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Политико-психологический портрет представителя русской интеллигенции: Рихард Зорге

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I?IOANNEss – EIOAEEEAAIO

I?ECAAIEA – IA?OEEIAss ?AAIOA

ss nai naay ia?ae

Ia aa/iua neeoaiuey .

Ia
ioaeai no?aiieeo iieie …

(
Ec thiioaneeo noeoia ?. Ci?aa )

Aei 1964 aiaea a Niaaoneii Nithca ia aeaei Ci?aa auei iaeiaeaii oaao.
Iai?iieoeaaiay caaana iie/aiey ieoouaaea aai eiy. Ii a oio aiae iie/aiea
auei aci?aaii. Oiaaeaoiee niaaoneee eeaea? I.N. O?ouaa niaa?oaiii
neo/aeii iiiae ia cae?uoue i?iniio? eeiioeeueia o?aioeocneiai ?aaeenna?a
Eaa *aiie “Eoi au, aeieoi? Ci?aa ?”: Eaioa i/aiue iii?aaeeanue Ieeeoa
Na?aaaae/o e ii aineeeeioe “ Oae aaaeue yoi aea aa?ie! ”E caaa?oaeinue
… Ai anao aacaoao e aeo?iaeao iiyaeeenue ?aciiia?aciua iaoa?eaeu i
Ci?aa , aai ?iaenoaaiieeao , aai ni?aoieeao , i?ino?aiiua ?aoeaicee ia
oeeuei Eaa *aiie . Ci?aa i?enaieee caaiea Aa?iy Niaaoneiai Nithca , aai
iiiiuieee auee iaa?aaeaeaiu aiaauie i?aeaiaie.

N oao ii? e i?eia?ii o?ai aeanyoeai eiea , auiouaiiuo a NOA, O?A,
O?aioeee i?eaaeeeinue i?eia?ii noieueei aea ecaeaiiuo a NNN?. A eieaao
auiouaiiuo ia Caiaaea, Ci?aa ii/oe anaaaea iaaeaeyeny ianaienoaaiiuie
aio yaienoe/aneeie e aia?oe/aneeie ea/anoaaie. Aai ecia?aaeatho a?oaui ,
aeaniioe/iui naa?o/aeiaaeii, oeeie/iui i?iaeeaaoaeai aeecie e i?inoi
aaaioth?enoii . Aaoi?u aea a Niaaoneii Nithca /a?an/o? eaeaaeece?iaaee
aai, ecia?aaeaee “oaa?aeieaiaiiui” eiiioienoii-eioa?iaoeeiiaeenoii ,
iiai?ieeii i?ieaoa?neie nieeaea?iinoe , aac iaaeinoaoeia , ioeaie ,
niiiaiee e neaainoae , nicaeaa ia?ac iiaiyaeaiiiai
nayoiai-aaeeeiio/aiieea . Aeaaaeoa iiiuoaainy ?acia?aoueny eai aea aue
yoio /aeiaae , iacaaiiue oiaaeaoiei oaoii Oe?O “Caacaeie niaaoneiai
oieiiaaea”.

?eoa?ae Ci?aa ?iaeeeny 4 ieoya?y 1895 aiaea a Aaeo, a naiuea iaiaoeeiai
iaoaieea iaooyiiai i?iiunea Aaeieueoa Ci?aa. Iaoue – i?inoay ?onneay
aeaiueia ec aaaeiie naiuee aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai ?aai/aai. ?eoa?ae aue
naiui ieaaeoei a naiuea, n?aaee /aou?ao a?aoueaa e nanoa?. Eiaaea
?eoa?aeo eniieieeinue o?e aiaea naiuey ia?aaoaea a Aa?iaieth . Ioaoe
Ci?aa eoiee iaaieueoie aeii a i?eai?iaea Aa?eeia ,?acaae naae e noae
ianeaaeaeaoueny iaania/aiiie noa?inoueth.

A o?aoeaoiee ?eoa?ae ? Inoaaeea ee aeaeaeay ?inney eaeie-ieaoaeue neaae
a aai iaiyoe ? Iicaea ii ienae : “ Ai iia auei ia/oi oaeia , /oi
ianeieueei ioee/aei iaiy io ae?oaeo . ss ?iaeeeny ia THaeiii Eaaeaca , e
iaiy i?eaacee a Aa?eei nianai iaeaiueeei . Yoio oaeo ec iiae aeia?aoee y
anaaaea iiiiee … ss , iiaeao auoue , neeoeii ?onneee , y ?onneee aei
iicaa einoae …”

Ia?aua neiaa, eioi?ui iao/eeny ?eoa?ae auee ?onneea neiaa. Aei /aou?ao
eao ii ia ciae iaiaoeeiai ycuea. ?eoa?ae ?in ia ii aiaeai ?acaeoui. A
?aaeueiia o/eeeua iinooiee eiaaea aio eniieieeinue oanoue eao. A eeanna
aa?oiaiaeee, i?ineue o?oaeiui o/aieeii, oi?yiui e iaiineooiui, ia?aui
ia?ooeoaeai aeenoeeieeiu. E ia?yaeo n yoei ii?aaeae o/eoaeae aeoaieeie
iiciaieyie a enoi?ee e eeoa?aoo?a, oeeinioee e iauanoaiaaaeaiee. Ooo aio
ia auei ?aaiuo. N thiuo eao ?eoa?ae iiiai /eoae. Eieae ?acaeaeaaee
a?aieoeu ie?a a i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie . N?aaee aai ethaeiuo
ienaoaeae auee Aaoa, Oeeea?, Aeaioa. Anei?a ?eoa?ae ociaao i naiai
aeaith?iaeiii aeaaea- O?eae?eoa Ci?aa, eioi?ue iinayoee naay ?aai/aio
aeaeaeaieth. Aue o/aieeii e ni?aoieeii Ia?ena e Yiaaeuena. Iaeiaei
acaeyaeu aai iooea ?acei ioee/aeenue io acaeyaeia aeaaea. Ioaoe aue
oeie/iui iaoeeiiaeenoii. Aai eaeaaeii aue Aenia?e . Oaeea eae Aenia?e
, nicaeaee aaeeeoth Aa?iaineoth eiia?eth , a “ Aa?iaiey – i?aauoa anaai
! “ ?eoa?ae ia niaeaoaeny n iooeii, aio oioaeinue ana ciaoue i naiai
aeaaea. Ii oaeii noae iinoiyiiui /eaiii nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee. Auaae ia ieoeiaao, e aieiaoaeueii neooae i?ecuau e
naa?aeaieth nouanoaothuaai no?iy, ?anneacu i ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
?aaiethoeee 1905 aiaea a ?innee. Ii ia/eiae iiieiaoue: enoi?ey ia
oieueei oi, /oi i?ioei, enoi?ey oai?eony nae/an o anao ia aeacao.

Aeaonoai e thiinoue ?eoa?aea Ci?aa caeii/eeenue a aeie oeieueiuo
eaieeoe 1914 aiaea. Ia/aeanue Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia. Ii aue oiaaea aua
neeoeii thi, /oiau n?aco ?acia?aoueny a niunea yoiai o?aae/aneiai
niauoey. Ii aue ca?aaeai aeooii ?iiaioeee, ienae aunieiia?iua
oeeinioneea noeoe e ia/oae i iiaeaeaao . ?eoa?ae n/eoae, /oi /aeiaae
aeieaeai auoue i?eaeiaeueiui ia oieueei a iuneyo, ii e a iinooieao, e
/oi iiaeaea nouanoaoao ?aaee naiiai iiaeaeaa. E ainaiiaaeoeaoeeaoiee
?eoa?ae, oae e ia ieii/ea ?aaeueiia o/eeeua, aaaeeo ec aeiio ,
caienuaaaony aeia?iaieueoeai a aeaenoaothuoth a?ieth. Iinoaiaiii
?iiaioe/aneea iano?iaiey auaao?eaathony. ?yaeiaiai Ci?aa, neoaeauaai
eaaeie a?oeeea?ee , a?inatho a Aaeueaeth, aaea oaea ia/aeenue
iaeanoi/aiiua n?aaeaiey. Ouny/e oaeouo, eneaea/aiiuo, iioiee e?iae. Ana
yoi ia iiaei ia inoaaeoue neaae a aeooa thiioe. Aiineaaenoaee Ci?aa
iaieoao : “ Ia?aay ie?iaay aieia 1914-1918 aiaeia ieacaea aeoai/aeoaa
aeeyiea anth iith aeaeueiaeooth noaeueao. Anee au aeaaea o iaiy ia auei
au ieeaeeo ae?oaeo oaaaeaeaiee , iaeiie oieueei iaiaaenoe e yoie aieia
auei au aeinoaoi/ii , /oiau y noae eiiioienoii…”. O?e ?aiaiey – oaeia
eoia aieiu aeey Ci?aa . Ia o?iioa iiaeaee aeaa ethaeiuo a?aoa. Ii ia
oieueei yoi.

Aieia noaea aieueoie iieeoe/aneie e a?aaeaeaineie oeieie aeey Ci?aa .
caeanue ii iaoae ianoiyueo ae?ocae , eioi?ua ioe?uee aeaca ia iiiaia .
Iaeiei ec oaeeo ae?ocae aue noa?ue eaiaiuee ec Aaiao?aa , /eai
i?ionithca , ia?aue /aeiaae , eioi?ue i?yii neacae ?eoa?aeo , /oi aieia
auaiaeia eeoue eiia?eaeenoai . A 1915 aiaeo a aa?eeineii ainieoaea
Ci?aa nae?oaeeeny Y?eoii Ei??ainii. Ii ii/ai iieiaeua ethaee /eoaee
noeoe , ai?y/i ianoaeaeaee iieiaeaiea Aa?iaiee , aiai?eee i naiaiaea , i
ianoa /aeiaaea a iauanoaa , ia ioiioaiee e aeecie e i oii , /oi ioaeii
iinayoeoue naay neoaeaieth aaeeeie oeaee . A ae?oaii ainieoaea ii aeecei
nioaeny n nano?ie ieeina?aeey e aa iooeii-a?a/ii ,eioi?ua
iiaeaea?aeeaaee naiua oaniua nayce n iacaaeneiuie
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeie a?oiiaie. Ooo aia?aua ?eoa?ae oneuoae i Eaieia
, i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?aaiethoeeiiiii aeaeaeaiee , i iieeoe/aneeo ia?oeyo
a naiie Aa?iaiee. Aei/ue e ioaoe ioioii niaaaeaee ?aiaiiai nieaeaoa
eieaaie e iieeoe/aneeie a?ioth?aie.

Iieo/ea ioione ii ?aiaieth Ci?aa iinooiee ia iaaeeoeeineee oaeoeueoao
Aa?eeineiai oieaa?neoaoa – ia yoio oaa aai oieeioei nino?aaeaiea e
aea?oaai aieiu, ii oioae ia oaeaaoue, a aica?auaoue aeeciue, caei?iauea.
E ana-oaee anei?a ii oaaaeaeaaony, /oi iaaeeoeeia- ia aai iaeanoue. Aai
eioa?anoao iieeoeea e oieueei iieeoeea. N iaaeeoeeineiai ii ia?aoiaeeo
ia iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneee oaeoeueoao. Oaia?ue ianoieueiua eieae Ci?aa –
o?oaeu Ia?ena e Yiaaeuena, ia?aienea aeaith?iaeiiai aeaaea n ieie,
oeeinioneea ?aaiou Aaaaey. “ Ca ianeieueei ianyoeaa y onaiee iniiau
ia?enecia , oyniee nooue aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoiaea , i?eiaiaiiiai ia
i?aeoeea “.

Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey a ?innee i?iaoaeeea a ?eoa?aea iaauaaeoth
yia?aeth. Auai? aue naeaeai ?ac e iaanaaaea: ?aaiethoeeiiiay ?aaioa.
Caaoue e ai?ueaa e naa?aeaieth nouanoaothuaai no?iy… Ii anooiaao a
Eiiioienoe/aneoth ia?oeth Aa?iaiee. Ia/aeanue ia?oeeiay aeeciue . Ci?aa
nicaeaao e?oaeie n?aaee iao?inia. Ai a?aiy ainnoaiey o/anoaoao a
aeaiiino?aoeeyo . A a caoeouea – yecaiaiu, eaeoeee, nooaeai/aneea
noiaeee. A 24 aiaea Ci?aa ieai/eaaao oieaa?neoao- oaia?ue ii aeieoi?
ainoaea?noaaiii-i?aaiauo iaoe e nioeeieiaee. Ecaanoiinoue Ci?aa ?inea.
Oi auea ecaanoiinoue oiiiai aaeoaoi?a, ia?oeeiiai ?aaioieea aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeee. ?eoa?aea ciaee, e iaio oee nooaeaiou, ?aai/ea. A 1920
aiaeo ii noaiiaeony ?aaeaeoi?ii ia?oeeiie aacaou. A ?eoa?aea
iiyaeeanue iiaay no?anoue: aeo?iaeenoeea ! Ci?aa iiiai ieoao: aacaoa
ia?aiieiaia oeanoeeie iieeoe/aneeie noaoueyie. Ii anei?a aai
a?anoiauaatho e ioi?aaeytho a oth?ueio. Ioneaeaa n?ie ii aica?auaaony
iieiue i?aaeiaai yiooceacia . Auoiaeyo aai eieae ii iieeoieiaee,
nioeeieiaee . Oaia?ue ia iaai ia/eiatho niio?aoue eae ia
oai?aoeea-enneaaeiaaoaey. E niiaa aeoeaiay iieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
, neaaeee, i?aneaaeiaaiey. Ia yoio ?ac Ci?aa auioaeaeai eiiea?e?iaaoue.
Ia?oeeiua ae?ocuey i?aaeeaaatho aio iiaoaoue a ?inneth. Ci?aa n
?aaeinoueth niaeaoaaony. “Aaaeue oai iiy ?iaeeia”- aiai?eo ii.

A 1925 aiaeo Ci?aa noaiiaeony a?aaeaeaieiii NNN? e ooo aea anooiaao a
eiiioienoe/aneoth ia?oeth. Ii ?aaioaao ?aoa?aioii , iieeoe/aneei e
o/aiui nae?aoa?ai a einoeoooa Ia?enecia-eaieiecia. Yoa ?aaioa o?aaiaaea
ia oieueei y?oaeeoeee , ii e aieueoie oneae/eainoe , ioieiaea iiiai
a?aiaie. A aa/a?ii- eeoa iaiaoeeeo eiiioienoia , aaea ?eoa?aea eca?aee
ia?aui i?aaenaaeaoaeai i?aaeaiey. E oioy a i?aaeaiea aoiaeeo o?eaeoeaoue
/aeiaae , Ci?aa naiue aeoeaiue ec ieo.

A Iineaa Ci?aa ciaeiieony n Aeaoa?eiie Aeaenaiae?iaiie Iaeneiiaie .
Nia/aea iia aeaaaea aio o?iee ?onneiai ycuea , eioi?ui ?eoa?ae a oo
ii?o aeaaeae ia i/aiue oi?ioi. Iie iiae?oaeeeenue. Ae?oaeaa ia?a?inea a
ethaiaue. Aia?aua ?eoa?ae eniuoae aeoaieia /oanoai. Ii ano?aoee
aeaaooeo, eioi?ay iiieiaea aai. Eeoa?aoo?a, eneonnoai, iocuea – aio
noa?a, a eioi?ie iaa ?anoai?yeenue .

Iaeiaei Ci?aa ia ia?anoaao ?aaioaoue . Ca aeaa aiaea a aeo?iaeao
iaia/aoaii naiiaaeoeaoue na?ueaciuo enneaaeiaaiee: “ Iaoa?eaeueiia
iieiaeaiea i?ieaoa?eaoa a Aa?iaiee”, “Yeiiiie/aneay aeai?anney a
Aa?iaiee”, ”Iaoeeiiae-oaoeci a Aa?iaiee”. E iiiai, iiiai ae?oaeo. Ca yoe
aea aeaa aiaea iaienaiu iauaiiua ?aaiou , eioi?ua i?aayony naiiio aaoi?o
(/oi auaaao n iei ?aaeei) : “Yeiiiie/aneea noaouee Aa?naeueneiai ie?iiai
aeiaiai?a”, “ Iiaue aa?iaineee eiia?eaeeci”.

Ec iaiaoeeeo aacao ii ociaao , /oi aai ?aaiou iieo/eee oe?ieoth
ecaanoiinoue a Aa?iaiee. Ae?ocuey aa?oo eo ia aii?oaeaiea , a?aae
any/anee iaeeaatho aaoi?a a?ycueth.

Aea , yoi oiaea ai?ueaa. E ana-oaee Ci?aa iaaeiaieai niaie . Aeoeaiay
iaoo?a o?aaoao aeaenoaey. Noiyoue n a?aaii eeoeii e eeoeo , i?eieiaoue
i?yiia o/anoea a noaaoeao n oaie , eoi iinyaaao ia Niaaoneia
ainoaea?noai, – aio e /aio ii no?aieony.

A eeoaa iaiaoeeeo eiiioienoia ii ciaeiieony n oiaaeaoiei oaoii
niaaoneie ?acaaaeee- ssiii Ea?eiae/ai Aa?ceiui. Aa?ceio iii?aaeeanue
aeoeaiay iaoo?a Ci?aa. Ii iiiai ?anneacuaae ?eoa?aeo i iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
iieiaeaiee, caeioa?aniaae aai aeaeueiaainoi/iuie i?iaeaiaie. I?e
i/a?aaeiie ano?a/a n ssiii Ea?eiae/ai Ci?aa neacae:” ss caaieae
Aeaeueiei Ainoieii . Iioeeoa iaiy a Eeoae !”. ?eoa?ae Ci?aa noae aiaiiui
?acaaae/eeii. “ Aiaiiue ?acaaae/ee aeieaeai a niaa?oainoaa ciaoue
aiaiiia aeaei, – neacae Aa?cei . – Iiuoa i?ioeie aieiu oaia?ue
iaaeinoaoi/ii” E ?eoa?ae caiyeny aiaiiui aeaeii.

O?e aiaea aeecie a Eeoaa … *ai iie auee iaiieiaiu ? I?aaiecaoeeiiiie
?aaioie. Aaneiia/iuie iiacaeeaie. Ano?a/aie. Eco/aieai no?aiu. ?eoa?ae
aae iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth ?aaioo, ienae . Eco/ae yiiineee e
eeoaeneee ycuee. Ii neiaii i?aae/oanoaiaae , /oi ana yoi iiaeao
i?eaiaeeony a aoaeouai. Aai /aiiaeaiu auee aei ioeaca iaaeou iao/iuie
iaoa?eaeaie i Eeoaa. A e?oao eeoaeneeo aeo?iaeenoia ii oeeoe?iaae noeoe
ae?aaiaai iiyoa Ee Nyiuethia : “ ss enoiaeee no?aio ec e?ay a e?ae…
Aeaaii y ia aue aeiia, ii, eae anoa?ue ia ciatho ?icaeuoa eiiuea e
ueo…”

A Iaiue/aeo?ee ?acai?a/eaaeenue niauoey /?acau/aeiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
aaaeiinoe. “ Ioeaeaineee eioeeaeaio”, a ae?oaeie neiaaie – ieeoiaoeey
ssiiieae Iaiue/aeo?ee ia/aeanue 18 naioya?y 1931 aiaea. E eiioeo 1932
aiaea ii/oe ana aeaaiua ai?iaea e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua oceu Iaiue/aeo?ee
ieacaeenue a ?oeao yiiioeaa. Caiya Naaa?ioth Iaiue/aeo?eth , yiiineea
aienea noaee eiioeaio?e?iaaoueny ia aeaeueiaainoi/iie a?aieoea
Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Io i?aaiecaoeee Ci?aa o?aaiaaeanue i?aaeaeueiay iia?aoeaiinoue . E
?aaeeia?aiiu aani?anoaiii oee a Oeaio?. A yoi aaniieieiia a?aiy Ci?aa e
aai iiiiuieee iaoiaeeeenue ia ia?aaeiai e?aa niauoee.

A yiaa?a 1933 aiaea Ci?aa ioicaaee a Iineao. Ii auiieiee naith caaea/o.
Oeaio? caaeaaia?aiaiii aue eioi?ie?iaai i ?acaa?ouaathueony a Eeoaa
niauoeyo. Ci?aa i?aaeiieaaae, /oi iiaei yaeoueny i?e/eiie aai aiacaiiiai
auciaa a Iineao.

?eoa?ae ciae , /oi n i?eoiaeii Aeoea?a e aeanoe Aa?iaiey i?aa?auaaony a
iioaioeeaeueiiai i?ioeaieea iiia? iaeei. Aeoea? i?ecaae e
ainnoaiiaeaieth iieeoe/aneie e aiaiiie iiue Aa?iaiee, /oiau iioii
eniieueciaaoue yoo iiuue aeey caaiaaaiey Niaaoneiai Nithca. Oaeaea ii
ciae /oi, i?aayuea e?oae NOA, Aiaeee, O?aioeee oieeaee ssiiieth ia
aunooieaiea i?ioea Niaaoneiai Nithca. Ianoaiiaea ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea
iaino?eeanue aei e?aeiinoe. ssiiiey ioeacaeanue iiaeienaoue n Niaaoneei
Nithcii iaeo i iaiaiaaeaiee. Iia i?aa?auaeanue a iaeaieaa aa?iyoiiai
nithcieea o?aoueaai ?aeoa.

Eiaiii a oaeie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ianoaiiaea Ci?aa aica?auaaony a Iineao.
*oouea ?acaaae/eea aai ia iaiaioei. I?e i/a?aaeiie ano?a/a Aa?cei
neacae aio :” Iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue, eaeiau ieaiu Aa?iaiee e ssiiiee,
ioeoaea Niaaoneiio Nithco a?iceo aeaaiay iianiinoue. Yoi aoaeao
iia?aoeey “?aicae” , aa oeaeue – caueoa Niaaoneiai Nithca” .

– Ii/aio o iia?aoeee oaeia no?aiiia iacaaiea – “?aicae” -ni?inee Ci?aa.

– “?aicae” -cia/eo “?.C.”, a “?.C.” – yoi ?eoa?ae Ci?aa.

?eoa?ae iia au neacaoue, /oi i?iaeieaeeoaeueiay ?aaioa a Eeoaa ecio/eea
aai aeiiaoe, /oi ii ia/oae ana?ueac caiyoueny iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie
e /oi ii oieueei /oi aeaieeny ia Aeaoa?eia Iaeneiiaie. Eiaao /aeiaae
i?aai ia ee/iia n/anouea, ia niieieioth ?aaioo ?.. Aaaeue ii
oieueei-oieueei aa?ioeny.

Ii ii ie/aai ia neacae , aeaaea ia iaoio?eeny. Ooo ana ee/iia
ioiaeaeaaeinue ia aoi?ie ieai.

A 1933 aiaeo ?eoa?ae Ci?aa iiae aeaeii iaiaoeeiai aeo?iaeenoa
i?eacaeaao a ssiiieth- a no?aio n naiui aeanoeei a ie?a iieeoeaeneei
?aaeeiii . Aio /oi nai Ci?aa ienae ii yoiio iiaiaeo “O?oaeiinoue
ianoaiiaee caeanue ninoieo a oii , /oi aiiaua ia nouanoaoao
aaciianiinoe. Ie a eaeia a?aiy aeiy e ii/e au ia aa?aioe?iaaiu io
iieeoeaeneiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa. A yoii /?acau/aeiay o?oaeiinoue ?aaiou a
aeaiiie no?aia, a yoii i?e/eia oiai, /oi yoa ?aaioa oae aea?aeeo a
iai?a?uaiii iai?yaeaiee ”.

Ianeieueei eao Ci?aa iinayoee eco/aieth yeiiiieee, eoeueoo?u, enoi?ee
ssiiiee , aeaaeae yiiineei ycueii ,?acae?aeny a no?oeoo?a oicyenoaa, iia
?annoaeaeaoue i eiioeaio?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa; ia auee aeey iaai oaeiie e
acaeiiioiioaiey iiiiiieee, a oaeaea ana ithainu iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie
i?aayueie e?oaaie. A ssiiieth i?eaoae e?oiiue ainoieiaaae. “ O?iaaiue
iieo iiciaiee , iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaiou a ssiiiee, – ienae iicaeiaa
Ci?aa,- aue ieneieueei ia ieaea oiai, /oi aeaaaee aa?iaineea
oieaa?neoaou. Aua aoaeo/e a Eeoaa , y acyeny ca iaienaiea ianeieueeeo
noaoae i ssiiiee, n oai /oiau ninoaaeoue i iae iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea.”

Ii iia au n oniaoii aanoe ianeieueei eo?nia a oieaa?neoaoa, noaoue
ii/oaiiui o/aiui. Iia au… Anee au aai aeoeaiay iaoo?a ia o?aaiaaea
iaiaaeeaiiiai aeaenoaey ia aeaai ethaeae. A aunoei aeaaii ii aeaeae ie?
e aaciianiinoue Niaaoneiai Nithca . ?aaee yoiai noieei ioeacaoueny io
eaaeiaoiie aeecie o/aiiai, ?eneiaaoue nianoaaiiie aieiaie. “ Anee au iia
aeiaaeinue aeeoue a oneiaeyo ie?iiai iauanoaa e a ie?iii iieeoe/aneii
ie?oaeaiee, oi y au , ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, noae o/aiui. Ii e?aeiae ia?a,
y ciath ii?aaeaeaiii- i?ioanneth ?acaaae/eea y ia eca?ae au “.

A oaeeaeoaeueii ei?ioeee n?ie Ci?aa nicaeae a ssiiiee oi?ioi
caeiinie?e?iaaiioth ?acaaaeuaaoaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth. Iiae aai
?oeiaiaenoaii ?aaioaee aeaa a?oiiu iiaeiieueueeia iauae /eneaiiinoueth
35 /aeiaae.

I?aaiecaoeey Ci?aa iineea eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Eoi ninoaaeye aa
yae?i? Nai ?eoa?ae – ii iaoa?eineie eeiee ?onneee, ii iooeo iaiaoe;
Iaen Eeaocai – iaiaoe; A?aiei Aoeaee/ -thaineaa; Iaecaee Oiaecoie e
Ieyae Aoieo- yiiioeu. Ana iie eiaee iiuo iiaeiieueiie ?aaiou. *aou?a
eiiioienoa e iaeei, Iaecaee, oaaaeaeaiiue ia?eneno, ia ninoiyuee a
ia?oee. Ci?aa e Iaecaee auee ia oieueei oaeaioeeauie aeo?iaeenoaie, ii e
e?oiiuie o/aiuie – nioeeieiaaie e ainoieiaaaeaie, aaoi?aie ?yaea
enneaaeiaaiee. Aaeeeieaiiue eeiaaeno e aeo?iaeeno Aoeaee/;
ooaeiaeiee-eneonnoaiaaae Ieyae; ii?ye oi?aiaiai oeioa, iaea?aiiue
eiaeaia?-naiio/ea Eeaocai. Yoi auee ethaee oaaaeaeaiiua, i?aaeaiua
iauaio aeaeo, aanei?unoiua, naiiioaa?aeaiiua. Ia ca aeaiueae e iaa?aaeu
?eneiaaee aeeciueth “?aicae” e aai ni?aoieee. Aaia?ae Oeeeioae, – an
aia?eeaineie ?acaaaeee – n oaeeaeaieai eiinoaoe?iaae :”Aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia noieea Niaaoneiio Nithco. Iie aeaaea
iuoaeenue nie?aoeoue naie ?anoiaeu e i?eeacuaaee, /oiau /anoue aeioiaeia
io Eeaocaia oea a Oeaio? (?aaeeno Ci?aa a ea/anoaa i?ee?uoey nicaeae
i?eaueueioth oioioe?io)… Iaecaee , iai?eia? ieeiaaea ia iieo/ae ie
a?ioa aeey naay e oaeoe/anee oa?iae oauoee”. A aaia?ae Iaea?oo? , oao
Oeeeioae, aue ii?aaeai oie noiiie , eioi?oth o?aoee ia naay Ci?aa. “ Iie
aiaeeoaeue a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao iieo/aao aieueoa”, – eiinoaoe?iaae
aaia?ae.

Iiia/aeo a oieeeneie annioeeaoeee aeo?iaeenoia ?eoa?aea ano?aoeee
naea?aeaii (caeanue inoa?aaaeenue iaiaoeeeo aeo?iaeenoia) , ii
iinoaiaiii eaae ?anoaye. ?eoa?ae a iieeoe/aneea nii?u ia aaycuaaeny,
eiaaea aea i?ineee auneacaoue naia iiaiea auneacuaaeny. Ii iaeaaeae
aacioeai/iui iieeoe/aneei /ooueai: anyeee ?ac noaaee niaeua i?iaiicu, e
i?iaiicu ieacuaaeenue aa?iuie. ?a/ue aai ioee/aeanue eaeiie/iinoueth,
ia?aciinoueth. A iai auei ia/oi ?aniieaaathuaa ia ioe?iaaiiinoue,
aucuaathuaa iaaieueiia oaaaeaiea. E aai iaa?iieiio aieino noaee
i?eneooeaaoueny ana /aua e /aua. Aai noaouee, aei i?aaeaea ianuuaiiua
iiciaaaoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii, ?aciuoeaieyie iaae noaeueaaie ssiiiee,
niaea?aeauea /aoeea iieeoe/aneea auaiaeu, caiaoeee n?aco aea ia oieueei
a Aa?iaiee, ii e a ae?oaeo no?aiao. Ana iiiyee , /oi ia aeo?iaeenoneii
iaainaiaea aniuoioea iiaay caacaea. Oiaaea-oi e Ci?aa e iioyioeenue ,
no?aiynue auoaeeoue o iaai /oi-ieaoaeue aeey naay : aaaeue yoio /aeiaae
aue i?yii-oaee iaie/eai oeaiiaeoae eioi?iaoeeae.

Ieiei 160 enoi/ieeia ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee eniieueciaae Ci?aa.
N?aaee ieo: i?aiuea?-ieieno?, ieieno?u, aaia?aeu, e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiieee.
Aio oaeaeinue iieo/eoue ec iinieuenoaa Aa?iaiee a Oieei aaaeiaeoea
aiaiiua e iieeoe/aneea naaaeaiey. Ii noaiiaeony i?ann-aooaoa yoiai
iinieuenoaa e naiui aeeceei ae?oaii e niaaoieeii aa?iaineiai iinea.
Anooiaao a iaoeenoneoth ia?oeth.

A naiae ?aaioa “?aicae” e aai iiiiuieee ieeiaaea ia i?eaaaaee e
ianeeeth, oaioaaeo, iiaeeoio, aeeaa?neyi, oa??i?o e ae?oaei ia/anoiui
i?eaiai. Oniao aeayoaeueiinoe a?oiiu “?aicay” iaania/eaaea iiaaoi?neay
oaoiieiaey aeiau/e e ia?aaioee ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth
i?eaeoiae Ci?aa. Iiaeaaeythuea aieueoeinoai iaeaaaeueiuo nio?oaeieeia
niaaoneie nae?aoiie neoaeau, iaoiaeyueony ca ?oaaaeii n/eoaee: aeaaiia
iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth e iiauno?ae iai?aaeoue aa a Oeaio?- oai
?acaa?oony! O “?aicay” auea ae?oaay noaia : aeiauoue naaaeaiey,
i?iaa?eoue e ia?ai?iaa?eoue eo, i?iaiaeece?iaaoue, oaaaeeoueny a
aeinoiaa?iinoe e oae iioii niiauaoue a Iineao. Eae ienaee
niaoeeaeenou ec aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa NOA- ieeiaaea a enoi?ee ia
nouanoaiaaei noieue niaeie e oniaoiie ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.
Ca aiaeu ?aaiou a ssiiiee Ci?aa ia?aaeae a Iineao aan/eneaiiia
eiee/anoai aaaeiuo niiauaiee, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo iiaeaa?aaeinue n aai
noi?iiu aiaeeco e ouaoaeueiie i?iaa?ee. Aio iaeioi?ua ec aaaeiuo
niiauaiee iai?aaeaiiuo ei a Oeaio?: Aua a ethea 1940 aiaea ca iyoue
ianyoeaa aei ooaa?aeaeaiey Aeoea?ii “Ieaia Aa?aa?inna”- aee?aeoeau i
iieieaiiniie aieia i?ioea NNN? Ci?aa ia?aaeaaae niiauaiey i iiaeaioiaea
Oaoenoneie aa?annee. A iaa 1941 aiaea ii oeacae oi/ioth aeaoo
iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee ia Niaaoneee Nithc e eiee/anoai aeeaecee. Iaeiaei
yoe oeaiiua naaaeaiey, eae ie no?aiii, inoaaeyeenue aac aieiaiey e
ioi?aaeyeenue a a?oea. Ii/aio ? Ana aeaei a oii, /oi Ci?aa ia
aeiaa?yee. Ia aeiaa?ye Noaeei, eioi?iio Ci?aa aue ecaanoai. Noaeei
aiyeny noieeiiaaiey n iiuiui iaoeenoneei ?aeoii e noa?aeny ia aeaoue
iiaiaea aa?iaineiio i?aaeoaeuenoao aeey aa?annee ia Ainoie. Ethaua
naaaeaiey i oii, /oi iaioeu aioiayony aunooieoue i?ioea NNN?, ii
?anniao?eaae eae aeaceioi?iaoeeth caiaaeiuo aea?aeaa, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue Aaeeeia?eoaiee : ei, iie, auaiaeii auei noieeiooue Niaaoneee
Nithc n Aa?iaieae, /oiau ioaea/ue io naay cia/eoaeueiua neeu aa?iaooa e
nouanoaaiii iaeaa/eoue naia iieiaeaiea. Iineieueeo Ci?aa i?iaeieaeae
oii?ii aeieacuaaoue naie naaaeaiey Noaeei ca/eneee aai a aeaieieee: ii
iaaa?iyea ?aaioaao ia eaeoth-ieaoaeue eiia?eaeenoe/aneoth ?acaaaeeo.
Auee aaeaia nie?auaiu e aac oiai ne?iiiua aeaiaaeiua anneaiiaaiey ia
?aaioo oieeeneie ?aceaeaioo?u. Iia ioaeaeaeanue ia auiieiaiea
aoi?inoaiaiiuo caaeaiee, ia aaneiia/iua i?iaa?ee e ia?ai?iaa?ee,
iieo/aiiuo ath iaoa?eaeia. Ci?aa iuouae ia oieueei neaaeeo eaiiaioae –
yiiineie eiio??acaaaeee, ii e eieueoei iiaeic?aiee a Oeaio?a. Io
oi?ioi, ionoue yiiioeu aaaeoo ioioo – yoi a eiioea eiioeia iiiyoii e
iaecaaaeii. Ii naie? Ca /oi? !

E eaeei aea ia?acii ?aaae?iaae Ci?aa ia oi, /oi niiauaiey n
eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiie aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeeae inoaaeyeenue
aac aieiaiey e ioi?aaeyeenue a a?oea? Ii n/eoae, /oi i?iecioea eaeay-oi
/oaeiaeuiay ioeaea. Aio /oi aniiieiaao aai aeeaeaeoee iiiiuiee – ?aaeeno
Iaen Eeaocai: ”Aaaeue iu aua ca ianeieueei ianyoeaa aei iaiaaeaiey
Aa?iaiee ia NNN? niiauaee, /oi o a?aieoeu Niaaoneiai Nithca
nin?aaeioi/aii ii iaiueoae ia?a 150 aeeaecee e /oi aieia ia/iaony a
na?aaeeia ethiy. Iu iieo/eee no?aiioth ?aaeeia?aiio, a eioi?ie
aiai?eeinue, /oi aiciiaeiinoue iaiaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyaony Oeaio?o
iaaa?iyoiie. ?eoa?ae aue aia naay. Ii anei/ee, eae anaaaea, eiaaea
neeueii aieiiaaeny, e aineeeeioe :” Yoi oae neeoeii!”. Ii i?ae?anii
niciaaae, eaeea ia?iiiua iioa?e iiianao Niaaoneee Nithc, anee
naiaa?aiaiii ia iiaeaioiaeony e io?aaeaieth oaea?a”.

Aaconeiaii , ii ia iia ia ciaoue i noaeeineeo ?ai?anneyo a Nithca. I
oii, /oi iie oe?iei cao?iioee eiiaiaeiaaiea E?aniie A?iee, ?oeiaiaenoai
niaaoneie ?acaaaeee , iiiaeo iia?aoeaiuo ?aaioieeia,
?acaaae/eeia-iaeaaaeia. Aaaeue ca ?oaaaeii e, a /anoiinoe, a ssiiiee, i
iineianeeo noaeaaiuo i?ioeannao , oioaeueiuo /enoeao oiaaea ienaee
iiiai. Cae ii e i ia?aaaae/eeao – e?oiiuo ?aaioieeao niaaoneie
?acaaaeee. E iaeuecy eneeth/eoue, /oi o Ci?aa aicieeaee iunee i oii, /oi
e aio ia ecaaaeaoue o?aae/aneie noaeueau iiiaeo niaaoneeo ?acaaae/eeia,
aacaeaeinoii ?anno?aeyiiuo eee a?ioaiiuo ia aeeeoaeueiua n?iee a eaaa?y,
anee au ii aa?ioeny a Niaaoneee Nithc.

Ii “?aicae” i?iaeieaeae /anoii auiieiyoue naie aeiea. Ia aa?yo? Ii
iaeaeao iiaua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, iainii?eiua oaeou! Ii canoaaeo Oeaio?
iiaa?eoue! AEeciue nei?i iiaeoaa?aeeea i?aaioo “?aicay” . Iaiaaeaiea
Aa?iaiee i?iecioei a oio aea aeaiue e /an, i eioi?uo aiai?ee Ci?aa. Aio
ii/aio niiauaiey Ci?aa iinea 22 ethiy iaiaaeeaiii oee a oiae.
Eioi?iaoeey “?aicay” i oii, /oi ssiiiey ia anooieo a aieio i?ioea
Niaaoneiai Nithca nua?aea iaiaeoth ( anee ia ?aoathuoth ) ?ieue a
i?eiyoee Noaeeiui ?aoaiey ia?aa?ineoue naaaeea, oi?ioi iao/aiiua
aeeaecee n Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e Neae?e iiae Iineao. Yoa eioi?iaoeey auea
?aaiioeaiia iiiaei aeeaeceyi. A na?aaeeia 1941 aiaea Ci?aa noiae
aeiauoue naaaeaiey eneeth/eoaeueiie aaaeiinoe: ssiiiey nin?aaeioi/eaaao
neeu aeey aieiu ia Oeoii ieaaia e aioiaeo iaiaaeaiea ia aia?eeaineoth
aaco a Ia?e-Oa?ai?a. Eae oaia?ue auynieeinue, ii iinoaaee ia ea?oo
aeeciue naith e naieo iiiiuieeia, /oiau iiii/ue Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai, a
eioi?uo oaea oiaaea aeaeae iioaioeeaeueiiai nithcieea NNN? a ai?ueaa
i?ioea aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee. Caeanue iu aeaeei Ci?aa ia oieueei eae
niaaoneiai ?acaaae/eea, ii e eae aoiaienoa , ai?oea ca ie? ai anai
ie?a.

Ca aiaeu ?aaiou “?aicae” iieacae naay iai?aacieaeaiiui ianoa?ii
eiinie?aoeee. Aio ii/aio aai i?aaiecaoeee oaeaeinue ii/oe ainaiue eao
ecaaaeaoue ?aciaea/aiey, ianiio?y ia ieioioth neaaeeo, eioi?ay yiiineay
eiio??acaaaeea onoaiiaeea ca iei e aai nio?oaeieeaie. Iaeiaei eieueoei
aie?oa Ci?aa noyaeaaeinue ana ooaea. Aei neo ii? inoathony iaauyniaiiuie
ana ianoiyoaeuenoaa i?iaaea a?oiiu Ci?aa.

Ii ia iie acaeyae, ioiioaiea Noaeeia e ?oeiaiaenoaa niaaoneie ?acaaaeee,
a oae aea oio oaeo, /oi iinea a?anoa Ci?aa ia auei aeaaea iiiuoie aai
inaiaiaeeoue, iaoaeeeaaao ia iuneue, /oi ii aieueoa noae ia ioaeai
niaaoneiio ?oeiaiaenoao, e aai i?inoi naeaee yiiineei aeanoyi . Aaaeue
yoi oiaea oaeo, /oi Aa?ey, iaiaaeaeaaoee Ci?aa, iinea aai i?iaaea
ioua?aeny ia aai aeaia : iia auea nineaia a ?aeii E?aniiy?nea, aaea
oia?ea (eee iiaeaea) a 1943 aiaeo.

A oth?ueia Ci?aa i?iaue aieueoa 3 eao. Noa?aynue caoyiooue a?aiy, ia?aue
ianyoe Ci?aa aiiaua ie/aai ia aiai?ee. I?aaaea, ii n aieueoei aieiaieai
auneooeaae neaaeiaaoaeae: oioae ciaoue, /oi oaea ei ecaanoii. Ia/aeenue
iuoee. Ia ana ecoaa?noaa Ci?aa ioaa/ae oieiaeiie oeuaeie. Ii ia aiyeny
aiee, aaaeue iaiaei a?aiaie iio?aoee ia oi, /oiau eco/eoue ana
?aciiaeaeiinoe yiiineeo iuoie, e ca?aiaa iiaeaioiaeoueny e iei. Ai
a?aiy neaaenoaey Ci?aa aeoiae i oii, eae nianoe naie naieo ni?aoieeia,
eae niya/eoue eo o/anoue. Ii i?eieaeae cia/aiea eaaeaeiai, naiaeee aai e
ioeth. Anth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii acye ia naay. A oth?ueia, a caoai a
eaia?a nia?oieeia Ci?aa oaeeaeye naiei iiaaaeaieai: noieeei, niieieiui,
oaa?aiiui. Eaeaeiinoue i?eaeaaaea neeo a aai iineaaeiae ai?ueaa, eiaaea
ana oaea auei ?aoaii e inoaaaeinue aei eiioea nio?aieoue naith /anoue e
aeinoieinoai. Iaei auoue aa?iai i?e aeecie, ioaeii oeoe ec aeecie n
iiaeiyoie aieiaie. Aianoi ienueiaiiuo iieacaiee ?eoa?aea Ci?aa
neaaeiaaoaee iieo/eee ainiiieiaiey, ?aciuoeaiey, caaauaiea /aeiaaea
eceaaaaoaai enoi?eth naiae aeecie. Ii aue eaciai 7 iiya?y 1944 aiaea, a
aeaiue ,eioi?ue yaeyaony i?acaeieeii aeey eaaeaeiai eiiioienoa. ?eoa?ae
Ci?aa ano?aoee nia?oue n auniei iiaeiyoie aieiaie. “Aea cae?aanoaoao
Niaaoneee Nithc ! Aea cae?aanoaoao E?aniay A?iey! “ – auee iineaaeiea
neiaa Ci?aa . Iie auee i?iecianaiu ii-?onnee.

?eoa?ae Ci?aa aue aeaenoaeoaeueii eneeth/eoaeueiie ee/iinoueth.
Oaeaioeeaue ?acaaae/ee, niiniaiaeoee aeo?iaeeno, i?ici?eeaue aiaeeoee –
Ci?aa ia oieueei aue /aeiaaeii eneeth/eoaeueiie ioaaae e ioaeanoaa,
aunieiai eioaeeaeoa, aeoaieeo e ?aciinoi?iiieo ciaiee. A iaeiie ec aieao
ii ii/oe n aoi?enoe/iie eaeiie/iinoueth ii?aaeaeee nouiinoue naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe: ”I?ioanney- eioaeeeaaio. I?ecaaiea -ia?oeeiay ?aaioa”.

I ?eoa?aea Ci?aa nio?aieeenue ienueiaiiua ainiiieiaiey, ethaeae
?aaioaaoeo n iei. Oaia?ue iu iiaeai eae au eo aeacaie acaeyiooue ia
Ci?aa, ?acaaaeaoue nae?ao aai iaayiey, aicaeaenoaey ia ni?aoieeia.
A?aiei Aoeaee/ iocuaaeny i naiai ae?oaa oae: “ Iu anaaaea ano?a/aeenue
eae oiaa?eue, naiaiaeiua io eaeeo au oi ie auei aeenoeeieeia?iuo
oi?iaeueiinoae. Ci?aa ieeiaaea ia i?eeacuaae. Ii i?inoi oaaaeaeae ian a
oii, /oi ioaeii naeaeaoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, /oi ai aoi?oth, eee
?aeiiaiaeiaae oiio eee eiiio ec ian iaeeo/oee iooue ?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiie
caaea/e, eee ni?aoeaae iaoa iiaiea , eae iinooieoue a oii eee eiii
neo/aa. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe Eeaocai e y auee eeoue niciaoaeueiuie
nio?oaeieeaie, e iu /anoi aeaenoaiaaee ii naiaio oniio?aieth. Oai ia
iaiaa a oa/aiee iineaaeieo aeaayoe eao, ca eneeth/aieai iaeiiai eee
aeaoo neo/aaa, eiaaea Ci?aa auoiaeee ec ?aaiiaaney, ii, eae i?aaeei,
ieeiaaea ia aue oi?iaeenoii, e aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea aue ?anno?iai e
na?aeeo, ii i?inoi ia?auaeny e iaoae iieeoe/aneie niciaoaeueiinoe e
/oanoaai ae?oaeau e iaio, ia i?eaaaay e eaeei-eeai ae?oaei oi?iai
aeaaeaiey ia ian. Ii ieeiaaea ia caioaeaae ae?oaeo e ieeiaaea ia
iinooiae oae, /oiau aai aeaenoaey iiaeii auei enoieeiaaoue eae oa?ico
eee ia?auaiea e oi?iaeueiui aeenoeeieeia?iui iieiaeaieyi. Yoi
e?anii?a/eai aiai?eo i oii, /oi iaoa a?oiia iineea aeia?iaieueiue
oa?aeoa? “.

Iaecaee e Ieyae i?aeeiiyeenue ia?aae oiii Ci?aa, aai y?oaeeoeeae,
oiaieai eaaei ?acae?aoueny a naiuo caiooaiiuo aii?inao aiaoiae e
aioo?aiiae iieeoeee ainoaea?noa, ia?aae aai aanno?aoeai e
oaaaeaeaiiinoueth. Ii eo iiaieth, ia?aae iai?aeeiiiie eiaeeie Ci?aa aue
aanneeai naiue eciu?aiiue oi; Ci?aa oiae ainieouaaoue iaiaayc/eai, aac
?eoi?eee e a?iieeo o?ac; ii canoaaeye aeoiaoue e iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeeoue
e oai auaiaeai, e eaeei ?aiueoa i?eoae nai, aiaeece?oy ianoaiiaeo.

Eiia/ii, Ci?aa aue auaeathuaeny ee/iinoueth , iaaeaeaiiie
eneeth/eoaeueiuie ea/anoaaie . Ii Ci?aa aue e i?inoi /aeiaaeii, ni
naienoaaiiuie iaueiiaaiiui ethaeyi neaainoyie e iaaeinoaoeaie. Ii,
iai?eia?, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao oiai aea Eeaocaia, ia i?i/ue aue auieoue e
naaa a yoii ia ioeacuaae. Ii ethaee aeaiuei – e o iaai eo auei iiiai,
iiaeao auoue /a?an/o? iiiai. Ii oaeou anoue oaeou, a eaiiaioae
aanno?anoii caoeene?iaaea, /oi Ci?aa ca a?aiy i?aauaaiey a ssiiiee
ano?a/aeny n o?aiy aeanyoeaie i?aaenoaaeoaeueieoe i?ae?aniiai iiea. Aai
ca yoi inoaeaeaee.

ss aea oaaaeaeai: ii niaoeeaeueii eniieueciaae ee/eio aeiiaeoaia,
auieaioe, ?oaaoa-ia?iy, /oiau iaaeaaeiae i?ee?uoue naay. Eoi iiaeoiaao ,
/oi /aeiaae oaeeo “neaauo ea/anoa” iiaeao na?ueacii caieiaoueny
?acaaaeeie?

Ci?aa ioeaaeny e niiiaaaeny. E iai anai yoii ioaeii ciaoue, /oiau aua
aeoaaea iiiyoue aaee/ea iiaeaeaa ?acaaae/eea.

Ia iie acaeyae, o?aaaaeey aeecie ?eoa?aea Ci?aa ninoiyea a oii, /oi ii
aue aaccaaaoii i?aaeai aeaeo nioeeaeecia, anai na?aeoeai aa?ee a aai
aeaai?iaeiua oeaee. Ci?aa ai?ieny ca aaciianiinoue Niaaoneiai Nithca, a
eioi?ii, eae ii n/eoae, inouanoaeythony ia i?aeoeea nioeeaeenoe/aneea
eaeaaeu, a iineieueeo aieueooth /anoue naiae aeecie i?iaae ca i?aaeaeaie
NNN? ia iia aii/eth iaaethaeaoue, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo ia naiii aeaea.

AEAEEIA?AOEss

1. Aieeia O.Ae. Iiaeaea ?eoa?aea Ci?aa . , 2-a ecae , I., 1981

2. Eieanieeia I. N. Oaeei aue ?eoa?ae Ci?aa . I., 1965

3. Eieanieeiaa I.A. , Eieanieeia I.N. ?eoa?ae Ci?aa . 3-a ecae

I., 1980

4. Ei?ieueeia TH. Niaa?oaiii nae?aoii . I., 1994

5. Nieaeaou iaaeaeeiiai o?iioa ., Noaouey *a?iyaneiai A. O?ieiie iiaeaea
?aicay. I., 1994

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