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Политическая система Англии

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Iineaaeiyy /aoaa?oue XIX a. I?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeey Aiaeee ia?aoiaeiue
ia?eiae e eiia?eaeecio. Ia ia?aue acaeyae iiaei iieacaoueny, /oi aa
iieiaeaiea eae ie?iaie aea?aeaau ia eciaieeinue. Oai ia iaiaa oaea
iiaeii ?acee/eoue iiaua oaiaeaioeee a ie?iaii ?acaeoee. Iiaeieiathony
iieiaeua eiaeono?eaeueiua aea?aeaau – Aa?iaiey e NOA. Iie auno?i ?aoony
aia?aae, E Aiaeey ana aieueoa e aieueoa ionoaao io ieo ii oaiiai ?inoa
i?iiuoeaiiinoe , a yoi icia/aao, /oi nei?i aa ie?iaay i?iiuoeaiiay
iiiiiieey aeieaeia aoaeao oeoe a i?ioeia. Aiaeiae/iia iieiaeaiea
iaaethaeaeinue e ai aiaoiae oi?aiaea. Na?ueaciia aeeyiea ieacae ia
yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea Aiaeee a iineaaeiae o?aoe XIX a. Aeeeoaeueiue
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, ?anoyioaoeeny n iaaieueoeie ia?a?uaaie ii/oe ia 20
eao. Yoi aue naiue i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue e aeoaieee e?ecen, /a?ac eioi?ue
eiaaea-eeai i?ioiaeeea Aiaeey. I?iiuoeaiiue e?ecen nii?iaiaeaeaeny
e?ecenii naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Aeey i?eia?a: i?iecaiaenoai /oaoia aianoi
50 % ie?iaie aeiau/e, eae yoi auei aua a 60-a aiaeu ninoaaeyei e eiioeo
aaea ieiei 25 % , o.a. aeiey Aiaeee a ie?iaii oicyenoaa ca 30 eao
nie?aoeeanue a aeaa ?aca. Iniaaiii o?aaiaeiui auei oi, /oi iaaeaea aeiey
ie?iaiai yenii?oa Aiaeee.

E na?aaeeia 80-o aiaeia noaei niaa?oaiii ynii, /oi naiui neeueiui
eiieo?aioii Aiaeee yaeyaony auno?i ?anoouay Aa?iaiey. Eeaea?
eeaa?aeueiie ia?oee ?icaa?e aiai?ee, /oi : « Oi?aiaey Aiaeee ia
ia?anoaao oiaiueoaoueny e ana oi, /oi iu oa?yai, a aeaaiie naiae /anoe
aeinoaaony Aa?iaiee». Iaeiia?aiaiii oae ?ino aa eieiieaeueiuo aeaaeaiee.
Ca 40 eao 1860-1899 a.a. ieiuaaeue aiaeeeneeo eieiiee aic?inea
eieinnaeueii: n 2,5 iei.ea.ieeue aei 9,5 iei.ea.ieeue , n ianaeaieai
nauoa 300 iei./aeiaae. A oi aea a?aiy Aiaeey neeueii ionoaaaea
oaoie/anee. E?oiiue aiaeeeneee enoi?ee Yici? aiai?eo, /oi : «iaaeaiea
ecia?aoaoaeueneiai aaiey iinea 1886 a. Auei niaa?oaiii iio?ynathua». N
1886- ii 1900 a. Auei naeaeaii oieueei o?e e?oiiuo ioe?uoey % ia?iaay
oo?aeia, iiaaiaoe/aneee iaiae e Oiiania niinia i?iecaiaenoaa /oaoia.
Ana ecia?aoaiey ooee ec Aiaeee a ae?oaea no?aiu – NOA e Aa?iaieth.
Eiaiii i?eiaiaiea Oiianiaa niiniaa a Aa?iaiee auaeaeioei /a?ioth
iaoaeeo?aeth Aa?iaiee ia ia?aia ianoi a ie?a. A nayce n yoeie
yeiiiie/aneeie ia?aiaiaie oeaio? oyaeanoe iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu,
iniiaiia aieiaiea aiaeeeneie ao?aeoacee ia?aiineony a yoio ia?eiae n
aioo?aiieo i?iaeai ia i?iaeaiu aiaoiaiieeoe/aneea e eiia?neea. Eiia?ey
noaea iiaeie, eaeie-oi iaieae. Enoi?eee ieooo i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
eiia?neea oaiu. Iie caieiathony ia noieueei aa i?ioeui, neieueei aa
aoaeouei. A 1883 a.iiyaeyaony eieaa i?ioanni?a Neeee iiae iacaaieai
«?anoe?aiea Aiaeee». Yoa eieaa a eiioea XIX aaea auea ianoieueiie eieaie
aiaeeeneeo aeayoaeae. Ia?iiiua eieiieaeueiua aeaaeaiey iaania/eaaee
aiaeeeneie ao?aeoacee aunieoth i?eaueue ca n/ao aeaoaaiai nu?uey,
aa?aioe?iaaiiiai ?uiea nauoa iaeioi?uo oeiia i?iaeoeoeee
(oeii/aoiaoiaaeiua oeaie e ae?.) e ana a aieueoae noaiaie ca n/ao auaica
eaieoaea.

A 1886 aiaeo e aeanoe i?eoee eiina?aaoi?u ai aeaaa n ei?aeii Nieuenaa?e.
Nieuenaa?e i?ienoiaeee ec noa?eiiie a?enoie?aoe/aneie naiuee Naneeae, ec
eioi?ie auoei iiiai aiaeeeneeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeayoaeae. Ii/oe ia
aeaaaeoeaoue eao n o?aoeaoiei ia?a?uaii aeanoue iiiaea a ?oee
eiina?aaoi?ia. Nieuenaa?e n/eoae, /oi Aiaeeae iiaeii oi?aaeyoue aac
?eneiaaiiuo yenia?eiaioia. Aeaaiia aieiaiea aai eaaeiao iai?aaeye a
noa?o aiaoiae iieeoeee. Eiaiii ia aiaeu aai oi?aaeaiey i?eoiaeeony oio
ia?eiae aiaoiae iieeoeee, eioi?ue iacuaatho ia?eiaeii «aeanoyuae
ecieyoeee». Yoe aiaeu auee aiaeaie oi?ie?iaaiey O?ienoaaiiiai e
O?aiei-?onneiai nithca. Aiaeey oi?iaeueii ia i?eiueaea ie e iaeiiio ec
ieo, inoaaaynue eae au a noi?iia io oao nii?ia, eioi?ua i?ioiaeeee ia
eiioeiaioa. Aeey iaa yoi auei oaeiaiia iieiaeaiea a?aeo?a, eiaaea iia
iiaea a ethaia a?aiy n auaiaeie aeey naay aiaoaoueny a oio eee eiie
aa?iiaeneee nii?. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoi ia auei iieiaeaiea
iaeo?aeeoaoa, a ia?eiae aiaei-aa?iaineie ae?oaeau, iiiu?aiea Aa?iaiee e
eieiieaeueiie yeniainee. Oaeei iooai Aiaeey no?aieeanue eniieueciaaoue
Aa?iaieth eae i?ioeaiaan ?innee e O?aioeee, n eioi?uie iia iaoiaeeeanue
a ninoiyiee ai?ueau. Aeaaea eeaa?aeu oiaaea auee ca ae?oaeao n
Aa?iaieae.

A iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea XIX aaea Aiaeey i?eia?aea aanueia aieueoea
eieiieaeueiua oa??eoi?ee. E?oiiaeoei oa??eoi?eaeueiui caoaaoii Aiaeee ia
aceaoneii iaoa?eea auei i?eniaaeeiaiea e aiaeeeneei aeaaeaieyi Ae?iu
(1885 a.) , a 1887 aiaeo aiaee/aia caoaaoeee aanue Ieaeeneee iieoino?ia.
N caoaaoii a 1876 aiaeo ino?iaa Nieio?a (i?e auoiaea ec E?aniiai ii?y a
Eiaeeeneee ieaai) e a 1877 aiaeo ino?iaa Ai?iai Aiaeey caaa?oeea
nicaeaiea nenoaiu ii?neeo iii?iuo ioieoia ia iooe ec Aa?iiu ia Aeaeueiee
Ainoie. Aeaaiie a?aiie eieiieaeueiie ai?ueau a eiioea XIX aaea yaeeanue
Ao?eea. Caeanue aeaaiuie i?ioeaieeaie auee aeey Aiaeee Aa?iaiey e
O?aioeey. Ai?ueaa ca oa??eoi?ee a Ao?eea noieeioea Aiaeeth n Aa?iaieae.
Ioeacaaoenue i?eciaoue aiaeeeneea i?aaa ia yoo oa??eoi?eth, Aenia?e
iauyaee ia aiiaenee THai-Caiaaeiie Ao?eee, aucaaa yoei iaaeiaieuenoai a
Aiaeee. No?aiynue iauaaeeieoue naie aeaaeaiey a Ainoi/iie Ao?eea,
i?aaeoaeuenoai Nieuenaa?e caeeth/eei a 1890 aiaeo n Aa?iaieae
niaeaoaiea: iii iieo/eei Caiceaa? e ino?ia Iaiao, onooiea iaioeai
iaaieueoie ino?iaie Aaeueaieaiae a Naaa?iii ii?a. Ianiio?y ia ?ino
aiaei-aa?iaineeo i?ioeai?a/ee a nayce n ai?ueaie ca eieiiee aiaeeeneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai i?iaeieaeaei n/eoaoue naiei aeaaiui i?ioeaieeii
O?aioeeth. Aeaoiy niaeaoaieyie 1887 aiaea Aiaeey aeeth/eeanue a
o?ienoaaiiue nithc Aa?iaiee, Eoaeee e Aano?i-Aaia?ee e iaycuaaeanue
aianoa n ieie caueuaoue noaoon eai a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a. I?aaeiieaaaaiuie
i?ioeaieeaie yoie eiaeeoeee auee O?aioeey e ?inney. Iaino?aiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?ioeai?a/ee ia ii/aa ai?ueau ca eieiiee iiaoaeeei
aiaeeeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1889 aiaeo i?iaanoe /a?ac ia?eaiaio caeii i
oeioa, a neeo eioi?iai Aiaeey aeieaeia auea nio?aiyoue ia?aaan nee ia
ii?a ia aeaoiy e?oiiaeoeie ii?neeie aea?aeaaaie O?aioeeae e ?inneae.
Caeii 1889 aiaea iieiaeee ia/aei aiiea ii?neeo aii?oaeaiee e
niinianoaiaae aeaeueiaeoaio iaino?aieth iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iieiaeaiey.

Ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey aieiaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia aiaoieo
aii?inao ano?a/aea iiiiceoeeth aioo?e eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee. A ia?oee
auee ethaee , eioi?ua i?aaeoniio?eoaeueii o?aaiaaee io Nieuenaa?e e
ae?oaeo eeaea?ia ia?aeeth/aiey aieiaiey ia?oee e aioo?aiiei aii?ina,
/oiau aeeeoaeueii oaea?aeaoue iannu iiae naiei aeeyieai. A aeey yoiai
ioaeia auea aeaiaaiaey e aieueoay aeaeinoue, /ai aei yoiai i?iyaeyea
ia?oey.

*anoue eiina?aaoi?ia n/eoaea, /oi ia?oey oi?e aeieaeia ia?ano?ieoueny.
?ai?aaiecaoeeth ia?oee a naie ?oee acye ?aiaeieueo *a?/eeeue. Eae a 70-a
aiaeu Aeae.*aiaa?eai ia?ano?iee eeaa?aeueioth ia?oeth ia iiauo ia/aeao,
oae e ?.*a?/eeeue ?aoee a ia/aea 80-o aiaeia ia?ano?ieoue ia?oeth
eiina?aaoi?ia ii oeio eieona, o.a. ianniaoth ia?oeeioth i?aaiecaoeeth.
Oae eae a 1886 a ii oaea/ii i?aaieciaae auai?u aeey eiina?aaoeaiie
ia?oee, ii aue i?eaea/ai a eaaeiao ia aeaeiue iino ieieno?a oeiainia.
Anooiea a i?aaeoaeuenoai *a?/eeeue iio?aaiaae e iiaie i?ia?aiiu,
naiaeeaoaeny e aioo?aiiei ?aoi?iai, eioi?ua iiiiaee au auaeoue ea?ou ec
?oe ?aaeeeaeia, a oaeaea e aaaaeaieth i?ioaeoeeiiecia. A eaaeiaoa
aicieeea ino?ay, oioy e e?aoeia?aiaiiay ai?ueaa, caeii/eaoayny
ii?aaeaieai *a?/eeey, o.a. a?oiiu oi?e-aeaiie?aoia. Aei neo ii?
aiaeeeneea enoi?eee n/eoatho, /oi aeaaiaea?y yoiio aeaaaeoeaoue eao
i?aaeaiey eiina?aaoi?ia auee ia?eiaeii ?aaeoeee. Iaeiaei i?aaeoaeuenoai
iioei ia iaeioi?ua ?aoi?iu. N?aaee caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ia?ii?eyoee,
inouanoaeaiiuo eiina?aaoi?aie, aeaeiaeoaa ianoi caieiaea ?aoi?ia
ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey, i?iaaaeaiiay a 1888 aiaeo. Aei 1888 aiaea
oi?aaeaiea ianoiuie aeaeaie iaoiaeeeinue a ?oeao oa?eoia e ie?neeo
noaeae, iacia/aaiuo ec ianoiuo iiiaueeia. Yoei caeiiii a a?aonoaao auee
nicaeaiu ecae?aaiua niaaou a?aonoa, e auai?ai niaaoia auee aeiiouaiu ana
eeoea, eiaaoea i?aaa aieina i?e auai?ao a ia?eaiaio, e e?iia oiai,
aeaiueiu noa?oa 30 eao. A aaaeaiee niaaoa iaoiaeeeenue oaeea aii?inu eae
nai? iaeiaia, ?anoiaeiaaiea n?aaenoa ia ianoiua ioaeaeu, ia oeieu,
ainieoaee, iiiiuue aaaeiyeai e o.ae.

A oii aea 1888 aiaeo auea i?iaaaeaia ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey Eiiaeiiii. Aanue
ai?iae aue ?acaeaeai ia 59 ie?oaia, ii 2 aeaiooaoa io eaaeaeiai
ie?oaa aoiaeeee a Noiee/iue niaao- oeaio?aeueiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue i?aai
noieeoeu. E yoei aeaiooaoai i?eaaaeyeinue 19 ieaea?iaiia, eee
niaaoieeia, ecae?aaiuo ?acee/iuie i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuie ei?ii?aoeeyie e
oaeei ia?acii, iauaa eiee/anoai /eaiia Noiee/iiai niaaoa ninoaaeyei 137
/aeiaae. Noiee/iue niaao aaaeae anaie aii?inaie oi?aaeaiey ai?iaeii e
ai?iaeneei oicyenoaii. Iaeiaei ec aai aaaeaiey ecuiaeenue oi?aaeaiea
Neoe, ?anii?yaeaiea iieeoeeae e eiio?ieue iaae niaaaeaieai noieeoeu
aacii e aiaeie.

A 1891 aiaeo eiina?aaoi?u i?eiyee Caeii i aanieaoiii ia/aeueiii iao/aiee
aeaoae. Yoi auei i?iaeeeoiaaii caaioie i eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ao
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Eae yoi aiiaua naienoaaiii eiina?aaoi?ai, i?aaeoaeuenoai
i?eaioe?iaaeinue i?aeiouanoaaiii ia ?ai?anneaiua ia?u eae a E?eaiaeee ,
oae e a naiie Aiaeee. Anei?a iinea naiaai i?eoiaea e aeanoe Nieuenaa?e
ioaee/ii cayaee, /oi aeey ?aoaiey e?eaiaeneiai aii?ina ioaeiu
«aeaaaeoeaoue eao ?aoeoaeueiiai i?aaeaiey», oi anoue iaoiae aeanoeeo
?ai?annee. Aeeeue i i?anooieaieyo (1887 a.) i?einoaiiaee aeaenoaea a
E?eaiaeee caeiiia i iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe ee/iinoe e i?aaeinoaaee
i?aaeoaeuenoao /?acau/aeiua iieiiii/ey. Iaeiaei ianniaua a?anou e
noaeaaiua i?ioeannu i?ioea o/anoieeia aa?a?iiai aeaeaeaiey i?eaaee ia e
ineaaeaieth aeaeaeaiey, a e oaaee/aieth oae iacuaaaiuo aa?a?iuo
i?anooieaiee e oa??i?enoe/aneeo aeoia. Yoi canoaaeei eiina?aaoi?ia
i?iaanoe a 1887 aiaeo /a?ac ia?eaiaio Caeii i nieaeaiee caaeieaeaiiinoe
ii a?aiaea, a caoai caeii i iieoiea caiee, anneaiiaaaoae e?aaeeo a 30
iei.ooioia noa?eeiaia ia aueoi caiee a E?eaiaeee e ia?ai?iaeaaeo aa
iaeeeie o/anoeaie aaccaiaeueiui e iaeicaiaeueiui e?anoueyiai. Yoi
ia?ii?eyoea auei oaaii e ?aoaieth caiaeueiie i?iaeaiu a E?eaiaeee a
eioa?anao caaeeoi/iuo e?anoueyi.

Eiina?aaoi?u iinea oanoeeaoiaai i?aauaaiey o aeanoe a ethia 1892 aiaea
iacia/eee ia?aauai?u ia?eaiaioa. Eeaa?aeueiay ia?oey niiaa aunooieea n
?aceie e?eoeeie aa?anneaiie, aieinoaaiiie aiaoiae e eieiieaeueiie
iieeoeee eiina?aaoi?ia, iaaeiyy eo a oooaeoaiee aiaoiaiieeoe/aneiai
iieiaeaiey Aiaeee. No?aiynue i?eaea/ue aieina iann, eeaa?aeu
i?iaicaeaneee i?ia?aiio iieeoe/aneeo ?aoi?i, aa noi?ioee?iaae Aeaaenoii
aua a 1981 aiaeo a iaooiaaoae ?a/e a Iuetheanea. Ii iaauae caiaeueioth
?aoi?io – ?ani?iaeaaeo e?oiiuo aeaaeaiee iaeeeie o/anoeaie, ?aoi?io
noaea e ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey. I?eaeeaeaiea auai?ia niinianoaiaaei
aica?auaieth a Eeaa?aeueioth ia?oeth /anoe eeoe, ioeieiaoeony a 1886
aiaeo, oioy cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eeaa?aeia-thieiienoia ai aeaaa n
*aiaa?eaiii ioeacaeanue aa?iooueny, anei?a iineaaeiea iieiinoueth
neeeenue n eiina?aaoi?aie. Auai?u i?eianee eiina?aaoi?ai ii?aaeaiea.
Iaeiaei e eeaa?aeai ia oaeaeinue iieo/eoue aieueoeinoaa: iaa ia?oee – e
eeaa?aeu e eiina?aaoi?u- ieacaeenue i?aaenoaaeaiiuie ii/oe ii?iaio. A
yoeo oneiaeyo eeth/ e ?aoaieyi iaeao ieacaeny a ?oeao e?eaiaeneie
o?aeoeee. Oaeei ia?acii ?ieue e?eaiaeoeaa a ia?eaiaioa aic?inea. Yoi
canoaaeyei Aeaaenoiia, eioi?ue a ethea 1892 aiaea nicaeae naie iiaue,
/aoaa?oue ii n/aoo eaaeiao eaeoe ia onooiee e?eaiaeoeai. Iaeiaei Aeeeue
i aii?oea, aianaiiue ei, aue caaaeeioe?iaai iaeaoie ei?aeia. I?aauaaiea
o aeanoe eeaa?aeueiiai eaaeiaoa Aeaaenoiia a iaeanoe aioo?aiiae iieeoeee
ia aeaei eaeeo-eeai ?acoeueoaoia.

Eaaeaeia ia?ii?eyoea, i?ioaaeoaa /a?ac ieaeithth iaeaoo, caeai/eaaei
naia nouanoaiaaiea a aa?oiae, iaeaoa ei?aeia aaniiuaaeii ioaa?aaea ana
aeeee. Oae a /anoiinoe , aoi?ie Aeeeue i aii?oea, eioi?ue iaeaoa iauei
iinea 83 aeiae iaeanoi/aiiuo i?aiee i?eiyea aieueoeinoaii aieinia 1
naioya?y 1893 aiaea, ei?aeu ioaa?aee /a?ac iaaeaeth, aeaaea ia aeaa naaa
o?oaea ianoaeeoue aai. A ia/aoe caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue
eeaa?aeia iacaaee «aniaoeaaieai ianea» -noieue aanieiaeiie iia auea.
Eeaa?aeu i?ioanoiaaee i?ioea yoiai, aiciouaeenue, ii eeaa?aeeci
ia?aaeeaae ia?eiae aioo?aiiaai ?aceiaeaiey. Aioo?e ia?oee ia auei
aaeeinoaa. I?ioea eeaea?a Aeaaenoiia aioo?e ia?oee aicieeea iiiiceoeey,
eioi?ay n/eoaea aai iieeoeeo onoa?aeie, a?oiia iaaeiaieueiuo, eioi?oth
aicaeaaeye ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae ei?ae ?icaa?e, n/eoaaoee, /oi
Eeaa?aeueiay ia?oey ia aeieaeia onooiaoue eiina?aaoi?ai ?ieue ?aaiinoiuo
ai?oeia ca ?anoe?aiea eiia?ee. Aeaaenoii, ii iiaieth ?icaa?e,
iaaeinoaoi/ii ?aoeoaeueii ai?ieny ca eieiiee. Oioy yoi ia
niioaaonoaiaaei aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aaaeue eiaiii a ia?eiae i?aaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aeaaenoiia auee caoaa/aiu Nieiiiiiau ino?iaa. Aioo?e
eaaeiaoa aiciee caaiai? i?ioea Aeaaenoiia. Aeaaenoii iiaeae a ionoaaeo.
Iiaue eaaeiao aicaeaaee ei?ae ?icaa?e. Eaaeiao aai ia iieueciaaeny
iaaeaaeiui aieueoeinoaii a iaeaoa, aai i?aauaaiea o aeanoe auei
iaaeieaei, oaea , oaea a ethia 1895 aiaea, ieacaaoenue a iaiueoeinoaa a
iaeaoa ii aoi?inoaiaiiiio aii?ino, eeaa?aeueiue eaaeiao iiaeae a
ionoaaeo. Enoi?eee ioia/atho oio oaeo, /oi aai aiaoiyy iieeoeea ia
ioee/aeanue ie/ai io iieeoeee eiina?aaoi?ia. Nai ?icaa?e aue /aeiaaeii
oia?aiiui. Eaaia e?uei ia?oee o?aaiaaei io iaai i?iaaaeaiey iaeioi?uo
?aoi?i, caienaiiuo a Iuetheynoeueneie i?ia?aiia eeaa?aeueiie ia?oee.
I?aaeoaeuenoai ?icaa?e iuoaeinue yoi naeaeaoue. Iii aianei a iaeaoo
aeeee i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ianinoiyoaeueiuo aeaiooaoia ia?eaiaioa, ia
ioaeaeaiee oea?eae io ainoaea?noaa a Oyeuena, i 8-/aniaii ?aai/ai aeia
aeey ai?iyeia, ia oaaee/aiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe oicyaa ca ian/anoiua neo/ae
n ?aai/eie, i auai?ao a iaeei aeaiue ii anae no?aia e i ae?oaeo
n?aaieoaeueii ia?aaeiauo ia?ii?eyoeyo. Ii ia iaeei ec ieo ia aue
i?iaaaeai a aeeciue , iioiio, /oi, eiaaea yoe aeeee iinooiaee a iaeaoo
ei?aeia, iia eeai eo i?iaaeeaaea, eeai oae o?iaeiaaea naieie iii?aaeaie,
/oi i?aaeoaeuenoai caae?aea eo ia?aoii. Aeaiie?aoe/aneea noi?iiieee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa o?aaiaaee ai?ueau n ?aaeoeeiiiuie ei?aeaie. Ii ?icaa?e ia
iioae ia yoi. Aioo?aiiyy a?uciy a ?oeiaiaenoaa ia?oee onei?eea
?acayceo. Aioo?aiiyy ai?ueaa a i?aaeoaeuenoaa aea?aeaea aai, ii
au?aaeaieth iaeiiai ec /eaiia i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aneaeoa, a ninoiyiee
«aioo?aiiae aieacie».*anoue eaaeiaoa o?aaiaaea io ?icaa?e iiaie iiiuoee
i?iaanoe aii?oeue aeey E?eaiaeee. ??icaa?e aue ?aoeoaeueii i?ioea. Aei
naiaai iaaeaiey eaaeiao ?icaa?e oniae iauyaeoue i?ioaeoi?ao iaae
oa??eoi?eyie Ainoi/iie Ao?eee, aua ia caoaa/aiiuie ae?oaeie aea?aeaaaie.

N 1895 aiaea a oa/aiea aeanyoe eao o aeanoe iaoiaeeeenue eiina?aaoi?u,
aei 1903 aiaea ai aeaaa eaaeiaoa niiaa noiye Neuenaa?e. Iiaie /a?oie
eaaeiaoa Nieuenaa?e yaeeinue ioeoeeaeueiia aeeth/aiea a aai ninoaa
eeaa?aeia-thieiienoia. Aeaeicao *aiaa?eai iieo/ee iino ieieno?a eieiiee.
Auai?u 1895 aiaea aeaee cia/eoaeueioth iiaaaeo eiina?aaoi?ai. Iie
iieo/eee 411 iano, a eeaa?aeu 177.I?aauaaiea eiina?aaoi?ia o aeanoe a
eiioea XIX aaea ioia/aii iieiie ianneaiinoueth a aii?inao aioo?aiiaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. A iiaii eaaeiaoa Ae.*aiaa?eai noae ea?aoue
e?oiiaeooth ?ieue. Ii aue aeaeaeouei aeooii eaaeiaoa. ?yaeii n
i?aiuea?ii Nieuenaa?e, eioi?ue oiaaea aue aeoaieei noa?eeii , *aiaa?eai
aue iieiae, iieii yia?aee e nee. *aiaa?eai ioeacaeny io aaaeiuo
ii?ooaeae, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aio , e acye naaa ieieinoa?noai eieiiee,
eioi?ia aei neo n/eoaeinue a aiaeeeneii eaaeiaoa aoi?inoaiaiiui
ieienoa?noaii. Auai? aai ieacaeny ia neo/aeiui . Eciaieeinue naii
cia/aiea eieiieaeueiiai aii?ina. Ai?ueaa ca eieiieaeueiua caiee, ca
eieiieaeueiua ?uiee noaea oeaio?aeueiie i?iaeaiie aeey aiaeeeneie
ao?aeoacee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia?anoaee e aioo?aiiea,
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea o?oaeiinoe aeey aiaeeeneie ao?aeoacee, oae eae
nii?ioeaeaiea iann ?inoo yenieoaoaoeee, aei?iaiaecia, aiaiiui ?anoiaeai
oiaea oaaee/eaaeinue. Aeey ai?ueau ni anaie yoeie o?oaeiinoyie aue
aieueoa i?eaiaeai *aiaa?eai, /ai a?enoie?aoe/aneia e?uei eiina?aaoi?ia.

1895-1897 aiaeu auee naiuie o?aaiaeiuie aiaeaie a yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee
Aiaeee XIX aaea. Yenii?o noae iaaeaoue. *aiaa?eai aunooiee n ieaiii
naiiniaaaeathuaeny, naiiaeiaeathuae eiia?ee. Niaeanii yoiio ieaio ,
a?eoaineay eiia?ey aeieaeia auea i?aa?aoeoueny a iieeoe/aneoth
oaaea?aoeeth n eiia?neei ia?eaiaioii e eiia?neei i?aaeoaeuenoaii a
Eiiaeiia. Eiia?neay oaaea?aoeey aeieaeia ie?oaeaoue naay oaiiaeaiiie
noaiie, caueuathuae eiia?neee ?uiie io eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee. Aioo?e
aea eiia?neiai oaiiaeaiiiai nithca aeieaeia ainiiaenoaiaaoue naiaiaeiay
oi?aiaey. Aeey ianoaeaeaiey yoiai ieaia *aiaa?eai nicaae a 1897 aiaeo
eiia?neoth eiioa?aioeeth. Ii aeiieieiiu ?aoeoaeueii auneacaeenue eae
i?ioea iieeoe/aneie, oae e yeiiiie/aneie /anoe ieaia *aiaa?eaia oae,
eae iieiaeay ao?aeoacey a?eoaineeo aeiieieiiia, ?acaeaaaoay naith
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, ia oioaea inoaaaoueny aa?a?iui nu?ueaaui i?eaeaoeii
Aiaeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iienee auoiaea iiea ieacaeenue aac?acoeueoaoiuie.
Ae?oaie iooue, iooue o/anoey a ai?ueaa ca ia?aaeae ie?a, aue aua aieaa
o?oaeiui. E yoiio a?aiaie iniiaiie niia?iee Aiaeee- iieiaeay
eiia?eaeenoe/aneay Aa?iaiey aeinoeaea oaeie noaaeee ?acaeoey naieo nee,
eiaaea iia n/eoaea aiciiaeiui aia?aua naeaeaoue aucuaathuee aeano a
aae?an Aiaeee. N 1895 aiaea Aa?iaiey noaea aeoeaii aunooiaoue i?ioea
Aiaeee. Iia iuoaeanue noaoue a Aa?iia oeaio?ii aioeaiaeeeneiai aeiea.
Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai y?ei neacaeinue a ?yaea e?oiiuo aeeieiiaoe/aneeo
iaoaea/ Aiaeee a 1895-1899 aiaeao.Niauoey 1895-1898 a.a.ynii iieacaee,
/oi y?a aeanoyuae ecieyoeee aeey Aiaeee i?ioea. I?iecioei niauoea ,
eioi?ia y?/a, /ai i?aaeuaeouea, iieacaei iieiia iaeeii/anoai Aiaeee.
Yoei niauoeai noaea aiaei-ao?neay aieia, ia/aaoayny inaiueth 1899 aiaea.
Ao?u ieacaee ecoieoaeueiia, aa?ie/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea. A oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo ianyoeaa aiaeeeneea aienea oa?iaee ii?aaeaiea io ao?ia.
Oieueei n iiiiuueth a?iiaaeiie a?iee aiaee/aia iiaeaaeee nii?ioeaeaiea
ao?ia. Ia iieyo O?ainaaaey ia?aauaaei 450 oun.aiaeeeneeo nieaeao . Aieia
caeii/eeanue a 1902 a.eaieooeyoeeae ao?ia e i?eciaieai eie noaa?aieoaoa
aiaeeeneiai ei?iey. A oiaea aieiu n ao?aie Aiaeey iniaaiii neeueii
ii/oanoaiaaea naia iaeeii/anoai. A aiaeu aieiu e aeaaea ianeieueei
?aiueoa Aiaeey iuoaeanue aueoe ec iai?eyoiie e iianiie aeey iaa
ecieyoeee iooai naeeaeaiey n NOA, a caoai n Aa?iaieae, eeai n oie e
ae?oaie. Eieoeeaoeao acye ia naay Aeaeicao *aiaa?eai, eioi?ue a
1898-1899 a.a a ?yaea ioaee/iuo aunooieaiee naeaeae niioaaonoaothuea
i?aaeeiaeaiey Aa?iaiee e NOA. A naieo ?a/ao Aeaeicao *aiaa?eai
oi?ioee?iaae eaeath iaioaaoiinieiai nithca (Aiaeey, Aa?iaiey e NOA ),
eeai aiaei-naeniineiai (Aiaeey e NOA). Ii iiiuoee *aiaa?eaia ieacaeenue
iaoaea/iuie. Aa?iaiey ioaaoeea ioeacii. Aea e oiio aea a naiie Aiaeee
aieueoeinoai ao?aeoacee ioiineeinue e aai ieaiai aanueia iaaeaaineeiiii.
*aiaa?eai i?iyaee iieeoe/aneoth aeeci?oeinoue e iaaa?ioth i?eaioaoeeth.
Ii i?aaeeaaae ae?oaeao nithc ainoaea?noao, eioi?ia e oiio a?aiaie noaei
oaea naiui iianiui e iai?eie?eiui niia?ieeii Aiaeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
ii i?iaeieaeae n/eoaoue O?aioeeth e ?inneth naiuie iai?eie?eiuie
niia?ieeaie Aiaeee . aiaeeeneea enoi?eee ieooo i oae iacuaaaiie
/aiaa?eaiianeie o?aaeeoeee ai aiaoiae iieeoeea Aiaeee – yoi o?aaeeoeey
ae?oaeau n Aa?iaieae. Yoa o?aaeeoeey aei?iai iaioeanue aiaeeeneiio
ia?iaeo, iia aaeaa ia noieea aio iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe. Oae Aiaeey
a iineaaeiea aiaeu XIX iiai?a/eaaao io naiae o?aaeeoeeiiiie, ii/oe
noieaoiae aiaoiae iieeoeee, ninoiyaoee a iiaeaea?aeeaaiee oae
iacuaaaiiai ?aaiiaaney nee a Aa?iia, e iieneai nithcieeia. Iioa?iaa
iaoaea/o ia iooyo naeeaeaiey n Aa?iaieae, Aiaeey aneaae ca yoei ca yoei
ia?aoiaeeo e iieeoeea ie?oaeaiey Aa?iaiee. Yoio iiai?io iia i?iecaaea
oiaei, auno?i e ?aoeoaeueii. Aai ia/aee eiina?aaoi?u (Aaeueoo? e
Eyinaeaoi) e i?iaeieaeaee eeaa?aeu (Yaeoa?ae a?ae). A iaioa?ao Y.A?ay
«Aeaaaeoeaoue iyoue eao», io?aaeaia any aeaeinoue aiaeeeneie
aeeieiiaoee. Caeeth/ea a 1904 a. N O?aioeeae niaeaoaiea, Aiaeey auno?i,
ii/oe no?aieoaeueii iioea ia naeeaeaiea n ?inneae, caaua noa?ua nii?u n
?inneae ii N?aaeiae Acee, /oiau i?eaea/ue aa e aioeaa?iaineiio aeieo.
Anee aiai?eoue i aioo?aiiae iieeoeee, oi aaeeinoaaiiui i?iyaeaieai
aioo?eiieeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe yaeeinue aeaa aeoa: ?aaeoeeiiiue caeii ia
ia?aciaaiee e caeii ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ca ian/anoiua
neo/ae ia i?iecaiaenoaa, iineaoee oaeaea aanueia ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa?.
*aiaa?eai, anooiay a 1895 a.a i?aaeoaeuenoai, cayaee, /oi aai aaaeiaeoae
caaea/ae yaeyaony aaaaeaiea nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey. Ii, e?iia aeaoo
aeaeeeo ia? ie/aai i?aaei?eiyoi ia auei. N 1895 aiaea aiaeeeneay
ao?aeoacey eua auoiaea ec cao?oaeieoaeueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey
i?aaei?eiyea oe?ieia ianooieaiea ia o?oaeyueany neie ianaeaiey. Iia
iiaaea ai?ueao i?ioea naiiai nouanoaiaaiey i?ionithcia. Iaeiaei
ianooieaiea ao?aeoacee ia o?aae-thieiiu eii/eeinue iaiaeeaeaiiui aeey
iaa ?acoeueoaoii – iiyaeaieai ia noeaia o?aoueae neeu ia?yaeo n
eiina?aaoi?aie e eeaa?aeaie – ?aai/ae ia?oeth.

Ieeoie?iaaa O?ainaaaeue e I?aiaeaaoth, eiina?aaoeaiia i?aaeoaeuenoai
?aoeei eniieueciaaoue oiaeienoe/aneea iano?iaiea a no?aia e i?iecaanoe a
1900 aiaeo iiaua auai?u a ia?eaiaio. Auai?u aeaee eiina?aaoi?ai aeanoue
aua ia iiaue n?ie. A 1902 aiaeo noa?ue eeaea? eiina?aaoi?ia ia?eec
Nieuenaa?e ooae a ionoaaeo ii noa?inoe e aai niaiee a 1902 aiaeo aai
ieaiyiiee A?oo? Aaeueoo?. Eiina?aaoi?u , eioi?ua anaaaea auee oaniaeoei
ia?acii naycaiu n ainoaea?noaaiiie aiaeeeaineie oea?eiaueth, auee
/?acau/aeii iaaniieiaiu ?inoii «?aeeaeiciiai eiaeeoa?aioecia», a
ia?iaea e oiaaeeii oeie, iaoiaeeaoeony a aaaaeaiee aiaeeeaineie oea?eae.
Aeaaenoiiianeay oeiea , nicaeaiiay a 1870 aiaeo i?iaeieaeaea inoaaaoueny
ia?aaeiaie, i?ia?anneaiie oeieie. Oeieueiua eiieoaou, oi?aaeyaoea yoie
nenoaiie ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, acyee a naie ?oee ia oieueei
ia/aeueioth, ii e n?aaeithth, a oaeaea i?ioanneiiaeueioth oeieo.
A.Aaeueoo? ?aoee a 1902 aiaeo iaianoe oaea? eiieoaoneie oeiea e
oe?aieoue ?aeeaeicioth oeieo. Iineaaeiyy, aoaeo/e ii iinoaiiaea o/aaiiai
aeaea cia/eoaeueii ooaea eiieoaoneie, oa?yea naia aeeyiea ia iannu, io
ainoaea?noaa iia iieo/aea iaiueoa aeaiaa. O/eoaey auee ieioea,
iai?oaeiaaiea noa?ia. Aaeueoo? ?aoee oi?acaeieoue aeaiie?aoe/aneea
oeieueiua niaaou e ia?aaeaoue oi?aaeaiea eiieoaoneeie oeieaie niaaoai
a?aonoa- aieaa eiina?aaoeaiui i?aaiai, /ai oeieueiua eiieoaou.
Oea?eiaiua aea oeieu aeieaeiu auee iieo/eoue ia?aaia n ae?oaeie
ainoaea?noaaiiua noaneaeee, inoaaaynue iieiinoueth iiae eiio?ieai
aiaeeeaineie oea?eae. Ianiio?y ia nii?ioeaeaiea eeaa?aeia a ia?eaiaioa e
a no?aia, yoio caeii aue i?iaaaeai. Iieiaeeoaeueiui a oeieueiii caeiia
auei oi, /oi ii naeaeae ana oeieu iauanoaaiiuie, iinoaaea eo iiae
ii?aaeaeaiiue eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu ianoiuo naiioi?aaeaiee. Ii aieueoa
anaai io yoiai caeiia auea?aea ioeoeeaeueiay aiaeeeaineay oea?eiaue.

A iaeiie ec naieo ?a/ae 1903 aiaea *aiaa?eai ninoiyiea aiaeeeneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe oa?aeoa?eciaae oae: «Naeueneia oicyenoai, aiai?y
i?aeoe/anee, ?ac?ooaii, i?iecaiaenoai naoa?a i?ae?aoeeinue, oaeeiaay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue en/acea, aeaeaci iiae oa?icie, oa?noyiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
– iiae oa?icie, oeii/aoiaoiaaeiay aoaeao eiaoue oaeoth aea noaeueao».
Oaea n 1895 aiaea auoiaeii ec yoiai iieiaeaiey Ae.*aiaa?eai n/eoae
nicaeaiea naiiniaaaeathuaeny eiia?ee. Ia aeaoo eiia?neeo eiioa?aioeeyo
a 1897 e 1902 a.a. *aiaa?eai i?aaeeaaae aeiieieiiai i?eiyoue yoio ieai.
Ii iaa ?aca iioa?iae iieioth iaoaea/o. «Ie a aii?inao eiia?neie
oaaea?aoeee, ie a aii?inao iai?iiu eieiiee ia auee neeiiiu eaeoe
iaano?a/o Aiaeee. *aiaa?eai iiaoi?ye naie a?aoiaiou a iieueco nicaeaiey
eiia?neiai niaaoa aeooei ooai…Iinea naie eao o?oaeia ca eiia?neia
aaeeinoai *aiaa?eai oaeaeae naay a ooieea». A 1903 aiaeo ii, no?aiynue
ii nouanoao e oie aea oeaee, aeaeieciaiee naie ieai. Aianoi eiia?neie
oaaea?aoeee, i?ioea eioi?ie ?aoeoaeueii aic?aaeaee aeiieieiiu, ii
i?aaeeiaeee i?aa?aoeoue eiia?eth a Oaiiaeaiiue nithc. N/eoaynue n
i?ioaeoeeiienoneeie acaeyaeaie e eioa?anaie ao?aeoacee aeiieieiiia,
*aiaa?eai ia aic?aaeae i?ioea i?ioaeoeeiienoneeo iioeei a aeiieieiiao,
ii oieueei o?aaiaae neeaeee n ieo a iieueco aiaeeeneeo i?iiuoeaiiuo
oiaa?ia, oae iacuaaaiuo i?aaeii/oeoaeueiuo oa?eoia. Ca yoi iao?iiieey
iaauaea aeaoue aeiieieiiai i?aaeii/oaiea i?e iieoiea o ieo nu?uey e
i?iaeiaieuenoaey. Oaeie oaiiaeaiiue nithc ii iiaieth *aiaa?eaia « ?aii
eee iicaeii i?aa?aoeo eiia?eth a aaeeiue oicyenoaaiiue i?aaieci, a yoi a
naith i/a?aaeue, i?eaaaeao e eiia?neie iieeoe/aneie oaaea?aoeee n
eiia?neei i?aaeoaeuenoaii e ia?eaiaioii ai aeaaa». Ieai *aiaa?eaia
icia/ae ioeac io noa?ie o?eo?aaeneie iieeoeee, eioi?ay oaea 60 eao
ainiiaenoaiaaea a Aiaeee. Yoi aue e?ooie iiai?io a yeiiiie/aneie
iieeoeea Aiaeee io o?eo?aaea e i?ioaeoeeiiecio. *aiaa?eai o?aaiaae o
eaaeiaoa i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue aai ieaia. Ii eaaeiao e aai aeaaa
A.Aaeueoo? ieacaeenue a o?oaeiii iieiaeaiee. O?eo?aae ca oanoueaeanyo
eao naiaai nouanoaiaaiey noae aeneiiie, ii/oe aeiaiie aeey aiaee/ai.
Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eiina?aaoi?ia, iniaaiii a ?yaeao i?aaenoaaeoaeae
oyaeaeie eiaeono?ee, auea ca i?ioaeoeeiieci. A iaeaoa iauei *aiaa?eai
eiae ca niaie ieiei 200 /eaiia ia?eaiaioa. Ii aieueoeinoai aiaeeeneie
iaoeee auei ca o?eo?aae. Ca o?eo?aae auee ana eeaa?aeu, ?aai/ee eeann,
iaeeay ao?aeoacey e aeaaea /anoue eiina?aaoi?ia. Yoe neie ianaeaiey
n/eoaee, /oi a i?ioeii o?eo?aae iaania/ee Aiaeee ie?iaia ainiiaenoai e
iiiuia aeinoaaeyao ae aieueoea i?aeiouanoaa. O?eo?aae, ii eo iiaieth,
icia/aao aeaoaaue oeaa e aeaoaaia nu?uea, oiaaea eae i?ioaeoeeiieci –
aei?iaia nu?uea e aei?iaie oeaa. Aaeueoo? i?iyaeye ni/oanoaea e
i?ioaeoeeiiecio, ii ii ciae, /oi aieueoeinoai aiaee/ai aoaeao i?ioea
oaiiaeaiiuo iioeei e /oi ia i/a?aaeiuo auai?ao eiina?aaoi?u iioa?iyo
ii?aaeaiea, anee ioeoeeaeueii nayaeoo naay n i?ioaeoeeiienoneie
i?ia?aiiie. A naiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa e a ia?oee eiina?aaoi?ia auea a?oiia
oae iacuaaaiuo noi?iiieeia aeaoaaiai i?iaeiaieuenoaey, eioi?ay ia
niaeaoaeanue n i?ioaeoeeiieciii. Yoio aii?in a?icee ?aneieii ia?oee.
*aiaa?eai e aai noi?iiieee ianoie/eai o?aaiaaee iaiaaeeaiiiai ia?aoiaea
e i?ioaeoeeiiecio. Aaeueoo? e aai noi?iiieee ?aoeee aaeaine?iaaoue, ia
aeaaaoue eaoaai?e/aneiai ioaaoa ia aii?in, iinoaaeaiiue *aiaa?eaiii. Yoi
i?eaaei e ooiaeo ec i?aaeoaeuenoaa eae *aiaa?eaia, oae e iyoe
ieieno?ia-o?eo?aaea?ia. Yoi auei oaea ia/aeii ?aneiea a ?yaeao
eiina?aaoi?ia. Oeaey ec i?aaeoaeuenoaa *aiaa?eai ia/ae i/aiue ooiioth
aieinoaaiioth eaiiaieth ca i?ioaeoeeiieci.

A aeaeaa?a 1905 aiaea aua aei ia?eaiaioneeo auai?ia, aeanoue ia?aoea a
?oee eeaa?aeueiiai eaaeiaoa. Eeaea? ia?oee A.Eyiiaaee-Aaiia?iai aeeth/ee
a ninoaa naiaai i?aaeoaeuenoaa eae eeaa?aeia-eiia?eaeenoia- Y.A?ay,
A.Aneaeoa e ae?., oae e ?aaeeeaeia -Ae.Eeieae Aeaei?aeaea, O.*a?/eeey.
Ia?eaiaioneea auai?u 1906 aiaea i?eianee aeanoieia ii?aaeaiea
eiina?aaoi?ai. I?aaeoaeuenoai eeaa?aeia inoaaaeinue aieioue aei 1916
aiaea. I?aaeoaeuenoai aianei ?yae caeiiii?iaeoia. N/eoaynue n
o?aaiaaieyie ?aai/eo, iii naeaeaei noa/eo e noa/a/iua oiiaeu
eaaaeueiuie. Ei?aeu ec iianaiey ia?aae o?aae-thieiiaie ia ?aoeeenue
caaea?aeaoue yoio caeii. Ii caoi ana inoaeueiua aeeee, eioi?ia aianei
i?aaeoaeuenoai a 1906-1908 aiaeao iie eeai ioaa?aaee , eeai oae
o?iaeiaaee, /oi i?aaeoaeuenoai naii a?aei eo ia?aoii. Oae ei?aeu
aeaaaeaeu ia aeaee niaeaney ia ioiaio ?aaeoeeiiiiai oeieueiiai caeiia
1902 aiaea, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eeaa?aeu niaeaneeenue a yoie iaeanoe
iieoe ia onooiee eiina?aaoi?ai. Ioeeiieee ei?aeu oaeaea aeeeue ia
oie/oiaeaiee iiiaeanoaaiiiai aiooia e aeeeue i i?aaeinoaaeaiee aao?aeai
ca aueoi a nianoaaiiinoue iaaieueoeo o/anoeia caiee. Eeieae-Aeaei?aeae e
ae?oaea eeaa?aeu, i?iaiaeeaoea iineaaeiee aeeeue auee i/aiue icaai/aiu
oai, /oiau a i?ioeaiaan ?aai/ei oaaee/eoue a aea?aaia neie iaeeeo
nianoaaiieeia. Aeeeue i?aaeinoaaeye i?aai ianoiui i?aaiai aeanoe
i?eioaeeoaeueii io/oaeaeaoue ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ionoothuea caiee e
i?aaeinoaaeyoue eo iaeeeie o/anoeaie ca aueoi aao?aeai. Ei?aeu a oa/aiea
o?ao eao (1906-1908 a.a.) caaea?aeeaaee yoio caeii e ana oaee ia
i?iionoeee aai. Iiyoue eiaei ianoi iieiaeaiea, eaeia auei a 1894-1895
aiaeao i?e ?icaa?e, eiaaea Aneaeo a io/ayiee aiai?ee: «Iu iaoai ianee».
Aanneeea ia?eaiaioa ?aci/a?iauaaei iannu. Eaiiayee-Aaiia?iai iiae
aeaaeaieai eaaiai e?uea eeaa?aeia e eaeai?enoia aian a ia/aea 1908 aiaea
a ia?eaiaio ?aciethoeeth i?ioanoa i?ioea ei?aeia. Eaeai?enou aianee
i?aaeeiaeaiea oi?acaeieoue iaeaoo ei?aeia, ii yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea nia?aei
oieueei 100 aieinia(eaeai?eno, e?eaiaeoeu e ianeieueei ?aaeeeaeia) e
auei ioaa?aiooi 315 aieinaie. Eeaa?aeu auee ca aieaa oia?aiioth ?aoi?io.
?aciethoeey, i?eiyoay o?aiy /aoaa?oyie ieaeiae iaeaou, o?aaiaaea ?aoi?iu
iaeaou ei?aeia a eioa?anao iaania/aiey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Eeaa?aeueiay ao?aeoacey aiooaea iannai, /oi ai?ueaa
i?ioea iaeaou ei?aeia- yoa ai?ueaa ca aeaiie?aoeth a eioa?anao ia?iaea.
Ii anae Aiaeee ono?aeaaeenue ianniaua ieoeiae e aeaiiino?aoeee, ia
eioi?uo i?aoi?u ?aoeoaeueii inoaeaeaee iiaaaeaiea iaeaou ei?aeia e
aeaaea o?aaiaaee aa eeeaeaeaoeee. Ae?oaea aiai?eee: iaaei naeaeaoue
iaeaoo ei?aeia ecae?aaiie. Aeaaea eiina?aaoi?u, aiynue, noieue
a?oae/aneia o/?aaeaeaiea ia auaea?aeeo iaii?a aeaiie?aoee, auee niaeaniu
ia ?aoi?io iaeaou ei?aeia, aeaeay i?aa?aoeoue aa a ecae?aaiia, ii ana
aea a?enoie?aoe/aneia nia?aiea n oie aea iieiioie aeanoe, /oi e ieaeiyy
iaeaoa. Aneaeo e ?oeiaiaenoai eeaa?aeia ia niaeaoaeenue ie ia iaeie ec
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo ieaiia. Iie iioee ii ae?oaiio iooe. Iie ?aoeee nio?aieoue
iaeaoo ei?aeia eae ianeaaenoaaiiia, a?enoie?aoe/aneia o/?aaeaeaiea, ii
ia?aie/eoue aa i?aaa oaeei ia?acii, /oiau e oeiainiaui, yeiiiie/aneei
aeeeyi iaeaoa ei?aeia ia eiaea ieeaeiai eanaoaeuenoaa, a ioiioaiee aea
anao ae?oaeo aeeeae iaeaoa ei?aeia iieo/eea au oieueei ion?i/eaathuaa
aaoi: n?ie ion?i/ee – 2 aiaea ii enoa/aiee eioi?uo aeeeue, i?eiyoue
ieaeiae iaeaoie iinooiaao ia ooaa?aeaeaiea ei?ieth, ieioy iaeaoo
ei?aeia. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eaiaioa nie?auaeanue n naie aei iyoe
eao.Yoa auea i?ia?anneaiay, oioy e aei i?aaeaea ia?aie/aiiay ?aoi?ia –
aaaeue ei?aeu iiaee caoyiooue i?eiyoea ethaiai caeiia.Iinea ao?iuo
i?aiee iaeaoa iauei i?eiyea yoio caeiiii?iaeo 14 ai?aey 1910 aiaea.
Iineaaeothuay aeeneonney ii yoiio caeiiii?iaeoo auea i?a?aaia a nayce ni
nia?oueth ei?iey Yaeoa?aea. Eaoii 1910 auei i?aaieciaaii «Niaauaiea
8-ie», eioi?ia iaeiaei oae e ia i?eoei e aaeeiiio iiaieth. A oiaea
ia?aaiai?ia iaeaoa ei?aeia aeey oe?aieaiey naieo iiceoeee niaeaneeanue
i?eiyoue athaeaeao 1909-1910 aiaea e aeaaea cayaeea i naiai niaeanee
?aoi?ie?iaaoueny. Eiaaea 15 iiya?y 1910 aiaea aiiaue ioe?ueanue nanney
ia?eaiaioa, eeaea? eiina?aaoi?ia a iaeaoa ei?aeia Eainaeaoi aian
caeiiii?iaeo, iniiaiie niune eioi?iai naiaeeeny e oiio, /oiau iniai
aaaeiua e nii?iua aii?inu ia?aaeaaaeenue ia anaia?iaeiia aieiniaaiea, a
ii oeiainiaui aeeeyi nicuaaeenue iauaaeeiaiiua canaaeaiey iaaeo iaeao.
Ia o?oaeii iiiyoue, /oi i?eiyoea yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey Eainaeaoia
iaania/eaaei au ainiiaenoai eiina?aaoi?ia, eioi?ua ia niaianoiii
canaaeaiee iaeao ninoaaeyee au iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai, oae eae
niioiioaiea oi?e e eeaa?aeia au?aaeaeinue 5:1( ynii, /oi anee aeaaea
oi?e eiaee a iaeaoa iauei iaiueoeinoai, iie, niaaeeieaoenue ni naieie
iaeiiia?oeeoeaie a aa?oiae iaeaoa, a ethaii neo/aa aeieaeiu auee eiaoue
aieueoeinoai. Iaeao ei?aeia iaeia?eea i?iaeo Eainaeaoia, iaeaoa iauei
ia niaeaneeanue n iei. Aaeeinoaaiiui auoiaeii ec nicaeaaoaainy
iieiaeaiey aiiaue ieacaeny ?inione ia?eaiaioa e iacia/aiea iiauo
auai?ia. Auai?u a iaeaoo iauei i?ioiaeeee a aeaeaa?a 1910 a. Iie ia
i?eianee eaeeo-eeai eciaiaiee a ?ani?aaeaeaiee iano, oioy eeaa?aeu aeey
oiai, /oiau aeiaeoueny iiaaaeu, iaauaee aii?oeue E?eaiaeee e iiaua
?aoi?iu. Oieueei iinea iaeanoi/aiiie ai?ueau a aaaonoa 1911 a. Aa?oiyy
iaeaoa auea auioaeaeaia i?eiyoue aeeeue 14 ai?aey 1910 aiaea.
Nii?ioeaeaiea ei?aeia auei neiieaii oieueei oa?icie eaaeiaoa Aneaeoa
iacia/eoue a aa?oithth iaeaoo ianeieueei nio iiauo ei?aeia,
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e eeaa?aeueiie ia?oee. Aaaeue ecaanoii ianeieueei
iaioioii ei?aeu ioneatho a naith n?aaeo /oaeaeia, aea aua n eeaa?aeueiui
ie?iaicc?aieai. A e?aeia ia?aie/aiiii oa?aeoa?a ia?eaiaioneie ?aoi?iu
i?iyaeyeanue ?aaeoeeiiiay iieeoeea aeanoe, eioi?ay no?aieeanue
nio?aieoue eae iiaeii aieueoa ioaeeaoeo einoeoooia.

Iaeiei ec aaaeiuo eiia?neeo ia?ii?eyoee Eaiiayee-Aaiia?iaia auei
i?aaeinoaaeaiea aaoiiiiee caaiaaaiiui ao?neei ?anioaeeeai. Yoa ia?a
ioe?uea aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey a THaeiie Ao?eea iiaiai aeiieieiia-
THaeii-Ao?eeaineiai Nithca. Anei?a Eaiiayee-aaiia?iai, e oiio a?aiaie
oaea aieueiie noa?ee ooae a ionoaaeo. Ia iinoo aai niaiee Aneaeo.
I?aaeoaeuenoai Aneaeoa (1908-1916 a.a.) ianeieueei ioee/aeinue io
i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eaiiayee-Aaiia?iaia. Nai Aneaeo i?eiaaeeaaeae e e?ueo
eeaa?aeia-eiia?eaeenoia. Eeieae-Aeaei?aeae iieo/ee a iiaii eaaeiaoa
e?oiiue iino ieieno?a oeiainia, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaaeny eae aoi?ie iinea
i?aiuea?a iino a eaaeiaoa. Yoa auei n?aaenoaii oniieieoue eaaia,
?aaeeeaeueiia e?uei ia?oee, eeaea?ii eioi?ie n/eoaeny Eeieae-Aeaei?aeae.

Aiaeu i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aneaeoa- yoi iiaay nooiaiue a ia?anoaiee aioo?aiieo
e aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo cao?oaeiaiee A?eoaineie eiia?ee, iiaay nooiaiue a
ia?anoaiee i?aaeaiaiiiai e?ecena. ?aai/ee eeann noaiiaeony ana aieaa
aaniieieiui. N 1906 aiaea iai?a?uaii iiaeieiaeanue aieia noa/ae.
Aioo?aiiyy iieeoeea oa?aeoa?ecoaony aanueia neiaeiui eaae?iaaieai,
ni/aoaaiui n ooiiie eaiiaieae aie?oa nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i. Ioaeaeueiie
no?ieie iiaeii oiiiyiooue i oii, /oi auai?u 1906 aiaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
e?oiiie iiaaaeie eaiaeeaeaoia, aunoaaeaiiuo iiaie iieeoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeeae – Eiieoaoii ?aai/aai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, ia?aeiaiiaaiiui
a oii aea aiaeo a ?aai/oth ia?oeth. Ec 51 eaiaeeaeaoa Eiieoaoa a iaeaoo
iauei i?ioei 29, /oi yaeeinue iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth. A ia?aaeiaie «Oaein»
oeacuaaeinue: « Ioaeii i?eciaoue oio oaeo, /oi aiaeeeneea ?aai/ea
naeaeaee a 1906 aiaeo ?aoeoaeueii oi aea naiia, /oi ?aiueoa aeaeaee
ae?oaea eeannu: iie ainiieueciaaeenue naieie iieeoe/aneeie i?aaaie aeey
caueou nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania.»I?aaeoaeuenoai 1906-1913 a.a. iioei ia
?yae onooiie ?aai/ei. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei eeaa?aeu iaauaee i?iecaanoe
?anoe?aiea ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa, ?aoi?ie?iaaoue naeueneia oicyenoai,
aeaoue aii?oeue E?eaiaeee e aeaaea eeeaeaee?iaaoue iaeaoo ei?aeia.
Eeaa?aeu, iaeaaeaaoea aieueoei iiuoii nioeeaeueiie aeaiaaiaee e
eaae?iaaiey, i?ee?uaaaoea naith aa?anneaiinoue ai aiaoiae iieeoeea
iaoeeoenoeie o?acaieiaeae, eo/oa iiaee auiieieoue ?ieue, ioaaaeaiioth ae
i?aayueie e?oaaie, /ai /a?an/o? i?yiieeiaeiua eiina?aaoi?u. Iiiyoii, /oi
ao?aeoacey ioaeaeaeanue a eiaeeo aeaiaaiaao, eioi?ua ioaeaeee au
aieiaiea io aiiee aii?oaeaiee, noiaee au i?ee?uoue ieeeoa?enoneoth
iieeoeeo o?acaie i oii, /oi «ana yoi aeaeaaony eneeth/eoaeueii a
eioa?anao ie?a, a eioa?anao io?aiu eoeueoo?u, a eioa?anao ?iaeeiu e
o.ae.».

Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa y?eeo ?aoi?i yoiai ia?eiaea iiaeii n/eoaoue caeii i
no?aoiaaiee. Iii auei iino?iaii ia cia/eoaeueiuo aciinao ni noi?iiu
?aai/eo e iaiueoeo ni noi?iiu oicyaa, e eioi?ui ainoaea?noai i?eaaaeyei
iaaieueooth aeioaoeeth. Ei ioaaouaaeinue iaiueoa iieiaeiu ?aai/eo e
neoaeaueo no?aiu. No?aoiaia iiniaea auei aanueia iaaieueoei. No?aoiaaiea
auei ia?aaeaii ia i?ionithcai, a iniaui ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi.
Ianiiiaiiie onooieie ?aai/aio eeanno aue oaeaea caeii i eiiiainaoeeyo
?aai/ei, i?eiyoue a 1906 aiaeo. Anee ii caeiio 1897 aiaea i?aai ia
iieo/aiea iiniaee io i?aaei?eieiaoaeae i?e ian/anoiuo neo/ayo
?ani?ino?aiyeinue eeoue ia iaeioi?ua eaoaai?ee ?aai/eo, oi oaia?ue –
i?aeoe/anee ana ?aai/ea, oioy ?acia? iiniaee aue ie/oiaeiue. A 1908
aiaeo aue i?eiyo caeii i iaineyo aeey noa?eeia. I?aai ia iaineth a
?acia?a 5 oeeeeiaia a iaaeaeth iieo/eee eeoea, aeinoeaoea 70-eaoiaai
aic?anoa e eiaaoea ia aieaa 26 ooioia noa?eeiaia aiaeiaiai aeioiaea. A
oii aea aiaeo niaoeeaeueiui caeiiii onoaiaaeeaaeny 8-/aniaie ?aai/ee
aeaiue aeey oaeaeiiia. A 1909 aiaeo o/?aaeaeaiu ae?aee o?oaea, a
ooieoeee eioi?uo aoiaeeei iin?aaeie/anoai iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e
?aai/eie i?e iaeia ?aai/ae neeu.

A ia?oa 1913 aiaea aioae a neeo caeii i oiiaeao o?aae-thieiiia. Caeii
aue ?acoeueoaoii ai?ueau o?aae-thieiiia. Iaeeea noa/ae, eo oii?iue
oa?aeoa? canoaaeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa Aneaeoa ioeacaoueny io noa?ie
aiaeeeneie aeieo?eiu iaaiaoaoaeuenoaa a i?iiuoeaiiua eiioeeeou.
Oeaaeeaaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo eiioaeoia Eeieae-Aeaei?aeaeai a 1906-1908 a.a
auei ia?aui oaaii a yoii iai?aaeaiee, eiaaea ieieno? aunooiae oieueei a
ea/anoaa iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo noi?iiaie. I?e Aneaeoa i?aaeoaeuenoai
iuoaeinue ioeoeeaeueii n iiiiuueth caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa , iieoe aeaeueoa
ii yoiio iooe. Aneaeo iuoaeny aaanoe a Aiaeee a?aeo?aaeiia
?acae?aoaeuenoai eiioeeeoia ainoaea?noaaiiuie o?aoaeneeie i?aaiaie.
Aneaeo i?eaeaaae yoie nenoaia ianoieueei aieueoia cia/aiea, /oi nai noae
aeaaea i?aaenaaeaoaeai Oeaio?aeueiiai a?aeo?aaeiiai niaaoa. Ana aea
aieueoiai i?aeoe/aneiai cia/aiey yoio caeii ia eiae aaeaeo neeueiie
i?eau/ee eae o?aae-thieiiia, oae e oicyaa ecaaaaoue ia?auaiey e
i?aaeoaeuenoao a oaeeo aeaeao. Aua iaiueoaa i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ii oai
aea i?e/eiai, eiae caeii 1912 aiaea i ieieioia ca?aaioiie ieaou aeey
ai?iyeia.

I?iiuoeaiiia e ?aai/aa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoaeuenoa
Eaiiayee-Aaiia?iaia e Aneaeoa aiai?eo aua i aeeyiee aei 1914 aiaea iiauo
oaiaeaioeee a noa?a nioeeaeueiiai e yeiiiie/aneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.
Noa?ay aeieo?eia Ieeey i oii, /oi ainoaea?noai yaeyaony oieueei «ii/iui
noi?iaeai», iaia?aie/aiii aeanoaiaoay aua a 60-70-o aiaeao, a eiioea XX
aaea oaea i?aeoe/anee ia iaoiaeeea noi?iiieeia a n?aaea iieeoe/aneeo
aeayoaeae Aiaeee. Ao?aeoaciia ainoaea?noai a ia/aea XX aaea naeaeaei
ianeieueei i?aeoe/aneeo oaaia a noi?iio aiaoaoaeuenoaa a noa?o
eiaeono?eaeueiuo ioiioaiee. Iaeiaei naii aiaeeeneia iauanoai ioiineeinue
aeiaieueii iaaeaaineeiiii e yoei iaoiaeai.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue e oio oaeo, /oi Aiaeey a yoio ia?eiae a iniiaiii naie
athaeaeao ?anoiaeoao ia a?ieth, oeio e oe?aieaiea ath?ie?aoe/aneiai
aiia?aoa eiia?ee. Oae, a 1905-1907 aa.(a n?aaeiai a aiae) ia aiaiiua
ioaeaeu o?aoeeinue 59,8 iei.o.no.,a a 1911-1913 aa. – 73,3 iei.o.no.
n?aaee e?oiiaeoeo aa?iiaeneeo aea?aeaa Aiaeey noiyea ia ia?aii ianoa ii
aiaiiui ?anoiaeai ia aeooo ianaeaiey. A Aiaeee ia auei iaaeinoaoea a
oai?eyo, iainiiauaaaoeo iaiaoiaeeiinoue aioiaiinoe e aieia yeiiiie/aneei
iio?aaiinoyie, a /anoiinoe oa?icie ni noi?iiu eaeca?ianeie Aa?iaiee.
Aaeaiaaeaeueiee «Aeaeii Aoeeue» (24 aaaonoa 1912 aiaea) ienae: «Aoaeai
aiai?eoue ioe?iaaiii: aieia n Aa?iaieae iaecaaaeia».Aieia ia/eiaao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaenoai iieii/eoue n aeaoiy
ceaeoeie a?aaaie aiaeeeneie ao?aeoacee: eaeca?ianeie Aa?iaieae e ?aai/ei
aeaeaeaieai. Aiaeey i?eieiaea yia?ae/iua ia?u a iiaeaioiaea aieiu. A
1901 aiaeo i?aaiecoaony eiieoao iai?iiu eiia?ee, aianoi
aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai a 1895 a. nicaeaaony aunoee aiaiiue niaao. A 1909
aiaeo oi?ie?oaony eiia?neee aaia?aeueiue ooaa, aeeth/aaoee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeiieieiiia. Aiaiiue ieieno? a eaaeiaoa eeaa?aeia
Oieaeaei i?iaiaeeo ?ai?aaiecaoeeth a?iee, acaiai nouanoaiaaaoeo ?aiaa
a?aaeaeaineie ieeeoeee e aeia?iaieue/aneeo nee auee noi?ie?iaaiu aaeeiua
oa??eoi?eaeueiua /anoe n ianniaui ?aca?aii. Aue i?aaieciaai
yneiaaeeoeeiiiue ei?ion a 100 ouny/ /aeiaae, eioi?ue iiaeii auei au a
ethaie iiiaio ia?aa?ineoue ia oa??eoi?eth O?aioeee. N O?aioeeae aua a
1905 aiaeo aeiaiai?eeenue i niaianoiuo aeaenoaeyo, a a aeaeueiaeoai-
?ani?aaeaeeee iaycaiiinoe aiaiii-ii?neeo nee: O?aioeey nin?aaeioa/eaaea
naie oeio a N?aaeecaiiii ii?a, a Aiaeey – a Naaa?iii.

Ia?aeeaeueii aiaiiui ia?ii?eyoeyi ia nooa inouanoaeyeinue aiaiii-ii?neia
no?ieoaeuenoai. Iacia/aiiue a 1904 a. ia?aui ei?aeii aaeie?aeoaenoaa
Oeoa? ia/ae ?ai?aaiecaoeeth aiaiii-ii?neeo nee n ?an/aoii ia aieio
i?ioea Aa?iaiee. Eiaiii aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo eaeay oie/oiaeeoue aac
iauyaeaiey aieiu aa?iaineee oeio ia aai noiyieao. A 1906 aiaeo aue
niouai ia aiaeo ia?aue ae?aaeiioo, eiaaoee ia ai?oo 12
aeaaiaaeoeaoeaetheiiauo i?oaeee ( aianoi 4-o ia noa?uo eeiei?ao). Yoi
iaanoeaieei noa?ue a?iiaiiniue oeio, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai Aiaeey auea
iaecia?eii neeueiaa Aa?iaiee.Oaia?ue, iinea iiyaeaiey ae?aaeiiooia,
i?aeiouanoai Aiaeee naaeinue e ieieioio, ii yoi eeoue aeaei oie/ie e aua
aieaa eeoi?aaei/iiio ii?neiio ni?aaiiaaieth aeaoo aea?aeaa ia iiaie
oaoie/aneie iniiaa. ?acoeueoaoii caioaeaaiey aue neeueii oaaee/aiiue
athaeaeao aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa. Iniaaiiinoueth ieeeoa?enoneie iieeoeee
Aiaeee auei oi, /oi iia ouaoaeueii ianee?iaaea naith aa?anneaiinoue
ie?iethaeauie o?acaie, aaiaeeaoeie a caaeoaeaeaiea iauanoaaiiia iiaiea,
eae a naiie Aiaeee, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie, a oaeaea oai, /oi aieiaiea
naiiai ia?iaea auei eneonii ioaaaeaii a noi?iio oe?ieiaauaoaeueiie
i?ia?aiiu nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i. Enoeiiue niune iieeoeee eeaa?aeia iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue ii niauoeyi, naycaiiui n oae iacuaaaiui «?aaiethoeeiiiui
athaeaeaoii» Eeieae-Aeaei?aeaea. 29 ai?aey 1909 aiaea Eeieae-Aeaei?aeae
aian i?iaeo athaeaeaoa ia1909-1910 oeiainiaue aiae. A i?iaeoa
oeao?e?iaae aeaoeoeeo a aieaa /ai 15 iei.o.no., eioi?ue iaoneaaeeaaeny
aeaaiui ia?acii aiaiiuie ?anoiaeaie. Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue, /oi
aeiiieieoaeueii e nouanoaothuae aiaiii-ii?neie i?ia?aiia
i?aaeiieaaaeinue iino?ieoue ainaiue a?iiaiinoeaa. Noa?aynue ineaaeoue
aia/aoeaiea io a?iiaaeiuo aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia, eeaa?aeu noa?aeenue
oneeaiii iiae/a?eiooue «aieueoea» anneaiiaaiey ia iainee noa?eeai ( ii
caeiio 1908 aiaea). Iniiaiua nii?u ?acaa?ioeenue i?aaeaea anaai aie?oa
i?eoiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa. I?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaeeaaaei aaanoe ?yae
iiauo einaaiiuo iaeiaia. Ecaanoii, /oi iinea eeeaeaeaoeee oeaaiuo
caeiiia a 1846 aiaeo a Aiaeee auee ioiaiaiu ii/oe ana einaaiiua iaeiae.
Iniiaiui aeaeii iaeiaeaiey aue i?yiie iaeia n aeioiaeia, i?aauoathueo
160o.no.a aiae. Iaeiaei, ii ia?a iioa?e Aiaeeae naiae i?iiuoeaiiie
iiiiiieee ia/aee ainnoaiaaeeaaoue iaeei einaaiiue iaeia ca ae?oaei.
Anaai iiaua einaaiiua iaeiae aeaaaee aeiiieieoaeueii eacia 6,7 iei.o.no.
Iniaaiii iaeanoi/aiiua nii?u oee a ioiioaiee i?yiuo iaeiaia. Aei 1902
a. nouanoaiaaei aeaa iniiaiuo i?yiuo iaeiaa: iaeia ia ca?aaioaiiue e
iaca?aaioaiiue aeioiae e aaaaeaiiue a 1894 aiaeo iaeia ia ianeaaenoaa.
Caeanue Eeieae-Aeaei?aeae i?aaeeiaeee oaaee/eoue eo e aaanoe iiaua
i?yiua iaeiae, cao?aaeaaaoea a aieueoae noaiaie e?oiiuo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Yoi ai ia?auo, iaeia ia «iaca?aaioaiiua i?e?auaiea»,
ai-aoi?uo, iaeia ia iino?ieee, a- o?aoueeo, iaeiaeaiea ionoothueo
caiaeue, e a -/aoaa?ouo, iaeia ia ?aioo, iieo/aaioth eaiei?aeaie n
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae-a?aiaeaoi?ia. Oae eae ii ia?a ?inoa ai?iaeia ?acei
au?inea e noieiinoue caiee, /ai iieueciaaeenue iiiaueee eneonnoaaiii
acaei/eaay ia ieo oeaiu. I?aaeoaeuenoai i?aaeeiaeeei i?iecaanoe ioeaieo
aeaenoaeoaeueiie noieiinoe caiee ii anae no?aia. I?e i?iaeaaea iiiaueeii
eaeiai-eeai o/anoea iaeia iyoay /anoue ?acieoeu iaaeaeo noieiinoueth
yoiai o/anoea e oie oeaiie, ca eioi?oth ii i?iaeai, aeieaeia eaeoe a
iieueco ainoaea?noaa. Yoi e aue iaeia ca iaca?aaioaiiia i?e?auaiea.
Aoi?ie iaeia eanaeny a?aiaeiuo ioiioaiee a Aiaeee. A Aiaeee nouanoaiaaei
iiiai ionoothueo caiaeue, eioi?ua iiiaueee ia naeaaaee a a?aiaeo e ia
i?iaeaaaee, aeiaeeaeaynue iiaiai iiauoaiey oeai. A athaeaeaoa 1909-1910
aiaea auei i?aaeoniio?aii aaaaeaiea iaeiaa a ?acia?a 0,5 iaina ia
eaaeaeue ooio ?uii/iie noieiinoe yoeo caiaeue.Iaeiiaoe, iiiai o/anoeia
iiiaueee naeaaaee oaooiaeaaeaeueoeai, eioi?ua ca i?aai aeiau/e, iai?eia?
eaiaiiiai oaey, ieaoeee, e?iia caiaeueiie ?aiou, eaiaeei?aeai iniaoth
?aioo. Athaeaeao 1909-1910 oeiainiaiai aiaea eiae noaoueth,
i?aaeoniao?eaaaooth iacia/eoaeueiia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea yoiai enoi/ieea
aeioiaea. Io iiauoaiey noa?uo e aaaaeaiey iiauo iaeiaia eacia iiaea
iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueii 12 iei.o. no.. Eeaa?aeueiue eaaeiao oneeaiii
iiae/a?eeaae , /oi ana yoe aeiiieieoaeueiua aeioiaeu iieaeoo a iniiaiii
ia oeo/oaiea aeecie ia?iaea. Eeieae-Aeaei?aeae aiai?ee : «Ia?aae iaie
athaeaeao , eioi?ue aeieaeai aanoe iai?eie?eioth ai?ueao n aaaeiinoueth.
ss iaaeathnue, /oi iuia aeeaouaa iieieaiea oaeaeeo oaea cia/eoaeueiia
i?eaeeaeaiea e oiio aaeo, eiaaea aaaeiinoue e nii?iaiaeaeathuaa aa
oieaeaiea e au?iaeaeaiea en/acioo, eae naeioee a iaoae no?aia aieee,
eioi?uo auei iaeiaaea iiiai a eanao». A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ieeaeiai
aeaaeaiiiai aaea, anoanoaaiii, ia ianooieea. Iaeiaei iaeaieaa
?aaeoeeiiiua e?oae, caueuay naie eioa?anu eaoii e inaiueth ia/aee
ooiioth aaeoaoeeiiioth eaiiaieth i?ioea athaeaeaoa, iniaaiii i?ioea
iaeiaia ia iaca?aaioaiiua i?e?auaiey. Naiua aeeyoaeueiua aeo?iaeu e
aacaou n «Oaein» ai aeaaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaee athaeaeao eae

« oeuie/aneee» e «nioeeaeenoe/aneee». Iaeaoa iauei ooaa?aeeea a
o?aoueai /oaiee athaeaeao, i?aaeeiaeaiiue eaaeiaoii. Iaeaoa ei?aeia
ioaa?aea athaeaeao. Yoi i?eaaei e iaino?aieth neooaoeee e aiineaaenoaee
e ?aoi?ie?iaaieth iaeaou ei?aeia.

A 1912 aiaeo eeaa?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai aianei aeeeue i aii?oea,
eioi?ue iaeaoa ei?aeia, iieuecoynue naie i?aaii aeaaaeaeu aai ioeeiieea.
E?eaiaeey oae e inoaeanue «ai?y/ae oi/eie» aeey Aiaeee. Caeanue niauoey
?acai?a/eaaeenue ino?i, aeaei yaii oei e a?aaeaeaineie aieia.
Iineaaenoaey ia?aoaiiie e?eaiaeneie i?iaeaiu iaia?oaeeaathony ii nae
aeaiue.

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii n iieiie oaa?aiiinoueth n/eoaoue i?iaaaeaiiua
i?aaeoaeuenoaii Aiaeee ?aoi?iu yoiai ia?eiaea aeinoaoi/ii ia?aie/aiiuie.
A ieo y?ei i?iyaeyeanue ?aaeoeeiiiinoue e iaaeaeaiea ao?aeoacee eaeoe ia
aeaenoaeoaeueii ?aaiethoeeiiiia ?aoi?ie?iaaiea onoa?aaoeo einoeoooia
aeanoe. Ieeoi eiie, eae eeaa?aeueiue i?aiuea? Aneaeo, eioi?ue aae
ai?ueao i?ioea ei?aeia a naieo ioaee/iuo cayaeaieyo, a iaeaoa iauei,
cayaeyy i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eciaiaiee a ooieoeeyo aa?oiae iaeaou, ii a oi
aea a?aiy iiae/a?eeaae, /oi «oaeia i?aia?aciaaiea ia iiaeao auoue
i?iecaaaeaii iaiaaeeaiii». I?aaeoaeuenoai aeaeaei eeoue oa ?aoi?iu,
eioi?ua ana ?aaii auee au iaecaaaeiu. ?ino ?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey, aai
i?aaieciaaiiinoue noaea ioaaoue ao?aeoaciua i?aayuea e?oae no?aiu.
Ioaeii auee eaeoe ia onooiee, ii e ia aeiionoeoue oneeaiey ?aai/aai
aeaeaeaiey. Iiyoiio ?aoi?iu iineee ianeieueei yieciaee/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Ianiiiaiii, /oi iniaaiiinoueth ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ia?eiaea eiioea XIX aaea –
ia/aei

XX aaea auea aeaooia?oeeiinoue iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu Aiaeee. A ai?ueaa
iaaeaeo niaie ca aeeyiea iaae iannaie ia?oee eniieueciaaee iiioeenoneea
ia?u. Eae, iai?eia?, eeaa?aeu a oeaeyo iioaoioaoaainy aeeyiey a 1904
aiaeo aianee aeeeue (caeiiii?iaeo Iaoeueoiia), niaeanii eioi?iio
i?eciaaony i?aai ie?iiai ieeaoe?iaaiey n oeaeueth i?iaaaeaiey noa/ae.
O?aae-thieiiu ia ianoo oeiainiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe eae ca i?iaaaeaiea
noa/ae, oae e ca ieeaoe?iaaiea. Yoio aeeeue eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue
aue i?eiyo ieaoie iauei e ioaa?aioo iaeaoie ei?aeia. Iaeiaei, eeaa?aeu
iiaeiyee naie ?aeoeia a n?aaea ?aai/eo. Ae?oaie ianiiiaiiie
iniaaiiinoueth ?aoi?ie?iaaiey auea ?acai?a/eaathuayny a no?aia aiiea
aii?oaeaiee, eioi?oth ouaoaeueii ianee?iaaee, ioaiaey aieiaiea ia
nioeeaeueiua ?aoi?iu.

I?aayuea e?oae iieacaee, /oi iaia?aiu i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo oia?aiiuo
nioeeaeueiuo ?aoi?i a ni/aoaiee n ieeeoa?ecaoeeae no?aiu e iiaeaioiaeie
e aieia.

N.A.Caoa?ia «Aiaeey a 1870-1914 aiaeu»

N.A.Caoa?ia «Aiaeey a 1870-1914 aiaeu» no?.32

I.A. A?ioaaa «I/a?ee ii enoi?ee Aiaeee 1815 -1917 a.»

I.A.A?ioaaa «I/a?ee ii enoi?ee Aiaeee 1815-1917 a.a.» no?. 44

I.A.A?ioaaa «i/a?ee ii enoi?ee Aiaeee 1815-1917» no?. 57

I.A.A?ioaaa «I/a?ee ii enoi?ee Aiaeee 1815-1917 « no?. 57

Aici? «Aiaeey 1870-1914» no?. 377

Aici? «Aiaeey 1870-1914» no?.380

I.A.A?ioaaa «i/a?ee ii enoi?ee Aiaeee 1815-1917» no?.66

E.Ae.Iao?yaa «Eo?n eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e
NOA» no?.320

E.Ae.Iao?yaa «Eo?n eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e NOA»
no?.325

E.Ae. Iao?yaa «Eo?n eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e
NOA» no?. 327

E.Ae.Iao?yaa «Eo?n eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e
NOA» no?.326

E.Ae.Iao?yaa «Eo?n eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e
NOA» no?.337

E.Ae.Iao?yaa «Eo?n eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e NOA»
no?. 327

E.Ae.Iao?yaa «Eo?n eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e NOA»
no?.329

Aici? «Aiaeey 1870-1914» no?.480

?ioooaei Y. «Aiaoiyy iieeoeea Aiaeee e aa e?eoeee 1830-1950 a.a.» no?.
10

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