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Повседневная жизнь россиян XIX века

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?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

Iianaaeiaaiay aeeciue ?inneyi

NIAeA?AEAIEA

NIAeA?AEAIEA………………………………………….1 no?.

OAIA. Iianaaeiaaiay aeeciue ……………………………2 no?.

i. 1. Aeai?yinoai …………………………………………2 no?.

i. 2. Ioeoea?noai e /eiiaie/anoai……………………4 no?.

i. 3. Eoia/anoai …………………………………………6 no?.

i. 4. E?anoueyinoai e ?aai/ea…………………………..7 no?.

i. 5. AEeciue a ai?iaeao……………………………………8 no?.

EEOA?AOO?A…………………………………………..10 no?.

OAIA: Iianaaeiaaiay aeeciue.

Iianaaeiaaiay aeeciue ?inneyi a ia/aea e ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea auea
i/aiue ?aciie. AEeoaee ai?iaeia e i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo ?aeiiia no?aiu
iiaee aiai?eoue i na?ueaciuo e caiaoiuo ia?aiaiao. AEeciue aeooie
i?iaeioeee, aea?aaie a iniaaiiinoe, oea a iniiaiii ii-noa?iio. Iiiaia
caaenaei io nineiaiiai e eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey ethaeae, ianoa eo
aeeoaeuenoaa, aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, i?eau/ae e o?aaeeoeee.

i. 1. Aeai?yinoai.

A ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea oaia aiaaonoaa aeai?yi ieacaeanue oanii
naycaiiie n oaiie eo ?aci?aiey. Aeieae noiee/iiai aeai?yinoaa aeinoeaee
ano?iiiie/aneeo oeeo?. Iaeiie ec i?e/ei auei oei?aieaoaany ni a?aiai
Aeaoa?eiu II i?aaenoaaeaiea: enoeiii aeai?yineia iiaaaeaiea
i?aaeiieaaaao aioiaiinoue aeeoue ia ii n?aaenoaai. No?aieaiea «n
?anoiaeii naanoue aeioiae» noaei oa?aeoa?iui eeoue a na?aaeeia 30-o aa.
Ii e oiaaea iiiaea aniiieiaee n a?onoueth i aanaeuo aueuo a?aiaiao.

Aeieae aeai?yinoaa ?inee e ii ae?oaie i?e/eia. Iii eniuouaaei neeueioth
iio?aaiinoue a naiaiaeiuo aeaiueaao. Aeioiaeu iiiaueeia neeaaeuaaeenue a
iniiaiii ec i?iaeoeoia e?anoueyineiai o?oaea. Noiee/iay aea aeeciue
o?aaiaaea caiieie iiiaou. I?iaeaaaoue naeueneioicyenoaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth iiiaueee a ianna naiae ia oiaee, a /anoi i?inoi nouaeeeenue
caieiaoueny yoei. Ai?acaei i?iua auei ia?aoeoueny a aaie eee e
caeiiaeaaoeo, /oiau acyoue a aeiea eee caeiaeeoue eiaiea.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi ca iieo/aiiua aeaiueae aeai?yiei i?eia?aoao, iiaua
iiianouey eee oaaee/eo aeioiaeiinoue noa?uo. Iaeiaei, eae i?aaeei,
aeaiueae ooiaeeee ia iino?ieeo aeiiia, aaeu, aei?iaea ia?yaeu.

A ia?aie iieiaeia noieaoey aeai?yineea aeaoe iieo/aee aeiiaoiaa
ia?aciaaiea. Iau/ii iii ninoiyei a eco/aiee aeaoo-o?ao eiino?aiiuo
ycueia e ia/aeueiii inaiaiee iniiaiuo iaoe. O/eoaeyie /aua anaai
iaieiaee eiino?aioeaa, eioi?ua o naay ia ?iaeeia neoaeeee eo/a?aie,
aa?aaaiueeaie, aeoa?aie, ia?eeiaoa?aie.

Aeiiaoiaio ainieoaieth i?ioeaiiinoaaeyee /anoiua iaineiiu e
ainoaea?noaaiiua o/eeeua. Aieueoeinoai ?onneeo aeai?yi ii o?aaeeoeee
aioiaeee naieo aeaoae e aiaiiiio iii?euo. N 7-8 eao aeaoe ca/eneyeenue a
aiaiiua o/eeeua, a ii eo ieii/aiee iinooiaee a aunoea eaaeaoneea ei?iona
a Iaoa?ao?aa. I?aaeoaeuenoai n/eoaei oeeiiaiea io neoaeau
i?aaeinoaeeoaeueiui. E oiio aea neoaeaa yaeyeanue ninoaaeythuae
aeai?yineie /anoe, auea naycaia n iiiyoeai iao?eioecia.

AEeeuea n?aaeiaai aeai?yieia a ai?iaea oe?aneeinue a ia/aea XIX aaea
ia?neaeneeie eia?aie, ea?oeiaie, ca?eaeaie a iiciei/aiiuo ?aiao,
aei?iaie iaaaeueth ec e?aniiai aea?aaa. A eaoiaa a?aiy aeai?yia,
nio?aieaoea iiianouey, iieeaeaee aeooiua ai?iaea. Aea?aaaineea
iiiaue/uee aeiia auee iaeiioeiiu e i?aaenoaaeyee niaie aea?aayiioth
iino?ieeo n o?aiy- /aou?ueiy eieiiiaie o ia?aaeiiai e?ueueoea e
o?aoaieueieeii o?iioiia iaae ieie. Ceiie, iau/ii ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii,
iiiaueee aica?auaeenue a ai?iae. Iaicu a 15-20 iiaeaiae ioi?aaeyeenue a
ai?iaea ca?aiaa e aacee i?eianu: aonae, eo?, naeiua iei?iea, ayeaioth
?uao, nieiieio, ioeo, e?oio, ianei.

Ia?aay iieiaeia XIX aaea – a?aiy iieneia «aa?iiaeneeo» aeueoa?iaoea
aeaaeianeei i?aaai. Ia anaaaea iie auee oniaoiuie. Ia?aieaoaiea
«aa?iiaecia» e i?eau/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i?eaeaaaei aeai?yineiio auoo
/a?ou y?eiai naiaia?acey e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe.

i.2. Ioeoea?noai e /eiiaie/anoai

I?iaeaia iaoa?eaeueiiai iaania/aiey noaea aeey ioeoea?ia a ia?aie
iieiaeia XIX aaea naiie aeaaiie. Ieeaaeu ioeoea?ia a oeaeii ?inee, ii
iaaeeaiiaa, /ai ia i?iaeoeou e oneoae.

A ia/aea XIX aaea aieueoay /anoue ioeoea?noaa aeaaeaea caiaeueiie e eiie
nianoaaiiinoueth. AEaeiaaiuea iiyoiio ia auei aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii
aai aeioiaea. E na?aaeeia aaea iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue. Iiyaeeenue
yeaiaiou nioeeaeueiie caueou: iainee, iaania/aiea iiaeaoeo ioeoea?ia e
o.i.

Eoeueoo?iua cai?inu ioeoea?noai oaeiaeaoai?yei, ia aoiaey a
aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu. Aaaeiaeoaa ianoi a aai iianaaeiaaiie aeecie
caieiaei ioeoea?neia nia?aiea. Caeanue ioeoea?u i?iaiaeeee aieueooth
/anoue naiaiaeiiai a?aiaie, ciaeiieeenue ae?oa n ae?oaii, ioia/aee
i?acaeieee. Eiiaiaee? iieea ?aaoey?ii aeaaae aaeu e caaiua iaaaeu. A
inoaeueiua aeie ioeoea?u ?aneaa?oe?iaaiiuo a ianoa/ea eee ai?iaea /anoae
i?eaeaoaeenue ia aaeu a ianoiia aeai?yineia nia?aiea.

Iioiaeiay aeeciue, neoaeaa a iaeii?eniiniaeaiiuo e ii?iaeueiie aeecie
oneiaeyo, a ioaeaeaiiuo ianoiinoyo, /anoua ia?aacaeu ec ai?iaea a ai?iae
ia ?aniieaaaee e nicaeaieth naiuee. ?aoea anooieoue a a?ae, ioeoea? /aua
anaai auoiaeee a ionoaaeo «ii aeiiaoiei ianoiyoaeuenoaai».

Iaoa?eaeueiia iieiaeaiea /eiiaie/anoaa auei aua aieaa oyaeaeui.

Iieiaeaiea ethaeae, ninoiyaoeo ia aeaeiaaiuea, onoaoaeyeinue iai?a?uaiui
iaaeaieai eo?na anneaiaoeee: ca ?oaeue aoiaaeiuo aeaiaa na?aa?ii aeaaaee
ana iaiueoa e iaiueoa. ?aai/ee aeaiue eaioeaey?neiai neoaeauaai i?aauoae
aeanyoue e aieaa /ania. I?e yoii ?aaioa iau/ii auea /enoi iaoaie/aneie.
Ia?aienuaaoue aoiaae ii oo?ai e aa/a?ai i?eoiaeeeinue i?e naa/ao, ia
eioi?uo ia/aeuenoai iaieeina?aeii yeiiiieei. Iioa?y c?aiey auei oeie/iie
aieaciueth aieueoeinoaa neoaeaueo. Iaaeiaaeaiea, aeooioa a eiioi?ao,
no?ao ia?aae ia/aeuenoaii aaee e ooaa?eoeaco (/aoioea), ia?aiui
aieaciyi.

*eiiaie/anoai iuoaeinue ii-naiaio ainiieieoue iaaeinoaoie n?aaenoa,
iae?ay i?ineoaeae, auiiaay acyoee, eaey ia iiaeeiae e ae?oaea
i?anooieaiey. ?acaea/aiey iiaeaaeythuae iannu /eiiaieeia auee aanueia
iai?eoycaoaeueiu.

i. 3. Eoia/anoai

Eoioeu iaaeeaiiaa ae?oaeo neiaa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey i?eiauaeenue e
iiaoanoaai a auoiaie aeecie, io/anoe a neeo o?aaeeoeeiiiie iai?eycie
«a?enoie?aoee e?iae».

Iniiaiay ianna eoia/anoaa ii-i?aaeiaio niaethaeaea o?aaeeoeeiiiua oeeaae
aeecie e iaoiaeu aaaeaiey aeae. A aeiiao nio?aiyeanue no?iaay
noai?aeeiaoeey, noiaeay n i?aaeienaieyie «Aeiiino?iy». Aeaau
i?eoiiiaeeoue e nio?aieoue eaieoae, eoioeu i?aaeii/eoaee ee/ii
eiio?iee?iaaoue oiae aeae, ia neeoeii aeiaa?yy iiiiuieeai e i?eeac/eeai.
Ii 8-10 /ania a aeaiue iie neaeaee a naieo aiaa?ao e eaaeao. AEeea
iau/iay eoia/aneay naiuey iauei oicyenoaii, caeoiay iaoa?eae ia
iaeaaeaeo «oooeaie», ia anao. Eanna i?aaei?eyoey eee caaaaeaiey aeieaia
a?aiy oaeaea auea iauae, a a eiioea aiaea auaiaeeeanue eoiaiaay noiia
iaee/iuo aeaiaa. A /anoiie aeecie eoiaoe oyaioae e iieith e eiioi?oo,
ie?oaeay naay ia noieueei aa?iiaeneeie iiaeieaie, neieueei i?i/ii e
oaeiaii n?aaioaiiuie i?aaeiaoaie o?aaeeoeeiiiiai auoa.

Ea?oeia aeecie i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo nineiaee ?innee y?ei io?aaeaao e
i?iecioaaeoea eciaiaiey, e iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, caiaaeeaiiinoue yoeo
eciaiaiee. Iianaaeiaaiua cai?inu, oneiaey aeecie aeai?yinoaa,
ioeoea?noaa, /eiiaie/anoaa, eoia/anoaa iinoaiaiii naeeaeaeenue. Ii
a?aieoeu, aicaaaeaiiua e eneonnoaaiii iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua, inoaaaeenue
ia?ooeiuie.

i. 4. E?anoueyinoai e ?aai/ea

I ia?aiaiao a e?anoueyineie n?aaea nia?aiaiiee a 40-o aa. ienae oae:
«…ecau naeueneea aeaeathony /eua e ii?yoiaa, e?anoueyia ia?anoatho
aea?aeaoue a aeeeuo iiiauaieyo aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo». Ioiinyony yoe
iaaethaeaiey, i?aaeaea anaai e aeiiai caaeeoi/iuo e?anoueyi.
Cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey auee a iaeaaeaea: ?acaiaaoaaoea e?anoueyia
niaieee eaioe ia naiiae, a?iye e a?oaua ii?ou ia eaooai, e ieeniaua
ooaiu, aaeyioth oaieo ia ea?ooc.

Ieoaeenue e?anoueyia a iniiaiii iaiuaie, au?auaiiuie ia nianoaaiiii
iai?iaea. A ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea naeyiei iio?aaeye o?e ooioa oeaaa a
aeaiue. Ea?oioaeue aua ia aioae a /enei aaaeiaeoeo eoeueoo?, iiae iaai
ioaiaeeee anaai 1,5% iinaaiie ieiuaaee. Ia iiiaea ec e?anoueyi iiaee
iieaeiieoueny ie?iaaie, nooaeiyie eee eaioie. Eaea/ n/eoaeny eaeiinoaii,
i?yiee – ianoiyuei iiaea?eii. N?aaee naeueneeo aeeoaeae iiioey?iui
iaieoeii noaiiaeeny /ae, auoaniyaoee naeoie e acaa?u.

?acaeoea iooiaeie/anoaa ieacuaaei aeeyiea ia aeeciue aea?aaie.
Iooiaeieee, ionoue e a eneaaeaiiie iiae/an oi?ia, ciaeiieee
iaeiinaeue/ai n ai?iaeneeie i?aaaie e auoii. Iniaaiii auno?i
iiaeoaaouaaea iiaoanoaa naeueneay iieiaeaaeue. Oneeeeny eioa?an e
oaioeai; a i?acaeie/iua aeie a naeao onoaiaaeeaaee iacaiuneiaaoua
ea?onaee, aicaiaeeee aaeaaaiu aeey eoeieueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Ia?ac aeecie oaa?e/iiai ethaea ?innee oieueei neeaaeuaaeny. Yoi aue
aacaeiiiue, iioiaeiue auo, ia onoiyaoeeny, aeooeiaaoue. ?aai/ea
iiae/eiyeenue no?iaei i?aaeienaieyi ia/aeuenoaa, iuoaaoaainy
?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue ia oieueei eo ?aai/aa a?aiy, ii e iianaaeiaaioth
aeeciue. ?aai/ea aeeee iiiaiyoaaeiuo eaca?iao, a eiiiaoeao – eeaoooeao
ii noi?iiai neaiciiai ei?eaei?a.

Noie ?aai/eo aue aaaeai, au?o/aee eaoe e oeaa. Nia?oiinoue a aeaa ?aca
i?aauoaea n?aaeithth ii no?aia. A?aiioiua a eo n?aaea ano?a/aeenue oae
aea ?aaeei, eae e a e?anoueyineie, ec anao ?acaea/aiee ei auee aeinooiiu
eeoue eaaae e o?aeoe?. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i oaa?e/iii o?oaea ia
nouanoaiaaei. Oaa?eeaio e ianoiua aeanoe auee ananeeueiu a ia?auaiee n
o?oaeiaui ethaeii.

i. 5. AEeciue a ai?iaeao

Ianna ianaeaiey iaei, a /anoueth aeaaea aiana iaa?aiioiay, ia n/eoaaoay
naia naay iieiii?aaiie /anoueth iauanoaa, aeeea, iaeaaeay i/aiue
ia?aie/aiiui ai?eciioii e nin?aaeioi/ea aanue naie aeeciaiiue eioa?an a
iaei/ao aeeoaenoaa, oi?aiaee, ?aianea, eaioeaey?neie neoaeau, a a
ea/anoaa aeooiaiie ieue aeiaieuenoaiaaeanue ianoiuie nieaoiyie aea
oaioanoe/aneie aieoiaiae ia iieeoe/aneea e eiua oaiu. Ana ianaeaiea
iiei?ii e aac?iiioii iiae/eiyeinue iinoaiiaeaieyi, iau/ayi e
?anii?yaeaieyi.

?aeeaeiciinoue aeinoeaaea aunieiai ?acaeoey, ii i?aiaeaaeaea aiaoiyy
noi?iia, – aacio/aoiia, ii aeiaa?eth eniieiaiea ia?yaeia e i?aaee… Ia
iaeia cia/aiea eiaei a Iineaa a oi a?aiy noa?iia?yae/anoai, ii-aeaeeiiio
no?iai i?aneaaeiaaaoaany, ii ianiio?y ia yoi, io/anoe aeaaiaea?y eiaiii
yoiio, cia/eoaeueii i?ioeaaoaaoaa e iaeaaeaaoaa aieueoeie aeaiaaeiuie
n?aaenoaaie. Iineianeia eoia/anoai…iaei auaeaeaaeinue…ia a?aio
iauanoaaiiie aeecie: iii auei caieiooi e aeeei iniauie aeooiaiuie e
iaoa?eaeueiuie eioa?anaie.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. E.I. Eyoaiei Enoi?ey ?innee XIX aae,: ecae. Ae?IOA, I., 2002 a.

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