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Предпосылки социалистической революции в России

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?aoa?ao

«I?aaeiinueee nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a ?innee»

I. I?aaeiinueee nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a ?innee

1.1 ?inney – neaaia caaii a oeaie eiia?eaeecia

25 ieoya?y (7 iiya?y) 1917 a. a ?innee i?iecioea nioeeaeenoe/aneay
?aaiethoeey — aaee/aeoay ?aaiethoeey ai anaie?iie enoi?ee. Iia yaeeanue
iiai?ioiui ioieoii a enoi?ee ia?iaeia iaoae no?aiu, a enoi?e/aneeo
noaeueaao anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. A ?innee iia naa?aea ainiiaenoai
ao?aeoacee e iao?aeoaceaoeony iiiaueeia, onoaiiaeea aeeeoaoo?o
i?ieaoa?eaoa, /oi yaeeinue enoiaeiui iiiaioii e ?aoathuei oneiaeai
no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeenoe/aneiai iauanoaa. A ie?iaie enoi?ee iia
ioe?uea y?o ia?aoiaea anaai /aeiaa/anoaa io eaieoaeecia e eiiioiecio.

Ieoya?ueneay nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey yaeeanue caeiiiia?iui
?acoeueoaoii anaai i?aaeoanoaothuaai ?acaeoey iaoae no?aiu, anaai
ie?iaiai enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Eae iu oaea ciaai, a eiioea XIX —
ia/aea XX a. eaieoaeeci anooiee a naith aunooth e iineaaeithth noaaeeth
?acaeoey — noaaeeth eiia?eaeecia. A.E. Eaiei ii?aaeaeee eiia?eaeeci eae
eaioi nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, oae eae ii aeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiie,
iaecaaaeiie e aiciiaeiie aa iiaaaeo, nicaeaao aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiua
iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee. Yoe i?aaeiinueee, neiaeeaoeany
a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao aua aei ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu, n a?iiaaeiie auno?ioie i?iaeieaeaee iac?aaaoue aneaaenoaea aieiu.
Aeaaionee onei?eeny i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee eaieoaea, auoaniaiea e
aeaaeue iaeeeo e n?aaeieo oicyenoa. Iiiiiieenoe/aneee eaieoaeeci
oneeaiii ia?a?anoae a ainoaea?noaaiii-iiiiiieenoe/aneee, eioi?ue, ii
ii?aaeaeaieth Eaieia, yaeyaony iieiaeoae iaoa?eaeueiie iiaeaioiaeie
nioeeaeecia.

Ie?iaay eiia?eaeenoe/aneay aieia i?eianea i?ieaoa?eaoo, o?oaeyueiny
anaai ie?a iaen/eneeiua aaaenoaey. Ia o?iioao aieiu ieeeeiiu nieaeao
auee oaeou, aeanyoee ieeeeiiia eneaea/aiu. Nioie ieeeeiiia o?oaeyueony
no?aaeaee io aieiaea e eeoaiee a oueo. Oicyenoai iiiaeo aiththueo no?ai
auei ?aci?aii. Ieuaoa ia?iaeiuo iann i?eiyea oaeanathuea ?acia?u.
Anthaeo ia?anoaee aiaa e aiciouaiea i?ioea oao, eoi ?acaycae e?iaaaoth
aieio, i?ioea ii?iaeeaoaai aa eiia?eaeenoe/aneiai no?iy. Noaiiaeeinue
ana aieaa i/aaeaeiui, /oi eiia?eaeeci a?iceo aeaaeueth iiaui ieeeeiiai
ethaeae. Ia?aoiae e nioeeaeecio noae iaiaoiaeei. A iaaeo
eiia?eaeenoe/aneeo eiaeeoeeyo, aiaaaaoeo a ia?aie ie?iaie aieia, iac?aea
nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey, ienae A. E. Eaiei a yiaa?a 1917 a.

A aiaeu aieiu Eaiei i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey
ia iiaeao iiaaaeeoue iaeiia?aiaiii ai anao no?aiao. Iia ia/iaony a oaeie
no?aia, aaea i?ioeai?a/ey eiia?eaeecia aeinoeaee iaeaieueoae ino?iou,
eiaaony iaeaieaa ?aaiethoeeiiiue ?aai/ee eeann, o eioi?iai anoue
neeueiua nithcieee, aaea i?ieaoa?eao eiaao aiaaoth ?aaiethoeeiiioth
ia?oeth, niiniaioth i?aaieciaaoue e iiaanoe aai ia ai?ueao ca
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth. Oaeay no?aia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iaeaieaa neaaia caaii a oeaie eiia?eaeecia, e caeanue eaa/a anaai
i?i?aaoue yoo oeaiue, inouanoaeoue nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth.

No?aiie, aaea, i?aaeaea anaai, i?iecieaeao nioeeaeenoe/aneay
?aaiethoeey, Eaiei n/eoae ?inneth, eioi?ay ?aniieaaaea iaiaoiaeeiuie
yeiiiie/aneeie e iieeoe/aneeie i?aaeiinueeaie. A yeiiiieea
ainiiaenoaiaaee iiiiiieee e aaiee. «…A no?aia oea?eo e?oiiue eaieoae,
/a?ac aaiee e /a?ac neiaeeeaou a ia?aoth aieiao»,— ioia/ae a 1917 a.
A.E. Eaiei. Oioy ?inney ii o?iaith ?acaeoey eaieoaeenoe/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe e onooiaea aieaa ?acaeoui ainoaea?noaai, ii ii noaiaie
eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?aainoiaeeea ana no?aiu
ie?a, /oi nicaeaaaei eo/oea aiciiaeiinoe aeey ia?aoiaea n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa ec nianoaaiiinoe eaieoaeenoe/aneeo iiiiiieee a
nianoaaiiinoue anaai ia?iaea.

A ?innee iniaaiii neeueii neacuaaeanue oi?iicyuay ?ieue eiia?eaeecia a
?acaeoee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, i?ioeann caaieaaiey eaieoaeecia oae
auno?aa, /ai a ae?oaeo eiia?eaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. Yoi aucuaaeinue
iniaaiiinoyie ?inneeneiai eiia?eaeecia, yeiiiieee no?aiu: ai-ia?auo,
iaee/eai neeueiaeoeo ia?aaeeoeia e?aiinoie/anoaa, oi?iiceaoeo
eaieoaeenoe/aneia ?acaeoea no?aiu; ai-aoi?uo, caneeueai eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea, eioi?ue niciaoaeueii oi?iicee ?acaeoea aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?innee, iai?eia?, iaoeiino?iaiey, auea/eaae ec no?aiu
nioie ieeeeiiia ?oaeae aaeaaiaeii a aeaea i?eauee e i?ioeaioia ii
caeiai, /ai iaane?iaeeaae ?onneoth yeiiiieeo.

Oieueei nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey iiaea eeeaeaee?iaaoue ainiiaenoai
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo iiiiiieee, caneeuea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, aei eiioea
oie/oiaeeoue oaiaeaeueii-e?aiinoie/aneea ia?aaeeoee. A ?innee auea e
iauanoaaiiay neea, niiniaiay inouanoaeoue nioeeaeenoe/aneoth
?aaiethoeeth. Oaeie neeie aue iiuiue ?aaiethoeeiiiue ?aai/ee eeann,
neiioeaio?e?iaaiiue a aieueoea eieeaeoeau ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
caeaeaiiue a ?aaiethoeeiiiuo aeoaao, eiaaoee iiuo aeaoo ?aaiethoeee.
«…Ieaaea a ie?a ia oaeaeinue aua ?aai/aio eeanno ?acaa?iooue oaeoth
?aaiethoeeiiioth yia?aeth, eae a ?innee»,— ienae a 1917 a. A.E. Eaiei.
?aai/ee eeann aicaeaaeyea ?aaiethoeeiiiay, aiaaay, ia?enenoneay ia?oey
aieueoaaeeia, nicaeaiiay aaeeeei Eaieiui.

?inney auea aa?a?iie no?aiie, ionoaeie ii n?aaiaieth n ?acaeouie
ainoaea?noaaie Caiaaea. A no?aia i?aiaeaaeaei iaeeia oiaa?iia
i?iecaiaenoai e?anoueyineeo oicyenoa. E a yoii caeeth/aeanue aeaaiay
o?oaeiinoue aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa nioeeaeecia a ?innee, eai nioeeaeeci
iiaeao auoue iino?iai ia aaca auniei?acaeoie eiaeono?ee. Ii aianoa n oai
yoa ionoaeinoue oaeea a naaa aiciiaeiinoe, iaeaa/aaoea iiaaaeo
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Ai-ia?auo, i?ieaoa?eaoo i?aaenoiyei
naa?aiooue ainiiaenoai aieaa neaaie e iaiaa i?aaieciaaiiie ?inneeneie
ao?aeoacee. Ai-aoi?uo, eae ioia/ae Eaiei, «ionoaeinoue ?innee
naiaia?acii neeea i?ieaoa?neoth ?aaiethoeeth i?ioea ao?aeoacee n
e?anoueyineie ?aaiethoeeae i?ioea iiiaueeia». Iiyoiio a ?innee auei
eaa/a ia/aoue nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth, ii o?oaeiaa no?ieoue
nioeeaeenoe/aneia iauanoai.

Inouanoaeaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a ?innee iaeaa/aeinue
iaee/eai aeaoo nioeeaeueiuo aiei a aea?aaia: aieiu anaai e?anoueyinoaa
i?ioea iiiaueeia, a oaeaea aieiu naeueneeo i?ieaoa?eaa e iieoi?ieaoa?eaa
i?ioea eoea/anoaa. Nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a ?innee i?aaenoiyei
inouanoaeoue e oa caaea/e, eioi?ua ia ?aoeea Oaa?aeueneay
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey, i?aaeaea anaai eeeaeaee?iaaoue
iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea e oaeiaeaoai?eoue aaeiaua /ayiey e?anoueyi i
caiea. Yoi nicaeaaaei aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey caaiaaaiey ia noi?iio
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee iiiaiieeeeiiiuo iann e?anoueyinoaa.
?aoathuaa cia/aiea Eaiei i?eaeaaae caaiaaaieth ia noi?iio i?ieaoa?eaoa
aea?aaaineie aaaeiiou, ninoaaeyaoae aeaa o?aoe e?anoueyinoaa.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia, iaeaa/aaoeo iiaaaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee a ?innee, Eaiei n/eoae iaee/ea Niaaoia ?aai/eo, nieaeaoneeo
e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia, nicaeaiiuo ?aaiethoeeiiiui oai?/anoaii iann.
Niaaou iiiiaaee aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee i?aaieciauaaoue e niea/eaaoue
iannu ia ai?ueao ca nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth, caaiaaaiea
iieeoe/aneie aeanoe ?aai/ei eeannii, nicaeaiea e no?ieoaeuenoai
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa, aeey eioi?iai Niaaou yaeeenue aioiaie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi?iie.

Oaeiau iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee a ?innee. Aua a 1905 a. Eaiei ?ac?aaioae o/aiea i
ia?a?anoaiee ao?aeoacii – aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee a
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth, eioi?ia enoiaeeei ec iaee/ey a ?innee iaiaoiaeeiuo
i?aaeiinueie aeey oaeiai ia?a?anoaiey. Eaiei o/ee, /oi io ?aaiethoeee
aeaiie?aoe/aneie, eioi?oth i?ieaoa?eao aeieaeai niaa?oeoue a nithca n
e?anoueyinoaii, «iu nae/an aea ia/iai ia?aoiaeeoue e eae ?ac a ia?o
iaoae neeu, neeu niciaoaeueiiai e i?aaieciaaiiiai i?ieaoa?eaoa, ia/iai
ia?aoiaeeoue e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Iu noiei ca iai?a?uaioth
?aaiethoeeth. Iu ia inoaiiaeiny ia iieiooe».

I?ieaoa?eao ?innee ia iia ia?ai?uaiooue /a?ac yoai
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Ii iinea oiai eae a oaa?aea
1917 a. yoa ?aaiethoeey naa?oeeanue, auea ?an/euaia aei?iaa aeey
ia?aoiaea e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Ianoaiiaea, neiaeeaoayny a
no?aia iinea Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee, aeaeaea yoio ia?aoiae aeeciaiii
iaiaoiaeeiui a aiciiaeii aieaa ei?ioeee n?ie.

1.2 Nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey a ?innee iaiaoiaeeia

Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey niaea oea?neia naiiaea?aeaaea. Ia?iaeiua iannu
?innee, aaeioiiaeyaiua ia?oeae aieueoaaeeia, niaa?oeee
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth, /oiau iieii/eoue n
eiia?eaeenoe/aneie aieiie, eeeaeaee?iaaoue iiiaue/uea caieaaeaaeaiea e
ia?aaeaoue caieth e?anoueyiai, onoaiiaeoue ainueie/aniaie ?aai/ee
aeaiue, i?aiaeieaoue aieiae, ?ac?ooo e oie/oiaeeoue iaoeeiiaeueiue aiao.

Iaeiaei i?eoaaeoaa e aeanoe ao?aeoaciia A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia
oaeiaeaoai?eei ia?iaeiuo o?aaiaaiee. Iii i?iaeieaeaei i?anooiioth
eiia?eaeenoe/aneoth aieio, i?eiineaooth i?eauee eaieoaeenoai e
iiiaueeai, inoaeinue aa?iui a?aaeoaeueneei aeiaiai?ai, caeeth/aiiui
oea?neei i?aaeoaeuenoaii n nithcieeaie ?innee a ie?iaie aieia. *oiau
i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio a?ieth e ia?iae, i?aaeoaeuenoai iauyaeei, /oi
aieia aaaeaony ai eiy «caueou ?aaiethoeee». Ia?oee iaiueoaaeeia e yna?ia
iiaeaea?aeeaaee yoio oaeueoeaue oacen «?aaiethoeeiiiiai iai?ii/anoaa» e
iiiiaaee ao?aeoacee iaiaiuaaoue iannu.

Iiiaue/uey nianoaaiiinoue ia caieth inoaaaeanue iai?eeiniiaaiiie, e
A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai io?aiyei aa. Yoi auei auaiaeii e ao?aeoacee,
oae eae 60% iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue auei caeiaeaii a aaieao, a iiiaea
eaieoaeenou naie yaeyeenue e?oiiuie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie. A?aiaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?e iiaeaea?aeea niaeaoaoaeae iaiaiuaaei e?anoueyi,
cayaeyy, /oi caiaeueiue aii?in aoaeao ?ac?aoai O/?aaeeoaeueiui
nia?aieai, nicua eioi?iai ioeeaaeuaaeny aei eiioea aieiu.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ia ocaeiieei ainueie/aniaie ?aai/ee aeaiue, ia aaei
ai?ueau n aei?iaiaeciie e niaeoeyoeeae, io eioi?ie aeanoiei no?aaeaee
?aai/ea e ana o?oaeyueany. Ia aue eeeaeaee?iaai iaoeeiiaeueiue aiao.
Ao?aeoaciia i?aaeoaeuenoai nio?aieei ii/oe iai?eeiniiaaiiui oea?neee
ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao aeanoe, aiany a iaai eeoue ioaeaeueiua
iacia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey. Oae, aianoi oea?neeo aoaa?iaoi?ia auee
iacia/aiu i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua eiienna?u, iieeoeeth ia?aeiaiiaaee a
ieeeoeeth e o. ae. ?inney ia auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeeie. Ao?aeoacey
e iiiaueee aua iaaeayeenue, /oi ei oaeanony ainnoaiiaeoue iiia?oeth.

Oaeay iieeoeea A?aiaiiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaoiaeeeanue a iai?eie?eiii
i?ioeai?a/ee n eioa?anaie o?oaeyueony. Iaecaaaeiui ?acoeueoaoii
aeaeueiaeoaai o/anoey ?innee a aieia, nio?aiaiey iieeoe/aneiai e
yeiiiie/aneiai ainiiaenoaa ao?aeoacee e iiiaueeia yaeeenue au iiaua
/aeiaa/aneea aea?oau ia o?iioa, ?acaae anaai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa,
iioa?y ainoaea?noaaiiie iacaaeneiinoe, aieiae e eeoaiey iiiaiieeeeiiiuo
iann ianaeaiey.

Oieueei nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey e aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa?eaoa iiaee
oaeiaeaoai?eoue /ayiey ia?iaea: au?aaoue no?aio ec aieiu, inouanoaeoue
eiioeneaoeeth iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue e ia?aaeaoue eo e?anoueyiai,
i?aa?aoeoue oaa?eee e caaiaeu a nianoaaiiinoue anaai ia?iaea,
i?aiaeieaoue oicyenoaaiioth ?ac?ooo e iianiinoue yeiiiie/aneiai e?aoa,
oie/oiaeeoue iaoeeiiaeueiue aiao, ia?aaiii?aaea ia?iaeia.

Aio ii/aio oaea a naieo ia?auo ioeeeeao ia iiaaaeo Oaa?aeueneie
?aaiethoeee A. E. Eaiei, iaoiaeeaoeeny oiaaea a yiea?aoeee, i?ecuaae
i?ieaoa?eao ?innee i?iaeieaeaoue ai?ueao ca iiaaaeo nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee: «.?aai/ea, au i?iyaeee /oaeana i?ieaoa?neiai, ia?iaeiiai
aa?iecia a a?aaeaeaineie aieia i?ioea oea?ecia, au aeieaeiu i?iyaeoue
/oaeana i?ieaoa?neie e iauaia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee, /oiau iiaeaioiaeoue
naith iiaaaeo ai aoi?ii yoaia ?aaiethoeee».

II. Eaieineee ieai ia?aoiaea io ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee
e nioeeaeenoe/aneie

2.1 Aica?auaiea A.E. Eaieia a ?inneth

I?aaiecothuae e ?oeiaiaeyuae neeie a iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaiee
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee aunooiaea aieueoaaenoneay ia?oey. Iaee/ea
o i?ieaoa?eaoa ?innee ?aaiethoeeiiiie, ia?enenoneie ia?oee A.E. Eaiei
?anniao?eaae eae ?aoathuaa oneiaea aeey oniaoa nioeeaeenoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee.

Ainiieueciaaaoenue iieeoe/aneeie naiaiaeaie, caaiaaaiiuie a ?acoeueoaoa
iiaaaeu Oaa?aeueneie ?aaiethoeee, aieueoaaenoneay ia?oey auoea ec
iiaeiieuey e ?acaa?ioea ioe?uooth oe?ieoth aeayoaeueiinoue. A yoi a?aiy
iia ian/eouaaea a naieo ?yaeao aei 24 oun. /aeiaae, n?aaee ieo ieiei 60%
?aai/eo. Yoi auee caeaeaiiua a aiyo n oea?eciii e ao?aeoaceae
?aaiethoeeiia?u. Ia?oeth aicaeaaeyee ainieoaiiua Eaieiui oaeaioeeaua
i?aaiecaoi?u, noieeea ia?enenou-eaieioeu. Aiciaiiaeeinue ecaeaiea
«I?aaaeu» e ae?oaeo aieueoaaenoneeo aacao.

Ec oth?ai, nnueee, yiea?aoeee aa?ioeenue aeaeiua aeayoaee ia?oee: A.N.
Aoaiia, O.Y. Aeca?aeeineee, N.A. Einei?, A.A. Eoeauoaa, A.E.
I?aeaeiieeeaeca, ss.Y. ?oaecooae, ss.I. Naa?aeeia, E.A. Noaeei, N.A.
Oaoiyi e iiiaea ae?oaea.

A.E. Eaieia ?aaiethoeey canoaea a Oaaeoea?ee. Ii aue aaneiia/ii ai?ae
oai, /oi ?aai/ea e nieaeaou ?innee ia?auie iiaeiyeenue ia ai?ueao. Eaiei
ieoao naie ciaiaieoua «Ienueia ec aeaeaea», a eioi?uo aeaao ioeaieo
i?ienoaaeoae ?aaiethoeee, ?aciaea/aao iieeoeeo ao?aeoaciiai A?aiaiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, i?ecuaaao ?aai/eo e nieaeao i?iaeieaeaoue ai?ueao ca
aoi?ie yoai ?aaiethoeee, iainiiauaaao oaeoeeo aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee a
iiauo oneiaeyo. Eaiei no?aieeny oaoaoue a ?inneth, ii i?aaeoaeuenoaa
Aiaeee e O?aioeee, eioi?ua eiio?iee?iaaee iooe ec Oaaeoea?ee, ia
i?iioneaee Eaieia — iie aiyeenue aai aica?auaiey ia ?iaeeio. N aieueoei
o?oaeii Eaieio oaeaeinue i?iaoaoue /a?ac Aa?iaieth e Oaaoeeth.

Aa/a?ii 3 ai?aey 1917 a. A.E. Eaiei aianoa n a?oiiie ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
?onneeo yiea?aioia i?eaue a Iao?ia?aae. Ia Oeieyiaeneii aiecaea aai
ainoi?aeaiii e n ethaiaueth ano?aoeee aeanyoee ouny/ ?aai/eo, nieaeao,
iao?inia. Ia i?eaiecaeueiie ieiuaaee ethaee iiaeoaaoeee aai ia ?oee,
iinoaaeee ia a?iiaaee. Iiuiua eo/e i?iaeaeoi?a inaaoeee oeao?o aiaeaey.
Eaiei ia?aoeeny e nia?aaoeiny n ?a/ueth, a eioi?ie iicae?aaee ?aai/eo,
nieaeao, iao?inia n iiaaaeie e i?ecaae i?iaeieaeaoue ai?ueao ca aoi?ie
yoai ?aaiethoeee. Naith ?a/ue ii caeii/ee ieaiaiiui i?ecuaii: «Aea
cae?aanoaoao nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey!» Ia a?iiaaeea Eaiei
i?ineaaeiaae ii ii/iiio Iao?ia?aaeo e caeaieth, aaea iiiauaeenue
Oeaio?aeueiue e Iao?ia?aaeneee eiieoaou aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee. N
aaeeiia caeaiey Aeaaeeie? Eeuee/ i?iecian ?a/ue. A naiae ?a/e ii aiiaue
i?ecaae ia?iae aioiaeoueny e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee.

2.2 Ai?aeueneea oacenu

Oo?ii 4 ai?aey, aunooiay ia nia?aiee aieueoaaeeia n aeieeaaeii «I
caaea/ao i?ieaoa?eaoa a aeaiiie ?aaiethoeee», Eaiei eceiaeee naie ieai
ai?ueau ca ia?aoiae io ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee e
nioeeaeenoe/aneie. 7 ai?aey oacenu aeieeaaea auee iioaeeeiaaiu a
«I?aaaea». Yoi auee enoi?e/aneea Ai?aeueneea oacenu. A ieo Eaiei
auaeaeioe ia?aae aieueoaaenoneie ia?oeae e ?aai/ei eeannii aeaaioth
caaea/o — inouanoaeoue ia?aoiae e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee.

Eaiei n/eoae, /oi nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth i?ieaoa?eao aeieaeai
niaa?oeoue a nithca n aea?aaaineie aaaeiioie. A ioiioaiee n?aaeiaai
e?anoueyinoaa, eioi?ia a neeo naiaai yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey
eieaaaeinue iaaeaeo i?ieaoa?eaoii e ao?aeoaceae, caaea/a caeeth/aeanue a
oii, /oiau iaeo?aeeciaaoue aai eieaaaiey e i?eaea/ue ia noi?iio
nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee.

Eaiei ?aciaea/ee aioeia?iaeiue oa?aeoa? A?aiaiiiai ao?aeoaciiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?iaicaeanee: «Ieeaeie iiaeaea?aee A?aiaiiiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao». Ii auaeaeioe enoi?e/aneoth caaea/o — caaiaaaiea
iieeoe/aneie aeanoe ?aai/ei eeannii, onoaiiaeaiea aeeeoaoo?u
i?ieaoa?eaoa.

Ia iiuoa Niaaoia, nicaeaiiuo ?aaiethoeeiiiui oai?/anoaii iann a
?aaiethoeeyo 1905—1907 aa. e 1917 a., Aeaaeeie? Eeuee/ i?eoae e auaiaeo,
/oi iaeeo/oae ainoaea?noaaiiie oi?iie aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa yaeyaony
?anioaeeea Niaaoia ?aai/eo, nieaeaoneeo e e?anoueyineeo aeaiooaoia.
Niaaou, ecae?aaiua ?aai/eie e anaie o?oaeyueieny, iaania/eaatho aeoeaiia
o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaii naiuo oe?ieeo ia?iaeiuo iann. Iiyoiio
ii auaeaeioe eicoia: «Any aeanoue Niaaoai!» Yoio eicoia, icia/aa
eeeaeaeaoeeth aeaiaaeanoey e onoaiiaeaiea aaeeiiaeanoey Niaaoia
i?aaiecaoeeth iiaiai oeia ainoaea?noaa, oie/oiaeaiea noa?ie
ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu e nicaeaiea iiaiai, niaaoneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiia?aoa, onoaiiaeaiea aeeeoaoo?u i?ieaoa?eaoa a oi?ia Niaaoia.

Eaiei n/eoae, /oi a neiaeeaoeony oiaaea oneiaeyo ia?aoiae aeanoe e
Niaaoai iia inouanoaeoueny ie?iui iooai. Aeey yoiai ioaeii auei, /oiau
Niaaou ia?anoaee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue. A?aiaiiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, /oi
onei?eei au aai iaaeaiea. Acya aeanoue a naie ?oee, Niaaou aeieaeiu auee
ia?aciaaoue Niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Iineieueeo aieueoeinoai a Niaaoao
a oi a?aiy i?eiaaeeaaeaei iaiueoaaeeai e yna?ai, oi e i?aaeoaeuenoai
auei au ia?aciaaii ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoeo ia?oee. ssaeyynue ii naiae
i?e?iaea ia?oeyie niaeaoaiey n ao?aeoaceae, iaiueoaaeee e yna?u ia iiaee
aeaoue ia?iaeo ie?, oeaa, ioiyoue o iiiaueeia caieth, o eaieoaeenoia
oaa?eee e caaiaeu. Naiae aioeia?iaeiie iieeoeeie iie nei?i ?aciaea/eee
au naay a aeacao ia?iaea. Yoi aeaei au aiciiaeiinoue aieueoaaenoneie
ia?oee caaiaaaoue ie?iui iooai aieueoeinoai a Niaaoao e. nicaeaoue iiae
naiei ?oeiaiaenoaii Niaaoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Iiaaaea aeeeoaoo?u
i?ieaoa?eaoa auea au aeinoeaiooa ie?iui iooai.

Aeaaeeie? Eeuee/ Eaiei oeacuaae, /oi ie?iue ia?aoiae aeanoe e Niaaoai
aue aiciiaeai iioiio, /oi ie iaeei yenieoaoaoi?neee eeann, ie iaeia
ao?aeoaciay ia?oey ia ?aniieaaaee oiaaea ?aaeueiie neeie, /oiau
iiiaoaoue Niaaoai acyoue aeanoue a naie ?oee. «I?oaeea a ?oeao ia?iaea,—
ienae Eaiei,— ionoonoaea ianeeey ecaia iaae ia?iaeii — aio a /ai auea
nooue aeaea. Aio /oi ioe?uaaei e iaania/eaaei ie?iue iooue ?acaeoey
aia?aae anae ?aaiethoeee».

Aianoa n oai A. E. Eaiei o/eouaae, /oi ianoaiiaea a no?aia iiaeao e?ooi
eciaieoueny e i?ieaoa?eaoo i?eaeaony n i?oaeeai a ?oeao naa?aaoue
ainiiaenoai ao?aeoacee. Iiyoiio ii i?ecuaae ?aai/eo nicaeaaaoue io?yaeu
E?aniie aaa?aeee, ?aai/ae ieeeoeee, aii?oaeaoueny, o/eoueny aeaaeaoue
i?oaeeai, auoue aioiauie a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe acyoue
ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue iooai aii?oaeaiiiai ainnoaiey.

A Ai?aeueneeo oacenao aiai?eeinue, /oi i?iaeieaeaaoayny aieia
ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaeanue eiia?eaeenoe/aneie, a?aaeoaeueneie. Eaiei
i?ecuaae ia?oeth oa?iaeeai e ianoie/eai ?acuyniyoue iannai oaeueoeaue
oa?aeoa? eicoiaa «?aaiethoeeiiiia iai?ii/anoai» e aanoe naioth
iai?eie?eioth ai?ueao i?ioea iaiueoaaeeia e yna?ia, eioi?ua niciaoaeueii
iaiaiuaaee iannu yoei eicoiaii. *oiau iieii/eoue n i?anooiiie
eiia?eaeenoe/aneie aieiie, iaiaoiaeeii eeeaeaee?iaaoue ainiiaenoai
ao?aeoacee e onoaiiaeoue aeeeoaoo?o i?ieaoa?eaoa.

A yeiiiie/aneie iaeanoe Eaiei auaeaeioe neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey: i?iaanoe
eiioeneaoeeth iiiaue/ueeo caiaeue, iaoeeiiaeecaoeeth anae caiee,
nicaeaoue ec e?oiiuo eiaiee ia?acoeiaua oicyenoaa iiae eiio?ieai Niaaoia
aao?aoeeeo aeaiooaoia, iauaaeeieoue ana aaiee no?aiu, a iaeei
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiue aaie e aaanoe iaae iei eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu Niaaoa
?aai/eo aeaiooaoia, onoaiiaeoue eiio?ieue Niaaoia ?aai/eo aeaiooaoia ca
iauanoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii e ?ani?aaeaeaieai i?iaeoeoia. Oieueei yoe
ia?u iiaee nianoe no?aio io yeiiiie/aneie eaoano?iou e nicaeaoue
i?i/ioth iniiao aeey ia?aoiaea e nioeeaeecio.

A oneiaeyo iiaeaioiaee ?aai/aai eeanna e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee
aua aieueoa aic?anoaea i?aaiecothuay e ?oeiaiaeyuay ?ieue
aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii auei oe?aieoue ia?oeth,
iiauneoue aa aianiiniaiinoue, oneeeoue nayce n i?ieaoa?eaoii e ni anaie
o?oaeyueieny. Eaiei i?aaeeiaeee iaiaaeeaiii nicaaoue i/a?aaeiie
ia?oeeiue nuacae (iineaaeiee nuacae ?NAe?I ninoiyeny a 1907 a.),
i?eiyoue iiaoth I?ia?aiio ia?oee.

Eae ecaanoii, iaoa ia?oey iacuaaeanue oiaaea ?inneeneie
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aai/ae ia?oeae (aieueoaaeeia). Eaiei
i?aaeeiaeee ia?aeiaiiaaoue ia?oeth e ai?aaeue iacuaaoue aa
Eiiioienoe/aneie, oae eae a yoii iacaaiee iao/ii i?aaeeueii
ii?aaeaeyaony eiia/iay oeaeue ia?oee — iino?iaiea eiiioienoe/aneiai
iauanoaa. A.E. Eaiei i?aaeeiaeee oaeaea nicaeaoue iiaue, O?aoee,
Eiiioienoe/aneee Eioa?iaoeeiiae, naiaiaeiue io iiii?ooiecia, io
nioeeae-oiaeiecia.

Enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea Ai?aeueneeo oacenia ninoieo a oii, /oi a ieo Eaiei
auaeaeioe iiaue no?aoaae/aneee eicoia aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee — eo?n ia
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth, oeacae oa eeanniaua neeu, eioi?ua iiaoo
e aeieaeiu, aa inouanoaeoue,— i?ieaoa?eao — aaaaiii ?aaiethoeee — e
aaaeiaeoaa e?anoueyinoai eae aai nithciee, iaiaoee aaeeinoaaiii
i?aaeeueiua iooe e n?aaenoaa inouanoaeaiey nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee
a ?innee. Ai?aeueneea oacenu e eaieineea ?aaiou, a eioi?uo ?acaeou e
iainiiaaiu iieiaeaiey i ia?a?anoaiee ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee a nioeeaeenoe/aneoth,— aaaeiaeoee aeeaae a ?aaiethoeeiiiia
o/aiea ia?enecia-eaieiecia.

I?ioea eo?na ia nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth aunooieee Eaiaiaa, ?ueia
e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea /eaiu ia?oee. Iie ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi ?inney aoaeoi au
ia aioiaa e nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Iiea ia ?aoaiu ana caaea/e
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee, aiai?eee iie, iaeuecy
ia?aoiaeeoue e nioeeaeenoe/aneie.

Eo ia iiaeaea?aeaea ia?oey, iia nieioeeanue aie?oa Eaieia. A 20-o /eneao
ai?aey 1917 a. a Iao?ia?aaea ninoiyeanue VII Ana?inneeneay eiioa?aioeey
?NAe?I (a). Yoi auea ia?aay eiioa?aioeey aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee,
i?ioiaeeaoay a ?innee a eaaaeueiuo oneiaeyo. Iia ianoaeeea aaaeiaeoea
aii?inu: i oaeouai iiiaioa, ioiioaiee e Niaaoai ?aai/eo e nieaeaoneeo
aeaiooaoia, aa?a?iue aii?in, iaoeeiiaeueiue aii?in e ae?. Aeieeaae/eeii
ii iniiaiui aii?inai aunooiae A.E. Eaiei.

A iieiii niioaaonoaee n Ai?aeueneeie oacenaie ia?oeeiay eiioa?aioeey
i?iaicaeaneea eo?n ia nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth. Eiioa?aioeey
i?iaicaeaneea eicoia «Any aeanoue Niaaoai!» eae aeaaiue eicoia a ai?ueaa
ca ia?aoiae io ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee e
nioeeaeenoe/aneie. Yoi auea onoaiiaea ia ie?iia ?acaeoea ?aaiethoeee.
Ai?aeueneay eiioa?aioeey i?eiyea e ii ae?oaei iniiaiui aii?inai
?aciethoeee, iaienaiiua Eaieiui. Eiioa?aioeey eca?aea OeE
aieueoaaenoneie ia?oee ai aeaaa n A. E. Eaieiui.

VII Ai?aeueneay Ana?inneeneay eiioa?aioeey ?NAe?I (a) nua?aea aieueooth
?ieue a iiaeaioiaea nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee e ii naiaio cia/aieth
?aaiicia/ia ia?oeeiiio nuacaeo. Iia aii?oaeeea ia?oeth yniie
ia?niaeoeaie — eo?nii ia nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth — e oeacaea
iooe aa aeinoeaeaiey. Iaeia?ea eaieineee ieai ai?ueau ca
nioeeaeenoe/aneoth ?aaiethoeeth, ia?oey i?enooieea e aai inouanoaeaieth.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Naoa?ia A.I. «Enoi?ey NNN?» – I., 1988

2. No?oieeei N.A. «I/a?ee yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee ?innee» – I., 1960

3. Aa?oei E.A., Oaaeinia E.A. «Enoi?ey NNN?: 9 eeann» – I., 1977

4. Eoeieeia E.A. «Enoi?ey NNN?» – I., 1990

5. Aaaeoeaaa A.A. «Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea NNN?» – I., 1987

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