no?aiynue nio?aieoue
?aaiiaanea a Aa?iia, ?inney ia aeaaaea Aa?iaiee ieii/aoaeueii
?aca?iieoue O?aioeeth.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey aeoaieeo ?aoi?i e neiaeiay
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea aioo?e no?aiu ianeieueei ineaaeee
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneoth aeoeaiinoue ?innee Iaeiaei ainnoaiey ia Aaeeaiao (a
1875 a. — a Ainiee e Aa?oeaaiaeia, a 1876 a. — a Aieaa?ee) aiiaue
naeaeaee ainoi/iue aii?in ino?aeoae i?iaeaiie ?inneeneie aiaoiae
iieeoeee. Aeaenaiae? II e Ai?/aeia auee i?ioea ?aoeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee;

iaeiaei aeanoieia iiaeaaeaiea Oo?oeeae aaeeaineeo ainnoaiee iaiau/aeii
neeueii aneieuoioei iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ?innee. Iinea oiai, eae Oo?oeey
ioaa?aea o?aaiaaiea aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa i?iaanoe ?aoi?iu a iieueco
aaeeaineeo ia?iaeia, ?innee oaea iaeuecy auei caieiaoue ianneaioth
iiceoeeth. A ai?aea 1877 a. ?inney iauyaeea aieio Oo?oeee.

?onneay a?iey oi?ne?iaaea Aeoiae e anooieea a Naaa?ioth Aieaa?eth.
Caeanue iniiaiay ianna aiene inaaeeea neeueiaeooth oo?aoeeoth e?aiinoue
Ieaaio e ianeieueei ?ac aaconiaoii iuoaeanue ooo?iiaaoue aa. Oai
a?aiaiai iaaieueoie io?yae iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea E.A.Ao?ei
oaea?aeeaae ai?iue ia?aaae Oeieo, ioe?uaaaoee aei?iao a thaeioth
Aieaa?eth. Oniaoii ?acaeaaeenue aiaaua aeaenoaey a Caeaaeacuea.

A aeaeaa?a 1877 a., iaeiiaoe, iaea Ieaaia, ?onneea aienea anooieee a
THaeioth Aieaa?eth e ia/aee ianooiaoue ia oo?aoeeoth noieeoeo
Eiinoaioeiiiieue. 19 oaa?aey 1878 a. a ianoa/ea Nai-Noaoaii, a
aeaaiaaeoeaoe eeeiiao?ao io Eiinoaioeiiiiey, aue iiaeienai ie?iue
aeiaiai?.

Niaeanii aeiaiai?o, iacaaeneiinoue iieo/eee Na?aey, *a?iiai?ey e ?oiuiey
(?aiaa iie eiaee oieueei aaoiiiieth) Aaoiiiieth iieo/eee Aieaa?ey,
Ainiey e Aa?oeaaiaeia. ?in ney aa?ioea THaeioth Aanna?aaeth, iioa?yiioth
iinea E?ui neie aieiu, i?eia?aea ?yae e?aiinoae a Caeaaeacuea — Aaooi.
Ea?n, A?aeaaai e Aaycao.

Caiaaeiua aea?aeaau iio?aaiaaee ia?aniio?a Nai-Noaoaineiai aeiaiai?a ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eiia?anna; ?inney, eioi?ie

ia iiae neeo auei aanoe aieio n aaaeoueie aa?iiaeneeie ainoaea?noaaie,
aeieaeia auea ionooieoue.

Eaoii 1878 a. ninoiyeny Aa?eeineee eiia?ann n o/anoeai ?innee, Oo?oeee,
Aiaeee, O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee e Aano?i-Aaia?ee. Ii ?aoaieth eiia?anna,
Aieaa?ey auea ?acaeaeaia ia aeaa /anoe: Naaa?iay Aieaa?ey iauyaeaia
aannaeueiui io Oo?oeee eiyaeanoaii ni naiei i?aaeoaeuenoaii e a?ieae.
THaeiay — aaoiiiiiie i?iaeioeeae a ninoaaa Oo?aoeeie eiia?ee. Auee
nie?auaiu oa??eoi?ee Na?aee, *a?iiai?ee e ?oiuiee. ?inney aica?auaea
Oo?oeee Aaycao. Aano?i-Aaia?ey iieo/eea i?aai ieeoie?iaaoue Ainieth e
Aa?oeaaiaeio, Oo?oeey ia?aaeaea Aiaeee ino?ia Eei?.

Ianiio?y ia aa?eeineea ia?aie/aiey, cia/aiea ?onneie iiaaaeu iaae
Oo?oeeae aeey neaayineeo ia?iaeia auei /?acau/aeii aaeeei. A oi aea
a?aiy niaeanea ?onneie aeeieiiaoee ia ia?aniio? Nai-Noaoaineiai
aeiaiai?a cia/eoaeueii iiaei?aaei i?anoeae i?aaeoaeuenoaa aioo?e no?aiu,
niinianoaiaaei oaeoaeaieth e?ecena a ?onneii iauanoaa.

Iieeoeea ?innee a N?aaeiae Acee e ia Eaaeaca

Aoi?ay iieiaeia XIX — ia/aei XX a. noaee a?aiaiai aeoeaiie eieiieaeueiie
iieeoeee aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa. ?anoouee eaieoaeeci ino?i ioaeaeaeny a
enoi/ieeao nu?uey e

?uieao nauoa. Aeoeaii ?anoe?yea naie aceaoneea aeaaeaiey a yoo yiioo e
?inney. ?onneie oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ioaeai aue oeiiie ec
N?aaeiae Acee; ainoi/iua ?aeiiu auee iiaeoiaeyuei ?uieii nauoa aeey
?onneie ao?aeoacee. Aianoa n oai i?iaeaeaeaiea ?innee ia Ainoie a i/aiue
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie aeeeoiaaeinue /enoi iieeoe/aneeie oneiaeyie (a
/anoiinoe, caaiaaaiea N?aaeiae Acee aeieaeii auei oi?aaeeoue
i?iieeiiaaiea ooaea Aiaeee).

Ieii/aiea E?uineie aieiu iicaieeei ?onneiio i?aaeoaeuenoao caaa?oeoue
caaiaaaiea Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca. A 1859 a. iae aoe Aoiea — iineaaeiaa
i?eaaaeeua eiaia Oaieey, aicaeaaeyaoaai ai?ueao ai?oeaa i?ioea ?innee. A
1864 a. auea iiei?aia caiaaeiay /anoue Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca: Eaaeacneay
aieia caeii/eeanue.

Ii Aeaoineiio (1858) e Iaeeineiio (1860) aeiaiai?ai n Eeoaai, ?inney
i?eia?aea Onno?eeneee e?ae. Niaeanii aeiaiai?o n ssiiieae (1875), e
?innee ioioae ino?ia Naoaeei, a ssiiiey iieo/eea Eo?eeueneea ino?iaa. A
1867 a. Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai Aia?eee auea i?iaeaia Aeynea.

A 1864 a. ia/aeinue aiaiiia i?iieeiiaaiea ?innee a N?aaeithth Aceth, e a
neaaeothuai aiaeo aienea iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai aaia?aea I.A.*a?iyaaa acyee
Oaoeaio. Auei ia?aciaaii Oo?eanoaineia aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?noai, ai aeaaa
eioi?iai anoae aeaeiue aiaia/aeueiee e aaeieieno?aoi? E.I.Eaooiai. A
1868 a. aannaeueioth caaeneiinoue io ?innee i?eciaee Eieai-aeneia
oainoai e Aooa?neee yie?ao.

A 1873 a. a caaeneiinoue io ?innee iiiaei Oeaeineia oainoai.
I?eniaaeeiaiea e ?innee N?aaeiae Acee auei caaa?oaii iiei?aieai
oo?eiaineeo ieaiai (1881-1884 aa). A 1876 a. Eieaiaeneia oainoai aioei a
ninoaa ?innee; Oeaa e Aooa?a nio?aieee aioo?aiithth aaoiiiieth. A
iiaii?eniaaeeiaiiuo caieyo auei eeeaeaee?iaaii ?aanoai, ia?aie/aii
e?oiiia oaiaeaeueiia caieaaeaaeaiea, iieo/eee ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
oi?aiaey e i?inaauaiea.

I?eniaaeeiaiea N?aaeiae Acee oe?aieei ?inneth yeiiiie/anee e
iieeoe/anee. Iaeiaei iii aanueia aei?iai iaioeinue ?innee: oae, ca
ia?aua aeaaiaaeoeaoue eao iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiua cao?aou
a o?e ?aca i?aauoaee aeioiaeu. Eeoue e ia/aeo XX a. N?aaeiyy Acey noaea
iniiaiui iinoaaueeii oeiiea aeey ?onneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A 1880-1890-o aa. ?onneia i?aaeoaeuenoai auioaeaeaii auei ioeacaoueny io
aeoeaiuo aeaenoaee ia Aaeeaiao. Ana aieueoaa ianoi ai aiaoiae iieeoeea
?innee ia/eiaao caieiaoue Aeaeueiee Ainoie (a ia/aea XX a. yoi i?eaaei e
?onnei-yiiineie aieia). I?e Aeaenaiae?a III ?inney i?aeoe/anee ia aaea
aiei (ia n/eoay acyoey Eooee a 1885 a., caaa?oeaoaai i?eniaaeeiaiea
N?aaeiae Acee). Yoi aeinoaaeei Aeaenaiae?o III iiioey?iia a
eiina?aaoeaiuo e?oaao eiy Ie?ioai?oea.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019