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Предпосылки кризиса имперской структуры России

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N????a

A???a

1. N?????a ?????e ????? ???a

1.1. ??ue ???? I??ay II a ???a ?????e ???e

1.2. A?y?a A???y ????? ? ?????

2. I???u?e ???a ?????e ???e – ?e ??? ??????e ???

3. I????? ??e? ????e ????u ?e ??e???y a y????

4. I?????a ?????e ???a ????e ????u

C?eth??a

N??e ?????

A???a

A ??? XX ?? a ???e ????ue ?????y?a ??o ???i ??????? e ?????e i????e.
E???o ??o ???th e ??eth???i ????i ???? ? ?? ?y???e e ??????o ? ???u
?????e ??????e e ???o ???? ?? (?????, ????a, ???y??i — ???? a ????, ?
???o ???????a).

I??y ???y ??ethoeey, ????a a ???i-y???e ??a, ???????? ???e ? ???o ???
I??? ??u y?y?? ??????e ???a ????e ???u a ???e.

I??i ???a ???e ??e ?? ?????y ?y ?????i ???ey ???e. I???u ????, ????a ?
A??e, ????e ????????a e ?????? ??o??ey. N??? ????oth ??y???? a ????.
A???i ?????? ?????? ???, ????ue ???a ? ? ???a.

A?? ????a ?oy??, ?????e ????, ?a ??a ?????? a iyn??? ?????? ??a. E ???
1917 a. ?i?ey ???y? ???e 2 ?i. ???e, ???? — ??i 5 ?i. ???e, ???? — ??i 2
?i. ???e. A ??? ???tho ????ue ?????a ????ey.

A ???i ????e ????ue ???????, ????o e ???? ?cy??i. Ca ?? ??u ? ?? a ??th
?? ?????? 48% ???? ????y. I???a ???o ?e ???a e ????eth ???? ??a?e, ??o
?i ? ????o ?????y????e ????e, a a ei??? ?i? — e e ??o ????o ?i. I???e
??a ???i ???????, ??? ???e?? ??a ????a ??a e ???? ?a?? oy??? ?? — ???e.

A ??? ? ????e ?????ue ????, ?y??ay n ?????i e ???e ??y???. Iia ?a ???
????? a?eth e ?????a ????a. I???? a ?????? ?? ???ey?? ??????i ?i??a.
O???y ???? ??y e 1917 a. ??a?y? 50% ?????, a ??? ???? ??a ????ny a 6 ?c.

I??? ? ???, ????a ?????i ????y ????? ?? ????? ??y???? a ????. Ia ??o
???eth ? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??????a e ?????? ????e ??????a e ????, a
?e ????a — ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ??i.

Oe?ue e ????ay ?i y?? ? ?e ? ???e. I?i ??, ?e ???e a ?????a. A ???a 1915
a. ????i n ??a ??????oth?? ???e ?y? I??? I????/, ??????e a ????? e ????a
??????? ??a, a 3 ??y?y ??? ???a ????a A??????ay Ae?a. Y? ???ey ????y??
??? ????a. Ca ?? ??u I??? II ??? ? ?n? ?????ey ??? ????a 4-o ???e (E.E.
A????, A.A. Ooth??, A.O. O??a, I.Ae. A???), ie???a ????? ?e — 6, ???o
????a — 4, ????a ?????o ?e — 4 e o. ae. A? y? ?a??i i ????? ???a ???o
y???a ???, ? ??????e ??e ?????a ??, ????? ?????y ????.

I?????? ????ey ??o?e ??????th, ??th, ?????? ???u. Ia ?? ??? ?????? ???,
????e ?? e ???ey ???????o ?e ???? ?????th ??o e ????o ???.

?????y E??ey e 1917 a. ????? a ??iy?e ????i ???a. Oe??? ?ae? (???) ????e
??????ue ????ue ??e ?yae ??? ????? e ?????? ??????, ?????????o ?????i ?a
n ?i. XIX a.

1. N?????a ?????e ????? ???a

1.1. ??ue ???? I??ay II a ???a ?????e ???e

?????y E??ey e 1917 a. ????? a ??iy?e ????i ???a. Oe??? ??i (???) ????e
??????ue ????ue ??e ?yae ??? ????? e ?????? ??????, ?????????o ?????i ?a
n ?i. XIX a.

I????ua ???? ???ey?? ??????e: ????e n 1894 a. ????? I??? II ?e ????i
??????i, ???? e ????o e e ?? ? ????? ? ?a?? ?????y a ethaeyo. Ca ???
??th/??i ?i ??? ???? ?????a, a oi e ????i? ??e. A 1905–1906 ?. ????e
???y, ?????y a ????thny ??eth?th, ??? ??a ??ye, ??? ?????y ??i ?????e ?y
??????ey e ????ey ??? ? ?? ?????u e ?????.

«A??ue ? ????a ?? ????? ae????i, ?e ?i ???o ??????? a ????e ?????a ?
????y»

C?i a 1914 a. ???y ????ue ?y?? a ???th ??o ???e ??i ??????? ????i e a
???yo ?????? ?????o ?e e ?oy?? ???e ????. I??? ? ?i?a ??????e ???a
?????? ???i, ????y ???? e ?e ???? ????? ?-? ?????? e ?????? ???u. Y?
?????? ?y/?? ????e ?????? ??????u, ???y ? ?????a ???????e ???? e ??ay
????? ?????, ??ue ? ???o ? ????i ?e ????i ???i ?? ?y?? n ??y?i ???e
????? ???, ???? ? ?o ????o e ?????a a ? ????o.

A 1915 a. ?????i ????a A??? ?????? a o.i. I?????? ?? (?oy???, ??? e ?.),
??????e a ??oth ???ue ???? ??? ???? ?ae ???????. E???? ??????? ???? ?y?
?o, ?i ??? ?o ??a, ?i ??? ??u ????y ?i n??i ?e ???? ???, ?i ???? ??iye
?????o a ???. A?e o??? ??? ? ?, ??u ??? ???ey? A??? ? ????, ?e ?i ?i
?????i a ??o ????i ?????ue ??i?a «???????ey».

ss ????i ? ?????oth I??ath II e? ????th. ss?i, ?i a ?????a ????i ?????
?i ? ??? e ???? ???? ?????? ???u. Ii ??? a ?????a, o.a. ??e ? ??? ?i ??a
????y ??u. Eth?y ?????y ???a, a ?i ??a ??eth?y ??? e? ???i ??? ????a
????? ????o?. A ?? ?i a y? ??y ?th? – ???y? ?????i e, ???i, ??i ?????o
??y??? ????y. Iiy?? ?????? ????? ???i a 1915–1916 ?. ?? ???y ???? ????e
(?i ??a ?i ?a ??iy?i ??? ???, ???i ??iay? ????e ?y????ueth), ????? ?
?th??a ??u ?????o eth?e, ? ?y??y ????ue ??, ?a??a ??? ??????i ????ey ?oy
? a ???? ?y?o I????a e I??a e ?????y ?????i ??? e ??? I??ay II. A???i,
?i ???? ?? ?? ? ?? ? ??????? ??eth??i? ?????y. Ii ?? a ?/. 1917 a. o ???
?? ??a ?i ????? ???o ???? ?y ????ey ???. I?? ??i???? ???? ? ???th ???

A??i y?? I??? II ???ny, ?? ?????????y ???ey ????y ? ??e ? ??? ?????????
???a a I????a e ????y ??eth???y ???ey. 23 ???y ???? ???e e ???, ???i
????? a ??e ??iy?e ??, e ???? ????? ??????nue ?a???? ?a ?????ny a ???a
???. A ??i ? ??e ????e ????, ? ????y ??? ?i ???? ???? e «????????. Oe?ue
???? ???y ?i-? ???, ?? ??? ??? ?y ????ey ??a, ? ??? ???e ??. C?? ?????a
???a ?????? ??e ???i ??????, ???????ay a ?i ??a ?????ueth ??y. A ????
??a, ??? ?????o ?y??e e ?????o e ?i ????a ?c ??? ??? ???? ? ?? ?? ????,
?i ??????ue. 2 i?? ? ? ??? ????ny ? ???? ??????a, ??????? ??ae
«??n???ey? ???», ???? ????i ??? E??a e ???? ?????a ????a, ? e ???y ? ???
????? A??ay a ??? ???? ??a I???. E???u ni???? ???ue ??y ??? ? ?????
«??????? ??????? e ???? ??? A??ath n ?????i ???ii I???. E??u ??o (y??a,
?????a), ???????i a ?????o ? ??????a, ????e ??? ????ey ???? a eth?i ??,
? ??a ? ???e ?a ?? ?????? ???. O? ? ??a I??e 3 ??a ?? ? ???y, a ????y ?
???, ???, ?i ???a o????i ??? a ???e ??? ????? O?????? ????.

I??? II ???ny, ?? ?????????ay ???ey ????y ? ??e ? ??ca ????????? ???a a
I????a e ????y ??eth???y ???ey

E???e ethayo ??????, ?i a ? ?e ?e-? ???? ??? ???? ??a?? ????a ??i eth?e.
A??? ?y?y (!), ???e??y, ???ue, ??????i, ???a e ?. ????? «??? ??? ????y.
I??i a y?i ?o ??? ??????i, ?? a ????? ?? I??? II ??? ????i ?a, ??u
???????? ?ay e ??????? ?????a. E ?? ? ??? ?oi?? ? ??, ?i ?? ?????y ?????
I??ay II. A ??a I??e ??i ???? ????th ??? ??? ??? a ?? «?????, ?? ?a
i??i.

1.2. A?y?a A???ey ????? ? ?????

??????a, ??y?a a ????? ???? ????? ????e a ???????i ????, ?? ? y??
?iy??? ???a ??y?e ???? ?????e ???e ???? O????? ??eth?e. A ????a ?? ????
??? ??????? ?ey?? ? I??ay II e ??????th ??th ?????y ??oth?? A. A.
????i (1864 ?e 1865, ? ??? ???, 1872—1916), ???e, ????oy ? ????yi, ??e
????th ?y?? ??? e ?????y. A 1907 ?e a??i a ??????e ???, ?a e y?? ???e ?a
???e ??e ?yae ?y?o, ????? e th???? (I. O??i, I?thn, I?y E????e e ?.).
I??ath II e ?????a ????i ??e ???ue, ?i ??? ? ??? ????e ??o ??oe ?????
???? ????? ????? A??ay e ????? ?????oth ????o ?????eth I??ay II .
A???ay ??a, ?i 64, ???? 20 — ????a ??i ????? ????? a I????a (n ?y 1914),
— ???a ???i ?eoy??y ????a ????o ???. A?y?a ????? ? ????? ?????? ??????e
??e e ??? (E. I. I??, A. E. I???, Ae. E. ?????i), ????????? ??oth??u (E.
O. Ia???/-I???a, ?y? I. I. A????a), ??????a e ?????a ??e (?y? A. I.
I????, A. I. Oa??a, I. A. E??a, A. Ae. I????a) e ?., ?o?? ?????? ? ?e
??a??? a ??o ????yo n I???i II e ??????, ???y? i????y ? ??? ?ey?th. Y?i
?eyi ???e ?????? ??c ????? ????ey ????-????a I. A. I????, A. A. Ooth??a,
????a I. E. A??, Ae. E. O????i, I????aa, a o?? ?????ay ???a —n ??y?y
1916 ? ???ue 1917 ????ue 3 ?????ey N??a ????a,2 ???? ????ey, ? 167
?????? ?a?? 88. ????i e ?i ????a ?? ?y? ????u e ???eth ???y?a a ???
?ey?y ?ae??a, ?????i y?????? ??? a ???, ???? I??ay II ??y? ??
??????oth?? (??? 1915). A 1916 ????? (???e ?y? Ae??? I???/, ?????e ?????
?y? O. O. TH??a, ??? ?????a A. I. I????/) ????e ???? n ??th ???? ?????.
A ?? ? 17 ???y 1916 ????i ?e ?? a TH????i ??? (????ay ?. I??, 94), ??
??? ?ae ?ae I?? I?? o A??? ??a. 21 ???y 1916 ????i ????i a ?????e
??????e n?? a Oe??????i ??a. A ?????a ?e 1917 ?i ?? ?e ????i ? ??? e
???i a ??a ???? ??a a I??????? e????. I??? ?? ????, ??????a. ???? ?c??a
??eth???o ???e.

2. I????? ???a ???e?? ???e – ?e ??? ??????e ???

E??n a ???e ??? XX ?? ?e ??? ????e ??? ??????. A ??a XIX ?e ???y ?????
??e?a ??????? ? ???? ????i ?????a. Ii y? ???? ?????i a ?uo ????? e ?????
???yo, ??ee ? C??a, ?e ?i ?????ny ?????ey ???e e ??eth?e n ??e «???oth??
???». A??? «???oth?a ??» ??e y?i ????oth ??????oth e ?????e?oth ???????.

Oa ????? ??, ???a ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????a (??y??? a
??a XIX ??, «??????» ??a ??eth?e 1905 a.), a?e ???????? a ?????? ????
??????i ?iy e ????u ? ???o. I???a, ????a a ?????e ????oaa ??i ?????y n
???ath?e ??????ueth. A??e ????e ???? ??o ??? ???ath?o ????????ue ?e e
???ey? ??? ?????a. ????a, ?e?????a e ?? ??????a ?? ???ai ??????a ??e
???i ???ny ?i?? ?????, ????i ?????o?y a ?????? ???? e ???? ????a. A????
II, ????i e ???i ??a?? ????oth ???o ? ??? ?????i ??a, ?e ?? ???????.

E???e ???e ????o a ?????? ??? c????? ?e ??? ?yae «???o ??? i C??a e
?????? ?yae «??? ??? i ???e. A? ??a ???? ?????ue ???? ???e ??????e n
C???, ?a n ??a ??? ??e XIX ?? a ?????? ??? ??a a??????ue ????y – ??????a
?????e ???e ?e ??????e ???e, ?????? ?y?e ??e e ???u. A y?e ????a ??????
???i ????e ???a???a ????? – e ??????, e ????, a ??i e ????u C??a. N ???i
??? ???? ?????a ??????a ???y ???e, a ?????? n ? ?y?????? ? Nay???o ?th?,
a ????? ??eth?e 1848 a. a A??i-A??? – e ?o ? ??e ???? ???y ?? ???a
«????i A???. O?? ??????a i ???e «??????i?» ? ???, ?a ???????i ??????? e
?????a?e ??oth ? C??a ??o ?????? i??? ? Eth??a, a ???e ? ?e ?????th
????? ? ???????a ????? ???e.

N ??a XIX ?? ???y ??? ????i?e ??? a ???e ??a ?a ??a ????e. ???th???u ???
?????e (??a ???-?????) ??e ??? ?????oue ???, e ??????i ????i ???e ?????a
?e ?o ??, ?i ???y i???a ?? ?? ? ? ????????. Ii ?? A?u Ca??/, ?????e
????a ? ??????? ???????a O.O. O??aa, ?ae ??y?? ??n ???o: «Ia ????.

A ???yo ???a ?????? ??? ??e ????y ??? ??? ????ny ??ue ???e ????e: ????
????o ? ???? «any?a ?? a ???». Ia ??? ??ue ???? a ???ath?i ???a ???? e
??? Oe???. O???? ? ???y a ?????? ??e ?? ???? ? ????o, ?i ???i ?a ???e
??a ?????? ?????ey. A ?ith i??? ??????i ??a ???? ia ??? ???y: ? ???y??a
???ey 1902-1903 ?. ?i ???? ????y? e ????i ???? ????e ?y ???yi. O??y
i??ey ????a ????th a ???e ???o ?????, ?????oy (??c A??) ???e ??? ???
?no?????o ?i???a ?? ??ue ???? ??a. ?????i? ??o ??? ????i ?? ??? ?n???? e
??a. ????e 9 y??y 1905 a. («E???? ??????) ??? ???a ????? – ??? ???,
??????y ??? ???e ??eth?? n i???i ???? ?ae ???y???.

N?????ue ? ????a ?????? ?????o ??? n ???? ???i ????ai ????? (I A???????
??), ?? ?e ??ue ????o ??????o ???, ??????i ? ??? ??e n Ae?? ???. Au?? ??
????e e ???????u? (?y ???yi ?????????e), e ? ??????e ?????, y?? e ???
???y??a e ?????? ???. O? ? i?? ??i 30% ????a (? 450) ?? ???y?? e ???? –
???i ???, ?i a ??e???o ??? ?????o ??i. I????, a ????? I??a ??i a ? ??y
?? 4 ???o e ???y??, a ??uey??i ????? – 6, ? ?????e I??a ????a – 5, a
????? ????? – 17. Ia ??? ???a ?ey?a ????ay ??a ???e, e ?a ??ay Ae?a ??a
a ?? ? ??? ??????a, ii e ????a, ???? ???. Oe??? ??????i ????? ??oth Ae?o
??i ??c 72 ?y ???. A 1907 a., ??a ???a II Aeo?, ??e ??????e ??i ??? ???
????????i ???yi e ???o.

Ii y?o «???» ?a ??? ???o ?????ey. E ??? Ae?u, e ????? ath «A????a ?????,
e ?ae ?ae ?????? ????a 167 ????? (? ???o 100 ?? ???? – ???e ??? ??o
????o ?????o ???), e ??th??a a ???? ????a ? ??a n ??????i Ae?u
N.A.I????i – ?a y? ???y? ??? e ???????i ??? ?????a ?aea ?o, ?i ?e ?i
???. A?ue ??e ????? ?e «?? ???, ??????e ????o ??y??o e ?aea ?y?n?o ??a.

???? Ae?u, ? ???th ???y? ?c??? ???u a ???e ????? ???a, ??? ???? ??????a
???a ??ai ???????i ???ey. A???i ????a ??????a (????, ??? ??? ????e). Ia
??? ?e???? ???y ??ai ??: «Iu ????, ?i a ??iy?a a?iy ??i ?? ? ???ue ???,
???ey? ??? e ????? ??a-?? ????? – ?? y? ?a ?? e ??? ??o ???y».

A ??i, ?????i ? ???? ??i ???e, a ?? ???i, ????, a ??? ????. A?a ??? ??ue
???a?ay ???a ? ????eth ???y??e ??iu ??c ?????eth ??e, ? ????ay ????a
??????a. ???o ? ?, ?i ?????y ???o «???» e ???o ?? ???? ????e ?e ?ei?
?????a, ? ????ny. ???? ?? ??o?a e y?????oth, e ?????oth ???eth (??o ??a
???y 1917 a. ?a ?? ?a???a ?e ???iy?ayny). I.A.N???i ?e ??, ??? ?????ue
??a ???, ?i y?? ??????? ???a.

Ia??ayny a 1914 a. ??a ???? ???. I??? ? ??? ??i ????e ??e ? ??? – ???
???e ??? ?????? ???. A??n: «*? y? – ???? ?e ????», – ?? ?? ? ? ?a??
?????e a Ae?a. I?????ue Oe?????i ??ii-??????i ???? ?i???? A.E.E???? ?y?e
a ??a 1916 a ia ??? ???o e ????o ?th?a, ?i “?ae ????? ??? ? ???o ???
A?????? ???e e ????e ?th? e ???-?????? ???? ??? ???? ? ??e ?aaeu ???
??i, ???e y??y ? ?y ?? ?o ??? ???eyth?i ???i e ?e ? ?e ? ??? ?? ??????
?e ???e”.

Ae???e ??? a ??? ??? ??? («??????»), ???a ???????o ???? ??c ????a ????,
y?? ?eyi? ???o ?e ? ????? ??? ??i??? ?oe – ?a y? ???? ????? a ???o ???.
Y? ?????, e ???io ???????a ????ey, ?? ????? ?y ????, ?????? ???e ??????
???a ????e.

16 ???y 1916 a. A.E.E???? ?y?e a A??????? ??: ?y ???y ?a ?i??a, ?i “n
????th?i ???i, ????th?i ??????? ??? ?????, ?i ??a?i ???? ??? ?ae ???i
??? ??? ?? ??? ?ae ????? ???”. A ??a 1916 a. ???ae ???????? ???? ? ?i
??? ??iyo ??i o???ny. I?? ???? ????ny A??????? ??o, ??? ? ?i ??? ??e
a??a n ???i ?????? a «??????e ??», e 1 y??y 1917 a. ???? ??????ue A???o,
?i?? ??????? ??? ???e. A N??a I???? ?e ?i???? ??u e ???e, ??? ????a
(«?????ay ????). I???ue ??? ????y ?????y?o ??i ????a, e ???a ?? ??? ????
?y? ? ?ay i????y ????y.

A ??? ??? ??? ????ue ?a ????: ????ay ????y ??? ??ae a ?????e ?????? ??,
??u ?ae??ue ? ??? ??eth???a ????, ? e ????th ????e. A?e ?????i ?a??? ??u
???e (? 1 ????? ? 400 aeeo??), ???y a ???o ?? ????a ?????. Ae??e ????
???? ??ue ???e ????e e ??????. C?? ???? ???? ????? ?????. Y?? ????
??????e ????a ????e e ?? ?????? ??y. 17 ???y 1917 a. ?e ?????? ????
?????. I??i ?e ??? ??? ???.

A ??? 1917 a. ???? ???e a ????e ??? I????a e ?y? ???o ???a. A???i, ?e ??
???u ??????, ?i ??? ??u a ???e ?? ?aea ?????e – ? ?e?? ???? ?a? ?
?y????. I???, ????e a Ie????? ????ey, a I??a ??????ey ???o ???a e ???, a
??o ??i?? ?????? ?????ny e y?? ???o. A ??i ??a ? ??o: «*?i N??a I????
???? ?n ?n???, ???i ??i ???o ?iy? a ???eyoeyo, ????ath?o ???o. Oe??
????ny i?? ????y, e ???i ???y, ?i y?o ???o I?????i C????y ? ??i ?????
???????i, ?i ? ????, ???th?o ? ???o, ????o? ????oth?y ??? ??????ey… A
??? ?a ???atho e ???atho: ?i ? ?ae???o ??a ?????y ??ae, ?i ??e ??i ????.

Ia ???o ?? ??? ?????a ? ??a ???. I??c ????a a I???aae a y??a ???? ???? ?
?????e ?????e. I??????a, ????y ?a?????i ??ueth 1916 a., ?????ue. A ???a
I.A.??cy?i ??e ??th: «A ???a ? ???e ?? ?? ?ny?a ???o ???ue ???? ????ey ?
??a ??????ey, ?????i ? ???n??? ?????».

O??ay ???? ????a ?????? o????, e ?y ???????y ???a ???a, ?e ????e ??e.
I???? ????? ??ay ??eth?y. E ?e ??????y ?? ?? ??? ??? ??y, ??iy?e ??? ?
?????? ????a.

Y? – y?? ????a ???? ?e ????????e, ???y ????o a ?????? ????: ?????y ???
?????? ??o ???? ? ??e ???, ??a ?a c???a ?? «????a ?????? ?ny?tho ????th,
?????i e ?e ? ??uy??i. I???? ????? ?????a ?e y?i ??yaeyo ????e e ?? ???e
– ? a ??? ???a ???ath?y ??eth?i i???????. O??a ???ey ????o ? ?????a ???
??? ? e ??.

3. I????? ???a ????e ????u ?e ?????ey a y????

A? a 70-o – ??? 90-o ??a OIO ?? O??? Y???, ???ay ??iy?a e ?????u ?????
y???ee, ?????e: “?? y?????? e ????ia ????a ???e ???? ???o ? ? ?? ?????
???????, ????a?i ?????e ????????”. E a ???eyo ??i ???i ?????? E.I??
???e??, ?i ???y, y?yy? “??????e ????????? ??????, ??o ???ue ?i ??????a
????ey”, ????o “??o ? ?????? ? ?????? ??” e “??? n ?i…? y?y?ny…???e
?????i ?????y”. A?? ??, ???y ?a (??oe 1860-??? 1880-o ?.), ? ???i ???
“E???a”, ????y ?? C??a, ???oy ????i??? ??????i, ?? ??? e ??aeia, ??? ??i
????ue (? n???eth n C???) “??? ??????e ??? ???ey ????i ??????”. E ?? (
?e ???ey ??a-??????? ?????e ?????? ???? ????????? ???ey): “???e ????? a
60-70-o ??o ???ue ??o ??oe o ?ay ?? ???? ??? (??e, ????a ???? e ?.),
????a ???? ?????a ? C??a ??o ??a”. Eth???i, ?i e A??? A?????/ I???a a
??i I-e ???e ??eth?e, ?????oy ???e ?????, ??/? ????th “??iy?i ????th??
????y” ?i “?e ???? … n Ca?? ? A??e”. “I?th?, – ?????e ???? ?????
?????, – ????i ??a ???? ???? ???? ?????a, (a ???): “I? ????? ????, ?
???e ?i????i ????ue”, – ?????? A??? A?????/.

Ii y? – ??? “??a” e ??? ??a ?e ??a “? ???u”. I?? ?i ?i??? ??????e ?????i
??a ????ie y???? ??th??? e ??? ??y?o ???? ???e. A ????e, A???? E???/
E????? – ?-??i ??? ????a?? ???? ??????? e ???? ( a ??a ??e “????”), – ?e
???i: “Ae?u c???? ???th ??? ??? ??????? ?cy??a ? ???iy???e ??, ???y
??????? a ?iai ???? ??? ????? ????i ?????? ????”, a y? ???i ?? ?e ???? e
????i ????? ? ???u ??????a.

O?? ???i, ?? ??? ? ????e ??a 1950-??? 1960-o ??a i “???-???ue?i ??????”
e ?????i ???? ????e ?y? ??n ? ????? ?e “??o???e” ???i (?????????) ?????a
a ???e, ? ?i ? ??a ??e??i ?e ??? ????? ???a ????? ????? ? ????e ???a ?
?????yo ?????i ?????a a ??i1.

O? ?e ??a, “??????a ???y”, a ???o ?????ny ????? a ???e – a ????e
“????????e ?????i”, ? ??e ? ????y ? ????a ?i????, a ?i ??a a ?i ???
?iy???, ? ?i ???? ???? ???a ??????e “??? ?????y” ?a a ??a??? ??a
1940-??? ????-???? 1950-o ?ae?. Oe???????a ????y ??aea 1950-1960-o ??a,
????y?a ? ????? ??????ny I???i ??? ? ?????e ?i??a “E??ey A??? I?y???e
???????? ??eth?e” (?????? – A.E.N???), ????e ? ?? ???????th ???ue ??ae i
???e ???ii?? a ???? ?????ey e ????a ????????? ?????a a ???e.

A ????e, ?????ueth ???ey ???n?? ?????a ?? ????y ???ue ??e? ??? ??????a
??ue (? ?????i???i ???) ????????o ????e.

I??e ??ae ?????? ????????? ?????a a ???e, ???????? a ????-??? ????
1950-o ??a, ???, ?i ???? ??????? ???ey ??????o ????????o ?????e ?????
?????????. A??a n ?i ????? e ????a y?? ??? ????, ?i ??????y a ???e
?????a ?e ?i ??? ???ey ???????? ?e, ???e a ???o ??????i ?????a ??????ae
???o ????e ?????e. N????i o?? ???? ?ei ?????? ??a?a ???????e y??????i
???ey ??? ???? e ??? ???? ???: ?ya???, ?????ey ???????? ?e ???aa a ????o
??? ??????e ?e ? ???? ????o ????? y??????i ?????aa. E ?? “I????” e
“I?????” ???????? ? 90 ????a ?????? e ??a ?????oth?e ????e, ? a ??????e
??????y ???? ??i 37 ????a ??a, a ??????????e – ??i ??e ?????? e ??a, a
?a?in???a ?? ??? ??e ? ????i y?? ?????. E?? ??, ?e ???? A.E.A??? e ?.,
????? ????e ???i ?? (???a, ????a) a ???e ?????i ?????? n ??????i ???? e
?????, o.a. ????e ???i ?ia, ?i ??? ?????oth ????????? ????a ??????e.
A??a n ?i ????a ??????e ? ????? ????a ????? e ??th ??th, ??ii, ???????
??????? ???ey ??e ????e: a ???yo ???a e ????e ?ai???a ????y e ???????
?????? (???e, ????u), a a ??? y??????i ???? – ????? e ?i?????th, o.a. e
?????? ??????.

N 1920-o ??a a ????e ??????e ????ny ??n i ??????e ?y??ey a ae???th???e
???e ???? AIE (???????-????????? ?????a), ????o, ?e ????ey??, ????i
????? ?????i?i ???????? ???? e ????????? ?e ???? – ????i ???, ??????
ya??e. I??i ?????ey A. E. N???a, A. A. A???, N. A. C????i, E. I. O?????
????: ??? e ??? i??????a ?y? ??o ???????? ??e??? e ????????i ????i,
?????e???e ?????y? – ??, ???? e a ??oth ???ue a ?? I-e ???e ??u.

I???? A. E. N???a ?? a ??a 1940-o ??a e ??o I??? ????y ? ???a ???? ???
??????eth ?a??i ????a, ????o ??? I??a ????y ( ? ???a, ? ???o, ?
??????eth), n???? ??a E???a ? ??i ??e?????e ???????, ?a ?? ??????e ?e ?
?????a, ?e e ? ???ue?o ????????o ?????e, a ???? ??? ?? y?y? ??e ?????a
???????i-????????? ?????a.

I??y ???y ??a ????a ?e???ue e ?????e ????i ?? ???????-????????o
???-????th?o ???? ? ?? ???? ???o ????? ????a?i ?????y?y, ????o ??????e
??ue ????a ????ue ???ey ????ue?o y???e, ????????i ??y??y ????? ????? a
??i. ?????e ????e??e ??? ?????y ????e ????ue ? iy? ???????o ????a AIE a
???e.

I???? ?:

1) ????e ??yo a ???????a ??? ??????y y????;

2) ????e ??????y ??? ?????a?i-????????? ???ey?y, ???yth?? ??cu ??????a;

3) ?????i ????? ???-????????e ???o ????? ?y ????ey e ??i ???ey ? ??????
???a;

4) ???? ????o ???????-??????a?? ???ey?e;

5) ?????? ???? ??th???y ???i???i ?????? – ?? ?? ???i ??c? i ?????.

A.I.A??? – ??????ue, ?????i ??i ????e ?y ??????e ?????e ???u ??ue ????o
????a, ????????y a ???e ??a OIO – ??? OO ??a ??? ??i a ???? ??a. Oaea a
1960-i ?? A??e I???? ???? ??? i ??????e ?e ????? ????o ?????? ???aoue (a
?a????? – ?y?y?): 1) ?e ??? ????a ?cy??i ? ?? ?i ???eyth?o e 2) – ??ue ?
????? ?????, ?e ???????e ???y??a ?cy??a.

A y?e ?y? ???e ???e ????n?-??????? ??????? ????eo ???? ? ????????-????e,
?????? e ????a a “????e ?????a a ???e” A.E.E??a, ?i ????e a ??e ?o????
???ny ??? ? ???? ????? ?cy??.

I????y, ?i A.E.E?? n ??? ??a I-e ???e ??ethoe? ???e ?????ue – ?????? ??o
??? ?????? ??iy ???ey ??o??? a ??????i ???? ?cy??a, ?????? ????oth
???oth ???????? a ??i ?y? ??o, ???y n ???e ????? ???? ????u ?????
?oe?e-????? a 1906 a.

A ??a ?? ????, ?i ??? i?? ????? ????e c?????e a ???e ???a e ? OIO ???ey,
??? ?iy?y? ?e ?ay a ??a ??????/??o ?iy?e ???y??a. N??? a y?e ?y? ?y??ey.

N.I.Ae????e ???? ?????th ????? ????th ????th. E??? ???? ? ???:

1) ??a ??i ?????????a ????y ?????ue a ???a ??????y (??ay ???ue ?????
??y);

2) ???, ?i ? ??? ???e, ?????????a ???e ??e ??i a ???????? (??ay ???ue),
a ??????? ???a i?????a, a ??i ?????????a (??uey ???ue) e ???oe – a ??a
(????y n???);

3) ??a ??, ? ???i ???i, ?? ???????? a ??? OO ?? a ?????? ???e ?e ?????i
?a ? ????????e ???, a ???? – ?? ? ????????-????????e.

I? y?i N.I.Ae????e ????e, ?i e a ??e ???? (? ?i ???i) ??a – ??????e – ?
?eth “????a-??????” ?????ue e 1917 a. ??? ??????e, ??? ????ue ? ?
???y??e ????? e ?????????e ?????. A ???, ??e ??th??a ???e, “?????e???
??? ?? a ??????e y?i i????e” (???i: ??? ??e, ii Ae?????, y??? ??? ??i
??????a??).

E ?? a ??? “????” ?????a ?????ay “?????ey” ??? ?y? ??i?? ??o, ?? – a ?i
??a ?i ????? ?e ????o ?????o ??????e i ???e ????????e ??????e ?????i
????i ?cy??a, ? ??????y y?o ??, ??????e a ????e ??????e ?? ???? ??????e.

A ????e, ?? ??iy?? ????e ?? ??ae A.E.E??a, ??y?e, ?i a ???e ??? OO ??
“??? ?? ? n???? ????????a ???? ??y?e”, ? N.I.Ae????e e ?i ????? ????: –
?, e ??? “????????a ????y ????? a ???? ?????y e (…) ???? ????ath?a
????”, ??? ?e “a ?????, ?e e a ???yin?i ?cy???”.

I?? ??ae ??? Ae????? – “?????????a”: ????????a ????y ????? ???? ?? e ??o
OIO ?? ?e a “???a a ??i”, ?e e a “????i ??a” ???e, o.a. – a ??????e, a
???????? e ?i ??a a ?????. A ?y? ???e n ????? ??? (? y?i ???i) ????e ?a
a ??a ?ey?y ????????? ????.

E?????y ?i? 1950-o – 1960-o ??a e ????e y?? ???? ?y??e ???a ?? ??a ?????
??????? ???e: ????????i e ?????????.

N?? ???i – ????a ???i-??????ie ????e e ?????oth??y ???, n ??e ???u, a n
??? – ???e ?e ????????.

N????a ???i ??a ???, ????o ? ?eth?? ?a ???e ?e ?? ?????i ????ey –
??????????oth e ??????????oth. I??????i ?:

??????????ay ?? ??y? n ?i, ?i ?? ????? ?i ????ey, ??ey? ?????i-?????
y???u, ????th?a a ??? ?e a ???a ????????a ?????? ???ey?y;

??????????ay ?? ?? ??????? ?e ??????o ????? ????o ?i????.

E ??? ????i-y?????ay ????a ????i ??y ???e ??? OO ?? – y? ??????? ??o??:
1)???????a?? ????e (????e ???i ??, ??? ??, ????????y ??? e o.ae.);
2)?i?????????o ????e (????e ???i ??); 3)????? ???i-????????o ????e.

4. I?????a ??i??? ???a e???? ????u

I??i I??e ???e ?e? ???i e ??? ?ey???e A ???e ?????? e ????o ?e. I??????
e ?????-????? ??? ????e a ????o ???y ??u. 21 ethey 1914a. ??? ??? ???a
????y n ????? e ???, a ???i ?????, ?i ?y?e ?? ??? — ????ue ???o ??? e
?????? e ???? ? ?th ? ????a a ?y? ???o ???, ?o?? ?????ny o ?n ???e. E??u
??a ???e ???? ????? ??u, ? ?? ? ????i i??a ??o ??y?ny ? ?????y a ???e.
Ae??ay o??ey ???a ? y????i ????e ??? Ae?u 26 ethey 1914a. ???a ????ue ??
??. E?? ???a I?th?a ?y?e i ???a ????i ?????a. ? y?e ??? ? ?a ???, ? ?
??? ???y e ????ey, ? ??? ??? ? ?? ??? ?? ???th a?th ???ue ?????”. E??u ?
???oe? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ?ath ?????i ??. E?a???-????? ???
????e a ????o ????th?e ???? ???a, ?????y a ???yo ???e ??? ??? ??e ???? ?
???a O??e e A???. O?e?????a ???e ?????-??????o ??? ???iy? ? n
????a-?????e ??ey?.

E???ay ???y ???a ?iy??? a ?i, ?i ?e ?? ????u n Oe???i a ????e e ??a.

I???ey ???e ??e ??? e ??i 15a., ??? ???? ????? ?????i ?????a ???e ???o a
????? e??a.

A????? ????ue ??o a ???yo ?a ??????y ?cy??a?? ???e, ?????? ??y??y ??,
???ath?e ??eth???e ??? ???? ???, ???e ?i? ??eth?e ????e ?????a ???
?e???ny ??i, ??ue a ????th e ??????o Oe???.

A???th?a ? ??y ??u ????? ?????e ?? A??i- ?????? ????a, ???-????a ?th?,
??? ????y, ????a ????, ???? I??????i ??a ????tho e ???atho ????th e ???.
N y?e ??th ??i 15a. ?????a ??? ???atho ? ?ay ???ey ? i??oa???, ????y
I?????? a?e; ?e ?????e ???ey ??? ??????a, ???y? ???? ???. Ia ??y? a
???yo ????y e ???a ????i ?cy??a ?? ? ?ay ??oth ???????ue, ??? ??????e
??a ??????i ?e ?????, ??????a a ???i ??ae Ae??.

I??i Oe??i ? ???ny ?? ???e???. A ??o ? ????ey I??????i ??a Oe?ue ????
????? ???ue ????a A??????? Ae?u, a ????a ???? ???ue ??” a ?ith ??ue.

??ieth???a ????? ???? ?? ????ny ?????e ????e. Y? ??yae? ????????e 6-e
??ae ??? ???a a ??? 16 ??. E?? ??i ??? ????? ? ?????e ??? n ???????
Oe???, ???ay? ? ?? n ????? e i?????e.

I??a ??i, ??? ??? ???a I?th?a n ???i ??? ???? ????? ????a ??? ??i, ???y?
??o ?a???e ??c Ae?o.

A 1916a. ????y ??????a e ????e ?????ue ? ???a.

Oe??i ?e ??i ????e ?y ??? n ??eth??, ?a ? ????? ??a?ue ???a ??????i, ?a
??? ?i ???, ? ??? ? ?? ?ae, ???y? ???e ?y ?ay.

1 ?oy?y 16a. ? ????e A??????? Ae?u I?th?a ???? ???????oth” ?? n ????y? a
??n ??????a. C???e ii ???e: ?? y?, ???? ?e ????” A? ????? ????? ? ??a n
O????.

Ia ???? ??????? I??????i ??a ???????ue ????a ???? ???ey ? ??????i, ????y
Oe??i ??eth??, ii ??? ????y ? ??? n Oe???i ????e ?????. I?ay ???a???
???ath??y ??eth??, ???? ?i ?? ?e ????ue ? ????ue ?. I???a ??eth?e
?oy???, ???, I?????? ?? ????? Oe?th ??e ? ???e ? ??ai ? ?y?a ???
??eth?e, ?e ??e ??????ue ?, ????o ?????? ???? ? ???u ???.

Ii Oe?ue ???? ??? ???????i e ?????: ? ????? Ae?o, e ??? ???o ????ey ???i
??i ????i ????y.

???th?y ??? ???— ???e ??o I???a. I?? ???? I???th. I????i, ????iay ??ey
????o ???a a ?????? ??? I???e, ? ????? ?????e ??eth?e, ?????? n 300- ???
I????, a?e ????? e ???y?. I? ??? ???e ? ??a ??? n Oe???i, o????ue
???????th ?????.

N???????a ???, ? ?? a ?aeu I??e ???e ??u. E??a ???a 2-? E??????a ?????
?????a ???o ??? ????ny ??u. I?????? ?thth?o n?? ??????e ?????e ?????o
????? ??. I???? ??? ???aa ???? ??????????? ?e.

A ??i ?????a ????i-???????a ??? ????ue ? ???th?o ???yo, i?????ue ???
??????o ????? ath? ??e ?? ???, a ?i ??a e ????i-???????o. I?? ????ey ???
????i-???????o ??? a ??o??a ??????a, n ??? ?????a ?e ???????? ???-????,
?????y ?n???oth?i ???i a ???e ?eiu. E????e ???-????a a ???e ????e I???a,
I??a, I???a e ?. I? ????? ????????oth ???? Oe???, ???ay ???e ??n ??y ??u
????ny ? ??eth???e ???, ????y ? ??????e ???? A???e e A??i-A???.

O??ey *??? 4-e A??????? Ae?u e ? ????? ????ue ? ???e oe????. I? ?ae
????i A????? ??a??e ?????th ????eth, ????a a A??? ??? ??????ey ????
??????o ? ???a ??u. I??i ? ?y????ue a ????? ???ue e ??????e ?y????e e ?
?? ??? ??? n??e-?????.

Ai ??y ??u ????? ????tho a I??a ??? ???”, a ??a ? ?i?? — ??a ???, n ???e
?????? ????e A????, I??a,

I???a, O??? e ?. ???”, ?e ??i ?????a, y?eth????? ???. N?/?a ??? ????
???th E??????a, c?? ?a ????? ?????y ? ???th ????a. A y?i ????e ???????y
y?eth?y ??y?a e ??? ?????a I???, ???????i a 14 ?? ????i ?????o,
??????????? ???, a 15 a?o ???e ?????? ???e ???e ?????a IV A?o?????e
Ae?u. Ai ??y ??u ????? ??y? ???a a ??? ???????e e ?????e ?????e. I??i ?e
????e ??? ?????e ?????o ?????e ???o. A ?????? ?e ??eth?e i ???? ?????e
????? ?????, ?i ?a ?????, ?? y?o ??? ??o ????i e ??yo ???? ?????
?????y?.

Aeay????ue ???o ??????? ????oe? a ???? ?? ?y?? n ???? a ???-?????? ????
???o ??i e ??? a ?o.

Nay?e n ???? ? ??y ??u i????e ? ?????. O?, ?a ?e ???? ??e ????? ??e
???o, ???y ?????a ??? e ????a ?????ny ?y?.

A ??o ? ???yo ???? ???-??eth???u. I??i ??u ????i y??a ????? ?? ????a e
?e. A??ay ?n? y????e ?????e a ???e e ? ???? ??? ? ???-???????a ???e. I?
????? ? ??eth???e ?y????e, ??u ???ue ????? ??????o, ???e ??o ? ???. I??i
o ?????? ??e ?????e ?????a-??eth???? ?iy??? ????????a ????ey. I? ??
???a?u ?y ???o ???a: I??a, I????, O???, O?a, I??e I???ae e ?. E?? y??a –
*??a ???y ???ue ????oeeth ???????e ??u e ???a ???a ???: ??? ? ????i
??a”.

I???u ? y????e ??? ???e a I??a ?a??? (???oth ?? a ????? ????y ??? E????
). N???? ??y? ???a ? ???a ???, ??????? e ???? ??????a, ????? ????? ???.
I????e e y??, ??ae???y a O???? ???e ????oth ?????th e ?????? i ??????? a
???a ???.

I? ??e ???? a I??a ??? ????. A ???eth ??e: I???a, A????, A??? e ?.

E?? y?? n ???-?????e ????a? a ??? ???????e ?????e, ??y?? ???? ??a???
A??u, ???a?e ????????oth ??o e ???-?????. ???? y?? ?????e a ???o e
?????eyo, ????e ?????a ????.

E 1917a. ??????? ?e ??? ??e ??? y??a. Y? ??? ????y?: Ia???, N?????.

E?? y?? ???? ????ey ?e ??e ??eth???? ?????i ?????? e ???y??a, ???y
??ae??ue ?ae ?ey?? ?????a-??eth????. I? ????e ? ???y 1917a. ??i 100 ????
n ????e: ??? ??o!”, ??? ??????!”, ?a ?????o ???y ??eth?y!”. A ???e a ???
n ???? e a?ae???, ? ???o a ???-?????? ????, a ?????e ??ae e ???? ??i
??????? e y????a ?????e ??th?? ???? i ????? ?????yo, ????yo. Ia ????
?iy?y?? ???????y ??ey ??eth???e ???. ????n a ???o ??? ???a? y????y ????
e ?????i, ?a y?? ??????? ??eth???th ?????a, i???e ???a ? ???? ? ??y ???a
a ?a??a ??? ?????? ???-??????i ???? e ???? ???ey ???-?????.

A ??? ??u ????a ??? ?????a ?? ????u, ??? ??? ???u a N??ue; ?y? ??o
?????y? ???e?ue, ?, ? ???y ? ????e ????, ?o (???o) ? ???ue ???? ?e??a
?????a. E??? ?????a: ?????? ??u ????????? a ??o ????eoth”, ???? ???
???ny ????y ??o ?????? a ???. I???y ? ???? ???, ????? ????a?e ???a ath?

Oe?????i E???a ???, ??????? n ??e 1915 ? ??o 1916 a., a ??a ??oa ?i ???
a 1916a. ?????? e ????? ? ???y 1917a. A??????a ?????e ?????e a I????a,
I??a, I??i I????, ????-?-Ae?o, O???a, E??, A?o. A?? n?????i ??i 200
????o ?????e. *????? ?????a e ???th 1917a. ??????? 24 o?. ???e.

Ca ?? ??? ???e ??u a ???e ??a ????? ??? e ??a ??/??i ?????o ?a?? ????i ?
? ? ??i ????i ??.

A ???a 1917a. ????a ?????y ??eth?y, ?????y ???eth.

I?? ?? a ???e ????ue ????o?.

C?eth??a

E y?? ??ue ???o ???, ???e ??????o eth?a ?????? ???? («n??e ??y??), ???a
????? ??? ??????, ?? ???? a? ?? ????a. Aei ?o ?? ???y ?????? ??????e ??,
a ???i «e?????? ??ath?y ?????ue ???th ??eth?th (e ??eth?e ???) ?e ???e
???a, ??ao??o ??? ??ae e ?????? ??y?e ?? ??a ???? e ???????, ?i ?e ?e
«??? ???». Y? ????y ?iy?u, ? ??????u. I???a ??th??ny a ?i, ?i a ??????
?????? ???u ?????ey ????ny ??eth?i ?ia???e, ? ??a ??i ? ?a ???ny e ????
«??????a ????y», ?y ???a ??? ????i ????????y. E a y?o ??? i?????? ????ey
??a ????a ???????? a ????yo ?????? ?? (?eth?y ??????) ii?o ???ue ?a?e
??y?e.

Aea O??? a ??? ??a «N??e ??y?e e ??eth?y» ??e: «I?y?e ??e, ??????
??eth??, ??e ??? ??? ??a ??, ???e ???????i ?o ?a?????, e ?? ?????, ?i ?y
???? ??????a i???a ???i y?ya?y ?????i ?o ???, ??a ?i ???? ????????y».
E??i y?o ???n ????? a ???e a ??? OO ?? e a NNN? a ??a OO ??. E y?
??????? ???? ? ??? O???, ??ay ??eth?e ? C??a.

???? ?yo e ????ue O.E.Oth?? ??e 28 ??y?y 1857 a.: «A ???e ?????? ???a
????? ???e ??i, ???e ??e ???a ? ??iye ??. A??? ???u, ???a ?? ???atho ???
? ??a, ??a ????? ???? ? ???a, ??a ?i ????o e ???y? ? ????e ?? e ?????a.
I?, ??a ?????y ? ???e ??e ?e ??? ??? ???a ???? e ??o, ?e ??? ????i, ??
??o, ? ?????i e ???? ??????e e ?????? ?????th. O??-? Eth?a?e ????a?a e
?????th?y ? Eth???a iy???? e Eth???a ???????.

Iiy?? ???iy??? ??????? ??? ??o ??????o ????a, ??iyth?o ?????a ? ?, ?i “?
???y? ? ?i?eth”. A ?i ? e ??th??y ???? e?a, a ???e ???a ???th ???ey – ??
? ????ue ?????eth, ???th ??? C??. A?e ?? ? ?????eth, ???ey ?? ?e ????o
?ith ??, ?i ???th ??o ???ue C??. Ie ?e, ? ?? ? ?, ??u ???? ???? ??????,
???o???e ??i ? ?? (?e, ??? ???a, e ????e a ??a 80-o ??a). E a ???
??????i ????ey C?? ????ny y?o ??i ????. Ae??a, ?e ? ??i, ? yo?i ???a ?e
?c ?????i ??e ?ae?, ???e ?? ???? ????i i?????e e a ? ? ??y ???ue ???th ?
? ??????y C???. Ii a ?o ??? ??? ?e, ???i, ? ?, ?i ??? ??y o ??? ???o
?????e ?????e ??i.

E?? ??e a ??a 1917 a. ?, ?i ?? ??a ???? a ?????? ??ao: «A?ue ?ae ???e
?????-????? ??eth?e ????? y?i, ?i ????? e ?????a ????? n ? ???? e
«?ycy?», ??i ???? ??a ??y?? ??ey, ??u ???? ????? ????eyi e ?????o ??
I??ay A??? n A?uea??? IV, ???????i ??????? ???? ??? n ?oy???? e ????,
??? n ??ueth ?????? e ??a??? ???a ??e e ??????? ???i? ???? ?y ???ey
I??ay ?????. ???th?y ???? ?e ??? e ????i ??io, ?i ? ??y ??? ?thc ?e,
???o ????? ??? ?? – ?????e ????e e A???, ???? ?????y ??u, n ???? ????
????i, ???? ??.

E????a

1. I???? ????e ??a??i ??y//A??? ???e, 1964, ? 10, 12; 1965, ? 1, 2;

2. N???a I. A., E? e ?i ?e ?? ????i?// A??? ???e. 1965, ? 3;

3. E???a I. E., Ae???ue ?e ???e ??, 2 ?ae., I., 1987,n. 191—224, 351;

4. A?? A. ss., Oe??i ???? ????y, I., 1989.

5. A??? E??a: E th??th ??????i
???//http://www.vzglyad.ru/columns/2007/2/27/70250.html

6. O???a A.I. O??? ???a “???th???ey. I???a ?????e ??eth???? ???? 1917 ??
a ???e ? ????? ??????e e ????? ??????e”//. ?OAeI

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