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Правление Александра I. Реформы М.М. Сперанского

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I?aaeaiea Aeaenaiae?a I. ?aoi?iu I.I. Nia?aineiai

Aaaaeaiea

Eiy a?aoa Ieoaeea Ieoaeeiae/a Nia?aineiai ecaanoii anai, eoi oioue
iaiiiai ciaeii n ?onneie enoi?eae. Iaeiaei – eae yoi ia?aaeei auaaao, –
eae i?aaeei, e?iia naiiai iauaai ii?aaeaeaiey «i?ia?anneaiiai aeayoaey»,
eioi?ia aiai?eo iaiueoa /ai ie/aai, o aieueoeinoaa ethaeae ieeaeeo
annioeeaoeee n iei ia naycuaaaony. Aei ia aeaaiaai a?aiaie /eneo yoeo
ethaeae ioiineeanue e y. O?oaeii neacaoue, /oi eiaiii iaiy
caeioa?aniaaei a yoie oaia, aiciiaeii aeiaieueii niaeua ?aoi?iu eee
ee/iinoue Nia?aineiai eae ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeayoaey. Nei?aa anaai,
niaieoiiinoue yoeo aii?inia, ianiiiaiii, aeinoieiuo ?anniio?aiey.

Noieo oiiiyiooue, /oi aeaiiay oaia, aeaiiua ?aoi?iu ia ianoieueei oi?ioi
e oe?iei enneaaeiaaiu iaoeie, eae, iai?eia?, ?aoi?iu Noieuieia eee Iao?a
1. Oiio anoue naie i?e/eiu: oe?iei caaeoiaiiua ?aoi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
nae?aoa?y e aeeaeaeoaai nio?oaeieea Eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a I a
iineaaeiea aiaeu ia?aae Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiie a iniiaiii ia
inouanoaeeenue, Ainoaea?noaaiiay Aeoia auea eca?aia aac iaeiai /a?ac
noieaoea iinea oiai, eae ii yoi i?aaeeaaae, a iainouanoaeaiiua ?aoi?iu –
eaeia au ie aue eo caiunae – ?aaeei noaiiayony i?aaeiaoii i?enoaeueiiai
iauanoaaiiiai aieiaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii inoaiiaeony ia eiiiiceoeee ?aoa?aoa. A ia?aie aai /anoe y
inoaiiaeeanue ia ee/iinoe Aeaenaiae?a 1, aai ?aoi?iao, iieeoe/aneie
neooaoeee a oeaeii, o.e. eiaiii i?iaeaiu ?innee yaeeenue oie/eii aeey
aeaeueiaeoeo i?aia?aciaaiee I.I Nia?aineiai. Ai aoi?ie /anoe ?aoa?aoa
?anneacuaaaony i iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe Nia?aineiai, i aai
ieaiao e iaeioi?uo ?aaeeciaaiiuo ?aoi?iao. A o?aoueae – ?anneacuaaaony i
nnueea I.I. Nia?aineiai e i aai aeaeueiaeoae aeayoaeueiinoe.

1. ?inney a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea

1.1 Iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey a ?innee

Ii naiaio iieeoe/aneiio ono?ienoao ?inney auea naiiaea?aeaaiie
iiia?oeae. Ai aeaaa ainoaea?noaa noiye eiia?aoi?, a aai ?oeao auea
nin?aaeioi/aia caeiiiaeaoaeueiay e ?anii?yaeeoaeueiay aeanoue. Eiia?aoi?
oi?aaeye no?aiie i?e iiiiue ia?iiiie a?iee /eiiaieeia. Ii caeiio iie
auee eniieieoaeyie aiee oea?y, ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe /eiiaie/anoai
ea?aei aieaa cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue. A aai ?oeao auea ?ac?aaioea caeiiia,
iii aea i?aoai?yei eo a aeeciue *eiiaie/anoai auei iieiiaeanoiui
oicyeiii, eae a oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiao oi?aaeaiey, oae e a ianoiuo
(aoaa?ineeo e oacaeiuo). Ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie ?inne ii naiae oi?ia aue
naiiaea?aeaaii-ath?ie?aoe/aneei. Io i?iecaiea ath?ie?aoee, io aa
icaeieinoaa no?aaeaee ana neie ianaeaiey. Neooaoeey noaea iinoaiaiii
iaiyony n i?eoiaeii e aeanoe iiaiai i?aaeoaey.

12 ia?oa 1801 aiaea a ?acoeueoaoa aeai?oeiaiai ia?aai?ioa ia ?inneeneee
i?anoie anooiee Aeaenaiae? 1 (1801-1825). Ia?aua oaae iiaiai eiia?aoi?a
ii?aaaeaee iaaeaaeaeu ?inneeneiai aeai?yinoaa e naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee i
?ac?uaa n iieeoeeie i?aaeuaeouaai oea?noaiaaiey. Aeaenaiae?, i?aaiiee
eiia?aoi?a Iaaea, anooiee ia i?anoie n oe?ieie i?ia?aiiie i?aia?aciaaiee
a ?innee e inouanoaeye aa iaaeoiaiiaa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiaa
i?aaeoanoaaiieea. Nouanoaiaaee aeaa iniiaiuo no?aieaiey, eioi?ua
ninoaaeyee niaea?aeaiea aioo?aiiae iieeoeee ?innee n ia/aea XIX
noieaoey: yoi o?aaiaiea nineiaee ia?aae caeiiii e aaaaeaiea eo a
niaianoioth ae?oaeioth ainoaea?noaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Yoi auee
iniiaiua caaea/e yiioe, ii iie ineiaeiyeenue ae?oaeie no?aieaieyie,
eioi?ua auee iaiaoiaeeiie iiaeaioiaeie e eo ?ac?aoaieth eeai iaecaaaeii
auoaeaee ec eo ?ac?aoaiey. O?aaiaiea nineiaee ia?aae caeiiii eciaiyei
naiua iniiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, aicieeaea
iio?aaiinoue a eiaeeoeeaoeee n oeaeueth i?eaanoe a niaeanea ?acee/iua
caeiiu, i?aaeiea e iiaua. Aeaeaa, ia?ano?ieea ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea
ia i?aaiauo o?aaieoaeueiuo ia/aeao o?aaiaaea iiaeuaia ia?aciaaoaeueiiai
o?iaiy ia?iaea, a iaaeaeo oai inoi?iaeiia, /anoe/iia aaaeaiea yoie
ia?ano?ieee aucuaaei aeaieiia iaaeiaieuenoai a iauanoaa: iaeie auee
iaaeiaieueiu oai, /oi ?ac?ooaaony noa?ia; ae?oaea auee iaaeiaieueiu oai,
/oi neeoeii iaaeeaiii aaiaeeony iiaia. Ionthaea i?aaenoaaeyeanue
i?aaeoaeuenoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?oeiaiaeeoue iauanoaaiiui iiaieai,
naea?aeeaaoue aai ni?aaa e neaaa, iai?aaeyoue, ainieouaaoue oiu.
Ieeiaaea oeaico?a e ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea ia aoiaeeee oae oanii a iauea
i?aia?aciaaoaeueiua ieaiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eae a enoaeoai noieaoee.
Iaeiiaoe, ?yae aiei e aioo?aiieo ?aoi?i, eciaiyy aianoa n aiaoiei,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui iieiaeaieai ainoaea?noaa e aioo?aiiee, nioeeaeueiue
neeaae iauanoaa, eieaaae ainoaea?noaaiiia oicyenoai, ?anno?aeaae
oeiainu, canoaaeye iai?yaaoue ieaoaaeiua neeu ia?iaea e iiaeieiaoue
ainoaea?noaaiiia aeaaiono?ienoai, iiieaeae ia?iaeiia aeaaininoiyiea. Aio
?yae yaeaiee, eioi?ua i?eieaoathony e iniiaiui oaeoai aeecie ia?aie
iieiaeiu 19 aaea.

Iniiaiuie aii?inaie oiai a?aiaie yaeyeenue: nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee,
ninoiyaoee a onoaiiaeaiee iiauo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiuie
eeannaie, a ono?ienoaa iauanoaa e oi?aaeaiey n o/anoeai iauanoaa; aii?in
eiaeeoeeaoeeiiiue, ninoiyaoee a oii?yaei/aiee iiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
aii?in iaaeaaiae/aneee, ninoiyaoee a ?oeiaiaenoaa, iai?aaeaiee e
ainieoaiee oiia, e, iaeiiaoe, aii?in oeiainiaue, ninoiyaoee a iiaii
ono?ienoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai oicyenoaa.

1.2 Aeaenaiae? 1. I?aia?aciaaoaeueiue iiuo ia?auo eao

Aai anooieaiea ia i?anoie aicaoaeeei a ?onneii, i?aeiouanoaaiii
aeai?yineii, iauanoaa naiue ooiiue ainoi?a; i?aaeoanoaothuaa
oea?noaiaaiea aeey yoiai iauanoaa auei no?iaei aaeeeei iinoii. Ea?aicei
aiai?eo, /oi neoo i aioea?aiee iiaiai eiia?aoi?a aue i?eiyo eae aanoue
eneoieaiey. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea ia?aia io no?aoa ?ac?aoaeinue
iaeeueiuie neacaie oieeaiey: ethaee ia oeeoeao e a aeiiao ieaeaee io
?aaeinoe; i?e ano?a/a ciaeiiua e iaciaeiiua iicae?aaeyee ae?oa ae?oaa e
iaieiaeenue, oi/ii a aeaiue naaoeiai aine?anaiey. Ii nei?i iiaue,
24-eaoiee eiia?aoi? noae i?aaeiaoii ainoi?aeaiiiai aieiaiey e iaiaeaiey.
Naiay ia?oaeiinoue, ia?auaiea, iiyaeaiea ia oeeoea aai, eae e
ianoaiiaea, i?iecaiaeeee iaayoaeueiia aeaenoaea. A ia?aue ?ac oaeaeaee
ainoaea?y aoeythuei a noieeoea iaoeii, aac anyeie naeou e aac anyeeo
oe?aoaiee, aeaaea aac /ania, e i?eaaoeeai ioaa/athuei ia iieeiiu
ano?a/iuo. Iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai iiniaoeei i?yii cayaeoue iai?aaeaiea, a
eaeii iii iaia?aii auei aeaenoaiaaoue. A iaieoanoa 12 ia?oa 1801 a.
eiia?aoi? i?eieiae ia naay iaycaoaeuenoai oi?aaeyoue ia?iaeii «ii
caeiiai e ii na?aeoeo naiae i?aioae?ie aaaee». A oeacao, eae e a /anoiuo
aanaaeao, eiia?aoi? au?aaeae iniiaiia i?aaeei, eioi?ui ii aoaeao
?oeiaiaeeoueny: ia ianoi ee/iiai i?iecaiea aeayoaeueii aiaeai?youe
no?iaoth caeiiiinoue. Eiia?aoi? ia ?ac oeacuaae ia aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie,
eioi?ui no?aaeae ?onneee ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?yaeie; yoio iaaeinoaoie ii
iacuaae «i?iecaieii iaoaai i?aaeaiey». Aeey ono?aiaiey yoiai iaaeinoaoea
ii oeacuaae ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ei?aiiuo, o. a. iniiaiuo, caeiiia,
eioi?uo ii/oe aua ia auei a ?innee. A oaeii iai?aaeaiee aaeenue
i?aia?aciaaoaeueiua iiuou ia?auo eao.

Aeaenaiae? ia/ae n oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Aeaoa?eia inoaaeea
iacaaa?oaiiui caeaiea oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey. Nicaeaa neiaeiue e
no?ieiue ii?yaeie ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeee e noaea, iia ia nicaeaea
i?aaeeueiuo oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee n oi/ii ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie
aaaeiinoaaie, n yniui iaicia/aieai «oaa?aeuo i?aaeaeia», /oi auei
iaauaii a etheueneii iaieoanoa 1762 a. Aioe i?iaeieaeae ?aaioo aaaee, ii
auaaaeaiiay ei aa?oeia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai caeaiey ii aeooo e no?ith
naiaio auoea iaiioiaeae ia ei?ion, ia niioaaonoaiaaea naiaio
ooiaeaiaioo.

Niae?aaoeeny ii ee/iiio oniio?aieth eiia?ao?eoeu Aeaoa?eiu
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao 30 ia?oa 1801 a. caiaiai aue iinoiyiiui
o/?aaeaeaieai, iieo/eaoei iacaaiea «Iai?aiaiiiai niaaoa» –
caeiiiniaauaoaeueiiai i?aaia. Ii aue nicaeai aeaaiui ia?acii aeey
?anniio?aiey e ianoaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae e iinoaiiaeaiee.
Ia?aiia/aeueii Niaao ninoiye ec 12 /aeiaae, n?aaee eioi?uo auee
?oeiaiaeeoaee aaaeiaeoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aaenoaaeoaee
aunoae a?enoie?aoee e ath?ie?aoee. *eaiu Niaaoa iieo/eee i?aai
iiaeaaaoue i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eiia?aoi?neea oeacu e ianoaeaeaoue
caeiiii?iaeou. Iaeiaei ooaa?aeaeaiiue 3 ai?aey 1801 aiaea «Iaeac
Iai?aiaiiiio niaaoo» ii?aaeaeee, /oi yoio i?aai «ia eiaao ieeaeiai
aeaenoaey aiaoiaai e neeu, e?iia neeu niia?aaeaiey»[1] . I?aeoe/aneia
cia/aiea Iai?aiaiiiai niaaoa auei e?aeia ia aaeeei. Any iniiaiay ?aaioa
ii iiaeaioiaea caaeoiaiiuo Aeaenaiae?ii 1 i?aia?aciaaiee
nin?aaeioi/eeanue a Iaaeaniii (eee Eioeiiii) eiieoaoa, nouanoaiaaaoei n
iay 1801 ii iiya?ue 1803a. Ii ninoiye ec oae iacuaaaiuo iieiaeuo ae?ocae
Aeaenaiae?a: I.A No?iaiiiaa, A.A. *a?oi?ueneiai, A.I. Ei/oaay e I.I.
Iiaineeueoeaaa. Iyoui /eaiii Iaaeaniiai eiieoaoa, oi?iaeueii ia
o/anoaiaaaoei a canaaeaieyo, noae O. Eaaa?i, aa?ioaoeeny a ?inneth a
aaaonoa 1801 aiaea. Yoi auee ethaee, eioi?uo ii i?ecaae iiiiaaoue aio a
i?aia?aciaaoaeueiuo ?aaioao. Ana iie auee ainieoaiu a naiuo ia?aaeiauo
eaeayo XVIII a. e oi?ioi ciaeiiu n ainoaea?noaaiiuie ii?yaeeaie Caiaaea.
Iie i?eiaaeeaaeaee e iieieaieth, iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeiaaaoaio ca
aeaeueoeaie aeaoa?eieineiai a?aiaie; auee i?eaa?aeaioeaie eeaa?aeueiuo
eaeae e n/eoaee iaiaoiaeeiui ?aoi?ie?iaaoue ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai
?innee.

Iaaeaniue eiieoao ia yaeyeny ioeoeeaeueiui ainoaea?noaaiiui
o/?aaeaeaieai. Canaaeaiey aai i?iaiaeeeenue iinea iaaaeaiiiai eioa a
ee/iuo eiiiaoao eiia?aoi?a a Ceiiai aeai?oea, aaea au?aaaouaaeny ieai
i?aia?aciaaiee. Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi iaeei ec /eaiia yoie eiiennee –
a?ao I. A. No?iaaiia aae aeey naay caiene aai iaaeaniuo canaaeaiee ia
o?aioeocneii ycuea (24 ethiy 1801 a. – 9 iiya?y 1803 a.), nae/an iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth yoiai eiieoaoa. Caaea/ae yoiai
eiieoaoa auei iiiiaaoue eiia?aoi?o «a nenoaiaoe/aneie ?aaioa iaae
?aoi?iith aanoi?iaiiiai caeaiey oi?aaeaiey eiia?eae» – oae au?aaeaia
auea yoa caaea/a a iaeiie caiene. Iieiaeaii auei i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
eco/eoue ianoiyuaa iieiaeaiea eiia?ee, iioii i?aia?aciaaoue ioaeaeueiua
/anoe aaeieieno?aoeee e yoe ioaeaeueiua ?aoi?iu caaa?oeoue
«eiinoeoooeeae onoaiiaeaiiie ia iniiaaiee enoeiiiai ia?iaeiiai aeooa».
Iniiaiuie aii?inaie, ianoaeaeaaiuie ia canaaeaieyo, noaee oe?aieaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, e?anoueyineee aii?in e nenoaia ia?aciaaiey.
*eaiu eiieoaoa auee aaeeiiaeooiu a oii, /oi iaia?aie/aiiia
naiiaea?aeaaea aeieaeii noaoue i?oaeeai iinoaiaiiuo e iaianeeuenoaaiiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ua neaaeoao i?iaiaeeoue e?aeia inoi?iaeii ec-ca
iaaioiaiinoe iauanoaa e ?aoi?iai.

1.3 Aaeieieno?aoeaiay ?aoi?ia

Iinea ?anniio?aiey a Iaaeaniii eiieoaoa oea?neei oeacii io 8 naioya?y
1802 aiaea auea i?iaaaeaia ?aoi?ia aunoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.
Aianoi aaaaeaiiuo Iao?ii 1 eieeaaee auee o/?aaeaeaiu ieienoa?noaa:
aiaiiia, aiaiii-ii?neia, eiino?aiiuo aeae, aioo?aiieo aeae, eiiia?oeee,
oeiainia, ia?iaeiiai i?inaauaiey, thnoeoeee, a eioi?uo aaiaeeeinue
no?iaia aaeeiiaeanoea ieieno?a. A oaeaea auei aaaaeaii Ainoaea?noaaiiia
eacia/aenoai ia i?aaao ieienoa?noaa. Ia/aeinue ninoaaeaiea aaeeiiai
athaeaeaoa ainoaea?noaa, ii ec-ca cia/eoaeueiiai aeaoeoeeoa, athaeaeao
aue no?iai nae?aoiui. Io/eouaaeny ieieno? iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae
eiia?aoi?ii e io iaai aea iieo/ae ?anii?yaeaiey ii aaaeiaeoei aii?inai.
Ieieno?u e aeaaiioi?aaeythuea ia i?aaao ieieno?ia ia?aciauaaee Eiieoao
ieieno?ia, noaoon eioi?iai aue ii?aaeaeai eeoue a 1812 aiaeo (a 1857
aiaeo ii aue i?aia?aciaai a Niaao ieieno?ia, i?inouanoaiaaaoee aei 1917
aiaea). Eiieoao noaiiaeeny niaauaoaeueiui i?aaiii i?e eiia?aoi?a. Yoi
iineaaeiaa aia?aua iiyaeeinue a nenoaia oeaio?aeueiuo ?inneeneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee. Nicaeaiea ieienoa?noa auei i?ecaaii oe?aieoue
aaeeiiia/aeea a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee, iinoaiaiii auoaniyy
eieeaaeaeueiinoue. I?aaeiea eieeaaee iiae/eiaiu ieienoa?noaai eee aioee
a iiaua ieienoa?noaa, eae eo aeaia?oaiaiou. Aeaaiui ioee/eai iiauo
i?aaiia oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey auea eo aaeeiiee/iay aeanoue: eaaeaeia
aaaeiinoai oi?aaeyeinue ieieno?ii aianoi i?aaeiaai eieeaaeaeueiiai
i?enoonoaey, eaaeaeue ieieno? aue iiaeio/aoai Naiaoo. Oaeiaa auea ia?aay
iiiuoea ia?ano?ieee oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, i?aaei?eiyoie iiaui
eiia?aoi?ii. Yoa ia?a, eiia/ii, oe?aieea oeaio?aeueiia oi?aaeaiea. Ii
?aoeoaeueiie iiaaaeu ai?ueaa n aacioaaonoaaiiinoueth, eaciie?aaenoaii e
acyoi/ie/anoaii aeinoeaiooi ia auei. A iiauo ieienoa?noaao iinaeeeenue
noa?ua ii?iee.

Ii yoiio iiaiaeo eioa?anioth iuneue auneacae I.I. Ea?aicei: «…Aeaeaeeiue
ethaiaueth ei anaiauaio aeaao, Aeaenaiae? oioae eo/oaai, niaaoiaaeny e
o/?aaeee ieienoa?noaa «…» I?aaeaea anaai caiaoei eceeoithth iiniaoiinoue
a nai o/?aaeaeaiee: ieienoa?noaa onoaiiaeaiu e i?eaaaeaiu a aeaenoaea, a
ia auei aua iaeaca ieieno?ai, oi anoue aa?iiai yniiai ?oeiaiaenoaa a
eniieiaiee aaaeiuo ec iaycaiiinoae! Oaia?ue ni?inei i iieueca.
Ieienoa?neea ath?i caiyee ianoi eieeaaee. Aaea o?oaeeeenue /eiiaieee,
i?aceaeaio e ianeieueei canaaeaoaeae, eiay aeieaia?aiaiiue iaaue e
no?iaoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaothuaai ianoa, – oai oaeaeaee iu
iaeiaaaeiuo /eiiaieeia, aee?aeoi?ia, yeniaaeeoi?ia, noieiia/aeueieeia,
eioi?ua iiae caueoie ieienoa?noaa aeaenoaotho aac anyeiai iianaiey…» [2]

Eciaiaiey a nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ia iiaee ia io?aceony
ia iieiaeaiee i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, eioi?ay ai iiiaii auea /anoueth
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. Aunoaa oea?eiaiia i?aaeoaeuenoai – Neiiae –
ii naiaio ono?ienoao auei iiaeiaeai iao?ianeeo eieeaaee: iineieueeo ai
anao io?aneyo ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie ooaa?aeeeinue aaeeiicia/ea,
i?eoaaeoaa ia niaio eieeaaeaeueiinoe, oi iiaeiaiua i?ioeannu ia iiaee ia
cao?iiooue e noa?o oea?eiaiiai oi?aaeaiey. Caeanue aaeeiiaeanoiui
ia/aeueieeii noaiiaeony ainoaea?noaaiiue /eiiaiee – iaa?-i?ieo?i?,
eioi?ue a XVIII aaea eeoue iaaethaeae ca aeaenoaeyie e caeiiiinoueth
?aoaiee Neiiaea.

Iaeiia?aiaiii auea inouanoaeaia ?aoi?ia Naiaoa, eioi?ue a oeaca io 8
naioya?y 1802 aiaea ii?aaeaeyeny eae «aa?oiaiia ianoi eiia?ee»,
«o?aieoaeue caeiiia», /uey aeanoue «ia?aie/eaaaony aaeeiith aeanoeth
eiia?aoi?neiai aaee/anoaa». Anai ieieno?ai i?aaeienuaaeinue iiaeaaaoue a
Naiao aaeaaiaeiua io/aou. Oeac aeaaae Naiaoo i?aai noaaeoue aii?in i
ia?aniio?a caeiiia, anee iie ia niioaaonoaiaaee aeaenoaothuei. Ii anei?a
Naiao oaeoe/anee aue iecaaaeai aei i?aaeiaai iieiaeaiey.

1.4 E?anoueyineee aii?in e ae?oaea ?aoi?iu

E?anoueyineee aii?in yaeyeny aaaeiaeoei aii?inii aioo?aiiae iieeoeee
naiiaea?aeaaey. Aeaenaiae? 1 i?eieiae ia?u e iaeaa/aieth iieiaeaiey
e?anoueyi, ii oaae a aai ?aoaiee yoie i?iaeaiu auee e?aeia inoi?iaeiuie.
Eiia?aoi? e /eaiu Iaaeaniiai eiieoaoa aeaeaee a e?aiinoiuo ioiioaieyo
enoi/iee nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe, auee oaaaeaeaiu a i?aeiouanoaao
aieueiiai o?oaea ia?aae e?aiinoiui e aini?eieiaee aeanoue iiiaueea iaae
e?anoueyiaie eae i?aanoaaiiue iici? aeey ?innee. Oai ia iaiaa, iie
n/eoaee iaaiciiaeiui i?eiyoea ?aaeeeaeueiuo ia? e i?eaea?aeeaaeenue
i?eioeeia iinoaiaiiinoe. 12 aeaeaa?y 1801 aiaea aue ecaeai oeac,
i?aaeinoaaeoue i?aai aeaaeaoue caieae eoioeai, iauaiai e eacaiiui
e?anoueyiai, eioi?ua ioiuia iiaee iieoiaoue iaianaeaiiua caiee. Oaea a
ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae? 1 i?ae?aoee ?acaea/o ainoaea?noaaiiuo
e?anoueyi a /anoiua ?oee. Caeii 12 aeaeaa?y ?ac?ooee aaeiaoth
caieaaeaaeaeue/aneoth iiiiiieeth aeai?yinoaa, eioi?ia aei yoiai iaeii
iieueciaaeinue i?aaii i?eia?aoaoue caieth a ee/ioth nianoaaiiinoue.
Iaiae?aiiua yoei ia?aui ia/eiaieai, iaeioi?ua naiaiaeiiuneyuea iiiaueee
aicuiaee aeaeaiea, anooiay a niaeaoaiea ni naieie e?aiinoiuie
e?anoueyiaie, inaiaiaeaeaoue eo ia aieth oeaeuie naeaieyie. Iaaei
neacaoue, /oi aei yoiai iiiaioa ia nouanoaiaaei caeiia i oaeii ianniaii
inaiaiaeaeaiee e?anoueyi. Oae, ai?iiaaeneee iiiauee Iao?iai-nieiaiai
caeeth/ee naeaeeo n 5001 aeooie naieo e?anoueyi, i?aaeinoaaea ei a
nianoaaiiinoue caiee, eioi?ua iie ia?aaaouaaee, n oneiaeai auieaoeoue
aio a 19 eao 1 1/2 iei. ?oaeae. Nui aeaoa?eieineiai oaeueaeia?oaea, a?ao
Na?aae ?oiyioeaa, caaeoiae ioionoeoue ia aieth 199 aeoo naieo e?anoueyi
n caieae ii aeia?iaieueiiio niaeaoaieth n ieie, ii i?e yoii ii
i?aaenoaaee i?aaeoaeuenoao i?iaeo iauaai caeiia i naeaeeao iiiaueeia n
e?aiinoiuie e?anoueyiaie. I?aaeoaeuenoai i?eiyei yoio i?iaeo, e 20
oaa?aey 1803 aiaea ecaeai aue oeac i naiaiaeiuo oeaaiiaooeao: iiiaueee
iiaee anooiaoue a niaeaoaiea ni naieie e?anoueyiaie, inaiaiaeaeay eo
iai?aiaiii n caieae oeaeuie naeaieyie eee ioaeaeueiuie naiueyie. Yoe
inaiaiaeaeaiiua e?anoueyia, ia caienuaaynue a ae?oaea ninoiyiey,
ia?aciaaee iniaue eeann «naiaiaeiuo oeaaiiaooeaa». Caeii 20 oaa?aey aue
ia?aui ?aoeoaeueiui au?aaeaieai i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai iaia?aiey ioiaieoue
e?aiinoiia i?aai.

Ii, oai ia iaiaa, yoio oeac eiae a aieueoae noaiaie eaeaieiae/aneia, /ai
i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea: ca aanue ia?eiae oea?noaiaaiey Aeaenaiae?a a
?ac?yae «aieueiuo oeaaiiaooeaa» ia?aoei iaiaa 1,5% e?aiinoiuo. Oi anoue
auei inaiaiaeaeaii anaai 47 ouny/ aeoo ioaeneiai iiea. Ii eaeae,
caeiaeaiiua a oeaca 1803 aiaea, aiineaaenoaee eaaee a iniiaaiea ?aoi?iu
1861 aiaea.

A Iaaeaniii eiieoaoa auei auneacaii i?aaeeiaeaiea i cai?auaiee
i?iaeaaaoue e?aiinoiuo aac caiee. Oi?aiaey ethaeueie a oi a?aiy
inouanoaeyeanue a ?innee a iai?ee?uouo, oeeie/iuo oi?iao. Iauyaeaiey i
i?iaeaaea e?aiinoiuo ia/aoaeenue a aacaoao. Ia Iaea?ueaaneie y?ia?ea eo
i?iaeaaaee ia?yaeo n i?i/ei oiaa?ii, ?aceo/ay naiuee. Eiiaaea ?onneee
e?anoueyiei, eoieaiiue ia y?ia?ea, ioi?aaeyeny a aeaeaeea ainoi/iua
no?aiu, aaea aei eiioea naieo aeiae aeee ia iieiaeaiee
?aaa-/oaeano?aioea. Aeaenaiae? 1 oioae i?ana/ue iiaeiaiua iinouaeiua
yaeaiey, ii i?aaeeiaeaiea i cai?auaiee i?iaeaaaoue e?anoueyi aac caiee
iaoieeioeinue ia oii?iia nii?ioeaeaiea aunoeo naiiaieeia. Iie n/eoaee,
/oi yoi iiae?uaaao e?aiinoiia i?aai. Ia i?iyaea ianoie/eainoe, iieiaeie
eiia?aoi? ionooiee. Auei cai?auaii oieueei ioaeeeiaaoue iauyaeaiey i
i?iaeaaea ethaeae a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ecaeaieyo.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n auoaoeacaiiuie ?aoi?iaie cao?iioou auee e iauanoaaiiua
ioiioaiey. Caeanue oaeaea cayaeaii auei iai?aaeaiea, a eaeii
i?aaeiieaaaeinue aeaenoaiaaoue: iai?aaeaiea yoi ninoiyei a o?aaiaiee
anao iauanoaaiiuo ninoiyiee ia?aae caeiiii. A /enea ia?auo ia? iiaiai
eiia?aoi?a auei ainnoaiiaeaiea aeaeiaaiiuo nineiaiuo a?aiio, ioiaiaiiuo,
eae iu aeaeaee, i?aaeiei eiia?aoi?ii a eo aeaaiuo /anoyo. Ii a
iaioeoeeaeueiii eiieoaoa eiia?aoi? i?eciaaaeny, /oi ii i?ioea aiee
ainnoaiiaee aeaeiaaiioth a?aiioo aeai?yinoao, iioiio /oi
eneeth/eoaeueiinoue aea?iaaiiuo ath nineiaiuo i?aa auea aio anaaaea
i?ioeaia.

Iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue ?aoi?iu Aeaenaiae?a 1 a iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey.
?aoi?iaoeeae a yoie iaeanoe, a oaeaea a iaeanoe ia/aoe auei i?ecaaii
?oeiaiaeeoue o/?aaeaeaiiia a 1803 aiaeo Ieienoa?noaa ia?iaeiiai
i?inaauaiey. A yoii aea aiaeo aue ooaa?aeaeaii iiaia iieiaeaiea ia
ono?ienoaa o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. A iniiao nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey auee
iieiaeaiu i?eioeeiu aannineiaiinoe o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, ca eneeth/aieai
aiaiiuo, oaeaea aanieaoiinoue ia?aciaaiey ia iecoeo nooiaiyo, iii
iiea/eaaeinue ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Aaiaeeeanue
i?aainoaaiiinoue o/aaiuo i?ia?aii iaaeaeo oeieaie ?acee/iuo nooiaiae –
i?eoiaeneeie, oacaeiuie o/eeeuaie, aeiiaceyie, oieaa?neoaoaie. Iiieii
nouanoaiaaaoaai n 1755 aiaea Iineianeiai oieaa?neoaoa a 1802-1804 aa.
auee ioe?uou Aea?ioneee, Aeeaineee, Oa?ueeianeee, Eacaineee
oieaa?neoaou. A 1804 aiaeo a Iaoa?ao?aa iniiaai Aeaaiue iaaeaaiae/aneee
einoeooo, i?aia?aciaaiiue a 1819 aiaeo a oieaa?neoao. Ioeoeeaeueiia
ioe?uoea oieaa?neoaoa ninoiyeinue a 1820 aiaeo. Ii ?acianoeeny a auaoai
caeaiee Aeaaiaaeoeaoe eieeaaee, iino?iaiiii ia Aaneeueaaneii ino?iaa aua
i?e Iao?a I.

Ii Onoaao ana oieaa?neoaou iieo/eee cia/eoaeueioth aaoiiiieth: i?aai
auae?aoue ?aeoi?a e i?ioanni?ia, nianoaaiiue noae, iaaiaoaoaeuenoai
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aeanoae e iieeoeee a aeaea oieaa?neoaoa e
aiciiaeiinoue naiinoiyoaeueii ?aoaoue naie oicyenoaaiiua aii?inu. A oii
aea 1804 aiaeo aue ecaeai aeinoaoi/ii eeaa?aeueiue ii oa?aeoa?o «Onoaa i
oeaico?a». Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oaia?ue a o/aaiua caaaaeaiey iiaee
auoue i?eiyou i?aaenoaaeoaee anao nineiaee.

«… ana iaia?aiey Aeaenaiae?a eeiiyony e iauaio aeaao. Aiooaynue
aanniuneaiiui i?aaeeii oaea?aeaoue oiu a iaaaaeanoaa, /oiau aeanoaiaaoue
oai niieieiaa, ii oiio?aaee ieeeeiiu aeey iniiaaiey oieaa?neoaoia,
aeiiacee, oeie… E niaeaeaieth, aeaeei aieaa oauoea aeey eaciu, iaaeaee
auaiae aeey Ioa/anoaa…»[3]

Oaeiau auee ia?aua iiuou ia?ano?ieee oi?aaeaiey e iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, iie ninoaaeytho ia?aoth yiioo i?aia?aciaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe Aeaenaiae?a. Iiuou yoe iaaeinoaoi/ii iaaeoiuaaeenue e
no?aaeaee aaaeiuie iaaeinoaoeaie: ia anaaaea ?aoaiey e oeacu auee
niaeaniaaiu iaeei n ae?oaei, aaeenue /?acau/aeii oi?iieeai. Oae, iiaua
oeaio?aeueiua aaaeiinoaa, ieienoa?noaa, yaeeenue aaeeiiee/iuie
o/?aaeaeaieyie, a ?oeiaiaeeiua eie aoaa?ineea o/?aaeaeaiey nio?aieee
i?aaeiee eieeaaeaeueiue no?ie. Caoai iineaaeiaaee ecaanoiua aiaoiea
niauoey, ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy ioaeaeoea eiia?aoi?a io aioo?aiieo ?aaio.
Yoi auei o/anoea a aeaoo eiaeeoeeyo i?ioea O?aioeee – a 1805 a. a nithca
n Aano?eae, a 1806 – 1807 aa. – a nithca n I?onneae. Ai a?aiy yoeo aiei
?anno?ieeny eioeiiue e?oaeie ia?auo niaaoieeia eiia?aoi?a. Iioiaeu e
iaoaea/e ioeaaeeee ia?aiia/aeueiia eeaa?aeueii-eaeeeee/aneia iano?iaiea
Aeaenaiae?a. Nia?aiiua ei iaaethaeaiey, iinaeeee a iai iaaeiaieuenoai e
ie?oaeathuei. *eaiu iaioeoeeaeueiiai eiieoaoa iaeei ca ae?oaei
oaeaeeeenue io eiia?aoi?a, canaaeaiey i?iaiaeeeenue ana ?aaea.
O?aaiaaeny i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue iiaeoiae e ?aoaieth caaea/. Aeey
i?iaeieaeaiey i?aia?aciaaiee Aeaenaiae?o 1 ioaeiu auee iiaua ethaee, ia
noieue oanii naycaiiua n aa?oooeie ?inneeneie ciaoe i?aaeaiiua aio
ee/ii. Yoi ianoi caiye /aeiaae, eioi?ue noae aaeeinoaaiiui aeiaa?aiiui
nio?oaeieeii eiia?aoi?a. Ei aue Ieoaee Ieoaeeiae/ Nia?aineee.

2. Aeayoaeueiinoue I.I. Nia?aineiai

2.1 E?aoeay aeia?aoey I.I. Nia?aineiai

Ieoaee Ieoaeeiae/ Nia?aineee ?iaeeeny a yiaa?a 1772 a. a naiuea
naeueneiai nayuaiieea naea *a?eooeia Aeaaeeie?neie aoaa?iee. Ioaoe
ii?aaeaeee aai a Nocaeaeueneoth aeooiaioth naieia?eth. A yiaa?a 1790 a.
ii aue ioi?aaeai a Iaoa?ao?a a iaaeaaii iniiaaiioth Ia?aoth aeooiaioth
naieia?eth. Iinea ieii/aiey a 1792 a. naieia?ee Nia?aineee aue inoaaeai
i?aiiaeaaaoaeai iaoaiaoeee, oeceee e e?anii?a/ey, o?aioeocneiai ycuea.
Ana i?aaeiaou Nia?aineee i?aiiaeaaae n aieueoei oniaoii. N 1795 a. ii
noae oaeaea /eoaoue eaeoeee ii oeeinioee e iieo/ee aeieaeiinoue
“i?aoaeoa naieia?ee”. AEaaeaea ciaiey canoaaeea aai ia?aeoe ia
a?aaeaeaineoth neoaeao. Ii aeoiae aoaoue ca a?aieoeo e aeiaa?oeoue naia
ia?aciaaiea a iaiaoeeeo oieaa?neoaoao.

Iaoa?ao?aneee ieo?iiieeo Aaa?eee ?aeiiaiaeiaae aai a ea/anoaa ee/iiai
nae?aoa?y eiycth Eo?aeeio. A 1796 a. iacia/aiiue ia aeieaeiinoue
aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a Eo?aeei acye Nia?aineiai ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao
e ii?o/ee aio caaaaeiaaoue naiae eaioeaey?eae. Nia?aineee i?eian a
?onneoth iaii?yoioth eaioeaey?eth XVIII a. iaiaueiiaaiii aui?aaeaiiue
oi, niiniaiue aaneiia/ii ?aaioaoue e ioee/iia oiaiea aiai?eoue e
ienaoue. Ii anaio yoiio, ?acoiaaony, ii aue ianoiyuae iaoiaeeie aeey
eaioeaey?neiai ie?a. Yoei iiaeaioiaeeanue aai iaiaueiiaaiii auno?ay
neoaeaaiay ea?uea?a. Oaea i?e Iaaea ii iieo/ee ecaanoiinoue a
iaoa?ao?aneii /eiiaiii ie?a. A yiaa?a 1797 a. Nia?aineee iieo/ee /ei
oeooey?iiai niaaoieea, a ai?aea oiai aea aiaea – eieeaaeneiai ananni?a
(yoio /ei aeaaae ee/iia aeai?yinoai), a yiaa?a 1798 a. – iaaeai?iiai
niaaoieea, a a naioya?a 1799 a. – eieeaaeneiai niaaoieea.

A iiya?a 1798 a. ii aeaieeny ia aiaee/aiea Aeecaaaoa Noeaain. Aai
n/anoeeaay aeeciue auea iaaeieaie – a naioya?a 1799 a., anei?a iinea
?iaeaeaiey aei/a?e, aai aeaia oia?ea.

Nia?aineee ioee/aeny oe?ioie e?oaici?a e no?iaie nenoaiiinoueth
iuoeaiey. Ii oa?aeoa?o naiaai ia?aciaaiey ii aue eaeaieia, eae oiaaea
aiai?eee, eee oai?aoee, eae iacaaee au aai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy. Oi aai
au?in a oii?iie ?aaioa iaae ioaea/aiiuie iiiyoeyie e i?eaue n
i?aiaa?aaeaieai ioiineoueny e i?inoui aeeoaeneei yaeaieyi. Nia?aineee
eiae iaiaueiiaaiii e?aieee oi, eaeeo anaaaea auaaao iaei, a a oio
oeeinioneee aae auei iaiueoa, /ai eiaaea-eeai. Oii?iay ?aaioa iaae
ioaea/aiiinoyie i?eaeaea iaiaueiiaaiioth yia?aeth e aeaeinoue iuoeaieth
Nia?aineiai. Aio eaaei aeaaaeenue naiua o?oaeiua e i?e/oaeeeaua
eiiaeiaoeee eaeae. Aeaaiaea?y oaeiio iuoeaieth Nia?aineee noae
aiieiuaiiie nenoaiie, ii eiaiii yoi oneeaiiia ?acaeoea ioaea/aiiiai
iuoeaiey ninoaaeyei aaaeiue iaaeinoaoie a aai i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiui e oii?iui o?oaeii Nia?aineee
caaioiaee naaa iaoe?iue caian ?aciiia?aciuo ciaiee e eaeae. A yoii
caiana auei iiiai ?ineioe, oaeiaeaoai?yaoae ecuneaiiui o?aaiaaieyi
oinoaaiiiai eiioi?oa, auei, iiaeao auoue, aeaaea iiiai eeoiaai e neeoeii
iaei oiai, /oi auei ioaeii aeey ieciaiiuo ioaeae /aeiaaea, aeey
iiieiaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. A yoii ii iioiaeee ia Aeaenaiae?a, e ia
yoii iie nioeenue ae?oa n ae?oaii. Ii Nia?aineee ioee/aeny io ainoaea?y
oai, /oi o ia?aiai any oinoaaiiay ?ineioue auea i?ea?aia e no?ieii
?annoaaeaia ii ianoai. Naiue caiooaiiue aii?in a aai eceiaeaiee
i?eia?aoae oii?yaei/aiioth no?ieiinoue.

2.2 Aceao Nia?aineiai ia/aeny a oea?noaiaaiea Aeaenaiae?a I a ia?oa 1801
a.

Ii aioea?aiee Aeaenaiae?a ii aue ia?aaaaeai a iiaiia?aciaaiiue
Iai?aiaiiue niaao, aaea aio ii?o/aii auei oi?aaeyoue yeniaaeeoeeae
a?aaeaeaineeo e aeooiaiuo aeae. Nia?aineee aue iacia/ai ia iino
noaon-nae?aoa?y i?e ainoaea?noaaiiii nae?aoa?a O?iueineii, a a ethea
oiai aea aiaea iieo/ee /ei aeaenoaeoaeueiiai noaoneiai niaaoieea,
aeaaaaoee i?aai ia iioiinoaaiiia aeai?yinoai. A 1802 a. ii aue
ia?aaaaeai ia neoaeao a Ieienoa?noai aioo?aiieo aeae e iacia/ai
aee?aeoi?ii aoi?iai aeaia?oaiaioa ieienoa?noaa, a aaaeaiee eioi?iai
iaoiaeeeenue “iieeoeey e aeaaininoiyiea eiia?ee”. Ana aaaeiaeoea i?iaeou
caeiiia, ecaeaiiuo n 1802 a., auee ?aaeaeoe?iaaiu Nia?aineei eae
oi?aaeythuei aeaia?oaiaioii ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae. A 1803 aiaeo
ii ii?o/aieth eiia?aoi?a Nia?aineee ninoaaee «Caieneo ia ono?ienoaa
noaeaaiuo e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee a ?innee», a eioi?ie i?iyaee
naay eae noi?iiiee iinoaiaiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey naiiaea?aeaaey a
eiinoeoooeeiiioth iiia?oeth ia iniiaa i?iaeoiaiiiai ieaia. A 1806 aiaeo,
eiaaea ia?aua nio?oaeieee eiia?aoi?a oaeaeyeenue io eiia?aoi?a iaeei ca
ae?oaei, ieieno? aioo?aiieo aeae Ei/oaae ai a?aiy naiae aieacie iineae
aianoi naay Nia?aineiai n aeieeaaeii e Aeaenaiae?o. Ano?a/a n iei
i?iecaaea ia Aeaenaiae?a aieueoia aia/aoeaiea. Eiia?aoi?, oaea ciaaoee
eiaeiai e ?anoi?iiiiai noaon-nae?aoa?y, aue ecoieai eneonnoaii, n eaeei
aue ninoaaeai e i?i/eoai aeieeaae. Nia/aea ii i?eaeecee e naaa
Nia?aineiai eae “aeaeiaiai nae?aoa?y”, a caoai eae aeeaeaeoaai
iiiiuieea: noae aeaaaoue aio ee/iua ii?o/aiey e a?aoue n niaie a /anoiua
iiacaeee.

A naioya?a 1808 a. Aeaenaiae? acye Nia?aineiai ia ano?a/o a Y?oo?oa n
Iaiieaiiii. O?aioeocneee eiia?aoi? auno?i ioeaiee ne?iiiiai
noaon-nae?aoa?y, aiaoia ie/ai ia auaeaeyaoaainy a ?onneie aeaeaaaoeee.
«Ia oaiaeii ee aai aoaeao, ainoaea?ue, – a oooeo ni?inee ii Aeaenaiae?a,
– i?iiaiyoue yoiai /aeiaaea ia eaeia-ieaoaeue ei?ieaanoai?» Ii
aica?auaiee a ?inneth Nia?aineee naeaeaeny iaeaieaa aeeceei e
Aeaenaiae?o eeoeii. E?iia aiaiiuo e aeeieiiaoe/aneeo noa? a iiea c?aiey
Nia?aineiai ia?aoee ana noi?iiu iieeoeee e oi?aaeaiey ?inneae, a a
eiioea 1808 a. Aeaenaiae? ii?o/ee Nia?aineiio ninoaaeaiea Ieaia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey ?innee. Oiaaea aea ii aue iacia/ai
oiaa?euai ieieno?a thnoeoeee.

2.3 Ieai i?aia?aciaaiee I.I. Nia?aineiai

2.3.1 «Aaaaeaiea e oeiaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiiia»

Aiaeu 1807-1812, ninoaaeythuea aoi?ie ia?eiae oea?noaiaaiey eiia?aoi?a
Aeaenaiae?a, oa?aeoa?ecothony aioo?e ainoaea?noaa aeeyieai Nia?aineiai,
a aia – nithcii n Iaiieaiiii.

Aiaoiaiieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea auioaeeea eiia?aoi?a ioaea/ueny io
i?aia?aciaaoaeueiuo ?aaio ?aci?eoaeueiua aieiu 1805-1807 aa. iiaei?aaee
i?anoeae Aeaenaiae?a 1, a oieceoaeueiue e iaauaiaeiue aeey ?innee
Oeeueceoneee ie?iue aeiaiai? n O?aioeeae (1807) aucaae e?aeiaa
iaaeiaieuenoai ia oieueei aeai?yineea o?iiaeu, ii e eoia/anoaa. E 1809
aiaeo iaaeiaieuenoai i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?eia?aei oaeie ?aciao, /oi
Aeaenaiae? 1 n/ae iaiaoiaeeiui ianeieueei nei??aeoe?iaaoue naie
iieeoe/aneee eo?n e ia/aoue iiaue yoai ?aoi?i.

E eiioeo 1809 aiaea Nia?aineee ii ii?o/aieth eiia?aoi?a, n aai aaaeiia e
iaeia?aiey iiaeaioiaee ieai ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaiee. Aeey ?aaiou
iaae i?iaeoii Aeaenaiae? I ia?aaeae Nia?aineiio ana iaoa?eaeu Iaaeaniiai
eiieoaoa (1801-1803 aa.), i?iaeou e caienee, iinooieaoea a Eiienneth
ninoaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiiia. Nia?aineee aaeaaeiaaii ano?a/aeny
n eiia?aoi?ii e ianoaeaeae eaaeaeue ia?aa?ao ieaia. Ieai ?aoi?i aue
i?aaenoaaeai a aeaea aieueoiai aeieoiaioa, iineaoaai iacaaiea «Aaaaeaiea
e oeiaeaieth ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiiia». I?iaeo aue aioia e i?aaenoaaeai
Aeaenaiae?o I a ieoya?a 1809 a. Eiia?aoi? i?eciae aai
“oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui e iieaciui”. Nia?aineee aeaaea ninoaaee
eaeaiaea?iue ieai i?iaaaeaiey aai a aeeciue (a oa/aiea 1810-1811 aa.)

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aia?aciaaiee Nia?aineee iainiiauaae iio?aaiinoueth
?ac?aoeoue i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo o?iaiai nioeeaeueiiai e yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey ?innee e onoa?aaoae naiiaea?aeaaiie oi?iie i?aaeaiey.
Iaiaoiaeeii iaea/ue naiiaea?aeaaea eiinoeoooeeae, inouanoaeoue i?eioeei
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae ia caeiiiaeaoaeueioth, eniieieoaeueioth e noaeaaioth
e i?enooieoue e iiyoaiiie ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa. Enoiaey e oiai, /oi
?inney eaeao ii oiio aea iooe, /oi e Caiaaeiay Aa?iia, Nia?aineee
oaeoe/anee i?aaeeaaae ?aoi?ie?iaaoue ?inneeneoth ainoaea?noaaiiinoue ia
aa?iiaeneeo ia/aeao.

2.3.2 Nineiaey ii ieaio I.I. Nia?aineiai

Nia?aineee ?an/eaiye iauanoai ia iniiaaiee ?acee/ey i?aa. «Ec iaic?aiey
i?aa a?aaeaeaineeo e iieeoe/aneeo ioe?uaaaony, /oi ana iie a
?annoaeaeaiee i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eo ia o?e eeanna iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeaiu:

1) i?aaa a?aaeaeaineea iauey, anai iiaeaeaiiui i?eiaaeeaaeauey;

2) i?aaa a?aaeaeaineea /anoiuy, eie aeieaeiu i?eiaaeeaaeaoue oai
oieueei, eie ia?acii aeecie e ainieoaiey e iei aoaeoo i?eoaioiaeaiu;

3) i?aaa iieeoe/aneea, i?eiaaeeaaeauey oai, eie eiatho nianoaaiiinoue.
Ec naai i?ienoiaeeo neaaeothuea ?acaeaeaiea ninoiyiee:

1) aeai?yinoai;

2) ethaee n?aaeiyai ninoiyiey;

3) ia?iae ?aai/ee».[4]

Aeai?yinoao Nia?aineee i?enaaeaaao ana eaoaai?ee i?aa, i?e/ai i?aaa
iieeoe/aneea «ia eia/a eae ia iniiaaiee nianoaaiiinoe». Ethaee n?aaeiaai
ninoiyiey (eoioeu, iauaia, ainoaea?noaaiiua e?anoueyia) eiatho i?aaa
a?aaeaeaineea iauea, ii ia eiatho iniaaiiuo, a iieeoe/aneea eiatho «ii
eo nianoaaiiinoe». Ia?iae ?aai/ee (e?aiinoiua e?anoueyia, ianoa?iaua,
i?eneoaa) eiaao iauea i?aaa a?aaeaeaineea, ii ia eiaao i?aa
iieeoe/aneeo. Anee aniiiieoue, /oi Nia?aineee eiae a aeaeo iiae iaueie
a?aaeaeaineeie i?aaaie a?aaeaeaineoth naiaiaeo ee/iinoe, a iiae
iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie – o/anoea a ainoaea?noaaiiii oi?aaeaiee, oi iiaeii
iiiyoue, /oi i?iaeo Nia?aineiai ioaa/ae naiui eeaa?aeueiui no?aieaieyi
Aeaenaiae?a: ii io?eoeae e?aiinoiia i?aai e oae e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoao.
Ii aianoa n oai, ?enoy aeaa «nenoaiu» ei?aiiuo caeiiia, Nia?aineee
ecia?aaeae iaeio ec ieo eae oie/oiaeathuoth naiiaea?aeaaioth aeanoue a
aa nouanoaa, a ae?oaoth – eae iaeaeathuoth aeanoue naiiaea?aeaaioth
aiaoieie oi?iaie caeiia n nio?aiaieai aa nouanoaa e neeu. Oeacuaay, /oi
aoi?ay nenoaia nouanoaoao ai O?aioeee (eioi?ie oiaaea oaeaeaeny
Aeaenaiae?), Nia?aineee eae au niaeaciye Aeaenaiae?a neaaeiaaoue eiaiii
yoie nenoaia, oae eae i?e iae caeiiii nicaeaiiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ia
aeaea iaoiaeeeinue au «iiae aeeyieai e a niaa?oaiiie caaeneiinoe io
aeanoe naiiaea?aeaaiie». N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a noa?a «iniaaiiuo»
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo iaeiiio aeai?yinoao, Nia?aineee
nio?aiye «i?aai i?eia?aoaoue iaaeaeaeeiith nianoaaiiinoue ianaeaiioth,
ii oi?aaeyoue ath ia eia/a, eae ii caeiio». Yoe iaiai?ee niiauaee
aoaeouaio no?ith aeaeinoue e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue, eioi?uie iiaeii auea
iieueciaaoueny a ethaoth noi?iio. Onoaiaaeeaay «a?aaeaeaineoth naiaiaeo»
aeey e?anoueyi iiiaue/ueeo, Nia?aineee iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaeieaeaao eo
iacuaaoue «e?aiinoiuie ethaeueie». Aiai?y i «ia?iaeiii i?aaenoaaeaiee»,
Nia?aineee e i?e iai aioia ii?aaeaeyoue nouanoai aa?oiaiie aeanoe eae
enoeiiia naiiaea?aeaaea. I/aaeaeii, /oi i/aiue eeaa?aeueiue ii
i?eioeeiai i?iaeo Nia?aineiai iia auoue i/aiue oia?ai e inoi?iaeai a
naiai eniieiaiee.

2.3.3 Ainoaea?noaaiiia ono?ienoai ii ieaio I.I Nia?aineiai

Ii i?iaeoo Nia?aineiai i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae aeieaeai aue noaoue
iniiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa ?innee. I?e yoii au ana aeanoe
niaaeeiyeenue a ?oeao eiia?aoi?a. I?aaeiieaaaeinue nicaeaoue
Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio a ea/anoaa caeiiiniaauaoaeueiiai i?aaia.
Eniieieoaeueioth aeanoue nin?aaeioi/eoue a ieienoa?noaao, a aunoei
i?aaiii noaeaaiie aeanoe naeaeaoue Naiao. Ec ieaia Nia?aineiai auee
?aaeeciaaiu oa aai /anoe, eioi?ua eanaeenue aaaaeaiey Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
niaaoa e caaa?oaiey ieienoa?neie ?aoi?iu.

Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyeenue Nia?aineiio a oaeii
aeaea: ?inney aeaeeony ia aoaa?iee (e iaeanoe ia ie?aeiao), aoaa?iee –
ia ie?oaa, ie?oaa – ia aieinoe. A ii?yaeea caeiiiaeaoaeueiii a aieinoe
ninoaaeyaony ec anao caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa aieinoiay aeoia, ecae?athuay
/eaiia ianoiie aaeieieno?aoeee e aeaiooaoia a ie?oaeioth aeoio; a ie?oaa
oaeay aea ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ie?oaeiie aeoia, ninoiyuae ec aeaiooaoia
aeoi aieinoiuo, a a aoaa?iee – aoaa?ineie aeoia, ninoiyuae ec aeaiooaoia
aeoi ie?oaeiuo. Aoaa?ineea aeoiu iinueatho naieo aeaiooaoia a
Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio, ninoaaeythuoth caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nineiaea
eiia?ee. A ii?yaeea noaeiii aeaenoaotho noaeu aieinoiua, ie?oaeiua e
aoaa?ineea iiae aa?oiaainoaii Naiaoa, eioi?ue “anoue aa?oiaiia noaeeeeua
aeey anae eiia?ee”. A ii?yaeea eniieieoaeueiii aeaenoaotho oi?aaeaiey
aieinoiua, ie?oaeiua e aoaa?ineea iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ieienoa?noa. Ana
io?anee oi?aaeaiey niaaeeiythony Ainoaea?noaaiiui niaaoii, eioi?ue
neoaeeo iin?aaenoaothuei caaiii iaaeaeo aea?aeaaiie aeanoueth e i?aaiaie
oi?aaeaiey e ninoaaeyaony ec inia, iacia/aaiuo ainoaea?ai.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia ia?aie/eaaea naiiaea?aeaaioth aeanoue, oae eae ie
iaeei caeii ia iia auoue ecaeai aac aa iaeia?aiey. Iia iieiinoueth
eiio?iee?iaaea aeayoaeueiinoue ieieno?ia, iiaea aeaeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiey
aa?oiaiie aeanoe i ia?ooaieyo iniiaiuo caeiiia. Ca eiia?aoi?ii
inoaaaeinue i?aai ?anionoeoue Aeoio e iacia/eoue iiaua auai?u.
Aoaa?ineea aeoiu ecae?aee aunooth noaeaaioth einoaioeeth – Naiao.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi aeoia aoaeao aeaaaoue caeeth/aiey ii
caeiiii?iaeoai, auiineiui ia aa ?anniio?aiea, e caneooeaaoue io/aou
ieieno?ia.

«Ec aeaiooaoia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo io aoaa?ineie aeoiu, ninoaaeyaony
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia nineiaea, iiae eiaiai ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia anoue ianoi ?aaiia naiaoo e ieienoa?noao.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia niae?aaony ii ei?aiiiio caeiio e aac anyeiai
nicuaa aaeaaiaeii a naioya?a ianyoea.

N?ie aeaenoaey aa ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii aeae, ee i?aaeeaaaaiuo.

Aeaenoaea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu i?anaeaaony aeaiyeei ia?acii:
ion?i/eith aai aei aoaeouaai aiaea;

2) niaa?oaiiui anao /eaiia aa oaieueiaieai.

Ion?i/ea i?iecaiaeeony aeoii aea?aeaaiie aeanoe a Ainoaea?noaaiiii
niaaoa.

Oaieueiaiea i?iecaiaeeony oaeiaui aea aeoii, ii n icia/aieai a iai aea
iiauo /eaiia, iacia/aiiuo iineaaeieie auai?aie aoaa?ineeo aeoi.

E?iia iauaai oaieueiaiey, /eaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu ia iiaoo
inoaaeoue naia ianoi, ?acaa nia?oeth eee ii?aaeaeaieai Aa?oiaiiai noaea.
A neo aeaoo iineaaeieo neo/ayo ianoa /eaiia caieiathony iaiin?aaenoaaiii
iaeiei ec eaiaeeaeaoia a nienea iineaaeiaai auai?a icia/aiiuo.

I?aaenaaeaoaeue ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu anoue eaioeea? ii naiiio naiaio
caaieth.

Iniaaiiue /eiiaiee ii?aaeaeyaony aio a iiiiuue iiae eiaiai nae?aoa?y
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu. «…»

A i?i/ai ia?ac aeaenoaey, ?annoaeaeaiea e oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoiu
ii?aaeaeythony iiae?iaii a ei?aiiuo caeiiao….»[5]

Nia?aineee iiae/a?eeaae, /oi noaeaeaiey Aeoiu aeieaeiu auoue
naiaiaeiuie, iie au?aaeaoue «iiaiea ia?iaeiia». Ecae?aoaeueiuie i?aaaie
iieueciaaeenue ana a?aaeaeaia ?innee, aeaaeathuea caieae e eaieoaeai,
aeeth/ay ainoaea?noaaiiuo e?anoueyi. Ianoa?iaua, aeiiaoiyy i?eneoaa e
e?aiinoiua e?anoueyia a auai?ao ia o/anoaiaaee. A yoii e caeeth/aeny
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue iiaeoiae Nia?aineiai: aeaenoaey aeanoae a oeaio?a
e ia ianoao ii oioae iinoaaeoue iiae eiio?ieue iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.
?aoi?iaoi? i?aaeeaaae inouanoaeoue ?aoi?io a ianeieueei yoaiia, ia
iauyaeyy n?aco i eiia/iuo oeaeyo i?aia?aciaaiee, e caaa?oeoue aa e 1811
aiaeo. Eniieiaiea i?iaeoa Nia?aineiai i?aaeiieaaaeinue ia/aoue n 1810 a.

2.4 I?aia?aciaaiea oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey ii ieaio I.I. Nia?aineiai

Inouanoaeaiiua /anoe i?aia?aciaaoaeueiiai ieaia Nia?aineiai ana
ioiinyony e oeaio?aeueiiio oi?aaeaieth, e inouanoaeaiea eo niiaueei
iineaaeiaio aieaa no?ieiue aeae. Yoi aue aoi?ie, aieaa ?aoeoaeueiue
iiaeoiae e ono?ienoao iiaiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ii?yaeea.

3 ai?aey 1809 a. ecaeai aue oeac i i?eaeai?iuo caaieyo. Caaiey eaia?aa?a
e eaia?-thiea?a ia niaaeeiyeenue n ii?aaeaeaiiuie e iinoiyiiuie
aeieaeiinoiuie iaycaiiinoyie, iaeiaei aeaaaee aaaeiua i?aeiouanoaa.
Oeacii i?aaenoaaeyeinue anai, iineaoei yoi caaiea, ii ia ninoiyaoei a
eaeie-ieaoaeue neoaeaa, aiaiiie eee a?aaeaeaineie, a aeaooiany/iue n?ie
iinooieoue ia oaeoth neoaeao, cayaea, ii eaeiio aaaeiinoao iie aeaeatho
neoaeeoue. *a?ac /aou?a ianyoea, i?e ieii/aoaeueiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee
eaia?aa?ia e eaia?-thiea?ia ii ?aciui aaaeiinoaai e aeieaeiinoyi, auei
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii: anao inoaeueiuo, ia ecuyaeaoeo aeaeaiea iinooieoue ia
neoaeao, n/eoaoue a ionoaaea. Naii caaiea ia?auaeinue ai?aaeue a i?inoia
ioee/ea, ia niaaeeiaiiia ie n eaeeie neoaeaaiuie i?aaaie.

Oeac 6 aaaonoa oiai aea aiaea onoaiiaee ii?yaeie i?iecaiaenoaa a
a?aaeaeaineea /eiu eieeaaeneiai ananni?a (8-e eeann) e noaoneiai
niaaoieea (5-e eeann). Yoe /eiu, eioi?uie a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iaoneiaeeaaeinue iacia/aiea ia aeieaeiinoe, i?eia?aoaeenue ia oieueei
caneoaie, ii e i?inoie auneoaie, o. a. onoaiiaeaiiui n?ieii neoaeau.
Iiaue oeac cai?aoee i?iecaiaeeoue a yoe /eiu neoaeaueo, eioi?ua ia eiaee
naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia ieii/aiee eo?na a iaeiii ec ?onneeo oieaa?neoaoia eee
ia auaea?aeaee a oieaa?neoaoa yecaiaia ii onoaiiaeaiiie i?ia?aiia,
eioi?ay e auea i?eeiaeaia e oeaco. Ii yoie i?ia?aiia io aeaeaaoaai
iieo/eoue /ei eieeaaeneiai ananni?a eee noaoneiai niaaoieea o?aaiaaeinue
ciaiea ?onneiai ycuea e iaeiiai ec eiino?aiiuo, ciaiea i?aa
anoanoaaiiiai, ?eineiai e a?aaeaeaineiai, ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiiee e
oaieiaiuo caeiiia, iniiaaoaeueiia ciaeiinoai n ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?eae e
yeaiaioa?iua naaaeaiey a enoi?ee anaiauae, a noaoenoeea ?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa, a aaia?aoee, aeaaea a iaoaiaoeea e oeceea.

Iaa oeaca i?iecaaee oai aieueoee ia?aiieio a i?eaeai?iii iauanoaa e
/eiiaiie n?aaea, /oi auee ecaeaiu niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiii. Iie auee
au?aaioaiu e ninoaaeaiu Nia?aineei oaeii io aunoeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
noa?. Oeacu ynii e oaa?aei au?aaeaee o?aaiaaiey, eaeei aeieaeiu
oaeiaeaoai?youe neoaeauea a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo. Caeii
o?aaiaae eniieieoaeae «iiuoii e iinoaiaiiui i?ioiaeaeaieai neoaeau
i?eoaioiaeaiiuo, ieiooiuie iiaoaeaeaieyie ia ?acaeaeaaiuo», ii
au?aaeaieth oeaca io 3 ai?aey, – «eniieieoaeae naaaeoueo, iaeaaeathueo
oaa?aeui e ioa/anoaaiiui ia?aciaaieai», o. a. ainieoaiiuo a
iaoeeiiaeueiii aeooa, aicauoathueony ia auneoaie eao, a
«aeaenoaeoaeueiuie caneoaaie e ioee/iuie iiciaieyie», aiai?eony a oeaca
io 6 aaaonoa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, o?aaiaaeenue iiaua ethaee, /oiau
aeaenoaiaaoue a aeooa oao ia/ae, eaeea noa?aeenue i?iaanoe a
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo, ioe?uouo n 1810 a.

2.5 Ainoaea?noaaiiue Niaao

Oeacii 1 yiaa?y 1810 a. aue iaia?iaeiaai iaieoano ia oi?acaeiaiee
Iai?aiaiiiai Niaaoa e nicaeaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa, e a oio aea
aeaiue ninoiyeinue aai ioe?uoea. Cia/aiea aai a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
au?aaeaii a iaieoanoa 1 yiaa?y ii?aaeaeaieai, /oi a iai «ana /anoe
oi?aaeaiey a eo aeaaiii ioiioaiee e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao niia?acothony e
/?ac iaai ainoiaeyo e aa?oiaiie aeanoe». Yoi cia/eo, /oi
Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao ianoaeaeaao ana iiae?iaiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ono?ienoaa, ianeieueei iie o?aaotho iiauo caeiiia, e naie niia?aaeaiey
i?aaenoaaeyao ia oniio?aiea aa?oiaiie aeanoe. Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao ia
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue, a oieueei aa i?oaeea, e i?eoii aaeeinoaaiiia,
eioi?ia niae?aao caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aii?inu ii anai /anoyi oi?aaeaiey,
ianoaeaeaao eo e naie caeeth/aiey aiciineo ia oniio?aiea aa?oiaiie
aeanoe. Oaeei ia?acii, aue onoaiiaeai oaa?aeue ii?yaeie
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A yoii niunea e ii?aaeaeyao cia/aiea Niaaoa
Nia?aineee a ioaaoa ainoaea?th i aeayoaeueiinoe o/?aaeaeaiey ca 1810 a.,
aiai?y, /oi Niaao «o/?aaeaeai aeey oiai, /oiau aeanoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiie,
aeioiea ?annayiiie e ?aca?inaiiie, aeaoue iiaia ia/a?oaiea iinoiyinoaa e
aaeeiiia?acey». Oaeia ia/a?oaiea, niiauaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, o?aiy
iaicia/aiiuie a caeiia /a?oaie oa?aeoa?ecoao iiaia o/?aaeaeaiea:

«…I. A ii?yaeea ainoaea?noaaiiuo onoaiiaeaiee niaao i?aaenoaaeyao
nineiaea, a eiai ana aeaenoaey ii?yaeea caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai, noaeiiai e
eniieieoaeueiiai a aeaaiuo eo ioiioaieyo niaaeeiythony e /?ac iaai
ainoiaeyo e aea?aeaaiie aeanoe e io iaa eceeaathony.

II. Iinaio ana caeiiu, onoaau e o/?aaeaeaiey a ia?auo eo ia/a?oaieyo
i?aaeeaaathony e ?anniao?eaathony a ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa e iioii
aeaenoaeai aea?aeaaiie aeanoe iinooiatho e i?aaeiacia/aiiiio ei
niaa?oaieth a ii?yaeea caeiiiaeaoaeueiii, noaeiii e eniieieoaeueiii.

III. Ieeaeie caeii, onoaa e o/?aaeaeaiea ia enoiaeeo ec niaaoa e ia
iiaeao eiaoue naiaai niaa?oaiey aac ooaa?aeaeaiey aea?aeaaiie aeanoe. …»
[6]

Yoeie /a?oaie oeacuaaaony aeaiyeia cia/aiea Niaaoa – caeiiiaeaoaeueiia e
iauaaeeieoaeueiia: ii, ai-ia?auo, ianoaeaeaao aicaoaeaeaaiua ii anai
io?aneyi oi?aaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aii?inu; ai-aoi?uo,
ooaa?aeaeaiiuie aa?oiaiie aeanoueth ?aoaieyie ii iauaaeeiyao
aeayoaeueiinoue anao yoeo io?aneae, niiauay ei iaeeiaeiaia iai?aaeaiea.
Ii oiio e ae?oaiio cia/aieth iinoaaeaiu auee ecaanoiua i?aaeaeu. A
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoao neaaeoao ?acee/aoue aeaa yeaiaioa:
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth ii?io, onoaiaaeeaathuoth ecaanoiua ioiioaiey a
ainoaea?noaa, e caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aaoi?eoao, niiauathuee yoei ii?iai
neeo caeiia. Aaoi?eoao i?eiaaeeaaeeo aa?oiaiie aeanoe, au?aaioea ii?iu –
aeaei Niaaoa. Ii, ia ?acaeaeyy caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aaoi?eoaoa, Niaao
nii?eeanaaony n iei. Oaeei nii?eeiniiaaieai neoaeao iiaiey Niaaoa –
aieueoeinoaa e iaiueoeinoaa, a oii /enea e ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia,
i?aaenoaaeyaiua ia ?anniio?aiea aa?oiaiie aeanoe. Auneacaiiua
?aciiaeaney aianoa n caeeth/aieyie, o. a. i?iaeoaie caeiiia, e
i?eieiathony aa?oiaiie aeanoueth ai aieiaiea i?e ieii/aoaeueiii ?aoaiee
aeaea. Niaao ?ac?aoaao caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aii?inu ia ii oeacaiiie
i?ia?aiia, a ii nianoaaiiiio ?acoio «iieuecoaony anath naiaiaeith
iiaiee», ii au?aaeaieth caeiia. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aai iaeuecy iacaaoue
caeiiiaeaoaeueiui o/?aaeaeaieai a oii niunea eae iiieiaaony yoi a
nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa. Eiaaea aeae?ao, i?eiyoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiui
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiui nia?aieai, ioaa?aaaony ei?iiie, ainoaea?noai inoaaony
aac caeiia aei iiaiai aicaoaeaeaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aii?ina. A ?innee
aa?oiaiay aeanoue, i?eciaaay ?aoaiea Niaaoa iaoaeiaiui, iiaea
i?aaeienaoue aio ?anniio?aoue aeaei aiiaue e au?aaioaoue iiaia ?aoaiea,
ia iiaeneacuaay aai, a ia?auay aieiaiea Niaaoa ia oiouaiiua ei
ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeaea. Iieo/aeinue, /oi caeii anoue aiey iaeiie
aa?oiaiie aeanoe, ii iaueiiaaiii aiooaaiay Niaaoii, /oi e au?aaeaeinue a
naiie oi?ioea ooaa?aeaeaaiuo eiia?aoi?ii iiaiee Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
niaaoa: «aiyaoe iiaieth Niaaoa … auoue ii naio».

Oaeei ia?acii, auea nicaeaia i?aaeiinueea aeey iaeaieaa i?aaeeueiie e
iniio?eoaeueiie au?aaioee iiauo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i. Oi/ii oae aea e
cia/aiea Niaaoa, caeiiiaeaoaeueiia e iauaaeeieoaeueiia, e ?oeiaiaenoai
anaie /anoyie oi?aaeaiey au?aaeaaony ia a iaaeci?a ca iiae?iaiinoyie
oi?aaeaiey e eniieiaieai caeiiia, /oi anoue aeaei Naiaoa, a a
niia?aaeaiee iaueo oneiaee, iaania/eaathueo i?aaeeueiia eniieiaiea
caeiiia, iioiio Ainoaea?noaaiiiio niaaoo i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?acuyniaiea
enoeiiiai niunea caeiiia, i?eiyoea iaueo ia? e eo oniaoiiio aeaenoaeth,
?ani?aaeaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia e ?anniio?aiea
io/aoia anao ieienoa?noa ii oi?aaeaieth aaa?aiiuie ei /anoyie. Ana yoe
iniaaiiinoe aeaeatho i?aaiecaoeeth Ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa naiaia?aciui
yaeaieai a ainoaea?noaaiiii i?aaa. Oaeiio cia/aieth Niaaoa niioaaonoaoao
e aeaiiia aio ono?ienoai.

A Niaaoa i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaoao nai ainoaea?ue, iacia/athuee e /eaiia
Niaaoa, /eneii eioi?uo iieiaeaii auei 35. Niaao ninoiye ec iauaai
nia?aiey e /aou?ao aeaia?oaiaioia – caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai, aeae aiaiiuo,
aeae a?aaeaeaineeo e aeooiaiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiie yeiiiiee. Aeey
aaaeaiey aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa Niaaoa i?e iai auea o/?aaeaeaia
ainoaea?noaaiiay eaioeaey?ey n iniaui ioaeaeaieai aeey eaaeaeiai
aeaia?oaiaioa. Aeaea eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey noaon-nae?aoa?ue
aeieeaaeuaae a naiai aeaia?oaiaioa, a anae eaioeaey?eae ?oeiaiaeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue nae?aoa?ue, aeieeaaeuaathuee aeaea a iauai nia?aiee e
i?aaenoaaeythuee aeo?iae Niaaoa eiia?aoi?o. Ainoaea?noaaiiui nae?aoa?ai
aue iacia/ai Nia?aineee I.I, aeaaiue i?aaiecaoi? o/?aaeaeaiey, /oi
aeaaaei i?aai ?oeiaiaeeoue anai Ainoaea?noaaiiui niaaoii.

Yoi aeaoeua I.I. Nia?aineiai i?inouanoaiaaei aei 1917 aiaea. I?ecaaiiue
ia?aiia/aeueii ?anniao?eaaoue e ooaa?aeaeaoue ieaiu aeaeueiaeoeo
i?aia?aciaaiee, Ainoaea?noaaiiue niaao oaeoe/anee nai noae i?ioeaieeii
?aoi?i, caoyaeaay eo ianoaeaeaiea. Anei?a ii ia?aeeth/eeny ia
?anniio?aiea iiiai/eneaiiuo oeiainiauo, noaeaaiuo e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
aii?inia. Cia/aiea Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Niaaoa aua aieaa nieceeinue, eiaaea
a 1816 aiaeo i?aai aeieeaaea eiia?aoi?o ii aeaeai Niaaoa auei ia?aaeaii
A.A. A?ae/aaao.

2.6 O/?aaeaeaiea ieienoa?noa

Ieienoa?noaa, a eioi?ua naioya?ueneei iaieoanoii 1802 a. auee
i?aia?aciaaiu iao?ianeea eieeaaee, ?aaioaee aanueia iai?iaeoeoeaii.
Nia?aineee iiaeaioiaee aeaa aaaeiuo aeoa, ?aoi?ie?othueo eo
aeayoaeueiinoue. A ethea 1810 a. aue iaia?iaeiaai iaieoano “I
?acaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae ii ieienoa?noaai”. A 25 ethey 1811 a.
auei ecaeaii “Iauaa o/?aaeaeaiea ieienoa?noa”. Nia?aineee iaoiaeee
aeaieiie iaaeinoaoie a yoeo ieienoa?noaao: ionoonoaea oi/iiai
ii?aaeaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ieieno?ia e iai?aaeeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
aeae iaaeaeo ieienoa?noaaie. Iie auee i?aia?aciaaiu aeaoiy aeoaie –
iaieoanoii 12 ethey 1810 a. i ?acaeaeaiee ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae ia
iniaua oi?aaeaiey e «Iauei o/?aaeaeaieai ieienoa?noa» 25 ethiy 1811 a.
Ii iiaiio ?anii?yaeeo oi?acaeiyeinue iaeii ec ainueie i?aaeieo
ieienoa?noa, ieienoa?noai eiiia?oeee. Aeaea yoiai ieienoa?noaa auee
?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo ieienoa?noaaie oeiainia e aioo?aiieo aeae. Ec
aaaeaiey aea ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae aii?inu aioo?aiiae
aaciianiinoe auee ia?aaeaiu iiaiio ieienoa?noao, ieienoa?noao iieeoeee.
E?iia oiai, o/?aaeaeaii auei ianeieueei iniauo aaaeiinoa iiae iacaaieai
«aeaaiuo oi?aaeaiee» ni cia/aieai ioaeaeueiuo ieienoa?noa: «Aeaaiia
oi?aaeaiea ?aaecee ainoaea?noaaiiuo n/aoia» (eee ainoaea?noaaiiue
eiio?ieue), «Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea aeooiaiuo aeae eiino?aiiuo eniiaaaeaiee»
e aua ?aiueoa, a 1809 a., «Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea iooae niiauaiey». Oaeei
ia?acii, ioaeaeueiuo oeaio?aeueiuo aaaeiinoa, iaaeaeo eioi?uie auee
?ani?aaeaeaiu aeaea a ii?yaeea eniieieoaeueiii, o. a. aaeieieno?aoeaiii,
yaeeinue anao iaeeiiaaeoeaoue aianoi i?aaeieo ainueie. A «Iaueo
o/?aaeaeaieyo» ii?aaeaeaiu auee ninoaa e aeaeii?iecaiaenoai ieienoa?noa,
i?aaeaeu aeanoe ieienoa?noa, eo ioaaonoaaiiinoue e ae?oaea iiae?iaiinoe
ieienoa?neiai oi?aaeaiey. Iaa aeoa, eioi?uie auee nicaeaiu ieienoa?noaa
e iniaua aeaaiua oi?aaeaiey, ii no?ieiinoe ieaia, eiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aai ?acaeoey, ii naiaia?aciinoe e oi/iinoe
eceiaeaiey aei neo ii? i?eciathony ia?acoeiauie i?iecaaaeaieyie iaoaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eioi?uie ia aac iniiaaiey ai?aeeeny nai aaoi?.

Ai aeaaa ieienoa?noaa noiyee ieieno?u e eo oiaa?eue (caianoeoaee), ei
iiae/eiyeenue aee?aeoi?a aeaia?oaiaioia, oai, a naith i/a?aaeue, –
ia/aeueieee ioaeaeaiee, ia/aeueieeai ioaeaeaiee noieiia/aeueieee.
Ieieno?u iacia/aeenue eiia?aoi?ii. Aoaa?iaoi?u, oaeaea iacia/aaiua
eiia?aoi?ii, noaee /eiiaieeaie Ieienoa?noaa aioo?aiieo aeae. Ii i?e
i?aia?aciaaiee ieienoa?noa oae e ia auee inouanoaeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey
Nia?aineiai ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe ieieno?ia.

Ii?yaeie, onoaiiaeaiiue Nia?aineei, inoaaaeny aac eciaiaiee aieioue aei
1917 aiaea, a iaeioi?ua ec o/?aaeaeaiiuo a 1811 aiaeo ieienoa?noa
aeaenoaotho e nae/an.

2.7 Iiiuoea i?aia?aciaaiey Naiaoa

Aeiaieueii aeieai ianoaeaeaeanue a Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa ?aoi?ia
Naiaoa, ii iia oae e ia auea inouanoaeaia. A iniiao ?aoi?iu aue iieiaeai
i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aaeieieno?aoeaiuo e noaeaaiuo aeae, eioi?ua
niaoeaaeenue a i?aaeiai ono?ienoaa Naiaoa. Niaeanii n yoei Naiao auei
i?aaeiieiaeaii i?aia?aciaaoue a aeaa iniauo o/?aaeaeaiey, ec eioi?uo
iaeii, iacaaiiia Naiaoii i?aaeoaeuenoaothuei e nin?aaeioi/eaaaoaa a naaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua aeaea, aeieaeii auei ninoiyoue ec ieieno?ia n eo
oiaa?euaie e ia/aeueieeaie iniauo (aeaaiuo) /anoae oi?aaeaiey, yoi
i?aaeiee eiieoao ieieno?ia. Ae?oaia, iiae iacaaieai Naiaoa noaeaaiiai,
?aniaaeaeinue ia /aou?a ianoiuo ioaeaeaiey, eioi?ua ?aciauaiu ii /aou?ai
aeaaiui noaeaaiui ie?oaai eiia?ee: a Iaoa?ao?aa, Iineaa, Eeaaa e Eacaie.
Iniaaiiinoueth yoiai noaeaaiiai Naiaoa auea aeaienoaaiiinoue aai
ninoaaa: iaeie /eaiu aai iacia/aeenue eiia?aoi?ii, ae?oaeo aeieaeii auei
ecae?aoue aeai?yinoai. Yoio i?iaeo aucaae ?aceea aic?aaeaiey a
Ainoaea?noaaiiii niaaoa. Aieueoa anaai iaiaaeaee ia i?aai auai?a
aeai?yinoaii /eaiia Naiaoa, aeaey a yoii ia?aie/aiea naiiaea?aeaaiie
aeanoe. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?e iiaea/a aieinia aieueoay /anoue /eaiia
Niaaoa auneacaeanue ca i?iaeo, e ainoaea?ue ooaa?aeee iiaiea
aieueoeinoaa, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea Naiaoa oae e ia auei inouanoaeaii ec-ca
?acee/iuo i?aiyonoaee, aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo, e nai Nia?aineee niaaoiaae
aa ion?i/eoue.

Ieaiu Nia?aineiai ano?aoeee ni noi?iiu iiiaeo yia?ae/aneia
i?ioeaiaeaenoaea, e au?aceoaeai iiaiee aai i?ioeaieeia yaeeny Ea?aicei:
a naiae “Caienea i ae?aaiae e iiaie ?innee”, a?o/aiiie ainoaea?th 18
ia?oa 1811 a., ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ainoaea?ue ia eiaao aeaaea i?aaa
ia?aie/eoue naith aeanoue, iioiio /oi ?inney a?o/eea aai i?aaeeo
naiiaea?aeaaea ia?acaeaeueiia. «… Anyeay iiainoue a ainoaea?noaaiiii
ii?yaeea anoue cei, e eiaio iaaei i?eaaaaoue oieueei a iaiaoiaeeiinoe:
eai iaeii a?aiy aeaao iaaeeaaeauoth oaa?aeinoue onoaaai; eai aieaa
oaaaeaai oi, /oi aeaaii oaaaeaai e ana aeaeaai eo/oa io i?eau/ee…»[7] A
?acoeueoaoa Naiao nio?aieeny a i?aaeiai aeaea, aiiny iaeioi?oth
iano?ieiinoue a iauee neeaae oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey.

Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ec o?ao io?aneae aunoaai oi?aaeaiey –
caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, eniieieoaeueiie e noaeaaiie – auee i?aia?aciaaiu
oieueei aeaa ia?aua, o?aoueae ?aoi?ia oae e ia einioeanue.

2.8 ?ai?aaiecaoeey oeiainiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa

A 1809 a. ia Nia?aineiai aiceiaeaii icaei?iaeaiea oeiainiaie nenoaiu,
eioi?ay iinea aiei 1805-1807 aa. iaoiaeeeanue a ninoiyiee aeoai/aeoaai
?anno?ienoaa. ?inney noiyea ia a?aie ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaie?ionoaa. I?e
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii iaic?aiee oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey ia 1810 a., ioe?ueny
aeaoeoeeo a 105 iei. ?oaeae, e Nia?aineiio auei ii?o/aii ninoaaeoue
ii?aaeaeeoaeueiue e oaa?aeue ieai oeiainia. I?ioanni? Aaeoaueyineee
iaienae iaoe?ioth caieneo ia o?aioeocneii ycuea, eioi?oth Nia?aineee
ia?aaeaeae e aeiiieiee. Iia iiaeaa?aeanue niaianoiiio ianoaeaeaieth i?e
o/anoee I.N. Ii?aeaeiiaa, Ei/oaay, Eaiiaiaaocaia e Aaeoaueyineiai, a
caoai a iniaii eiieoaoa, niae?aaoainy o ieieno?a oeiainia Ao?ueaaa.
Ecaioiaeaiiue oaeei ia?acii ieai oeiainia aue a?o/ai ainoaea?ai
i?aaenaaeaoaeth ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa a naiue aeaiue aai ioe?uoey, 1
yiaa?y 1810 a. Aio aai iniiaiua iieiaeaiey: “?anoiaeu aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue aeioiaeai. Iiyoiio ieeaeie iiaue ?anoiae ia iiaeao
auoue iacia/ai i?aaeaea, iaaeaee aoaeao iaeaeai ni?acia?iue aio enoi/iee
aeioiaea. ?anoiaeu aeieaeiu ?acaeaeyoueny:

ii aaaeiinoaai;

ii noaiaie ioaeaeu a ieo – iaiaoiaeeiua, iieaciua, ecauoi/iua, eceeoiea
e aaniieaciua, i?e/ai iineaaeiea ia aeieaeiu aeiioneaoueny aiana;

ii i?ino?ainoao – iauea ainoaea?noaaiiua, aoaa?ineea, ie?oaeiua e
aieinoiua. Ieeaeie nai? ia aeieaeai nouanoaiaaoue aac aaaeiia
I?aaeoaeuenoaa, iioiio /oi I?aaeoaeuenoai aeieaeii ciaoue ana, /oi
niae?aaony n ia?iaea e ia?auaaony a ?anoiaeu;

ii i?aaeiaoiiio iacia/aieth – iaueiiaaiiua e /?acau/aeiua ?anoiaeu. Aeey
/?acau/aeiuo ?anoiaeia a caiana aeieaeiu auoue ia aeaiueae, a niiniau eo
iieo/aiey;

ii noaiaie iinoiyinoaa – noaaeeueiua e iaiythueany ecaea?aeee”.[8]

Ii yoiio ieaio ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu auee nie?auaiu ia 20 iei.
?oaeae, iiaeaoe e iaeiae oaaee/aiu, ana iaoiaeyueany a ia?auaiee
anneaiaoeee i?eciaiu ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii, iaania/aiiui anai
ainoaea?noaaiiui eiouanoaii, a iiaue auione anneaiaoeee i?aaeiieiaeaii
auei i?ae?aoeoue. Eaieoae aeey iiaaoaiey anneaiaoeee i?aaeiieiaeaii auei
ninoaaeoue iin?aaenoaii i?iaeaaee iaianaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caiaeue
e aioo?aiiaai caeia. Yoio oeiainiaue ieai aue iaeia?ai, e ia?aciaaia
auea eiienney iiaaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaia.

Caeiiaie 2 oaa?aey 1810 aiaea e 11 oaa?aey 1812 aiaea aicauoaiu auee ana
iaeiae – eiua oaeaiaiu, ae?oaea aieaa /ai oaeaiaiu. Oae, oeaia ioaea
niee n 40 eiiaae iiaeiyoa auea aei ?oaey; iiaeooiay iiaeaoue n 1 ?oa.
aicauoaia auea aei 3 ?oa. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a yoio ieai aoiaeee e
iiaue, iaauaaeue i?aaeaea iaeia – «iiaeioiaeiue i?ia?anneaiue». Yoe
iaeiaii iaeiaeai aue aeioiae iiiaueeia n eo caiaeue. Iecoee iaeia
aceiaeny n 500 ?oaeae aeioiaea e ninoaaeye 1% iineaaeiaai, aunoee iaeia
iaaeae ia eiaiey, aeaaaaoea aieueoa 18 oun. ?oaeae aeioiaea, e ninoaaeye
10% iineaaeiaai. Ii ?anoiaeu 1810 a. cia/eoaeueii i?aauneee
i?aaeiieiaeaiea, e iioiio iaeiae, onoaiiaeaiiua eeoue ia iaeei aiae,
auee ia?auaiu a iinoiyiiua. Aicauoaiea iaeiaia e auei aeaaiie i?e/eiie
ia?iaeiiai ?iiioa i?ioea Nia?aineiai, /ai oniaee ainiieueciaaoueny aai
a?aae ec aunoaai iauanoaa.

Ia 1812 aiae iiyoue a?icee aieueoie aeaoeoeeo. Iaieoanoii 11 oaa?aey
1812 a. onoaiiaeaiu auee a?aiaiiua i?eaaaee a iiaeaoyo e iiaua iioeeiu.
Ioaaonoaaiiui ca ana yoe oeiainiaua cao?oaeiaiey e iiauoaiey iaeiaia,
aucuaaaiua oyaeaeuie iieeoe/aneeie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie oiai a?aiaie,
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea aeaeaei Nia?aineiai. Iaauaiey i?ae?aoeoue auione
anneaiaoeee i?aaeoaeuenoai naea?aeaoue ia iiaei. Iiaue oa?eo, 1810 a., a
ninoaaeaiee eioi?iai o/anoaiaae Nia?aineee, aue ano?a/ai a ?innee
ni/oanoaaiii, ii ?acaiaaae Iaiieaiia, eae yaiia oeeiiaiea io
eiioeiaioaeueiie nenoaiu. Aeaea oeieyiaeneea ii?o/aiu auee oaeaea
Nia?aineiio, eioi?ue oieueei i?e aai oaeeaeoaeueiii o?oaeiethaee e
oaeaioeeainoe iia ni?aaeyoueny ni anaie aiceiaeaiiuie ia iaai
iaycaiiinoyie.

1812 aiae aue ?ieiaui a aeecie Nia?aineiai. Aeaaiuie i?oaeeyie a
eio?eaa, iiaoaeaoae Nia?aineiai, auee aa?ii A?ioaeueo, iieueciaaaoeeny
aieueoei ?aniieiaeaieai eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a, e ieieno? iieeoeee
Aaeaoia. A?ioaeueo aue iaaeiaieai ioiioaieai Nia?aineiai e Oeieyiaeee:
ii aai neiaai, ii “eiiaaea oi/ao aicauneoue ian (oeieyiaeoeaa), ii a
ae?oaeo neo/ayo, iaiai?io, aeaeaao aeaoue iai ciaoue i iaoae
caaeneiinoe. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ii anaaaea niio?ae ia aeaea Oeieyiaeee,
eae ia iaeeia, aoi?inoaiaiiia aeaei”. A?ioaeuo naeaeae i?aaeeiaeaiea
Nia?aineiio, ninoaaea o?eoiae?ao aianoa n Aaeaoiaui, caoaaoeoue a naie
?oee i?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaii, a eiaaea Nia?aineee ioeacaeny e, ii
ioa?auaieth e aeiiinai, ia aeiaae ia yoii i?aaeeiaeaiee aei naaaeaiey
ainoaea?y, oi ?aoeeny iiaoaeoue aai. I/aaeaeii, A?ioaeueo aeaeae,
oaeaeea Nia?aineiai, noaoue ai aeaaa ia iaeieo oeieyiaeneeo aeae a
?innee. Nia?aineee eiiaaea, auoue iiaeao, aue iaaeinoaoi/ii aicaea?aeai
a naieo iocuaao i ainoaea?a, ii iaeioi?ua ec yoeo iocuaia a /anoiie
aanaaea, aeiaaaeaiiua aei naaaeaiey ainoaea?y, auee, i/aaeaeii,
auaeoieie eeaaaoieeia e aeiiin/eeia. A iiaeiaoiuo ienueiao Nia?aineiai
noaee iaaeiyoue oaea a yaiie eciaia, a niioaieyo n aaaioaie Iaiieaiia, a
i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oaei.

Iieoaeueiue e aanueia /oanoaeoaeueiue e iaeaeai eiia?aoi? a ia/aea 1812
a. caiaoii ioeaaeae e Nia?aineiio Iai?aaeaiiay i?ioea eeaa?aeueiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee caienea Ea?aiceia (1811) e ?aciua iaoaiouaaiey a?aaia
Nia?aineiai i?iecaaee aia/aoeaiea ia Aeaenaiae?a I. Ana aieaa ioeaaeaaay
e Nia?aineiio, ainoaea?ue noae oyaioeoueny aai aeeyieai e ia/ae
ecaaaaoue aai. I?enooiay e ai?ueaa n Iaiieaiiii, Aeaenaiae? ?aoee n iei
?annoaoueny. Nia?aineee aiacaiii aue ioi?aaeai a nnueeo.

3. Ioeo/aiea I.I. Nia?aineiai io ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeae

3.1 Nnueea

17 ia?oa 1812 aiaea iinea iiiai/aniaie e a aunoae noaiaie
yiioeeiiaeueiie aoaeeaioeee, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaeny neacaie e
ae?aiaoe/aneeie yooaeoaie, Aeaenaiae? I ionoaaee io iiiai/eneaiiuo
aeieaeiinoae e nineae ainoaea?noaaiiiai nae?aoa?y I.I. Nia?aineiai.
Aeeaeaeoee nio?oaeiee e “i?aaay ?oea” eiia?aoi?a, ia i?ioyaeaiee
ianeieueeeo eao, ii nouanoao, aoi?ia eeoei a ainoaea?noaa, aue a oio aea
aa/a? ioi?aaeai n iieeoeeae a Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae.

A ienueia ioooaea ainoaea?th ii auneacae naia aeoaieia oaaaeaeaiea, /oi
ninoaaeaiiue ei ieai ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aia?aciaaiey – “ia?aue e
aaeeinoaaiiue enoi/iee anaai, /oi neo/eeinue” n iei, e aianoa n oai
au?aaeae iaaeaaeaeo, /oi ?aii eee iicaeii ainoaea?ue aica?aoeony “e oai
aea iniiaiui eaeayi”. A?iiaaeiia aieueoeinoai iauanoaa ano?aoeei
iaaeaiea Nia?aineiai n aaeeeei eeeiaaieai, e oieueei I.N. Ii?aeaeiia
ioe?uoi i?ioanoiaae i?ioea aai nnueee auoiaeii a ionoaaeo io aeieaeiinoe
i?aaenaaeaoaey aeaia?oaiaioa yeiiiiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa e oaoae a
aea?aaith.

Ii oaeaeaiee Nia?aineiai, ia/aea oee?eoee?iaaoue caienea ia o?aioeocneii
ycuea, aaoi? eioi?ie ooaa?aeaeae, /oi Nia?aineee eiae a aeaeo naieie
iiaiaaaaeaieyie i?eaanoe ainoaea?noai e ?aceiaeaieth e iieiiio
ia?aai?ioo, ecia?aaeae aai ceiaeaai e i?aaeaoaeai ioa/anoaa e n?aaieaae
n E?iiaaeai. Caienea yoa auea ninoaaeaia ?icaieaiioii, neoaeeaoei a
eiiennee caeiiia e iaiaaeaeaaoei Nia?aineiai ca oi, /oi oio caoiee aai
naieie oaeaioaie, e eni?aaeaia auea A?ioaeueoii.

A naioya?a oiai aea aiaea, aneaaenoaea aeiiina i oii, /oi a ?acaiai?a n
a?oea?aai Nia?aineee oiiiyioe i iiuaaea, ieacaiiie Iaiieaiiii
aeooiaainoao a Aa?iaiee, Nia?aineee aue ioi?aaeai a Ia?iue, ioeoaea
iaienae ainoaea?th naia ciaiaieoia ii?aaaeaoaeueiia ienueii. A yoii
ienueia, no?aiynue ii?aaaeaoueny, Nia?aineee n iaeneiaeueiie iieiioie
ia?a/eneyao ana aiciiaeiua iaaeiaiey – eae oa, eioi?ua oneuoae io
eiia?aoi?a, oae e oa, eioi?ua, eae ii iieaaae, iiaee inoaoueny
iaauneacaiiuie. “ss ia ciath n oi/iinoeth, a /ai ninoiyee nae?aoiua
aeiiinu ia iaiy acaaaeaiiua. Ec neia, eie i?e ioeo/aiee iaiy aaoa
aaee/anoai neacaoue iia ecaieeee, iiao oieueei caeeth/eoue, /oi auee o?e
aeaaiua ioieoa iaaeiaiey: 1) /oi oeiainiauie aeaeaie y noa?aeny
?anno?ieoue ainoaea?noai; 2) i?eaanoe iaeiaaie a iaiaaenoue
i?aaeoaeuenoai; 3) iocuau i i?aaeoaeuenoaa… AEanoieia i?aaeoaaaeaeaiea i
naycyo iieo n O?aioeeath, aua iiaeaea?aeaii yiioie iiaai oaeaeaiey,
ninoaaeyao oaia?ue naiia aaaeiia e, iiao neacaoue, aaeeinoaaiiia iyoii
iiaai a ia?iaea iaaeiaiey. Aai aaeeinoaaiii, anaieeinoeeaaeoee
ainoaea?ue, aaoae ni?aaaaeeeainoe i?eiaaeeaaeeo aai ecaeaaeeoue. Niath
ooaa?aeeoaeueii neacaoue: a aa/iie i?aaaea ia?aae Aiaii, au iaycaiu,
ainoaea?ue, yoi naeaeaoue…Oeiainu, iaeiae, iiaua onoaiiaeaiey, ana aeaea
ioaee/iua, a eioi?uo y eiae n/anouea auoue aaoei eniieieoaeai, ana
ii?aaaeaaony a?aiaiai, ii caeanue /ai y ii?aaaeathnue, eiaaea ana
iie?uoi e aeieaeii auoue iie?uoi oaeiith” [9]

3.2 Ainnoaiiaeaiea Nia?aineiai ia neoaeao

Oeacii 30 aaaonoa, a eioi?ii auei neacaii, /oi “ii aieiaoaeueiii e
no?iaii ?anniio?aiee iinooieia” Nia?aineiai ainoaea?ue “ia eiae
oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei e iiaeic?aieyi”, Nia?aineee aue iacia/ai ia
aeieaeiinoue iaicaineiai a?aaeaeaineiai aoaa?iaoi?a, /oiau aeaoue aio
niinia “ona?aeiie neoaeaie i/enoeoue naay a iieiie ia?a”. Caeanue ii ia
iieeaeaao aua iunee i ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aciaaieyo e i?aaeeaaaao,
i/enoea aaeieieno?aoeaioth /anoue, ia?aeoe e naiaiaea iieeoe/aneie. Aeey
au?aaioee iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aoi?i Nia?aineee niaaooao o/?aaeeoue eiieoao ec
ieieno?a oeiainia Ao?ueaaa, ianeieueeeo aoaa?iaoi?ia (a oii /enea e aai
naiiai) e 2 – 3 aoaa?ineeo i?aaeaiaeeoaeae aeai?yinoaa.

A ia?oa 1819 a. Nia?aineee aue iacia/ai neae?neei aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?ii,
i?e/ai ainoaea?ue a nianoaaiii?o/iii ienueia ienae, /oi yoei iacia/aieai
aeaeae yaii aeieacaoue, ianeieueei iani?aaaaeeeai a?aae ieeaaaoaee
Nia?aineiai. Neoaeaa a Neae?e aua aieaa ioeaaeeea iieeoe/aneea ia/oaiey
Nia?aineiai.

Neae?neea aoaa?iaoi?u auee ia/aeueii ciaiaieou naiae aeanoieinoueth e
aeaniioeciii. Ciay ia yoii, eiia?aoi? ii?o/ee Nia?aineiio ouaoaeueii
enneaaeiaaoue ana aaccaeiiey e iaaeaeee aai naiuie oe?ieeie
iieiiii/eyie. Iiaiio aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?o i?eoiaeeeinue iaeiia?aiaiii e
i?iaiaeeoue ?aaeceth aaa?aiiiai aio e?ay, e oi?aaeyoue ei, e
?ac?aaaouaaoue iniiau ia?ainoaiaiiuo ?aoi?i. Ii ninoaaee naaa ee/ioth
eaioeaey?eth ec i?aaeaiiuo aio ethaeae. Caoai ii ia/ae einiaeoeeiiiua
iiacaeee – iauacaeee E?eooneoth aoaa?ieth, iiauaae a sseooee e
Caaaeeaeuea.

Nia?aineee iiieiae, /oi cei ei?aieeinue ia noieueei a ethaeyo, neieueei
a naiie nenoaia oi?aaeaiey Neae?ueth. Ii o/?aaeee Aeaaiia oi?aaeaiea
oi?aiaee Neae?e, Eacaiioth iaeaoo aeey ?aoaiey caiaeueiuo e oeiainiauo
aii?inia, i?eiye oeaeue ?yae ia? aeey iiiu?aiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa,
oi?aiaee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe e?ay. Aue au?aaioai e i?eiyo oeaeue ?yae
aaaeiaeoeo i?aaiauo aeoia. Eoiaii aeayoaeueiinoe Nia?aineiai ia iinoo
neae?neiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, iiaie aeaaie a enoi?ee Neae?e, noaei
ooiaeaiaioaeueiia “Oeiaeaiea aeey oi?aaeaiey Neae?ueth”, aeaoaeueii
?anniao?eaathuaa ono?ienoai, oi?aaeaiea, noaeii?iecaiaenoai e yeiiiieeo
yoie /anoe ?inneeneie eiia?ee.

A ia?oa 1821 a. Aeaenaiae? iicaieee Nia?aineiio aa?iooueny a Iaoa?ao?a.
Aica?aoeeny ii niaa?oaiii eiui /aeiaaeii. Yoi ia aue caueoiee iieiiai
i?aia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy, niciathuee naith neeo e ?acei
auneacuaathuee naie iiaiey, yoi aue oeeii/eaue naiiaiee, ia aiooathueeny
euenoeaiai oaiaeie/anoaa aeaaea ia?aae A?ae/aaaui e ia ionooieaoee
ia?aae iioaaeueiui ia/aoiui neiaii aiaiiui iinaeaieyi (1825). Iinea oiai
eae au?aaioaiiua ei eee iiae aai iaaethaeaieai i?iaeou i?aia?aciaaiee a
Neae?e iieo/eee neeo caeiia, Nia?aineiio i?eoiaeeeinue ana ?aaea
aeaeaoueny n ainoaea?ai, e aai iaaeaaeaeu ia aica?auaiea i?aaeiaai
cia/aiey ia ii?aaaeaeenue, oioy a 1821 a. ii e aue iacia/ai /eaiii
ainoaea?noaaiiiai niaaoa.

Nia?oue Aeaenaiae?a e ainnoaiea aeaeaa?enoia i?eaaee e i/a?aaeiui
ia?aiaiai a noaeueaa Nia?aineiai. Ii aue aaaaeai a ninoaa Aa?oiaiiai
oaieiaiiai noaea, o/?aaeaeaiiiai iaae aeaeaa?enoaie, e nua?ae a yoii
noaeeeeua aeaeaei ia iineaaeithth ?ieue.

Ae?oaia aaaeiia aeaei – ninoaaeaiea «Iieiiai Nia?aiey» e «Naiaea caeiiia
?inneeneie eiia?ee» – Nia?aineee auiieiee oaea a oea?noaiaaiea Ieeieay
1.

Caeeth/aiea

Caeai/eaay ?aoa?ao iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaanoe eoia anaio auoaneacaiiiio. A
?aoa?aoa iiiai aiai?eeinue i i?ioeai?a/eauo yaeaieyo, eioi?ua aicieeaee
a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee ieaia I.I. Nia?aineiai. I?iaeaeaa aieueooth
?aaioo, y i?eoea e auaiaeo, /oi ee/iinoue I.I. Nia?aineiai ?aaii eae e
aai ?aaioa auee ioeaiaiu enoi?eeaie e aai nia?aiaiieeaie iaiaeiicia/ii.
Ana iocuau aeaenoaeoaeueii a oie eee eiie ia?a io?aaeaee eaeoth-eeai
noi?iio aai aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiia/ii, iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ana aai
?aoi?iu, ?anniao?eaaaiua a ?aoa?aoa, aiieia oaeaeenue, ii Nia?aineee a
eaeie-oi noaiaie noiae aeiaeoueny ?aaeecaoeee naieo eaeae e caiuneia,
?acoiaaony, ia aac iiiiue Aeaenaiae?a 1.

Aieiaoaeueii aiaeece?oy ?aaioo Nia?aineiai, y oaaaeeeanue, /oi iiiaea
ioieou «ieaia i?aia?aciaaiey ?innee», a oaeaea i?eiyoua caeiiu e
ninoiyaoeany ?aoi?iu iineoaeeee ooiaeaiaioii aeey aoaeoueo
i?aia?aciaaiee. Iai?eia?, aeey ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa, a ieienoa?noaa
o/?aaeaeaiiua Nia?aineei a iaiiiai eciaiaiiii aeaea nouanoaotho e a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

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