.

Погребальные памятники эпохи бронзы

Язык: русский
Формат: дипломна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 3140
Скачать документ

Niaea?aeaiey

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa I. Iia?aaaeueiua iaiyoieee yiioe a?iicu

1. Enoi?ee eco/aiea yiioe a?iicu

2. Iia?aaaeueiua iaiyoieee Oaeaneeo aeieei

3. Iia?aaaeueiua iaiyoieee Eaoiaiue-Othaeineeoaeieei

Aeaaa II. Eeaaeu e iaoaeeo?ae/aneea i?iecaiaenoaa

1. Eeaaeu yiioe a?iicu

2. Iaoaeeo?ae/aneia i?iecaiaenoai yiioe a?iicu

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

I?eeiaeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

Ia ia?iiiuo i?inoi?ao Aa?iiu e Acee, ?oaaaea III e ia/aea II ouny/aeaoey
aei i.y. nicaeaeenue oneiaey, aeaaii?eyonoaothuea ?acaeoeth
a?iicieeoaeiiai aeaea. Oniaoe neioiaiaenoaa, eioi?uie iaee/aia aoi?ay
iieiaeia III ouny/aeaoey aei i.y. ai iiiaeo iaeanoyo Aa?aceeneiai
eiioeiaioa aaea e cia/eoaeueiiio eciaiaieth anae iauanoaaiiie no?oeoo?u
aeeaoeo ia yoie oa??eoi?ee ieaiai. Onoie iao?ea?oaeueii-?iaeiauo
ioiioaiee auee iiaei?aaiu, nicaeaeenue aiciiaeiinoe aeey oe?ieiai
iaeiieaiey ieaiaiaie aiaaonoa, a aeaea neioa (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.1-2).

A?iiciaue aae o ieaiaie Aa?iiu e N?aaeiae Acee a iniiaiii niaiaaeaao ni
II ouny/aeaoeai aei i.y., ii o aieueoeinoaa ec ieo ii i?iaeieaeaaony aua
e a ia/aea I ouny/aeaoeai aei i.y. A oa/aiee yoiai a?aiaie ?acaeaaeenue
iao?ea?oaeueii-?iaeiaua ioiioaiey n ainiiaenoaothuei iieiaeaieai ioae/ei
a naiuea e ?iaea. Yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie yoeo eciaiaiee auei oneeea
cia/eoaeueiinoe neioiaiaenoai, a oaeaea iauee iauai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
nee e, i?aaeaea anaai ?acaeoea iaoaeeo?aee. Iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue a yoii
i?ioeanna nua?aei e iinoaiaiiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ieoaeiiai caieaaeaeey,
i?eciaee eioi?iai a a?iiciaii aaea noaiiayony ana aieaa iiiai/eneaiiuie;
ii ia?a aeaeueiaeoeo oniaoia a?oaieiae/aneie iaoee ia yoii iiaeii
aiai?eoue ana n aieueoie oaa?aiiinoueth. ?iaeiaua iaueiu, aicaeaaeyaiua
noa?aeoeiaie aeaaaie iao?ea?oaeueiuo naiae, auee iauaaeeiaiu a yoi a?aiy
a iiiaiethaeiua ieaiaia, caieiathuea iaoe?iua oa??eoi?ee, ioaeaeaiiua io
oa??eoi?ee ae?oaeo ieaiai eanaie, ?aeaie, ica?aie. Ai aeaaa ieaiai
noiyei ia?iaeiia nia?aiea ioae/ei-niieaiaiieeia. Iaeiaei n oaaee/aieai
/eneaiiinoe ieaiai e, iniaaiii n ia?aciaaieai iauaaeeiaiee ianeieueeeo
ieaiai nia?aiea oa?yao naia ia?aiia/aeueiue oa?aeoa?. A iai oaia?ue
o/anoaotho eeoue /eaiu aeeaeaeoeo e ianoo nia?aiea ?iaeiauo iauei,
inoaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeytho noa?aeoeiu e aiaiiua i?aaeaiaeeoaee. I?ioeann
eiouanoaaiiie aeeooa?ainaoeee niieaiaiieeia. Iinoaiaiii a ?oeao ciaoe
nin?aaeioa/eaaaony e yeiiiie/aneay neea, e aiaaonoaa, e aeanoue, a
oaeaea ioi?aaeaiea ?aeeaeiciuo ia?yaeia.

Ia oiia yoeo a?aiaeeiciuo niauoee i?ienoiaeeaoeo a yiioo a?iicu iaoa
no?aia auaeyaeeo, iyaei aiai?y, iaeieco/aiiie. A?iiciaue aae ia
oa??eoi?ee Eu?aucnoaia ioaaouaaao ia?eiae n I ouny/aeaoeai aei i.y. ii
IX-VIII aa. aei i.y., e oa?aeoa?ecoaony ninouanoaiaaieai aeaoo iniiaiuo
eoeueoo?/ononeie e aiae?iiianeie. Iaa iie iieo/eee naia iacaaiea ii
ianoai ia?auo iaoiaeie (Aiae?iiiai aeec A/einea, *ono Oa?aaineia
aeieeiu). Iineoaeyie iineaaeiae, auee ?iaenoaaiiua ieaiaia i?iaeeaaaoea
ia ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee i?eo?ieuey, THaeiie Neae?e, Eacaonoaia, e
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe N?aaeiae Acee. A aeaeueiaeoai iniiaiia aieiaiea
aoaeao oaeaeaii eiaiii yoie eoeueoo?a, iineieueeo iinoieueeo /oeneia
eoeueoo?a yaeyaony eoeueoo?ie ianoiiai ianooaaa, aiae?iiianeia aea
yaeyaony eoeueoo?ie iaua aa?aceeneiai ianooaaa. ?anniao?eaay
aiae?iiianeoth eoeueoo?o, iaiyoieee eioi?ie oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ia
oa??eoi?ee Eu?aucneie ?anioaeeee, iiaeii neacaoue i caiouaiiinoe ianoiie
a?oaieiaee a yoie iaeanoe. Ia/eiay n 70-o aiaeia ia i?iaiaeeeinue
ieeaeeo enneaaeiaaiee, ioaeeeaoeee e o.i. yoi iai?yioth io?aceeinue ia
ninoiyiee enoi/ieeiaaae/aneie aacu a?iiciaiai aaea a oeaeii (Aeaaoy?iaa
A.Ae no?.3-4).

Iaeiie ec naiuo aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai e a?oaieiae Eu?aucneie ?anioaeeee,
ii iiaio iiaieth, yaeyaony caiieiaiea oae iacuaaaiuo «aaeuo iyoai» a
enoi?ee iaoae no?aiu. Ieeiio ia nae?ao, /oi a enoi?ee Eu?aucnoaia ia
?ac?aaioaiu i?iaeaiu iaeaieeoa, iaieeoa, yiaieeoa (enoaoe, iaaei
ioiaoeoue, iaiyoieeia eioi?iai aiiaua ia iaia?oaeaii, e?iia aiciiaeii
ianeaeueiuo ecia?aaeaiee Naeiaeu-Oao) e ?aiiaa?iiciaiai aaea – oeaeua
ouny/aeaoey iaoae enoi?ee ia noaee aeinoiyieai iaoee. A nayce n yoei,
iia eaaeaony aeooaeueiui iiaeiyoea yoiai aii?ina ia ainoaea?noaaiiii
o?iaia. Aaaeue iai ecaanoii, iu eu?aucu aiai?ei, /oi yaeyainy, /ooue ee
ia naiui ae?aaiei ia?iaeii N?aaeiae Acee. A aeieacaoue yoi neaaeoao ia
aeaea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iac?aei iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eiiieaeniuo
enneaaeiaaieyo (?acaaaeea, noaoeeiia?iua yiioe a?iicu ia i?iaiaeeeinue
(e?iia aiciiaeii A.A. Eocueieiie e I.A. Aaainiaie, ii yoe iiiia?aoee
auee iinayuaiu Aceaoneiio ?aaeiio a oeaeii. E oiio aea eeanneoeeaoeee
auoa oeacaiiuo aaoi?ia eanaeenue eeoue iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee, e ia
yaeyeenue aeinoaoi/ii iieiuie eae, iai?eia?, inouanoaeaiiay Oaaaeaeeaaui
O.O. ii iaoa?eaeai oth?eneiai a?aiaie, eioi?ay aeaea eioa?aniua
iaoa?eaeu. E?iia oiai, aei neo ii? ia ?aoai aii?in i noaiiaeaiee
neioiaiaenoaa e aai ?acaeoee eioa?anothuaai ian ?aaeiia, o.e.
neioiaiaenoai, ii iiaieth iiiaeo enneaaeiaaoaeae, aicieeei a yiioo
?aiiaai iaoaeea.

Oaeei ia?acii, anoaao caaea/a, iienea iaiyoieeia yoiai a?aiaie e
auyniaiey ii eo iaoa?eaeai oa?aeoa?a noaiiaeaiey neioiaiae/aneiai
oicyenoaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi Eu?aucnoai aoiaeeo a
aieueooth enoi?eei-eoeueoo?ioth iaeanoue, ecaanoioth iiae iacaaieai
N?aaeiyy Acey. Ecaanoii oaeaea e oi, /oi n yiioe iicaeiae a?iicu iia
aoiaeeea a aieueoie oeaio?aeueii-aceaoneee iannea, ianaeaiiue ei/aaui e
iieoei/aaui neioiaiae/aneei ianaeaieai. Iaeiaei aei neo ii? ia ynii, e
eaeiio a?aiaie ooiaeeo enoiee e eaeiaa aeeiaieea i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
ianaeaiey io iaieeoe/aneeo ieaiai e neioiaiae/aneei ieaiaiaie
iicaeiaa?iiciaiai aaea. A nayce n oaeie iinoaaeie aii?ina auei au
aanueia eioa?anii i?ineaaeeoue, eae niioiineeny n?ie ninouanoaiaaiey a
yiioo a?iicu aeaoo naiinoiyoaeueiuo eoeueoo?-/onoeie e aiae?iiianeie.
Oai naiui iiaeii aoaeao i?ineaaeeoue ?acaeoea ?acee/athueony
yeiiiie/aneie iniiaie e eoeueoo?ii-auoiauie iniaaiiinoyie aeaoo
yoie/aneeo a?oii

?anniio?aiea ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa aniaeoia i?iaeaiu a?iiciaiai aaea
Eu?aucnoaia iicaieeo aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii aanoe ?a/ue i ?aiieo yoaiao
yoie/aneie enoi?ee ianaeaiey iaoae no?aiu (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.4-5).

?acoiaaony, eiathueony iaoa?eaeia iiea iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ioaeiu iiaua
enneaaeiaaiey n oe?ieei o?iiieiae/aneei ioaaoii. Iac?aea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
a iieaauo e eaaeiaoiuo enneaaeiaaieyo ii a?iiciaiio aaeo Eu?aucnoaia.
Yoi niinianoaiaaei au ?ac?aaioea iiiaeo aii?inia, naycaiiuo n
oicyenoaaiiie, eoeueoo?iie e yoie/aneie enoi?eae ae?aaiaai ianaeaiey ia
oieueei n?aaeiae, ii e Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, a oaeaea Ainoi/iie, THaeiie e
Caiaaeiie Neae?e.

Oeaeue Enneaaeiaaiee

Ninoieo a eco/aiee ninoiyiey eco/aiiinoe iauaai o?iaiy a?iiciaiai aaea
Eu?aucnoaia, iniaaiii naaa?iuo aai ?aaeiiia. Aiciiaeiinoue eco/aiey eae
iiaeii aieueoaai eiee/anoaa iaiyoieeia a?iiciaiai aaea, ooi/iaiee
enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeuo eao. Auyniaiee iaee/ey a?iicieeoaeiuo i/aaia, e
iai?aaeaiey eoeueoo?iuo naycae ae?aaieo ieaiai iaeoaaoeo ia oa??eoi?ee
Eu?aucnoaia n nii?aaeaeueiuie ?aaeiiaie.

Caaea/a (?aaiou)

Ninoieo a neaaeothuai:

1) Ia?a/eneeoue iniiaiua iaiyoieee a?iiciaiai aaea Eu?aucnoaia

2) Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo n yoeo iaiyoieeia eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eo ii
iia?aaaeueiiio ia?yaeo, iia?aaaeueiiio nii?oaeaieth e eiaaioa?th. E a
neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey eaeeo eeai —- iniaaiiinoe, auyaeoue eo.

3) Auyaeoue eaoaai?ee e oeiu ecaeaeee, auoiaaaoea a ia?eiae iicaeiae
a?iicu ia oa??eoi?ee Eu?aucnoaia.

4) Auyaeoue iai?aaeaiea enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuo naycae ae?aaiaai ianaeaiey.

5) Iieacaoue o?iaaiue ?acaeoee e iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaai i?iecaiaenoaa a
yiioo iicaeiae a?iicu

6) ?anniio?aoue iiyoaiiia ?acaeoea aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u.

Iaoa?eaeu e iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey

Iauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeyeenue ana iaiyoieee a?iiciaiai aaea ia
oa??eoi?ee Naaa?iiai Eu?aucnoaia. Enneaaeiaaiiua iaoa?eaeu aeeth/aee
aeaiiua n oaeeo enoi/ieeia eae Ao?ia/ai, Oao-aaoao, Oao-Othaa-II,
Aeaeacu-Ea/o, Aeaeae—A?ue, Eaeeeee-Nae, ianaeaiee Noeoeoe, Eaeiaea,
Aeaiaaeei eeaaeia Oaioeineee, Ea?aeieueneee, Noeoeoeneee. A ?aaioa
o/oaiu iaoa?eaeu n auoa ia?a/eneaiiuo iaiyoieeia, a oaeaea neo/aeiua
iaoiaeee o?aieeenue a Ainoaea?noaaiiii Enoi?e/aneii iocaa, iocaa
A.I.E.?., a oaeaea iocaa eaai?aoi?ee EIO ei. AE.Aaeanaaoia.

Auaiae ?aaiou iniiaaiu ia noaoe/aneie ia?aaioea iaoa?eaeia i
auoaoeacaiiuo iaiyoieeia. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee aeiiieiaiu aeaiiuie,
iieo/aiiuie i?e aecoaeueiii, iiaa?oiinoiii iniio?a ecaeaeee. I?e
i?iaaaeaiee eeanneoeeaoeee iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee i?eiaiyeenue
oi?iaeueii-oeiieaae/eneeo iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey, a oaeaea eeanneoeeaoeee
Aaaianiaie e Eocueieiie.

No?oeoo?a ?aaiou

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaaeaiee, 2 aeaa, caeeth/aiee, nienea
eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e i?eeiaeaiee. A i?eeiaeaiee aeaiu ia?a/aiue
iaoa?eaeia n iaiyoieeia a?iiciaiai aaea Eu?aucnoaia.

Aeaaa I. Iia?aaaeueiua iaiyoieee yiioe a?iicu

1. ENOI?Ess ECO*AIEss YIIOE A?IICU

Yiioa eco/aiey aceaoneie /anoe N?aaeiae Acee – yoi a?aiy cia/eoaeueiuo
nioeeaeueiuo naeaeaia, a?aiy eiinieeaeaoeee ieaiai e aicieeiiaaiey
e?oiiuo nioeeaeueiuo e yoie/aneeo iauiinoae, aucaaiiuo ia?aoiaeii
ae?aaieo ieaiai e iiaiio oaoie/aneiio e oicyenoaaiiiio yoaio ?acaeoey.
Iniaia ianoi a yoii i?ioeanna caieiaao aiae?iiianeay
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneay iauiinoue. Eco/aieth aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u
iieiaeee ia/aei aieaa iieoaaea iacaae N.A. Oaieiooia. Iia auea auaeaeaia
i?e nicaeaiee eeanneoeeaoeee a?oaieiae/aneeo iaiyoieeia Ieioneineie
eioeiaeiu e aeaoe?iaaia na?aaeeiie II ouny/aeaoey aei iaoae y?u
(Oaieiooia N.A. n.57-112 ). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy enneaaeiaaiea
aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u oaiaeeo ian aaia?aoe/anee ec Ieioneineie
eioeiaeiu a ia?iiiua i?inoi?u noaiiie, eaninoaiiie, iieoionouiiie /anoe
THaeiiai O?aea, N?aaeiae Acee, Eacaonoaia e Neae?e, a o?iiieiae/anee
ioaaouaaao i?eia?ii oa aea ?oaaaee, eioi?ua i?aaeeiaeee N.A.Oaieiooia.
I?ioei aieaa 70 eao n iiiaioa enneaaeiaaiey e aaaaeaiey a
a?oaieiae/aneoth iaoeo A.ss.Ooai?eiiaui a 1941 a. iiaeeueieea o aea?aaie
Aiae?iiiaa aeec a.A/einea (Ooai?eiia A.ss. n.153-158), ii?aaeaeeaoaai
iacaaiea a?oaieiae/aneie eoeueoo?u ia?iiiiai a?aaea, ii aei neo ii?
aiae?iiianeay eoeueoo?a aucuaaao iiiai aii?inia e nii?ia. N?aaee
enneaaeiaaoaeae iao aaeeiiai iiaiey ii iniiaiui aii?inai enoi?ee
aiae?iiianeeo ieaiai. E iei ioiinyony aii?inu i?ienoiaeaeaiey eoeueoo?u,
ioiineoaeueiie e aaniethoiie aa o?iiieiaee, ninouanoaiaaiey oaaei?ianeie
e aeaeoeueneie eoeueoo?, aii?inu iaeioi?uo eieaeueiuo aa?eaioia
aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u a oeaeii e ioaeaeueiuo aa?eaioia.

Naii iiiyoea «aiae?iiianeay eoeueoo?a» yaeyaony nii?iui. Ia niaio
iineaaeiae i?eoei aieaa ?anoe?aiiia e oaeoaeaiiia iiiyoea «aiae?iiianeay
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneay iauiinoue» (Oaaei?iaa-Aeuauaeiaa Y.A.,
no?.131-152).Aiae?iiianeay eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneay iauiinoue yaeyaony a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiie ec eeth/aauo i?iaeai a?oaieiaee yiioe a?iicu.
A?aiy aa oi?ie?iaaiey (ia?aay iieiaeia II oun.) yaeeinue ia?aeiiiui
iiiaioii a enoi?ee ianaeaiey aa?aceeneeo noaiae, eiaaea ieii/aoaeueii
ooaa?aeeeenue ?acaeoua oi?iu i?iecaiaeyuaai neioiaiae/aneiai e
eiiieaeniiai caieaaeaeue/anei-neioiaiae/aneiai oicyenoaa, aeinoeaea
iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa iaoaeeo?aey a?iicu.

Neiaeiue e iiiaia?aiiue oa?aeoa? yeiiiieee aucaae na?ueaciua eciaiaiey a
nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?a iauanoaa. Iaaethaeaeny iaiau/aeii auno?ue
?anoeaao eoeueoo? aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe a oeaeii. Eo
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneoth niaoeeoeeo a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaoneiaee
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu ?aaeiia.

Aiae?iiiaoeu ieacaeenue oicyaaaie aiaaouo iaaeii?oaeiuo enoi/ieeia O?aea
e i?eeaaathueo ?aeiiia Eacaonoaia, a caoai e ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee
Aeoay. Aeaoaeueiua ?aeiino?oeoeee enoi?e/aneeo i?ioeannia, yoie/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe iaaiciiaeiu aac auyaeaiey
aaiacena eoeueoo?u, ii?aaeaeaiey neaaathueo aa eiiiiiaioia e ?iee
eaaeaeiai a aa noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee, a yoe aii?inu a naith i/a?aaeue
iaeciaiii oie?athony a ?ac?aaioeo aaeeiie a?oaieiae/aneie
ia?eiaeecaoeee, aac eioi?ie ia aiciiaeiu aeaeueiaeoea enoi?e/aneea
iino?iaiey.

Ioeaiea aiae?iiianeeo ae?aaiinoae iaie aeaaony n iiceoeee
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe, eoaea aoiaeyo – iao?ianeay,
aeaeoeueneay e oaaei?ianeay eoeueoo?u, a oaeaea eoeueoo?u aaeeeiaie
ea?aieee aeaiiiai ?aaeiia. Ioaeaeaiea iineaaeieo (ni?ai?u-aeaenaaaneay,
aaaacu-aeaiaeuaaaaneay e ae?.) io aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe iai?aaiia?ii,
oae eae aaiaoe/anee naycaiu e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eo aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea a iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo.

A aiae?iiianeee a?aae iu aeeth/eee oacaaaauyaneoth eoeueoo?o ia
iniiaaiee iauiinoe iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea, ea?aieee (i?iaiaio, oi?ia
ninoaeia aeecee iaiyoieeai ?aeiia Nieue-Eeaoee-Aeothaeine-I?ne), a
oaeaea i?enoonoaey (eie/a 3) aio?iiieiae/aneiai iaoa?eaea, /a?ou eioi?uo
naienoaaiiu iineoaeyi oieueei aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe. E?iia oiai, ia
oa??eoi?ee ?annaeaiey oacaaaauyaneeo ieaiai ecaanoiu /enoi aiae?iiianeea
noiyiee (Eoeia I.A. no?.52 e ae?.).

O?iiieiae/aneay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e aaiaoe/aneay i?aainoaaiiinoue
aiae?iiianeeo eoeueoo? onoaiaaeeaaaony ia iniiaaiee: no?aoea?aoee e
ieaiea?aoee iinaeai/aneeo e iia?aaaeueiuo eiiieaenia; yaiethoeee,
oaoiieiaee e oeiieiae/aneeo neaiciuo ?yaeia iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee
(aaiaoe/aneay naycue onoaiaaeeaaaony ia?aoiaeiuie yoaiaie), ea?aieee,
ienaiee e ae?.

Noiaenoai iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea, eiaaioa?y e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia
iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi aiae?iiianeea ieaiaia,
?annaeyaoeany ia ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee eiaee aaiaoe/aneia ?iaenoai e
ninoaaeyee aaeeioth eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneoth iauiinoue, /oiau ?ac?aoeoue
iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe, iu
ia?aoeeenue e eco/aieth iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo e anaiaueo
enoi/ieeiaaae/aneeo eaoaai?ee ae?aaieo eoeueoo? – iaoaeee/aneei
ecaeaeeyi ii anaio a?aaeo (O?ae, Eacaonoai, Neae?ue, N?aaeiyy Acey).
Auai? iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai enoi/ieea aeey
?ac?aoaiey iauaaiae?iiianeie i?iaeaiu naeaeai ia neo/aeii, oae eae
eiaiii iaoaeee/aneee eiaaioa?ue yaeyaony iaeaieaa iiaeeueiui e ?aoathuei
o?iiieiae/aneei eiaeeeaoi?ii.

Ia iniiaa oaoieei-ii?oieiae/aneiai e iao?e/aneiai aiaeeca iaie aeaaony
oeiieiae/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey iniiaiuo eaoaai?ee a?iiciauo ecaeaeee.
Niaieoiiinoue oaeeo i?eciaeia, eae oi?ia, ?acia?u, oaoiieiaey iicaieytho
?ane?uoue eo ooieoeeiiaeueiue iioaioeeae. O/eouaay nii?iinoue naiiai
iiiyoey «aiae?iiianeay eoeueoo?a» e eoeueoo?iie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo eiiieaenia, iu a iaoae ?aaioa iieuecoainy oaeeie
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuie aaeeieoeaie, eae a?oaieiae/aneay eoeueoo?a e
eoeueoo?ii- enoi?e/aneay iauiinoue. Oa?iei «eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneay
iauiinoue» iauaaeeiyao iaoe?iua iaeanoe, caiyoua ?iaenoaaiiuie ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth ieaiaiaie. Iaaeaeo ieie iiaeao e ia auoue i?yiuo
eiioaeoia. Cia/eoaeueiay aeecinoue iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u iaania/aia
caeanue ia oieueei aaeeiuie iooyie ?acaeoey, a noiaeiuo aaia?aoe/aneeo
oneiaeyo e iaeeiaeiaui oicyenoaaiiui oeeaaeii, ii e iaueie ei?iyie
i?ienoiaeaeaiey (Aaieia A.O., n.24). Iiae a?oaieiae/aneie eoeueoo?ie
aaoi? a iniiaiii i?eaea?aeeaaeny ii?aaeaeaiey «eoeueoo?a», eae ia?eiaea
a enoi?ee ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u eiie?aoiiai iauanoaa, aeaiiiai
I.I.A?yciiaui. Ea/anoaaiiua ioee/ey iaeiie eoeueoo?u io ae?oaie
caeeth/aaony ia a oii, /oi a iaeiie eoeueoo?a aieueoa iaeieo aa?eaioia
eaeiai-eeai i?eciaea, a a ae?oaie – ae?oaeo, a a oii, /oi eiie?aoiay
eoeueoo?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony eiiieaenii i?eciaeia, i?enoueo eeoue ae
iaeiie. Ae?oaay aea eoeueoo?a eiaao eiiieaen ae?oaeo naiaia?aciuo
i?eciaeia (A?yciia I.I., n.21).

Enoi?eia?aoey aiae?iiianeiai iaoaeea, ia cia/eoaeueia a ioee/ea io
enoi?ee eco/aiey naiie aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u. Ia?aay iiiuoea iao/iie
nenoaiaoecaoeee aiae?iiianeiai iaoaeea i?eiaaeeaaeeo I.I.A?yciiao. A
1930 a. a ?aaioa «Eacaonoaineee i/aa a?iiciaie eoeueoo?u», ?anniao?eaay
a?iiciaua i?oaeey Eacaonoaia, Aeoay e Ieioneineiai e?ay, ii auaeaeee
a?oiio ecaeaeee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey aiae?iiianeie eoeueo?u (eeiaeaeu-iiaee
n auaieaie, aeneiiaooiua oiii?u n «a?aaiai», eaeueou n iiyneii ec aeaoo
auioeeuo eeiee, iaeiia/ieee eiiee n aeeue/aoui noa?aeiai, ieineea
oiii?u-oanea (A?yciia I.I., n.158). Caeanue aea auei caia/aii, /oi yoe
i?oaeey i/aiue aeecee ii oi?iai e i?oaeeyi n?oaiie, aaaoaaneie e
naeieineie eoeueoo?. Aiineaaenoaee noaia I.I.A?yciiaa auea i?eiyoa
N.N.*a?ieeiaui ca iniiao i?e nicaeaiee eeanneoeeaoeee e o?iiieiaee
i?oaeee Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia (*a?ieeia N.N.,n.75-87). Enneaaeiaaoaeue
iiiuoaeny auyaeoue niaoeeoeeo ainoi/iieacaonoaineeo e iauaaiae?iiianeeo
oi?i. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ianinoiyoaeueiinoue e eneonnoaaiiinoue
iino?iaiee N.N.*a?ieeiaa i/aaeaeia, eai, ai-ia?auo, iaeuecy ana iaoiaeee
a?iiciauo i?oaeee n oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia, ia ?an/eaiyy eo ai a?aiaie,
?anniao?eaaoue eae i?aaeiaou iaeiie eoeueoo?u, ai-aoi?uo, a?aieoea
?ani?ino?aiaiey i?oaeee «ainoi/iieacaonoaineiai oeia» (iiaee n
«iainiaeaiiie ?oeiyoeie», oanea n onooiii, ee?ee e eaeea, eeiaeaeu n
«Iainiaeaiiie ?oeiyoeie», iiaee ieanoei/aoua n onooiii, oeeuey
aaicaeaia?aciua, eaeueou-eiiaoee (*a?ieeiaa N.N., n.77) auoiaeeo aeaeaei
ca i?aaeaeu Eacaonoaia. Ia?a/eneaiiua ecaeaeey oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu eae
a iicaeieo iaiyoieeao aiae?iiianeiai eoeueoo?iiai ianneaa, oae e a
neio?iiiuo aa?aceeneeo eiiieaenao.

Aii?inu oeiieiae/aneiai eco/aiey aiae?iiianeiai iaoaeea THaeiiai O?aea
io?aaeaiu a ?aaioao E.A.Naeueieeiaa. Iaeiaei a ieo ia au?aaioaia
eeanneoeeaoeey, a aeaaony eeoue ia?a/aiue iaoaeee/aneeo i?oaeee, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue ioianaiu e aiae?iiianeiio a?aiaie (Naeueieeia E.A.,
n.338-339), iiyoiio ii?aaeaeaiey oeiia neeoeii ?anieua/aou, ia/aoee.
Aeey iaoae oaiu iniaue eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao iiiia?aoey A.I.*a?iuoa
«Ae?aaiaeoay iaoaeeo?aey O?aea e Iiaieaeuey». N?aaee oeaeiai ?yaea
eioa?aniuo caeeth/aiee iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaatho oa, eioi?ua
iinayuaiu iaoaeeo aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u.

A.I.*a?iuo, nicaeaaay iauoth oeiieiae/aneoth e o?iiieiae/aneoth
eeanneoeeaoeeth iaoaeea Aieai-O?aeuey, auaeaeyao iaaieueooth na?eth
i?aaeiaoia, eioi?ua iiaee auoue au?aaioaiu thaeiio?aeueneeie
aiae?iiianeeie ianoa?aie. A yoie ?aaioa A.I.*a?iuo aia?aua oaeaeyao
aeieaeiia aieiaiea oeiieiae/aneiio aiaeeco oe?aoaiee aiae?iiianeeo
ieaiai (*a?iuo A.I.,n.112). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy na?ey aiae?iiianeeo
oe?aoaiee cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeanue. Auaeaeyaony ?yae oeiia, ii eioi?ui
iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue eo yaiethoeeth e a?aaeu (Aaaianiaa I.A., n.67-73).

Oaeei ia?acii, a eco/aiee iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia THaeiiai O?aea
aeinoeaioou ii?aaeaeaiiua oniaoe, iaeiaei aeey enoi?e/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee aanue aiae?iiianeee iaoaee aua ia i?eaeaeaeny. Aei neo ii?
iao oeaeueiie ea?oeiu aai ?acaeoey, ia auaeaeaiu eieaeueiua oi?iu,
oa?aeoa?iua aeey ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia eee eoeueoo?, i/aiue nii?ia e
?anieua/aoa o?iiieiaey.

Enoi?eia?aoey aiae?iiianeeo iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee oanii naycaia n
enoi?eae eco/aiey iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa e ?oaeiuo enoi/ieeia
aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe. A yoie iaeanoe eiaaony
?yae enneaaeiaaiee. N?aaee ?aaio N.N.*a?ieeiaa, iinayuaiiuo aii?inai
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa aiae?iiianeeo ieaiai, caneoaeeaaao
aieiaiey «Ae?aaiyy iaoaeeo?aey e ai?iia aeaei Caiaaeiiai Aeoay»
(*a?ieeiaa N.N.,). Enneaaeiaaoaeue aia?aua ia?auaaony e oeie/aneiio
ninoaao aiae?iiianeiai iaoaeea. Eniieuecoy iaaieueooth na?eth
ea/anoaaiiuo aiaeecia, aaoi? noaaeo aii?in i caaeneiinoe nieaaa io
ooieoeee ecaeaeee. A ae?oaie ?aaioa – «E aii?ino i ninoaaa ae?aaieo
a?iic Eacaonoaia», N.N.*a?ieeiaa aeaao oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaiuo i?eaiia
eniieueciaaiey nieaaia iaaee e iainiiauaaao aaaeiinoue aiaeeca ae?aaieo
a?iic eae iniaiai aeaea a?oaieiae/aneiai enoi/ieea (*a?ieeiaa N.N.,
n.140-1610.

Eioa?aniua naaaeaiey ii ai?iiio aeaeo e iaoaeeo?aee aiae?iiianeiai
i?iecaiaenoaa Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia nia?ae A.O.Ii?aoeai. Iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiie /anoueth aai ?aaio yaeyaony eco/aiea ae?aaieo ?oaeiuo
au?aaioie e iano ae?aaieo ieaaeeai A.A.Eannai e A.I.Niniianeee a noaouea
«E enoi?ee eniieueciaaiey ieiaa a I?eaienaeneii e?aa» noaaeo aii?in ia
enoi/ieeao niaaaeaiey Ieioneineiai e?ay ieiaii a aiae?iiianeoth yiioo ia
iniiaa aiaeecia iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia . Aaoi?u aeiioneatho, /oi
a?iiciaua ecaeaeey ecaioiaeyeenue aia i?aaeaeia Ieioneineiai e?ay ia
ieiaa iaianoiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey i iiiaaeaee caoai ia Aienae iooai
iaiaia. Aii?inu iaoaeeo?aee aiae?iiianeeo ieaiai caieiaee E.E.Eaooaiiaa
e A.A.Aeaaieaao. Aaoi?u aeaaiaea?y oeie/aneiio aiaeeco oieueei 22
i?aaeiaoia ec Ieioneineiai e?ay, Naaa?iiai Eacaonoaia, N?aaeiae Acee e
Iineiai eeaaea aeaeatho ia nianai iainiiaaiiua auaiaeu – aeaoe?otho
ioaeaeueiua eoeueoo?iua iaeanoe e aeaaea noaayo aii?in i oii, /oi
«oeaio?ii aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u aue Eacaonoai, ioeoaea iia
?ani?ino?aieeanue ia naaa?, ioaaouaay Ieioneineee e Iineee ie?oaa e
I?eo?aeuea». Aanueia eioa?aniu ?aaiou ss.E.Noi/oaooaaa ii enoi?ee
ai?iiai aeaea e iaoaeeo?aee a Ieioneineie eioeiaeia, a eioi?uo
inaauathony aii?inu iaoaeeiia?aaioee a aiae?iiianeia a?aiy, iienuaaaony
oaoieea aeiau/e iaaeiie ?oaeu e ieaaee iaaee. Iaoaeeo?ae/aneia
i?iecaiaenoai N?aaeiae Acee iaeaieaa iieii io?aaeaii A.A.Eeoaeineei e
A.Ae.?ocaiiaui (Ieeaaeieeia A.I., n.179-191). I?eiaiyy ?acoeueoaou
oeie/aneeo niaeo?aeueiuo aiaeecia n eae?aeoeueneeo iinaeaiee, A.A.
Eeoaeineee iinoaaee aii?in i ieaaea noeueoeaeiuo ?oae a aiae?iiianeoth
yiioo. Aiaeiae/iia caeeth/aiea i ?ac?aaioea noeueoeaeiuo cii iaaeiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee aiae?iiianeeie ieaiaiaie naeaeaee N.N.*a?ieeia e E.A.
Naeueieeia (Naeueieeia E.A., n.337), iaeiaei caeeth/aiea iineaaeieo
aaoi?ia iniiauaaeinue aieueoa ia aecoaeueiuo iaaethaeaieyo, /ai ia
niaoeeaeueiuo aiaeecao. A ?aaioa A.Ae.?ocaiiaa enneaaeiaaiu oeie/aneea
a?oiiu, eo enoi/ieee, enoiaeiua ?aeiiu e iooe ?ani?ino?aiaiey
iaoaeeo?aee i?iecaiaenoaa noaiiuo ieaiai yiioe a?iicu N?aaeiae Acee.
Iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaa i?iecaiaenoai Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee a yiioa
a?iicu iaoei io?aaeaiea a aeenna?oaoeee A.Ae.Aeyaoa?aaie. A ?aaioao
E.A.Aiaaeaiiaie-Aa?acianeie e Ae.A.Iaoiiaa oaeaea enneaaeiaaeenue
aii?inu aiae?iiianeie iaoaeeo?aee. I/aaeaeii, ec-ca ia?aie/aiiiai /enea
aiaeecia n aiae?iiianeeo iaiyoieeia auaiaeu (Aiaaeaiiaa-Aa?acianeay,
Iaoiiaa Ae.A.), naycaiiua n ?ac?aaioeie i?iaeai i?ienoiaeaeaiey
enoiaeiiai nu?uey, aai ia?aaioee e eniieueciaaiey eneonnoaaiiuo nieaaia,
ia i/aiue /aoee. Aia?aua A.I.*a?iuo oaeaeinue iieacaoue ?ieue
iaoaeeo?aee aiae?iiianeeo ieaiai THaeiiai O?aea a enoi?ee ?acaeoey yiioe
a?iicu aa?aceeneie /anoe iaoae no?aiu, eai aiae?iiianeee
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee i/aa ieeoeaoai?ye naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth ia/aei yoaia
a?iiciaie iaoaeeo?aee a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia. A.I.*a?iuo, eniieuecoy aeaiiua
niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca, ?ane?uaaao aii?inu i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeyao
?oaeiua enoi/ieee e ?aeiiu ?ani?ino?aiaiey aiae?iiianeiai iaoaeea,
auyaeyao ai?iiiaoaeeo?ae/aneea iaeanoe aiae?iiianeiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
i/aaa.

Yoe auaiaeu yaeythony aeinoeaeaieyie a iaeanoe eco/aiey
iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa eoeueoo? aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe. Oaeei
ia?acii, e ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia aieueoeinoai enneaaeiaaoaeae i?eoee e
auaiaeo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?anniao?eaaoue oaaei?ianeea e aeaeoeueneea
iaiyoieee, eae ioiinyueany e naiinoiyoaeueiui eoeueoo?ai a ?aieao
aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe. Ia aucuaaao ?aceeo
aic?aaeaiee e auaeaeaiea eoeueoo? caeeth/eoaeueiiai yoaia a?iiciaiai
aaea, naycaiiuo n «aaeeeiaie» ea?aieeie. Iniiaiia i?ioeai?a/ea a
iino?iaiee o?iiieiae/aneeo noai naaiaeiy ii?aaeaeyaony ?acee/iui
iiieiaieai acaeiiioiioaiee aeaeoeueneeo e oaaei?ianeeo eiiieaenia.
Ia?aua enneaaeiaaoaee aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u enoiaeeee ec aaeeinoa aa
?acaeoey ia anae oa??eoi?ee noaiae e eaninoaiae io O?aea aei Aienay.A
enoi?ee eco/aiey a?iiciaiai aaea N?aaeiae Acee iiaoo auoue iaia/aiu o?e
iniiaiuo yoaia. Ia?aue ec ieo ioaaouaaao aeiniaaoneee ia?eiae, eiaaea
neeaie o/anoieeia Oo?eanoaineiai e?oaeea ethaeoaeae ae?aaiinoae e
ioaeaeueiuie eieeaeoeeiia?aie aue nia?ai iaiiiai/eneaiiue iaoa?eae,
inoaaaaoeeny iaeeanneoeoee?iaaiiui. ?aneiiee iaiyoieeia yiioe a?iicu
auee i?iaaaeaiu oieueei a Aiao.

Aoi?ie yoai ia/eiaaony n 30-o aiaeia XX a., eiaaea a ?aciuo iaeanoyo
N?aaeiae Acee i?iaiaeyony ?acaaaeee e ia?aua nenoaiaoe/aneea ?aneiiee,
iicaieeaoea nia?aoue aeiaieueii iaoe?iue iaoa?eae. A yoo aea ii?o a
nayce n eco/aieai ai?iiai aeaea N?aaeiae Acee I.A.Iannii niae?aao
iaoa?eae, eanathueeny ae?aaiae aeiau/e iaaee.

O?aoee yoai – oeaeaono?aieaiiia e oe?ieia a?oaieiae/aneia ianeaaeiaaiea
?anioaeee N?aaeiae Acee, ia/aaoaany a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae. ?aaiou
iaeioi?uo aieueoeo yeniaaeeoeee i?eaaee e iaeiieaieth niaa?oaiii iiaiai
iaoa?eaea, iicaieeaoaai auaeaeeoue eoeueoo?u yiioe a?iicu,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii eo aeaoe?iaaoue, ia?eniaaoue iauoth ea?oeio oicyenoaa.
Iaeiaei nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii yoeo ?aaio yaeyaony oi, /oi ?aeii
enneaaeiaaiey aua?ai eiiaaea ia enoi?e/anee, a enoiaey eo nouanoaothuaai
aaeieieno?aoeaiiai aeaeaiey. Aei neo ii? ia auei iiiuoee ?anniio?aoue
aaiacen eoeueoo? N?aaeiae Acee a oeaeii. Oe?ieiai niiinoaaeaiey
iaoa?eaeia neioiaiae/aneeo e caieaaeaeue/aneeo eoeueoo? ia anae
oa??eoi?ee ia i?iaaaeaii. Iiiaea oeaiiua iaoa?eaeu inoathony ia
ecaeaiiuie eee iioaeeeiaaiu a ecaeaieyo, o?oaeii aeinooiiuo aeaaea aeey
niaoeeaeenoia. Yoi e iiaoaeaeaao naanoe aiaaeeii, niaianoii ?anniio?aoue
e ecaeaoue iaoaeee/aneea ecaeaeey yiieeoe e a?iicu n oa??eoi?ee N?aaeiae
Acee. Iaoaee ec iaiyoieeia aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe n oa??eoi?ee
Eacaonoaia, THaeiiai O?aea, N?aaeiae Acee, Caiaaeiie e THaeiie Neae?e
i?aaenoaaeai ?acee/iuie eaoaai?eyie ecaeaeee: oe?aoaieyie, i?oaeeyie
o?oaea e i?oaeeai. A iinaeaieyo, e?iia oiai, iaoiaeyony iieooaa?eeaou
(ieanoeiee, noa?aeie), noeeee e ae?. Oeiieiae/aneee aiaeec ecaeaeee e
aiaeec eo oeie/aneiai ninoaaa iaia?oaeeee iaeiicia/iia niioaaonoaea
iaaeaeo oeiieiae/aneei e?eoa?eai e oeie/aneei ninoaaii. Iniiaiay ianna
aiaeece?oaiuo iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia i?aaenoaaeaia ioiineoaeueii
/enoie iaaeueth eee nieaaaie iaaee n ieiaii, naeioeii e iaeioi?uie
ae?oaeie iaoaeeaie. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua a?oiiu nieaaia iaaee, eiaaoea
?ani?ino?aiaiea a aiae?iiianeeo iaiyoieeao. Aanue iaoa?eae iiaeii
?acaeoue ia aeaa a?oiiu: iaaeioth e a?iiciaoth.

A?oiia iaaee. E iae ioianaia ioiineoaeueii /enoay iaaeue n
iacia/eoaeueiuie i?eianyie (aei 1% ae?oaeo iaoaeeia).

A?oiia a?iic. E yoie a?oiia iu ioianee nieaau iaaee n ae?oaeie
iaoaeeaie, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo i?aauoaao 1%. I?e yoii iaeiaiiaaiea
a?iicu ii?aaeaeyaony aeaiiui iaoaeeii. Nieaa iaaee n ieiaii – ieiayiiay
a?iica, n iuoueyeii – iuoueyeiaay a?iica, n no?ueiie – no?ueiyiay. I?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii i?enoonoaee a nieaaa aeaoo e aieaa eiiiiiaioia, e?iia
iaaee, niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo i?aauoaao 1%, iu aoaeai iacuaaoue neiaeiie
a?iicie e n/eoaoue aai o?ao- eee /aou?aoeiiiiiaioiui nieaaii. Iaeiei ec
iinoiyiiuo aii?inia, eioi?ue noaaeony i?e enneaaeiaaiee neiaeiuo nieaaia
– yoi ii?aaeaeaiea eneonnoaaiiuo e anoanoaaiiuo i?eianae a iaoaeea.
Ieiai, eae ninoaaiay /anoue nieaaa n iaaeueth a iaoaeea aiae?iiianeie
eoeueoo?u, aannii?ii, yaeyaony eneonnoaaiiie i?enaaeeie e iaaee.
Aeieacaoaeuenoai aeaiiiai iieiaeaiey aoaeoo i?eaaaeaiu ieaea.

Ieiayiiay a?iica n?aaee iaoaeea yoie eoeueoo?u auea oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaia e ninoaaeyao 65% ec /enea ?anniio?aiiuo. I?e n?aaeiai
niaea?aeaiee ieiaa 5-7% aai eiioeaio?aoeey a iaeioi?uo iaoaeee/aneeo
nieaaao (oe?aoaiey, iiaee-eeiaeaeu) aeinoeaea 10-15%. Cia/eoaeueii ?aaea
ieiayiiuo a?iic a iaoaeea aiae?iiianeiai a?aiaie ano?a/athony
iuoueyeiaua e no?ueiyiua a?iicu (10% io iauaai /enea aiaeecia). O?iaaiue
eiioeaio?aoeee iuoueyea e no?ueiu a iacaaiiuo a?iicao ieaea, /ai ieiaa a
ieiayiiuo, e ninoaaeyao aeey iuoueyea – 1-3% e no?ueiu – aei 1,5%. Ii
anae aa?iyoiinoe, yoe iaoaeeu ia aaiaeeeenue a nieaa n iaaeueth, a
i?eaiineeenue a iaai niaianoii n iaaeueth ec iaaeiuo ?oae. Iau/ii
enneaaeiaaoaee, eco/athuea iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuee i?ioeann e
iaoaeeo?aeth ae?aaiinoe, ?anniao?eaay aii?in i?ienoiaeaeaiey iaoaeea,
iaoiaeyo nayce iaaeaeo ninoaaii iaoaeea e ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaaeiuie
?oaeiuie enoi/ieeaie (*a?iuo A.I., n.22-34; Naieioiiia E.?.,), inoaaeyy,
iaeiaei, ia auyniaiiui aii?in, eaeay oi?ia ?oaeii?iyaeaiey iiaea auoue
eniieueciaaia: ieeneaiiay eee ia?ae/iay (noeueoeaeiay). Yoio aii?in
aanueia aaaeai, oae eae aei neo ii? iaecaanoai aua a?aiaiiie ?oaaae,
eiaaea ae?aaiee iaoaeeo?a io ieeneaiiie ?oaeu ia?aoae e noeueoeaeiie.

Ia enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee ?anniao?eaathony i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u
iicaeiae a?iicu Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee, iainiiauaaaony oaia, oeacuaathony
oeaee e caaea/e ?aaiou. Aeai oaeaea iaci? enoi?ee enneaaeiaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa ieaiai iicaeiae a?iicu Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee. A aai
eco/aiee auaeaeythony ianeieueei iniiaiuo aniaeoia: oeiieiae/aneee,
oeieei-niaeo?aeueiue, oaoiieiae/aneee. Iniaoth i?iaeaio ninoaaeyao
eco/aiea ai?iiai aeaea: enneaaeiaaiea ae?aaieo ?oaeieeia e ieaaeeueiuo
ono?ienoa.

Ia?aui ia?aoee aieiaiea ia niaoeeoeeo iaeioi?uo oo?eanoaineeo oi?i
i?oaeee o?oaea A.I.Oaeeuea?ai. Ia/aei iao/iie nenoaiaoecaoeee
iiiai/eneaiiuo neo/aeiuo eieeaeoeee naycaii n ?aaioie I.I.A?yciiaa,
auaeaeeaoaai oi?iu a?iiciauo i?oaeee, oa?aeoa?iua aeey aiae?iiianeie
eoeueoo?u. I?iaeaiaoeeie oeiieiae/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee iaoaeee/aneeo
ecaeaeee Eacaonoaia caieiaeny N.N.*a?ieeia. Ei ninoaaeaia iieiay naycea
iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia, i?ienoiaeyueo ec Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia.
Aieueoie aeeaae a nenoaiaoecaoeeth e ?ac?aaioeo oeiieiaee iaoaeee/aneiai
eiaaioa?y N?aaeiae Acee e Eacaonoaia aianai A.A.Eocueieiie.
Enneaaeiaaoaeue, eco/ay iaoaee yiieeoa e a?iiciaiai aaea N?aaeiae Acee,
auaeaeeea iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea oi?iu i?aaeiaoia aiae?iiianeie
eoeueoo?u, a oaeaea oeiu, oa?aeoa?iua aeey Naie?a/aineiai i/aaa
iaoaeeiia?aaioee. A.A.Eocueieia onoaiiaeea iicaeiaaiae?iiianeoth
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue Naie?a/aineeo eeaaeia e ii?aaeaeeea eo o?iiieiaeth a
i?aaeaeao XII-IX aa. aei i.y. A ?aieao auaeaeaiiuo yaiethoeeiiiuo ?yaeia
iaoaeea aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe I.A.Aaaianiaa
au/eaieea iaeioi?ua oeiu ecaeaeee iicaeiae a?iicu, eioi?ua ioianea e
caie?aaai-aaaaceineie eoeueoo?u.

Ae?oaia iai?aaeaiea a eco/aiee aiae?iiianeiai iaoaeea naycaii n
enneaaeiaaieai oeie/aneiai ninoaaa ecaeaeee iaoiaeii niaeo?aeueiiai
aiaeeca. A 50-a aiaeu N.N.*a?ieeiaui e E.E.Eaiueiaui auee naeaeaiu
auaiaeu i ninoaaa e oa?aeoa?a nieaaia iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee Naaa?iiai,
Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia e Naie?a/uey. Iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao ?aaioa
A.I.*a?iuo, eioi?ie aia?aua ?anniio?ae aiae?iiianeee iaoaee, eae n oi/ee
c?aiey auaeaeaiey oeie/aneeo e iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo a?oii, oae e niioiioaiey
oei – oeie/aneay a?oiia. Aaoi? naeaeae auaiae i oii, /oi
iaoaeeo?ae/aneee i/aa yaeyeny iaeaieaa iiuiui ec nouanoaiaaaoeo ia
naeieineii o?iiieiae/aneii ai?eciioa.

2. IIA?AAAIEss YIIOE A?IICU A OAEANNEIE AeIEEIU

A 1956 e 1957 aa. Oaeanneiio a?oaieiae/aneiio io?yaeo oaeaeinue
caoeene?iaaoue e enneaaeiaaoue a Oaeanneii e Eaoiai-Othaeineie
eioeiaeiao iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu, i?aaenoaaeythuea iiea ?aaeeia
yaeaiea, neaai io?aaeaiiia a a?oaieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a i Ee?aecee.

A Oaeanneie aeieeia oaeea iia?aaaiey ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a o?ao ianoao: a
Oao-Othaa, Oao-Aaoao e Aao-Oao (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.1-4).

Iiaeeueiee a o?i/eua Oao-Othaa (ianeaaeiaaiiue a 1956 a.) ?aniieiaeai ia
eaaie aunieie oa??ana ?. Iaeueaeu, aeec auoiaea aa a aeieeio Oaeana. A
o?i/eua ?aniieiaeaii ianeieueei ?aciia?aiaiiuo eopaaiiuo a?oii, iiyoiio
iiaeeueiee yiioe a?iicu iieo/ee iacaaiea Oao-Othaa II.

Ia iiaa?oiinoe caoi?iiaiey Oao-Othaa II iaicia/aiu eaiaiiuie ia?aaeeaie,
aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai eioi?uo ia aicauoaaony iaae ie?oaeathuae
ianoiinoueth. Ia?aaeee, aueiaeaiu ec ?aaiiai eaiiy, ai iiiaeanoaa
ano?a/athuaainy ia aeeceaaeauae ai?ea Oao-Othaa, aeaaoae iacaaiea
o?i/euo. Iie eiatho ?aciua ieaiu, ioee/athony oaeaea e acaeiiui
?aniieiaeaieai. Ia?aaeee a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa i?yiioaieueiua,
?aniieiaeaiu a ?yaeu, ninoaaeythuea eae au ei?eaei?u, ?acaeaeaiiua ia
naeoeee. Oaeeo naeoeee a ioaeaeueiuo ei?eaei?ao ian/eouaaaony io aeaoo
aei iyoe. Oieueei o?e ia?aaeee noiyo eciee?iaaiii. Ana ei?eaei?u eiatho
i?eaioe?iaeo ii eeiee CA, ii ano?a/aii aeaa naeoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ii
eeiee NTH.

E?iia i?yiioaieueiuo, a iiaeeueieea ioia/aiu iaaeueiua ia?aaeee, eae
i?aaeei, i?eiueathuea e ioaeaeueiui naeoeeyi ei?eaei?ia ec
i?yiioaieueiuo ia?aaeie.

Iaeaieaa aeeeiiue ei?eaei?, ninoiyuee ec iyoe ia?aaeie (? 16—20),
i?eaioe?iaai ii AC, n ioeeiiaieai ia 5 a?aaeonia.

Ia?aaeea ? 16. E?aeiyy n ainoi/iiai eiioea „ei?eaei?a”, iiaeeaaae?aoiie
oi?iu, ?acia?ii 3 O 3,2 i. Aueiaeaia ec e?oiiuo ?aaiuo eaiiae (ii 5—6 n
eaaeaeie noi?iiu) aeeeiie io 0.3 aei 0,9 i, iinoaaeaiiuo ia ?aa?i e
aunooiathuay iaae iiaa?oiinoueth caiee io 0,15 i aei 0,5 i. N ainoi/iie
noi?iiu ia?aaeee aeaeia “i?eno?ieea” a oi?ia iaaea ec 5 eaiiae, aa
?acia?u 1,2 o 0,66 i. N thaeiie noi?iiu — oaeiai aea oa?aeoa?a
„i?eno?ieea”, ?acia?aie 1,0 o 2,0 i ec 4 eaiiae. A noi?iia, iauae aeey
ia?aaeie ? 16 e 17 ynii aeaeai i?iai oe?eiie 0,7 i. Aia/aea
?aneaiuaaeanue any aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue ia?aaeee, naiaiaeiay io
eaiiae. Iia ia auaeaeyaony ia iauai o?iaia ianoiinoe. Aa?oiea neie,
ninoiyuea ec eanniaiai noaeeiea, ie/aai ia aeaee aeey auyniaiey
eiino?oeoeee iia?aaaiey. A ainoi/iie /anoe ia?aaeee a aea?iiaii neia
?an/euaia eaiaiiay iaa?inea ieiuaaeueth ieiei 1,2o0.8i. N aeoaeiu 0,25 i
noaee i?iyaeyoueny a?aieoeu iiaeeueiie yiu ii iyaeie canuie e oaa?aeui
noaieai. Iinea ?an/enoee auynieeinue, /oi iiaeeueiay eaia?a eiaea noaiee
ec aeeiu (n iaeeueiie i?eianueth nieiiu) oieueiie 0,4 i, ia/eiaaoeany,
ii-aeaeeiiio, io naiie aeiaaiie iiaa?oiinoe, ii aei auniou 0,25 i ia
nio?aieaoeany. ?acia?u eaia?u 1,95 o 1,33 i. Aeii eaia?u i?ineaaeeaaaony
i/aiue /aoei ii oaa?aeinoe iiae canuiueth e ii aaeiio ecaanoeiaiio
iaeaoo ia aai iiaa?oiinoe. Aiciiaeii, /oi aeii auei iie?uoi oiieie
aeeiyiie iaiaceie aac nieiiu. Aeoaeia eaia?u 1,2 i. A canuie eaia?u
ieeaeeo iaoiaeie ia iaia?oaeaii. Ia iieo ii anae caiaaeiie iieiaeia
ioia/aeenue neeueii iaiaeaeaiiua /aeiaa/aneea einoe. Ia?aaeea auea
ca/euaia e n aiaoiae noi?iiu ia ?annoiyiee 1 i. A iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeecinoe io iaa ia aeoaeia 0,3 i n aeaoo noi?ii iaeaeaiu ninoaeu: a
oeaio?a naaa?iie noi?iiu aeaa aieueoeo ai?oea, a thaeiie (iai?ioea)-
iaeei iaiueoeo ?acia?ia. Ae?oaeo iaoiaeie ca ia?aaeeie ia auei
(Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.4-6).

Ia?aaeea ? 17. Ia iiaa?oiinoe eiaao oaeie aea aeae. I?yiioaieueiie
oi?iu, ?acia?aie 3,0 o 3,2 i. A naaa?i-caiaaeiii oaeo ia?aaeee anoue
i?iai oe?eiie 0,6 i. A iauae aeey 16 e 17 ia?aaeie noi?iia, eae
oeacuaaeinue auoa, oaeaea anoue i?iai oe?eiie 0,7 i. ?aneaiuaaeanue any
aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue. Iia?aaaeueiia nii?oaeaiea – i?aaenoaaeyao
iieioth aiaeiaeth nii?oaeaieth a ia?aaeea ? 16. Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi aue
iaeei eiiieaen, oae eae iie iaa eiatho aeeiiaeoiua noaiu noiaeiie
oaeoo?u (aeeia n ?anoeoaeueiie i?eianueth) e oieueiu, iaeia ec noaiie
iauay aeey iaieo nii?oaeaiee. THaeiay noaia eaia?u ia ninoaaeyao iaeio
eeieth n oie aea noaiie ia?aaeee ? 16, aunooiay ianeieueei ia?oaeo.
?acia? eaia?u a ia?aaeea ? 17 — 1,4 o 2,0 i, aeoaeia 1,7 i. Aeii, oae
aea eae e a i?aaeuaeouae eaia?a, i?aaenoaaeyao oaa?aeoth iiaa?oiinoue,
neaaea niacaiioth aeeiie aac i?eiane nieiiu. Ia iieo ii anae aai
iiaa?oiinoe iaeeea inoaoee iaiaeaeaiiuo einoae. Ec aauae iaeaeaia /anoue
aeeiyiiai ninoaea, ii eioi?ie ainnoaiaaeeaaaony oi?ia aieueoae /anoe
aai.

Ia?aaeea ? 18. Oeaio?aeueiay a iienuaaaiii „ei?eaei?a”. N ainoi/iie
noi?iiu ioaeaeaia io ia?aaeee ? 17 i?iiaaeooeii oe?e iie 0,6 i oae, /oi
yoe aeaa ia?aaeee eiatho ia iauoth niaaeioth noi?iio, a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua. I?ioeaiiieiaeiay, caiaaeiay noi?iia—iauay n ia?aaeeie
? 19. Naaa?iay noi?iia ia?aaeee iaaeueiie oi?iu. ?acia?u ia?aaeee
2,8o3.0. ?aneaiuaaeanue any aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue. A?aieoeu iiaeeueiie
yiu ia onoaiiaeaiu. Ia aeoaeia 1,1 i a oeaio?a ?aneiia ioia/aiu ia?aua
o?aaiaiou ia?aaeaeaiiuo einoae i/aiue ieioie nio?aiiinoe. A?oiiu einoae
iaeaeaiu oaeaea ia aeoaeia 1,35 i (a yoie aea oi/ea) e ia aeoaeia 1,5 i.
Ieaea yoie ioiaoee ieeaeeo iaoiaeie ia auei naeaeaii. Eiio?ieueiue ooue
aeae /enoue iaoa?ee. Ca ia?aaeeie iaoiaeie ia ieacaeinue.

Ia?aaeea ? 19. 2,4 o 3,0 i. Caiaaeiay e ainoi/iay noi?iiu iauea ni
niaaeiuie ia?aaeeaie. Neiaeaia ec ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo eaiiae (io
0,25 o 0,35 i aei 0,25 o I,40 i), ii ano?a/athony iaeeii/iua ieeou ?ac
ia?aie 0,4 o 0,7 i. Aioo?e ia?aaeee ?ac?iciaiiua caaea?iiaaiiua iae eea
eaiie. ?aneaiuaaeanue any aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue. Aei aeoaeiu 0,3 i
iaaethaeaeny iaeii?iaeiue e?nniaue noaeeiie. Ia ioiaoea a 0,3 i a
oeaio?a ec ia?aaeee auyaeeinue iaaeueiia iyoii yc aaeueee n?aaeiae
aaee/eiu a caieae. ?acia?u iyoia iinea ca/enoee ia ioiaoea 0,3 i ?aaiu
0,8 1,1 i. N oaeoaeaieai ieiuaaeue yeeeina oaaee/eaaaony e ia aeia yiu
caieiaao anth ieiuaaeue—2,9O2,2 i. I?iia?u « eiio?ieueiuo n?acao aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi aaea/iay canuiea i?iecaiaeeeanue a
ionooth yio. Caoai yoa eo/a, aeinoeaoay auniou 1,0 i, auea canuiaia
caieae. Ia aeia yiu aaeieue o?ao noai auee oeiaeaiu aieueoea neaioeaaua
ieeou oe?eiie io 0,2 aei 0,5 i, aeeeiie aei 0,7 i, aaeieue caiaaeiie
noaiu oeiaeaiu iaeeea ieeoee (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.6-8).

Aioo?e auiinoee ec neaioeaauo ieeo ia anae ieiuaaee ?aca?inaiu
iaiaeaeaiiua einoe /aeiaaea. A thai-ainoi/iie noi?iia eaia?u iaia?oaeai
o?aaiaio aeeiyiiai ninoaea. Iiae iaeiie ec ieeo a naaa?i-ainoi/iii oaeo
iaeaeaia a?iiciaay i?ieieea. Ae?oaeo iaoiaeie ia auei. Ca i?aaeaeaie
ia?aaeee iaoiaeie ia iaia?oaeaii.

Ia?aaeea ? 20. E?aeiyy n caiaaeiie noi?iiu ei?eaei?a. A ieaia
eaaae?aoiay, ?acia?aie 0,3 o 3,0 i. Ainoi/iay noi?iia aueiaeaia ec
iaeaieaa e?oiiuo eaiiae, aeinoeaathueo ?acia?ia 70o35o55 ni, ae?oaea
noaiee aueiaeaiu ianeieueei iaiueoeie eaiiyie—?acia?ii io 30o20 aei
40o30 ni. Aei ioiaoee 0,6 i oae iaeii?iaeiue i/aiue ieioiue a?oio. Ia
yoie ioiaoea auyaeeenue a?aieoeu iiaeeueiie yiu, eiaaoae
iiaei?yiioaieueioth oi?io ?acia?aie 2,2O1,2 i. A yia ia aeoaeia 1,5 i
ioia/aiu iaeeea o?aaiaiou aeaeaiuo einoae /aeiaaea. Ieaea
ca?aaeno?e?iaaia a ?aciuo oi/eao e ia ?aciie aeoaeia, aei naiiai aeia
yiu, na?ey iaoiaeie: na?aa?yiua na?ueae, iaa?iooua cieioie oieueaie, n
?ano?oaaie ia iaeiii eiioea iyoue a?iiciauo ieanoeiie-iaeeaaeie /aou?a
a?iiciauo a?aneaoa n iacaiueathueieny, caoiaeyueie ae?oa ca ae?oaa
cae?oaeaiiuie eiioeaie cae?oaeaiiue eii/ee a?iiciaiai iiaea niethniooay
iaieii/ea ec ieanoeiee, iaoeaiay e?oaeay aeyoea, e?oaeay i?ieieea,aonu
ianoiaua ninoaaiua «iiiai/anoiua»), eiathuea aei 6 aeieae aonu
a?iiciaua aiooua, aieaa 90 oo. A iaeaieueoai eiee/anoaa (nauoa 1200
oo.) iaeaeaiu iaeeea aonu ec aaeiai aeanoyuaai iaoaeea, iie?uoiai
oaiii-na?ie iaoeiie.

Ia?aaeea 21. Noieo eciee?iaaiii. Eaaae?aoiie oi?iu (3,0o3,0 i).
Iai?aaeaiea — NTH n ioeeiiaieai e ainoieo ia 15°. Aueiaeaia ec eaiiae,
eiathueo ?acia?u aei 60o50o40 ni; eaiie aunooiatho iaae o?iaiai ii/au
aei 30—40 ni. Aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue ia?aaeee iaeiiai o?iaiy n
ie?oaeathuae ianoiinoueth. Aei aeoaeiu 0,7 i oae ieioiue neeueii
caieuaoee a?oio. Ia o?iaia 0,7 i ieiioo?eeenue a?aieoeu iiaeeueiie yiu
iiaei?yiioaieueiie oi?iu ?acia?aie 1,6;/<1,0 i (?en. 8). N aeoaeiu 1,25 i a ?aciuo ianoao noaee ano?a/aoueny iaiaeaeaiiua /aeiaa/aneea einoe e iaeeea ae?aaaniua oaee. Ia aeoaeia 1,3 i a oeaio?a yiu iaeaeaia a?oiia aauae: aeaa a?iiciauo a?aneaoa, iaeei ec eioi?uo eaaeae ai?eciioaeueii, ae?oaie—aa?oeeaeueii; a?iiciaua na?ueae n ?ano?oaii aiooua a?iiciaua aonu ec i?iaieiee. E?iia oiiiyioouo aauae, iaeaeaiu iaeia iaoeaiay aeyoea, niethuaiiay iaieii/ea ec a?iiciaie ieanoeiee, e?oaeay i?ieieea e /anoue eaeu n ooeii. Ia?aaeea ? 22 Niaaeiay n 23, iiaei?yiioaieueiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie 3,8o3,6 i. Aueiaeaia ec eaiiae aieueoeo ?acia?ia (aei 70o40 ni). Ane?uaaeanue any aioo?aiiyy ieiuaaeue ia?aaeee. Aei aeoaeiu 0,8 i oae oaa?aeue iaeii?iaeiue a?oio. ssio oaeaeinue auyaeoue oieueei ia yoie ioiaoea. ssia yeeeiniaeaeiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie 1,7o1,3 i. Ia aeoaeia 1,7 i oi?ioi caiaoiue iaoa?ee. A iieneao caoi?iiaiey auea ane?uoa any ieiuaaeue aioo?e ia?aaeee aei aeoaeiu 1,7 i, iaeiaei neaaeia aai ia iaia?oaeaii (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.8-11).Ia?aaeea ? 23 i?eiueaao naiae caiaaeiie noi?iiie e ia?aaeea ? 22. Eiaao oi?io iai?aaeeueiie oanoea?aiiie oeao?u, ?acia?aie ii eeiee NTH—3,7 i, ii eeiee CA—3.0. Eaiie, ec eioi?uo iia aueiaeaia, aeinoeaatho ?acia?ia 60o30 ni. N aeoaeiu 0,7 i noaea i?ineaaeeaaoueny iiaeeueiay yia iaaeueiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie 1,3o1,0 i. A yia iaia?oaeaiu ia ?aciie aeoaeia iaiaeaeaiiua /aeiaa/aneea einoe, a ia aeoaeia 0,7 i iaeaeai e?ae oe?ieiai?eiai ai?oea.*aou?a ia?aaeee (? 24,25,26 e 26a) ninoaaeytho iaeei eiiieaen, oaeaea a aeaea aeeeiiiai ei?eaei?a, ninoiyuaai ec ioaeaeueiuo naeoeee. Aai i?eaioe?iaea n naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae. Ia?aaeee aueiaeaiu ec eaiiae ?acia?aie aei 0,7o0,5 i.Eaiaiiay ia?aaeea ?24 eiaao n thaa iauoth noi?iio n ia?aaeeie ?25. A naaa?iie noi?iia, o naaa?i-ainoi/iiai oaea a aueeaaeea aeaeai i?iai oe?eiie a 1,0 i. ?acia? ia?aaeee 3,2o3,7 i. A thai-caiaaeiii oaeo aa aieueoie eaiaiue, aunooiathuee iaae iiaa?oiinoueth ia 0,7 ^e. Ane?uaaeanue any ieiuaaeue ia?aaeie. Ia aeoaeia 0,4 i iaeaeaiu aeaa o?aaiaioa aieiaeiu eaiiiai ninoaea. Ia aeoaeia 1,4 i a thai-caiaaeiii oaeo ca?aaeno?e?iaaii iyoii ieioiie aeeiu oaiiiai oeaaoa, ?acia?aie 0,6—0,7 i, oieueiie 10 ni, a eioi?ii iaia?oaeaii aeaa iaeeeo o?aaiaioa aeaeaiuo /aeiaa/aneeo einoae.Eaiaiiay ia?aaeea ?25 iiae/aou?aooaieueiie oi?iu. THai-ainoi/iue oaie cae?oaeai. Eiaao iauoth naaa?ioth noi?iio n ia?aaeeie ? 24 e thaeioth — n ia?aaeeie ? 26. ?acia?u aa 3,1o3.3 i. A?oio ii anae ieiuaaee aioo?e ia?aaeee iaeii?iaeiue, n?aaeiae ieioiinoe. Iiaeeueiie yiu ia iaia?oaeaii. Ia aeoaeia 0,4 i, a oeaio?a ?aneiia, iaeaeaii ianeieueei o?aaiaioia iaiaeaeaiiuo einoae. Ae?oaeo iaoiaeie iao.Ia?aaeea ? 26 ie?oaeie oi?iu, eiaao iauoth noi?iio n ia?aaeeie ? 25. ?acia?u aa 2,8o2,8 .e. A thai-caiaaeiii oaeo — ia/oi a?iaea i?iaia oe?eiie 0,8 i. Ane?uaaeanue any aioo?aiiyy ieiuaaeue. A?oio— iyaeee, e?nniaeaeiue noaeeiie. Eiioo?u iiaeeueiie yiu ia i?ineaaeeaathony. Ia aeoaeia 1,2 i a thai-caiaaeiii oaeo iaia?oaeaiu o?aaiaiou iaiaeaeaiiuo einoae e oeaeay noiia. Einoe eaaeaee a aanii?yaeea. Caeanue aea iaeaeaiu iau/iua aeey Oao-Othaa II a?iiciaua aiooua aonu.Ia?aaeea ? 26a, niaaeiay n ia?aaeeie ? 26, eiaao n iae iauoth naaa?ioth noi?iio. Iiae/aou?aooaieueiie oi?iu. Naaa?i-caiaaeiue oaie cae?oaeai. A caiaaeiie noi?iia eaiie iieiaeaiu i/aiue ?aaeei. ?acia?u ia?aaeee 2,4o2,6 i. A thai-caiaaeiii oaeo ?aneiia, ?acaeoiai ii anae aioo?aiiae ieiuaaee ia?aaeee, ia aeoaeia 1,2 i iaia?oaeaiu ?ac?iciaiiua einoe /aeiaaea, eaaeaaoea a aanii?yaeea. Caeanue aea iaeaeaiu a?iiciaua aiooua aonu. E ia?aaeea 26a i?eiueatho «i?eno?ieee». Ia?aay - n ainoi/iie noi?iiu — a oi?ia oaeeeiaiiiai iaaea ?acia?aie 2,0o1,8 i. E ia?aie „i?eno?ieea", a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eiueaao n thaeiie noi?iiu aoi?ay, ?acia?aie 1,8o1,6. E iae n caiaaeiie noi?iiu i?eiueaao o?aouey «i?eno?ieea» ie?oaeie oi?iu, eioi?ay i?eiueaao e e ia?aaeea ? 26a, ii ana aea ioaeaeaia io iineaaeiae i?ino?ainoaii 0,4 i, /anoueth caiieiaiiui eaiiyie.Ioaeaeueiue ei?eaei? ninoaaeytho o?e ia?aaeee (? 27-29).Ia?aaeea ? 27 iiaei?yiioaieueiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie 3o4 i, i?eaioe?iaaiiay aeeeiiie inueth n naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae. Niii?oaeaia ec eaiiae e?oiiuo e iaeeeo. A naaa?i-caiaaeiie noi?iia aeec naaa?iiai oaea a ia?aaeea i?iai oe?eiie 1,35 i. Aei aeoaeiu 0,85 i oae iaeii?iaeiue eanniaue noaeeiie. N aeoaeiu 0,85 i aei 1,3 i iiiaaeathony iaaieueoea eaiie. Ia aeoaeia 1,3 i ?an/euaia eaiaiiay nieioiay aueeaaeea e?oaeie oi?iu aeeaiao?ii 2,0 i. Iiae aueeaaeeie eoni/ee aea?aaa e iaiaeaeaiiua einoe. Ae?oaeo iaoiaeie iao.Ia?aaeea ? 28 i?eiueaao e ia?aaeea ? 27. I?yiioaieueiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie 4,0o3,4 i. Ia aioo?aiiae ieiuaaee ia?aaeee aei aeoaeiu 0,9 i oae iaeii?iaeiue a?oio—oaa?aeue eanniaeaeiue noaeeiie. Ia ioiaoea 0,9 i o?e aieueoeo eaiiy, ieaea eioi?uo iioea aieaa iyaeay caiey. Ia aeoaeia 1,55 i ii/oe a oeaio?a ?aneiia iaia?oaeaiu o?aaiaiou ieineiaeiiiiai ?acaeoiai ai?oea. Aeaeaa ia aeoaeia 1,85 i iaeaeaiu einoe /aeiaaea, eaaeaaoea a aanii?yaeea. Oi?io e ?acia?a iiaeeueiie yiu onoaiiaeoue ia oaeaeinue.Ia?aaeea ? 29 i?yiioaieueiie oi?iu ?acia?aie 5,0o4,0 i i?eiueaao e ia?aaeea ? 28. Eaiie, ia?acothuea aa, aunooiatho iaae iiaa?oiinoueth aei 0,35 ni. ?aneii caeiaeai ia anth aioo?aiithth ieiuaaeue.A?oio iaeii?iaeiue — e?nniaeaeiue noaeeiie. Ia aeoaeia 0,7 i ?aneii oiaiueoai aei 3o2 i e aeiaaaeai aei aeoaeiu 1,9 i. Ia yoie ioiaoea ?aneiiee aaeoaue i?ae?auaiu, oae eae noae ynii caiaoai iaoa?eeiaue neie. Auei naeaeaii ?anoe?aiea ?aneiia aei a?aieoe ia?aaeee, iaeiaei caoi?iiaiea ia iaia?oaeaii. A aua?inao auei iaeaeaii a?iiciaia eieueoei, iaa?iooia cieioie oieueaie (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.11-14).Ia?aaeea ? 30 noieo eciee?iaaiii. Oi?ia i?yiioaieueiay, ?acia?aie 4,2o3,7 i. Eaiie aunooiatho iaae iiaa?oiinoueth iacia/eoaeueii, ii ii oaeai eaaeao e?oiiua eaiie aei 40o40 ni. Ane?uaaeanue any aioo?aiiyy ieiuaaeue ia?aaeee. A?oio iyaeee. Ia aeoaeia 0,7 i ieiioo?eeenue a?aieoeu iiaeeueiie yiu ?acia?aie 2,2o1,5 i. ssia i?iaeieaeaeanue aei aeoaeiu 1,25 i. Eiio?ieueiia oaeoaeaiea ?aneiia aei 2,1 i e ?anoe?aiea aai aei a?aieoe ia?aaeee ia aeaee ieeaeeo ?acoeueoaoia.Ia?aaeea ? 31 iiaeeaaae?aoiay, ?acia?aie 3,8o3,6 i. Eaiie aeinoeaatho ?acia?ia 60o40 ni. Ia?aaeea i?eaioe?iaaia n naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae. Ane?uaaeanue any ieiuaaeue aioo?e ia?aaeee. Aei ioiaoee 0,95 i oea oaa?aeay iaeii?iaeiay caiey. Ia yoie aeoaeia a oeaio?a ?aneiia ?an/euaia eo/a eaiiae ?acia?ii 80o45 ni. I?e oaeoaeaiee a?aieoeu eaiaiiie eo/e noaee ?anoe?youeny, aeinoeaioa o iniiaaiey ia aeoaeia 2,1 i oi?iu auoyiooiai e?oaa ?acia?aie 1,4o1,5 i. Eaiaiiay iaa?inea eiaao aeae ona/aiiiai eiiona aunioie 1,15 i. Iinea niyoey iaa?inee e eiio?ieueiiai oouea a iaoa?ee ?aneii i?ae?auai. Neaaeia caoi?iiaiey ia iaia?oaeaii.Ia?aaeea ? 32 iaaeueiay, auoyiooay n caiaaea ia ainoie. ?acia?u 2,7o3,0 i. ?aneii ia/ao ii anae aioo?aiiae ieiuaaee. Aei aeoaeiu 0,45 i oae iaeii?iaeiue e?nniaue noaeeiie, ia yoie ioiaoea ieiioo?eeenue a?aieoeu iiaeeueiie yiu, ioia/aiiua eaiiyie. ?acia?u yiu 1,4o1,0 i. I?eaioe?iaea aeeeiiie inueth ii A—3. Ia aeoaeia 1,1 i a iiaeeueiie yia iaia?oaeaiu o?aaiaiou /aeiaa/aneeo einoae e iaeaiueeee eoni/ae ea?aieee. ?aneii ieii/ai ia aeoaeia 1,2 i.Ia?aaeea ?33 iiaei?yiioaieueiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie ii NTH—4,8 i, ii 3A—3,4 i. Caiaaeiay noi?iia ecaeeenoay, ainoi/iay—aeoaiia?aciay, aunooiathuay ai aiaoithth noi?iio; thaeiay noi?iia ioe?uoay (i?iai ai anth aeeeio). A?oio ia anae aioo?aiiae ieiuaaee ia?aaeee iaeii?iaeiue, iyaeee. Ia aeoaeia 0,35 i o naaa?iiai ia?aca ?aneiia iaia?oaeaia a?iiciaay aoneia, ioee/athuayny io iienaiiuo auoa iaiueoeie ?acia?aie e oai, /oi e?ay aa caiueathony (niayiu). Aoneia naeaeaia ec niethuaiiie i?iaieiee. A thai-ainoi/iie /anoe ?aneiia ia aeoaeia 0,9 i iaeaeai aai/ee ninoaea. Ia aeoaeia 1,0 i a thai-caiaaeiie /anoe iaeaeai ?ano?oa io a?iiciaie na?ueae, iie?uoue cieioie oieueaie. Ia oaeie aea aeoaeia a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe ?aneiia iaeaeai o?aaiaio ninoaea n aeaoae1y a?aciuie aeaeiaeaie e neaaeaie caoe?ee ia iiaa?oiinoe. Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi n aeoaeiu 0,8 i, ia/eiay io naaa?iiai ia?aca ?aneiia e ia 2,5 i e thao ano?a/aeenue iaa?inaiiua eaiie ?acia?ii aei 40oCIo15 ni. Iaaeaeo ieie /anoi iiiaaeaeenue iaeeea o?aaiaiou aeaeaiuo einoae, a eia-aaea e eoni/ee iaenoeaaoaai aea?aaa. Iinea ?an/enoee e oaeaeaiey eaiiae ia aeoaeia 1,3 i ioia/ai iaoa?ee.Ia?aaeea I 37 i?yiioaieueiie oi?iu ?acia?aie 3,8o3,4 i, i?eaioe?iaaia aeeeiiie inueth n naaa?i-ainoiea ia thai-caiaae, aueiaeaia ec eaiiae ?aciie aaee/eiu e oi?iu. Aieueoeinoai eaiiae eaaeeo ia ?aa?a, iaeioi?ua noiyo aa?oeeaeueii. ?acia?u eaiiae aei 0,85o0,3 i. ?aneii aaeny ii anae ieiuaaee ia?aaeee. Ia aeoaeia 1,4 i a oeaio?a ?aneiia iaia?oaeaiu o?aaiaiou einoae /aeiaaea, eaaeaueo a aanii?yaeea. Iieiaeaiea einoyea e oi?io iiaeeueiie yiu onoaiiaeoue ia oaeaeinue. ?aneie ieii/ai ia aeoaeia 1,5 i.Aiaoia iia?aaaiey Oao-Othaa II aanueia noiaeiu iaaeaeo niaie — ana iie i?aaenoaaeytho eacaiiua ia?aaeee, aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai eioi?uo, oieueei a ?aaeeeo neo/ayo eiathuaa ioaeaeueiua eaiie, ie/ai ia auaeaeyaony iaae ie?oaeathuae ianoiinoueth. I?yioth aiaeiaeth eo aiaoiaio aeaeo ninoaaeytho iia?aaaiey a iiaeeueieea aeec eo?i?oa Ai?iaia e a iiaeeueieea Aue?aeeieue a Naaa?iii Eacaonoaia: caeanue aieueoeinoai iia?aaaiee oaeaea eiaao aeae eaiaiiuo ia?aaeie i?yiioaieueiie e eaaae?aoiie oi?i, eiiaaea ninoaaeythueo aeeeiiua ei?eaei?u n iiia?a/iuie ia?aai?iaeeaie. Eae e a Oao-Othaa, o yoeo ia?aaeie anoue i?eno?ieee.Ai aioo?aiiai ono?ienoaa iia?aaaiee Oao-Othaa II i?ineaaeeaathony ?acee/iua aa?eaiou: eaia?a ec iaoniauo noai, caieiathuay ii/oe anth ieiuaaeue ia?aaeee, a?oioiaua yiu, noieue aea iaoe?iua ii ieiuaaee, n iaeeaaeeie ec e?oiiuo ian/aieeiauo ieeo o iniiaaiey, a?oioiaua yiu, caieiathuea iaaieueooth /anoue ieiuaaee ia?aaeee, aac iaeeaaeie.Iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho eaia?u ni noaieaie ec iaonu, ii iie iiea ia eiatho naaa aiaeiaee a iiaeeueieeao yiioe a?iicu a iaoae no?aia. Anee oaoieea no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaee a eaeie-oi ia?a io?aaeaao oi?io e oaoieeo nii?oaeaiey aeeeeu. Eae yoi aeieacuaaao A.I.I?ocaaaa, oi iaoniaua noaiu eaia? a Oao-Othaa aeieaeiu naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i iaee/ee aeeiiaeoiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa o ianaeueieeia Oaeana yiioe a?iicu.A?oioiaua yiu ia anth ieiuaaeue ia?aaeee oaeaea iiea iaecaanoiu. A a?oioiaua yiu iau/iuo ?acia?ia ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue a iia?aaaieyo iiaeeueieea Ai?iaia3.Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi oa??eoi?eaeueii iaeaieaa aeeceea iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu, enneaaeiaaiiua A.I.Aa?iooaiii a aeieeia ?. A?ea, eiatho cia/eoaeueiua ioee/ey e ai aiaoiai aeaea, e a ?eooaea caoi?iiaiey.Ii ia?yaeo caoi?iiaiey a Oao-Othaa II aieueoeinoai ninoaaeytho ia?aaeee n o?oiiniaeaeaieai (ec 20 ?aneiiaiiuo ia?aaeie oieueei 4 n o?oiiiieiaeaieai).Ionoonoaea a iia?aaaieyo n inoaoeaie o?oiiniaeaeaiey oaey e cieu, a neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiii eiee/anoaa, aiai?eo i oii, /oi ia?yae niaeaeaiey i?iecaiaeeeny ia a iia?aaaeueiie eaia?a. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeatho e iaaethaeaiey a iiaeeueieea Ai?iaia.A Oao-Othaa II inoaoee o?oiiniaeaeaiey e iia?aaaeueiue eiaaioa?ue ?aca?inaiu ii anae ieiuaaee iiaeeueiuo eaia? e aeaaea ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai naeeaeaao eo ia n naaa?ieacaonoaineeie iia?aaaieyie, aaea inoaoee niaeaeaiey neiaeaiu eo/eie, a n oeaio?aeueii-eacaonoaineeie, aaea oaeea iaoiaeee naeaeaiu ii anae ieiuaaee eaia? (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.14-16).Aauaaie iaoa?eae a iiaeeueieea Oao-Othaa II aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiue. Caeanue anoue iinoaea, i?oaeey e oe?aoaiey.Iinoaea a iiaeeueiuo yiao anthaeo i?aaenoaaeaia iaeeeie o?aaiaioaie. Yoi, aeaeeii, auei naycaii n oai, /oi i?ioeann niaeaeaiey o?oiia, eae ioia/aeinue auoa, i?iecaiaeeeny ia a yiao, a a ae?oaii ianoa. Aiciiaeii, /oi e iinoaea ai a?aiy niaeaeaiey ?acaeaaeanue e a yio aianoa n inoaieaie iiiaaeaee aa o?aaiaiou.O?aaiaiou iinoeu aeatho iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i aa ea/anoaa. ?o/iay eaiea ec ieioi i?iiaoaiiie aeeiu n i?eianueth ae?anau, iaaunieiai iaaeeaa. E?ay neaaea ioiaioou, oaeee neaai au?aaeaiiua, ia?aoiae e ooeiao ieaaiue. I auoyiooie oi?ia aa?oiae /anoe ooeiaa iiaeii noaeeoue oieueei ii iaeiie /anoe ninoaea ec ia?aaeee ? 17. A inoaeueiuo neo/ayo i oi?ia ninoaeia aeinoaoi/ii yniia i?aaenoaaeaiea ninoaaeoue iaeuecy.Oeaeay iinoaea auea ecaea/aia i?e ?an/enoea eaiaiiuo ia?aaeie n aiaoiae noi?iiu. Ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea iinoaeu n aiaoiae noi?iiu ia?aaeie, naycaiiia n ia?yaeii i?eiioaiey ieue oia?oaio nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy iinea caoi?iiaiey, ecaanoii e a Naaa?iii Eacaonoaia.Aeaa ec yoeo ninoaeia, aieueoeo ?acia?ia (aunioa 29 ni, aeeaiao? ooeiaa 30 ni), aneiiao?e/iua, aac i?iaiaioa; aai/ee au?aaeai neaaui ioaeaii e?ay, oaeea iaaunieay, ia?aoiae e ooeiao ieaaiue. Ooeiai ?acei noaeaaony e aeieuo.O?aoee ninoae n?aaeieo ?acia?ia (aunioa 12, 8, aeeaiao? ooeiaa 14,6 ni) aieaa ie?oaeuo oi?i.Ia?aeeaee oi?iai yoeo ninoaeia iiaeii iaeoe n?aaee iinoaeu ec iiaeeueieea Ai?iaia e a Aeaenaaaneii eiiieaena.Ec i?oaeee iieo/aiu a?iiciaua e?oaeua, /aou?aooaieueiua e oanoea?aiiua oeeuey aeeeiie aei 76 ni, a na/aiee aei 0,4 ii e cae?oaeaiiue eii/ee a?iiciaiai iiaea, oe?eiie 2,3 ni e oieueiie aei 0,5 ni, eeiey eacaey eioi?iai auioeeay, eeiey noaiee—aiaiooay. Iaeaeaiu oaeaea eaeu n i?iaeieaiaaouie ooeaie.Iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiu n?aaee iaoiaeie oe?aoaiey: na?ueae (na?aa?yiua e a?iiciaua, n ?ano?oaaie ia iaeiii eiioea), a?aneaou, aonu, eieueoea e ae?.Aeaa na?aa?yiua na?ueae ecaioiaeaiu ec i?ooa aeeaiao?ii 1,5—3,0 ii, iinoaiaiii ooieuaaoaainy e eiioeo, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeeny ?ano?oa. ?ano?oa eiie/aneie oi?iu, aunioie 1,5 ni, aeeaiao?ii ii e?ath — 1,8 ni. Aeeaiao? na?ueae — 5 ni. Iaa na?ueae iaa?ioou cieioie oieueaie. A?iiciaua na?ueae n ?ano?oaaie ano?a/aiu a aeaoo iia?aaaieyo. Ia iaeiie ec ieo iniaaiii /aoei aeaeia oaoieea ecaioiaeaiey. A?aeny a?iiciaue i?oo aeeaiao?ii 2,5—3,0 ii, aieaa oienoue eiiaoe aai neeueii ?aniethueaaeny a oi?ia o?aoaieueieea. Yoa ieineinoue nai?a/eaaeanue, ia?acoy eiie/aneee ?ano?oa. E?ay ?ano?oaa eee caoiaeeee ae?oa ca ae?oaa, eee neiauaaeenue, eae yoi aeaeii ia na?aa?yiuo na?ueaao. Aunioa ?ano?oaa aei 1,5 ni, aeeaiao? ii e?ath — 1,8 ni. Aeeaiao? a?iiciauo na?aa 5,0 ni.Na?ueae n ?ano?oaii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu a iia?aaaieyo yiioe a?iicu. Oa??eoi?eaeueii iaeaieaa aeeceea aiaeiaee iaoiaeyony a Eacaonoaia, aaea ecaanoiu na?ueae, iie?uoua eenoiaui cieioii. Na?ueae ec na?aa?a e a?iicu n ?ano?oaaie ecaanoiu a iia?aaaieyo ia aa?oiai Aienaa e a Caiaaeiie Neae?e. Na?ueae ec a?iicu n iaiaa au?aaeaiiui ?ano?oaii, iaa?iooua oieueaie, iaeaeaiu a aa?oiaueyo Iae (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.16-18).A?aneaou a Oao-Othaa II iaia?oaeaiu a aeaoo iia?aaaieyo a eiee/anoaa 6 oo. Ana iie iaeiioeiiu, n cae?oaeaiiuie iacaiueathueieny e?ayie, caoiaeyueie ae?oa ca ae?oaa. A na/aiee eiatho oi?io ooiiai oaea, aunooiathuaai ai aiaoithth noi?iio. Ia iaeiii a?aneaoa aaeieue iaieo e?aaa — i?iaiaio ec oiieeo ei?ioeeo iana/ae, aaeaaeaiiuo iaeneinue. Aeeaiao? a?aneaoia 6,5-7,0 ni, oieueia ieanoeiie ieiei 1,5 ii, oe?eia — 1,7—2,0 ni.Iaeaieueoaa noiaenoai iaoe a?aneaou eiatho n a?aneaoaie ec iiaeeueieea yiioe a?iicu, Eie/a 3, a Oi?acia. Aeeceoth aiaeiaeth i?aaenoaaeytho a?aneaou ec Aeaenaaaneiai iiaeeueieea a Naaa?iii Eacaonoaia e a iiaeeueieea Aoeeueaai a Oeaio?aeueiii Eacaonoaia. A?aneaou ec a?ieineeo iia?aaaiee, iaeaieaa aeeceeo oa??eoi?eaeueii, eiatho cia/eoaeueiua ioee/ey.Aonu ano?a/aiu ec a?iicu, ianou e aaeiai aeanoyuaai iaoaeea. A?iiciaua aonu iaia?oaeaiu a /aou?ao iia?aaaieyo. Iie niaioou ec e?oaeie, ii neaaea niethniooie i?iaieiee a eiea/ei, e?ay eioi?iai eiatho caci?. Aeeaiao? i?iaieiee 2,0 ii, aeeaiao? aon 0,8 ni. Aiaeiaee aiooui oao-othaeineei a?iiciaui aonai iu iaoiaeei ai iiiaeo iiaeeueieeao aiae?iiianeie yiioe: a Oi?acia, a Oa?aaia, a Eacaonoaia, _ia_aa?oiai Aienaa.Aonu ec aaeiai aeanoyuaai iaoaeea (naeiaoe?), iie?uoiai na?ie iaoeiie, ecaanoiu oaeaea oieueei a iaeiii iia?aaaiee a i/aiue aieueoii eiee/anoaa (nauoa 1200 oo.); iie aeeiie/aneie oi?iu, aeeaiao?ii 0.4 ni, aeeaiao? ioaa?noey i?iiece 0,2 ni. Aiaeiaee yoei aonai iaecaanoii.Aonu ec iyaeie caeaiiaaoi-na?ie ianou ano?a/aiu a iaeiii iia?aaaiee. Iie ninoaaeaiu ec ianeieueeeo aeieae (aei 6—7). Aeeeia aon aei 2,2 ni, aeeaiao? — 5,5 ii, aeeaiao? ioaa?noey aeey i?iiece 2,0—2,5 ii. Ianoiaua aonu iaia?oaeaiu a Caiaaeiie Neae?e, Ieioneineeo noaiyo, a Aeaenaaaneii iiaeeueieea.Eieueoei a?iiciaia n iacaiueathueieny eiioeaie, iaa?iooia cieioie oieueaie. A?iica neeueii ei??ice?iaaeanue, a oieueaa aeaoi?ie?iaaia. I oi?ia eieueoea iiaeii neacaoue neaaeothuaa. Oe?eia eieueoea a oeaio?a ieiei 1,0 ni, a e eiioeai oiaiueoaaony aei 0,3 ni, oieueia ieanoeiee eieueoea 2—3 ii, aeeaiao? 2 ni. I/aiue noiaeiua eieueoea ecaanoiu a iiaeeueieea yiioe a?iicu a Oa?aaia.A iaeiii ec iia?aaaiee iaeaeaii iyoue a?iiciauo ?aneiaaiiuo ieanoeiie (iaeeaaeie eee iiaeaanie) aeeeiie aei 7,5 ni, oe?eiie 2,0—2,3 ni. Iie eiatho oi?io iyoea?aiieea (ca n/ao oiai, /oi oaeu iaeiie ec ei?ioeeo noi?ii n?acaiu). Iaeioi?ua ec ieanoeiie oe?aoaiu aaeieue o?ao noi?ii ?aeueaoiui i?iaiaioii, auaeaaeaiiui n ia?aoiie noi?iiu. Iioeau i?iaiaioa: aaeieue oceie noi?iiu o?e ?yaea aonoi ?aniieiaeaiiuo e?oaeuo oi/ae, aaeieue iaeiie aeeeiiie noi?iiu—i?yiua, eini iinoaaeaiiua iana/ee, aaeieue aoi?ie—iana/ee a oi?ia oaieeia. Ia iaeioi?uo ieanoeieao i?iaiaio a aeaea naeaiaiiuo ?yaeia iaeeeo oi/ae.Aiaeiae/iue ii oaoieea iaianaiey e iioeaai i?iaiaio ecaanoai ia ieanoeieao ec iiaeeueieea o eo?i?oa Ai?iaia'27.A ae?oaeo iia?aaaieyo iaeaeaiu auioeeua e?oaeua aeyoee n ioaa?noeyie aeey iaoeaaiey. Eo aeeaiao? aei 2 ni, oieueia 1,0 ii. Iiaeiaiua aeyoee ecaanoiu a iiaeeueieea o Ai?iaiai, a ianeieueei aieaa auioeeuo oi?i—a Aeaenaaaneii iiaeeueieea.Niethniooua iaieii/ee ec a?iiciaie ieanoeiee n cae?oaeaiiuie e?ayie, oe?eiie aei 1,3 ni iaeaeaiu a aeaoo iia?aaaieyo. Iiaeiaiua iaieii/ee, ninoaaeyaoea iaa?oaeiia oe?aoaiea, a aieueoii eiee/anoaa iaeaeaiu a Aeaenaaaneii iiaeeueieea (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.18-20).A ia?aaeea ? 20 iaeaeaia neeueii ei??ice?iaaiiay iaeeaaeea ec eenoiaie a?iicu n inoaoeaie aea?aayiiie iniiau. Iacia/aiea yoiai i?aaeiaoa o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue. Aea?aayiiue iaiaeie ec aea?aaa, iaaeueiue a na/aiee, aeeaiao?ii 6-7 ni, aue iie?uo oiieie a?iiciaie ieanoeieie. Iiaeiaiay oaoieee ecaioiaeaiey na?aa e a?aneaoia ecaanoia a ae?oaeo eiiieaenao yiioe a?iicu.Ana auoaeceiaeaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi iiaeeueiee Oao-Othaa II, ianiiiaiii, ioiineony e ?aiiaio yoaio aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u yiioe a?iicu. Ii iaoiaeeo iaeaieueoaa /enei aiaeiaee a iiaeeueieea o eo?i?oa Ai?iaia a Naaa?iii Eacaonoaia. Eiathueany ioee/ey iauyniythony eieaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie, i?enoueie ioaeaeueiui ?aeiiai iaeiie e oie aea eoeueoo?u. Iiaeiaiay aea ea?oeia ?acee/ee iaaethaeaaony iaaeaeo neio?iiiuie iaiyoieeaie ec *aeyaeineie iaeanoe, Naaa?iiai e THaeiiai Eacaonoaia.Eioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi iia?aaaiey aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u yiioe a?iicu a Oeaio?aeueiii Oyiue-Oaia, oa??eoi?eaeueii aieaa aeeceea iaoaio iiaeeueieeo, eiatho aieaa ?aceea ioee/ey a eiaaioa?a e a ?eooaea caoi?iiaiey.Iaeiaei ia ana iia?aaaiey Oao-Othaa II ioiinyony e ?aiiaio yoaio aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u. Ia?aaeee n o?oiiiieiaeaieai neaaeoao ioiineoue e aieaa iicaeiaio a?aiaie.Neaaay eco/aiiinoue iaiyoieeia yiioe a?iicu a Ee?aecee iiea ia iicaieyao naeaeaoue aieaa aeaoaeueioth eo eeanneoeeaoeeth.A 1957 a. aue ianeaaeiaai aua iaeei ?aiaa iaecaanoiue iiaeeueiee a ianoiinoe Oao-Aaoao. Caeanue aia?aiaaeeo ?aniieiaeaiu iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu, eo?aaiu naei-onoiueneiai a?aiaie, eaoaeiiaiua eo?aaiu e eo?aaiu oth?eneiai a?aiaie.Iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu ninoaaeytho iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue iiaeeueieea. Ane?uoi anaai 6 eo?aaiia.Iia?aaaiea ? 50. Ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee iaicia/aii /aou?aooaieueiie ia?aaeeie ec eaiiae, aunooiathueo iaae o?iaiai ie?oaeathuae ianoiinoe aei 0,4 i e ooiaeyueo a caieth aei I,3 i. Eo ?acia?u aei 0,3i o 0,7 i. Eaiie iieiaeaiu ia ?aa?i, ieaoiy e aa?oeeaeueii. Aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai ia?aaeee ia aicauoaaony iaae aeiaaiie iiaa?oiinoueth, ia iai aeaeiu ?aaeeea iaeeii/iua eaiie.A ia/aea auea ane?uoa any aioo?aiiyy ieiuaaeue ia?aaeee ieiuaaeueth 2,6o2,1 i. Ia?aue iieoiao?iaue neie ninoiye ec iaeii?iaeiiai oaa?aeiai noaeeiea. Ia aeoaeia 0,6 i n eii?aeeiaoaie 0,8 i io ainoi/iiai e 0,55 i io thaeiiai ia?acia ?aneiia iaeaeaia /anoue a?iiciaie i?ieieee eee eaeu. Eaea io ino?ey iinoaiaiii ooieuaaony, a aa?oiai eiioea' aeeaiao? aa aeinoeaaao 0,25 ni. Ia aeoaeia 1,0 i, ia/eiay io naaa?iie noaiu e aei oeaio?a ?an:-:iiy, auee ?an/euaiu eaaeaaoea a aanii?yaeea einoe iia?aaaiiiai: ieaeiyy /aethnoue, /anoue eiiaoee, iea/aaay, eieoaaay, aaae?aiiua e aa?oeiaua einoe. Ieiei aaae?aiiie e iaeie aa?oeiaie einoae ?an/euaia /anoue a?iiciaiai a?aneaoa n iacaiueathueieny, caoiaeyueie ae?oa ca ae?oaa e cae?oaeaiiuie eiioeaie.A 0.2—0,3 i io a?aneaoa iieoe?oaii eaaeaei aieaa 70 aioouo a?iiciauo aon, aiaeiae/iuo oao-othaeineii.A yoii aea ?aeiia iaeaeaia ieanoei/aoay iaieii/ea ni oou?ueeii, cae?aieyaoei aa e?ay. Ae?oaeo aauae ia iaeaeaii. ?aneii aeiaaaeai aei aeoaeiu 1,4 i - aei aannii?iiai iaoa?eeiaiai neiy.Caoai auei ia/aoi ane?uoea, ieiuaaeee ca i?aaeaeaie eaiaiiie ia?aaeee. Caeanue ano?a/ai iia?aaaeueiue eiaaioa?ue. N naaa?iie noi?iiu, iaiin?aaenoaaiii o ia?aaeee, aeec naaa?i-ainoi/iiai oaea, ia aeoaeia 0,6 i ?an/euai iaeaiueeee ieineiaeiiiue ai?oie. ?yaeii (e naaa?o) ia aeoaeia 1,0 i iaeaeai aua iaeei ?acaeoue ai?oie.N thaeiie noi?iiu, oaeaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii ca ia?aaeeie, aeec thai-caiaaeiiai oaea, ia aeoaeia 0,4 i iaeaeai aeeiyiue ieineiaeiiiue ninoae, ii oi?ia e ?acia?ai aeeceee e ia?aiio ninoaeo. A 1,0 i e caiaaeo, ia aeoaeia 0,9 i iaeaeaia ieaeiyy /anoue aua iaeiiai ieineiaeiiiiai ninoaea n iiaeoa?iia?aciui ooeiaii. Aue ?an/euai aanue aiaoiee ia?eiao? ia?aaeee, ii aieueoa ie/aai, ia iaeaeaii.Iia?aaaiea ? 51. Caeanue eaiaiiay ia?aaeea iai?aaeeueiie /aou?aooaieueiie oi?iu ?acia?aie anaai 2,0o2,0 i, aueiaeaiiay eaiiyie oaeie aea aaee/eiu, eae auoaiienaiiay. A oeaio?a ia?aaeee — aieueoie eaiaiue (25o30), noiyuee aa?oeeaeueii; aie?oa iaai ?aaeeea iaaieueoea eaiie. A neia, eaaeauai ieaea eaiiae, ?an/euaii aeaa neeueii o?aaiaioe?iaaiiuo ieineiaeiiiuo aeeiyiuo ninoaea. Iie eaaeaee ii eeiee io oeaio?a ia?aaeee e caiaaeiiio ia?aco ?aneiia. Ia aeoaeia 0,9 i ii aieaa oaiiiio iooaieo e iyaeie canuie ynii ieiioo?eeinue iiaeeueiia iyoii. Iiaeeueiay yia eiaao ?acia?u 1,5o1,0 i e i?eaioe?iaaia ii eeiee 105—285°. O naaa?iie noaiee yiu (a 0,4 i io caiaaeiie) iaia?oaeai ieineiaeiiiue aeeiyiue ai?oie, eaaeaaoee ia aieo. E caiaaeo io ai?oea ?an/euaiu a?iiciaue a?aneao e a?iiciaay na?ueaa n ?ano?oaia ia iaeiii eiioea. A 0,7 i io ainoi/iie noaiu yiu, a 0,5 i io thaeiie noaiu ?an/euaiu aua /anoue a?iiciaiai a?aneaoa e aua iaeia na?ueaa n ?ano?oaii ia eiioea.A oeaio?aeueiie /anoe iiaeeueiie yiu ?an/euaiu ia?aaeaeaiiua einoe-/aeiaaea e 2 a?iiciaua ieanoei/aoua iaeeaaeee, aa?iyoii ia ?aiaiue. Aeii yiu ca/euaii ia aeoaeia 1,5 i io aeiaaiie iiaa?oiinoeIia?aaaiea ? 71 n ieineie eaiaiiie ianuiueth iaaeueiie oi?iu. Eaiie caaea?iiaaiu aei iieiaeiu. ?acia?u eo?aaia ii NTH-2,5 i, ii CA-3,0 i. Iiaeeueiay yia ioiineoaeueii oeaio?a eo?aaia niauaia e ainoieo. Iia i?eaioe?iaaia aeeeiiie inueth n iaaieueoei ioeeiiaieai io eeiee AC. Aa ?acia?u 1,6o1,0 i, aeoaeia 1,6 i. A yia iaia?oaeaiu aeaeaiua einoe, a a thai-ainoi/iii oaeo aieueoie ieineiaeiiiue aeeiyiue ninoae n i?ioea?aiaiiui i?iaiaioii ii iea/eeii.Iia?aaaiea -? 73. Ieineay eaiaiiay auiinoea iiae/aau?aooaieueiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie 2,0o2,0 i, ianeieueei iaiiieiathuay ia?aaeeo, ii aa na?aaeeia caiieiaia iaeeeie eaiiyie, iacia/eoaeueii aunooiathueie ia iiaa?oiinoe. Ieaea o?iaiy eaiiae, aei ioiaoee 0,9 i, nieiaeny n?aaeiae ieioiinoe eanniaue noaeeiie. Ia yoii o?iaia, n eii?aeeiaoaie 1,0 i io naaa?iie e 0,9 i io ainoi/iie noaiie ?aneiia, a neaaeaaoaeny canuie iaia?oaeaia ieaeiyy /anoue ninoaea ni noa?uie neieaie (aa?iyoii, a oaeii ninoiyiee ii aue iieiaeai a iia?aaaiea). Ninoae n ieineei aeiii. Ianeieueei ieaea, ia aeoaeia 1,0 i e e naaa?o io iienaiiiai ninoaea, iaeaeai aoi?ie oeaeue ninoae (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.20-22).Inoaoeia caoi?iiaiey ia iaia?oaeaii. Aeey eiio?iey ieiuaaeue ?aneiia oaaee/aia e naaa?o ia 2,0 i. ?aneii aeiaaaeai aei aeoaeiu 1,1 i. Ieaea yoiai o?iaiy ia/aeny iaoa?eeiaue neie.Iia?aaaiea ? 74. Ie?oaeay eaiaiiay auiinoea, ?acia?aie 3,4o3,2 i. Eaiie ?acee/iie aaee/eiu, aicauoathony aei 0,2 i. Ieaea aunooiathuae ia?oaeo eaiaiiie aueeaaeee, ia aeoaeia 0,3 i, ?an/euaia eaiaiiay aueeaaeea, ieiuaaeueth 2,5O1,35 i, i?eaioe?iaaiiay aeeeiiie inueth ii eeiee NTH. Aueeaaeea ?aciauaia a caiaaeiie iieiaeia ?aneiia e ooiaeeo iiae aai ia?ac. A nayce n yoei ?aneii aue ?anoe?ai e caiaaeo ia 1,0 i. I?eia?ii iiae oeaio?ii aueeaaeee ieiioo?eeny o/anoie canuie aeeeiie 2,7 i e oe?eiie 0,9 i. Ia aeoaeio aei 0,2 i a canuie auee eaiie. Ieaea iioae eanniaue a?oio. Ia aeoaeia 1,3 i io aunoae oi/ee e caiaaeiie /anoe canuie ieiioo?eeanue iiaeeueiay yia, ?acia?aie 1,2o0,9 i, aeeeiiie inueth ii NTH. Iauay aeoaeia yiu 1,6 i, a io ca/euaiiiai e?ay yiu — 0,3 i. Ia aeia aa ca/euaii aeaa eo/ee ia?aaeaeaiuo einoae, ionoiyueo ae?oa io ae?oaa ia 0,3 i. E?iia einoae, auei iaeaeaii cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai a?iiciauo aon, a?iiciaay na?ueaa n ?ano?oaii ia iaeiii eiioea e a?iiciaay iaieii/ea.Iia?aaaiea ? 79 a aeaea eaiaiiie auiinoee iiaei?yiioaieueiie oi?iu, ?acia?aie 3,2o2,4 i, i?eaioe?iaaiiie aeeeiiie inueth ii eeiee NC-THA.Eaiie a auiinoea ?aniieiaeaiu i/aiue ieioii e iaiieiaeio caaea?iiaaiu. Iiae eaiiyie oae iyaeee e?nniaue noaeeiie. A thai-caiaaeiii oaeo ?aneiia iaeaeaia i?eia?ii iieiaeia aa?oiae /anoe ai?oea. Ia yoie aea ioiaoea iaia?oaeaiu ?aca?inaiiua e eaaeauea ae?oa ia ae?oaa /aeiaa/aneea einoe. Ia aeoaeia 0,9 i, e naaa?i-ainoieo io aa?iiai ninoaea, iaia?oaeai aoi?ie, oeaeue. Aaeece aoi?iai ai?oea iaeaeaiu aiooua a?iiciaua aonu. Ninoaeu i aonu i/aiue oa?aeoa?iu aeey Oao-Othaa II e Oao-Aaoaoa. Caeanue aea iaia?oaeaia aa?oiyy /anoue a?iiciaie eaeu n i?iaeieaiaaoui ooeii.Iineaaeiae iaoiaeeie auei a?iiciaia eieueoei, i/aiue noiaeiia ii oi?ia n eieueoeii ec ia?aaeee ? 29 a iiaeeueieea Oao-Othaa II.Ec oanoe iia?aaaiee yiioe a?iicu a iiaeeueieea Oao-Aaoao o?e ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee au?aaeaiu eaiaiiuie ia?aaeeaie, eae a Oao-Othaa II, aeaa — a aeaea i?yiioaieueiuo ieineeo eaiaiiuo auiinoie e iaeii - a aeaea ianeieueei aicauoaiiie ie?oaeie auiinoee ec eaiiae.Aauaaua iaoiaeee, iniaaiii ecaeaeey ec a?iicu—a?aneaou, na?ueae n ?ano?oaii, aonu, eieueoea e ae?.—niaa?oaiii eaeaioe/iu iaoiaeeai a iiaeeueieea Oao-Othaa II. Oi aea neaaeoao neacaoue e ioiineoaeueii ea?aieee, i?aaenoaaeaiiie cia/eoaeueii aieueoei eiee/anoaii ninoaeia. Eae e a Oao-Othaa II, caeanue aieueoeinoai ninoaaeytho aneiiao?e/iua ieineiaeiiiua ai?oee, aac i?iaiaioa (ca eneeth/aieai iaeiiai yecaiiey?a), n ieaaiui ia?aoiaeii io iea/eeia e ?acei noaeathuaiony ooeiao. Iineaaeiee i?eciae n/eoaaony iniiaiui aeey ea?aieee ?aiiae noaaeee aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u. Ino?ue, n onooi/eeii, ia?aoiae e ooeiao, yaeythueeny aeaoe?othuei i?eciaeii a ae?oaeo, ai?acaei aieaa aiaaouo ii ninoaao eiiieaenao, neaai iaia/aaony oieueei a iaeiii neo/aa.Ana yoi aeaao iniiaaiea ioiineoue iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu a iiaeeueieea Oao-Aaoao, eae e a iiaeeueieea Oao-Othaa II, a iniiaiii e ?aiiaio yoaio aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u.O?aoueei ?aeiiii Oaeanneie aeieeiu, a eioi?ii ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu, auei onouea ouaeuey Aao-Oao. Ia i?aaie aunieie oa??ana iai?ioea eaniiai ei?aeiia ioia/aii ianeieueei ?aciioeiiuo eo?aaiia. Caeanue ioia/aia na?ey eaiaiiuo ia?aaeie, ninoaaeythueo aeeeiiue ei?eaei?, eaeouee ii eeiee thai-caiaae- naaa?i-ainoie. Oa?iei „ia?aaeea" a aeaiiie a?oiia iaiyoieeia ia nianai niioaaonoaoao eo aiaoiaio aeaeo: a ?yaea neo/aaa caeanue niaa?oaiii /aoei aeaeiu /aou?aooaieueieee, ia?aciaaiiua niaoeeaeueii iiaeia?aiiuie aieueoeo ?acia?ia ieineeie e neaoaiiuie eaiiyie, iinoaaeaiiuie ia ?aa?i. Ii aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai iienaiiuo /aou?aooaieueieeia nieioue caeiaeaii eaiiyie, i?e/ai yoe auiinoee ianeieueei ieaea, /ai eaiie, ia?acothuea ia?eiao? /aou?aooaieueieeia. A n aiaoiae noi?iiu e iaeioi?ui /aou?aooaieueiui ia?aaeeai i?eiueatho auiinoee ec eaiiae, a iaeieo neo/ayo aeiaieueii oe?ieea e eae au ninoaaeythuea aianoa n eaiiyie, iinoaaeaiiuie ia ?aa?i, aieiaoth iieino ia?aaeu, a a ae?oaeo neo/ayo eiathuea aeae iai?aaeeueiuo iiiaioaieueieeia iaaeueiie iieoe?oaeie oi?iu e i?aaenoaaeythuea eae au «i?eno?ieee» e iniiaiui ia?aaeeai.Auee i?iecaaaeaiu ?aneiiee aeaoo ia?aaeie: ia?aie n thai-caiaaeiiai thioeaie /aoaa?oie — io oiai aea ioieoa.A ia?aaeea ? 1, eiathuae ?acia?u 2,25o2,0 i, aia/aea auea au?uoa iao?iaie oe?eiu o?aioay aaeieue aiaoieo iaaiaeia thai-caiaaeiie e thai-ainoi/iie noi?ii ia?aaeee. Ieeaeeo i?eciaeia caoi?iiaiey ia iaia?oaeaii. Iinea yoiai auea ane?uoa aioo?aiiyy ieiuaaeue ia?aaeee. Ia aeoaeia 0,4 i a oeaio?a ia?aaeee ?an/euaia i?iaeieaiaaoay eaiaiiay iaa?inea oieueiie aei 0,3 i, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ii eeiee NTH. Iiae iaa?ineie aei aeoaeiu 1,2 i ieeaeeo i?eciaeia caoi?iiaiey ia iaia?oaeaii.A ia?aaeea ?4, ?acia?aie 1,8o1,75 i, o?aioay iao?iaie oe?eiu auea i?i?uoa ii aiaoiaio iaaiaeo oieueei aaeieue thai-ainoi/iie noi?iiu. A o?aioaa ieeaeeo i?eciaeia caoi?iiaiey ia ieacaeinue. Caoai auea ane?uoa aioo?aiiyy iiaa?oiinoue ia?aaeee, ii e caeanue aei aeoaeiu 1,2 i ia iaia?oaeaii ieeaeeo i?eciaeia caoi?iiaiey.A Eaoiai-Othaeineie eioeiaeia iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu oieueei a iaeiii ioieoa — a iiaeeueieea Ea?aeiao.Iiaeeueiee Ea?aeiao ?aniieiaeai ii iaaei noi?iiai aei?iae Oao-Eoiu?-Oieoiaoe, a 4—5 ei io ianoa auoiaea aa a aeieeio Eaoiai-Othaa. Ii ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae, eiathueo a iauae neiaeiinoe ieiei 100 ianuiae, n?aaee eioi?uo caieyiua, eaiaiiua e eaiaiii-caieyiua.A yoii iiaeeueieea ano?a/aii ianeieueei ia?aaeie. Iaeia ec ieo, ?aniieiaeaiiay ia neeiia i?eaaeeia, auea ?aneiiaia. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao aeeeiiue ei?eaei?, ?acaeaeaiiue ia o?e naeoeee. Aeeeiiay inue aai i?eaioe?iaaia ii NA-THA.Ia?aay (thaeiay) naeoeey ia?aaeee aueiaeaia ec e?oiiuo eaiiae, iieiaeaiiuo ieaoiy e ia ?aa?i. ?acia? naeoeee 3,5o4,0 i. Ainoi/iay noi?iia aa ia caieiooa. A na?aaeeia naeoeee i?ioiaeeo aueeaaeea ec iaeeeo eaiiae, aeaeyuay aa ia 2 /anoe. ?aneii caeiaeai ii anae aioo?aiiae ieiuaaee naeoeee. Iinea niyoey ae?aaiaai neiy iioae aaea/iee. Ia aeoaeia 0,55 i iaicia/eeinue iiaeeueiia iyoii, ioia/aiiia iyaeie canuiueth. Iiaeeueiay yia iaaeueiie oi?iu, ?acia?ii 1,6o1,2 i, i?eaioe?iaaia ii 45—225*. Iiaeeueiay yia ?an/euaia aei aeoaeiu 0,85 i io o?iaiy aa iaia?oaeaiey. Ieeaeeo iaoiaeie ia ioia/aii. A 0,8 i e naaa?i-caiaaeo io yoie yiu, a ianoa, aaea iienuaaaiay naeoeey auea ia?aai?iaeaia aueeaaeeie ec eaiiae, iaia?oaeaii aoi?ia iiaeeueiia iyoii, oaeaea ioia/aiiia iyaeie canuiueth. I?e ?an/enoea iiaeeueiie yiu ia aeoaeia 0,6 i, o naaa?iie noaiu, iaia?oaeaiu o?aaiaiou oiieinoaiiiai ninoaea ni n?acaiiie cae?aeiie e ieineei aeiii. Iiaeeueiay yia ?acia?ii 1,55o1,0 i i?eaioe?iaaia ii eeiee 45—225*, aeoaeia aa 0,8 i (Eiaeaiyei I.I no?.22-24).Aoi?ay (n?aaeiyy) naeoeey i?eiueaao e naeoeee ? 1 e eiaao n iae iauoth naaa?i-caiaaeioth noi?iio. ?acia? aa 3,6o3,6 i. ?aneiiii ane?uoa any aioo?aiiyy ieiuaaeue naeoeee. Ia aeoaeia 0,5 i o thai-ainoi/iie noaiee, ia ?annoiyiee 0,45 i io iaa, iaia?oaeaii iiaeeueiia iyoii, auaeaeythuaany aieaa oaiiui oeaaoii e iyaeie canuiueth. I?e ?an/enoea yiu ia aeoaeia 0,2 i iaia?oaeaiu iaiaeaeaiiua einoe /aeiaaea. Iiaeeueiay yia ?acia?ii 1,85o1,3 i i?eaioe?iaaia ii eeiee 45—225*.O?aouey (naaa?iay) naeoeey i?eiueaao e naeoeee ? 2 n naaa?i-caiaaeiie noi?iiu, eioi?ay yaeyaony iauae aeey ieo iaaeo. Naeoeey aueiaeaia ec eaiiae, iieiaeaiiuo ieaoiy e ia ?aa?i. ?acia? naeoeee 6,4o2,4 i. ?aneii ii anae ieiuaaee aioo?e ia?aaeee naeoeee. Ia aeoaeia 0,8 i o naaa?i-caiaaeiie noaiee ia?aaeee ieiioo?eeinue iiaeeueiia iyoii ii oeaaoo e ?uoeie canuie. Iiaeeueiay yia, ?acia?ii 1,6o0,7 i i?eaioe?iaaia aaeieue naaa?i-caiaaeiie noaiu ia?aaeee. Ia aeoaeia 0,75 i a iiaeeueiie yia o naaa?iie noaiu iaia?oaeaii /aou?a o?aaiaioa ninoaea: aeaa aieiaeiu n cae?aeiie, aieiaeia e aeii n aieiaeiie. Ae?oaeo iaoiaeie ia auei. ?aneii caeii/ai ia aeoaeia 0,8 i.A 1958 a. aaoi? ianeaaeiaae /anoe/ii ane?uoia i?e e??eaaoeeiiiuo ?aaioao iia?aaaiea yiioe a?iicu o niaoica „I?eai?iaeiue» (a 10 ei e naaa?i-caiaaeo io a.O?oica), i eioi?ii niiauee nooaeaio O?oicaineiai no?ieoaeueiiai oaoieeoia A.I?ooeineee. Iia?aaaiea, ?aniieiaeaiiia ia iaaieueoie a?yaea, eaeouae aaeieue aa?aaa ea?anoea; auei iaiieiaeio n?acaii o?aioaae, au?uoie aoeueaeica?ii n naaa?iie noi?iiu. Aei ianeaaeiaaiey caeanue auee ecaea/aiu ninoae e /a?ai. Inoaeinue iaauyniaiiui, /ai auei au?aaeaii iia?aaaiea ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee, oae eae aa?oiee neie oaeaea aue niyo a iao?iaoth oieueio. Caoi?iiaiea niaa?oaii a i?inoie a?oioiaie yia. Iia?aaaiiue eaaeae a nei?/aiiii iieiaeaiee, ia eaaii aieo, aieiaie ia caiaae.Ec eiaaioa?y auee iaeaeaiu oiiiyiooue ninoae n i?iaiaioii ec o?aoaieueieeia e iaiaaiae?ia, a?iiciaua aiooua aonu, eieueoea n iacaieioouie noaeathueieny e?ayie (18-2) e iaeia noai?ea e?oiiie ?aeiaeiu ni naa?eeiie aeey iiaeaaoeaaiey. Aiaeiaee, aeeceea ninoaeo e ii oi?ia, e ii i?iaiaioo, anoue a Eacaonoaia, eieueoeai – a Oa?aaia. Aon cia/eoaeueii ioee/athony io aon oao-othaeineiai e oao-aaoaoneiai iiaeeueieeia aieueoeie ?acia?aie e oi?iie. Iie nei?aa iaiiieiatho iaieii/ee, ninoaaeythuea iaea?aeuea ec Aeaenaaaneiai iiaeeueieea.Iia?aaaiea o niaoica «I?eai?iaeiue» yaeyaony ia?aui iaiyoieeii yoiai ?iaea a *oeneie aeieeia. Ia?yae caoi?iiaiey e eiaaioa?ue iicaieytho ioianoe aai e iicaeiae noaaeee aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u yiioe a?iicu.A 1959 aiaeo a naeoi? a?oaieiaee e yoiia?aoee Einoeoooa enoi?ee AI Ee?aecee I.A.Oaoiaoeaa ia?aaeae a?iiciaue na?i, iaeaeaiiue a 1958 a. a Nieoeoeneii ?aeiia. Yoi aaeeinoaaiiue ec 15-17 na?iia, iaia?oaeaiiuo i?e ca/enoea ioeinia ?ani?aaeaeeoaey ia caieyo eieoica «Ae?oaeaa». Ana inoaeueiua ?acioeenue ii ?oeai ianoiuo aeeoaeae e nia?aoue eo /a?ac aiae iinea iaoiaeee ia oaeaeinue. Na?iu auee neiaeaiu eo/eie ae?oa ia ae?oaa ia aeoaeia ieiei 1, 2 i. Ii ?anneaco I.A. Oaoiaoeiaa, a ioieoa iaoiaeee ia auei ieeaeeo neaaeia eoeueoo?iiai neiy. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi iu eiaai aeaei n iaeiei ec eeaaeia, noieue iau/iuo aeey yiioe a?iicu a *oeneie aeieeia. A Ee?aecee yoi ia?aue neo/ae iaoiaeee oaeiai na?ia. Ii a Eacaonoaia ecaanoiu iiaeiaiua na?iu, ioiinyueany e yiioa iicaeiae a?iicu.Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiuo a aeaiiie noaouea, a oaeaea ec iioaeeeiaaiiuo ?aiaa ae?oaeie enneaaeiaaoaeyie iaoa?eaeia, iaiyoieee yiioe a?iicu caoeene?iaaiu a naiuo ?acee/iuo ioieoao oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee: iia?aaaiey ia nu?oao Oeaio?aeueiiai Oyiue-Oaiy (A?ia) e a iaaeai?iuo eioeiaeiao (Eaoiai-Othaa), ianeaeueiua ?enoiee ia aunieeo ia?aaaeaeo (Naeiaeu-Oao ia Eoaa?oa) e a iaua?ao (Na?a-Oao), noiyiee, eeaaeu e iia?aaaiey a aeieeiao (*o, Oaean).Oaea ia iniiaa yoeo iaoa?eaeia iaia/athony /aoeea ?acee/ey yoaiia yiioe a?iicu, a oaeaea nayce ianaeaiey Ee?aecee n ianaeaieai Eacaonoaia, Oaoeaioneiai iacena, Oa?aaiu, Oi?acia e aeaaea no?aiaie Ia?aaeiae Acee. Ii aeey ?aoaiey yoeo e ?yaea ae?oaeo aii?inia iaiaoiaeeii ?anoe?aiea eco/aiey iaiyoieeia yiioe a?iicu a Ee?aecee.3. IIA?AAAEUeIUA IAIssOIEEE EAOIAI-OTHAEINEIE AeIEEIUEaoiai-Othaeineay eioeiaeia ?aniieiaeaia e naaa?o-ainoieo io Oa?aaineie aeieeiu, iaiin?aaenoaaiii a?aie/eo n ?aeiiaie Oeaio?aeueiiai Oyiue-Oaiy e yaeyaony /anoueth iaoe?iiai iaaeai?iiai iiieaeaiey (aeeeia 50-55 ei, oe?eia 0,5-20 ei). Aunieea ai?iua o?aaou ie?oaeatho aa, caeeth/ay a anoanoaaiiua a?aieoeu a aannaeia n?aaeiaai oa/aiey ?.Ia?ui e aai i?aauo e eaauo i?eoieia: Ocoi-Aoiao, *e/eai, Oi?eai, Oieoe, Ie/ea e ae?. Ieiuaaeue ?aeiia 8170 ea.ei. Eaoiai-Othaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie /?acau/aeii aeeaiienioth ianoiinoue, aaea ia?oaua nieii/aee /a?aaeothony n oeaaooueie ieaaie, a ii?inoea niniaie ouaeuey – n iieoionouiiuie ?aaieiaie. ?aeii ia?aaeaeai aunieeie o?aaoaie, ia?aaaeu eioi?uo aeiee?othony niaaeiuie caaaeaie. Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie i?iieeiooue nthaea iiaeii auei eeoue a oa/aiea 4-5 ianyoeaa a aiaeo. Aaeeinoaaiiui iooai, ioe?uoui e?oaeue aiae, inoaaaeanue aueth/iay o?iia ii oceiio e eaiaienoiio Ia?uineiio ouaeueth. Acaeiiaeaenoaea i?e?iaeiuo e o?cyenoaaiiuo iniaaiiinoae oaeeo aeaoo ?acee/iuo aaia?aoe/aneeo ?aeiiia N?aaeiae Acee, eae Oa?aaia e Oeaio?aeueiue Oyiue-Oaiue, nicaeaei oi naiaia?acea a aaia?aoee Eaoiai-Othaeineie eioeiaeiu, eioi?ia ioee/aao aa io anao ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia Ee?aecee. Aeieeia eaaeeo ia aunioa 800-1000 i. iaae o?iaiai ii?y. ?anoeoaeueiinoue iieoionouiiay, nooinoaiiay. II ii/aaiii-?anoeoaeueiiio iie?iao eioeiaeia aeaeeony ia /aou?a aunioiuo iiyna: iieoionouiiue, nooinoaiiie, noaaeueieeneee e aeueieeneee (Eaoiaiue-Othaa a?oaieiaey e enoi?ey no?.5-9).Eaoiai-Othaeineay aeieeia, ec-ca o?oaeiiaeinooiiinoe aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeanue iaeienneaaeiaaiiie a a?oaieiae/aneii ioiioaiee. Ii ianuuaiiinoe iaiyoieeaie ei/aaiai ianaeaiey aeieeia ia eiaao ?aaiuo a ainoi/iie /anoe N?aaeiae Acee.Ia?aua naaaeaiey i aa ae?aaiinoyo i?eiaaeeaaeao ecaanoiiio enneaaeiaaoaeth Ee?aecee A.I.Aa?iooaio, iinaoeaoaio yoio e?ae a 1946 a.Ei auee i?iecaaaeaiu iaaieueoea ?aneiiee e ?acaaaeee, ?acoeueoaou eioi?uo iicaieeee inaaoeoue iaeioi?ua ia?eiaeu ae?aaiae enoi?ee Eaoiai-Othaa e ioiaoeoue aieueooth ia?niaeoeao enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou a aeaiiii iee?i?aeiia. Yiioa a?iicu yaeyaony iaeieco/aiiui enoi?e/aneei ia?eiaeii. Ec Eaoiai-Othaeineie aeieeiu auee ecaanoiu eeoue neo/aeiua iaoiaeee i?aaeiaoia yiioe a?iicu – a?iiciaue eeiaeae e iiae. Iie auee iaia?oaeaiu a ae?aaiae ai?iie au?aaioea ia ?aea Ocoi-Aoiao. Aia?aua ia?aaeee yiioe a?iicu iiaeeueieea Aeaeacu-Ea/o enneaaeiaaiu a 1957 aiaeo, caoai a 1968 e a iineaaeothueo aiaeao.Iiaeeueiee Aeaeacu-Ea/o ninoieo ec aieueoiai /enea ia?aaeie, a iai ane?uoi aieaa 120 iiaee, /oi a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee a o?e ?aca i?aainoiaeeo ana enneaaeiaaiiua iiaeeu yiioe a?iicu ia oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee. Ia?aaeee Aeaeacu-Ea/o eiatho ie?oaeoth e i?yiioaieueioth oi?iu, aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai eo ia aicauoaaony iaae iiaa?oiinoueth. Aueiaeaiu iie «?aaiui» eaiiai, oeiaeaiiui ieaoiy a iaeei, ?aaeei a aeaa ?yaea. Ia?aaeee ?aniieiaeaiu aeiaieueii i?aaeeueiuie ?yaeaie, eciee?iaaii ae?oa io ae?oaa. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai eo eiaao «i?eno?ieee» (io iaeiie aei iyoe), eioi?ua, aeaeeii, i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey aeaoneeo caoi?iiaiee. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia?aaeee eiatho a?oioiaua yiu, ?aaeei ano?a/athony yiu n eaiaiiie iaeeoeiaeie. Ieioay nio?aiiinoue einoyeia ia aeaao /aoeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia aio?iiieiae/aneii oeia, niiniaa caoi?iiaiey e i?eaioaoeee iia?aaaiiuo. Ano?a/athony ia?aaeee n o?oiiiieiaeaieai e o?oiiniaeaeaieai. Ana iia?aaaiey ia?aaeaiu. Eiaaioa?ue i?aaenoaaeai, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeeiyiuie ninoaeaie, iaaieueoia eiee/anoai eioi?uo eiaao i?iaiaio a aeaea ai?eciioaeueiuo ?yaeia iana/ae ?aciie oi?iu – oeia «aei/ee» e ceacaaiia?aciuo eeiee, caoo?eoiaaiiuo ?iiaia e o.ae. Ec iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee iaia?oaeaiu a?iiciaay eaea e na?ueae.A 1963 aiaeo a iiaeeueieea Aeaeae-A?ue II auei ane?uoi /aou?a ia?aaeee. A ieo iaeaeaiu iaeiiee aeeiyiuo ninoaeia, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey iicaeiaai yoaia yiioe a?iicu.A 1963 a. ia oa??eoi?ee iiaiai ?aeiiiiai oeaio?a – Oieoiaoe, ?yaeii n iaoe?iui eaoaeiiaiui iiaeeueieeii Aeaeae-A?ue neo/aeii iaia?oaeaiu neaaeu eoeueoo?iiai neiy n inoaoeaie aeeiyiie iinoaeu, iaeiieaie ca?iioa?ee, aieueoei eiee/anoaii cieu, ae?aaaniiai oaey e iyoiaie i?ieaeeaoaeny caiee.Iieo/ai ea?aie/aneee iaoa?eae (aieaa 15 aeeiyiuo ninoaeia) n oeaeyie oi?iaie e a aeaea iaeiieia.Ninoaeu aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiua (aunioa 25-42 ni), aeeaiao? aai/eea 24-25 ni, eaiiua, anneiao?e/iua, n ie?oaeui ooeiaii e ieineei aeiii. Ii aai/eeo /anoi i?ioiaeeo i?iaiaio a aeaea iieoeoiiuo aaeaaeaiee, einuo iana/ae e oceie eaiou, auiieiaiiie a?aaai/aoui ooaiiii. Ia oaeea e iea/eeao ninoaeia i?iaiaio a aeaea aa?oeeaeueiuo iana/ae «aei/eie», auiieiaiiuo a?aaai/aoui ooaiiii. Ii oi?ia e i?iaiaioo ninoaeu n iinaeaiey Aeaeae-A?ue a iaueo /a?oao eiatho noiaenoai n iinoaeie ec iiaeeueieea Aeaeacu-Ea/o, iaeiaei ioee/athony ?yaeii aeaoaeae i?iaiaioa e ?ac?acaie.Iaoa?eae iiaeeueieeia e iinaeaiey neio?iiiu e aeaoe?othony yiioie iicaeiae a?iicu (XII-VIII aa. aei i.y.). Ea?aieea e eiino?oeoeey iiaeeueiie yiu eiatho ianiiiaiioth aeecinoue n oaeiauie iaiyoieeia aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u noaiiie a?iicu Naaa?iiai e THaeiiai Eacaonoaia, Naaa?iie Ee?aecee, Oaoeaioneiai iacena e Oa?aaiu.Iaoa?eae iinaeaiee e iiaeeueieeia aeieeiu Eaoiai-Othaa aaaeiu ia oieueei aeey eco/aiey niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ianoiie eoeueoo?u e aa naycae n eoeueoo?aie ninaaeieo e nii?aaeaeueiuo oa??eoi?ee, ii e aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeia oicyenoaa (Eaoiaiue-Othaa a?oaieiaey e enoi?ey no?.10-12).A oeaeii ec aeieeiu Eaoiai-Othaa iieo/aiu na?ee iaeiioeiiuo a?oaieiae/aneeo eiiieaenia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu noaoue a aoaeouai iii?iui iaoa?eaeii i?e eco/aiee ianoiuo eieaeueiuo aa?eaioia aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u yiioe iicaeiae a?iicu oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiiai Oyiue-Oaiy. A oa/aiea /aou?ao iieaauo naciiia (1968-1969 e 1972-1973 aa.) aaoi?ii inouanoaeyeenue ?aneiiee iiaeeueieea yiioe a?iicu Aeaeacu-Ea/o, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a 1,5 ei io ia?aaaea Eie-Aaeue ia neeiiao ai? Ei/ei?-Aethaa, ii iaaei noi?iiai aei?iae O?oica-Io.A oa/aiea /aou?ao naciiia caeanue ane?uoi 55 ia?aaeie, ec ieo 31 eiaee i?eno?ieee. A iauae neiaeiinoe ?aneiiaii 80 oaeeo i?eno?iae. Anaai auei eco/aii 125 iia?aaaeueiuo nii?oaeaiey yiioe a?iicu. ?aneiii/iua ?aaiou (1968-1969 aa.) aeaoo naciiia iicaieeee ooi/ieoue ieaie?iaeo ?yaea ia?aaeie, iaiaoeoue a?aieoeu iiaeeueieea, /anoe/ii auynieoue aai ieaie?iaeo, a oaeaea aeaee aeiiieieoaeueiue aauanoaaiiue iaoa?eae. A ?acoeueoaoa nieioiiai ane?uoey o/anoeia aie?oa ia?aaeie e aeiiieieoaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey oa??eoi?ee ia?aaeie ooi/iaia eo no?oeoo?a. N/eoaaoeany iaeeii/iuie ia?aaeee ieacaeenue neiaeiuie ii i/a?oaieyi ieaiia eeaaeie.*enei iaeeii/iuo ia?aaeie caiaoii nie?aoeeinue e, iaiai?io, eiee/anoai neiaeiuo ii eiino?oeoeee ia?aaeie oaaee/eeinue – n naie aei oanoiaaeoeaoe.Aeiiieieoaeueiua ane?uoey a caiaaeiie /anoe o/anoea iiaeeueieea n iia?aaaieyie yiioe a?iicu iieacaee, /oi caeanue i?aiaeaaeaee ia?aaeee n i?eno?ieeaie – ec 14 ia?aaeie 9 eiaee i?eno?ieee, ec ieo – 4 – ii iaeiie, 5 – io aeaoo aei naie. Ia?aaeee n aieueoei eiee/anoaii i?eno?iae ia yoii o/anoea iaoiaeyony ia iaiueoai ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa (2-3,30 i), /ai iaeeii/iua eee eiathuea ii iaeiie i?eno?ieea (4,60-8 i.).Iaee/ea aieueoiai /enea ia?aaeie n i?eno?ieeaie yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniaaiiinoae iiaeeueieea yiioe a?iicu Aeaeacu-Ea/o. I?yiua aiaeiaee ei anoue a iiaeeueieeao Oaeanneie aeieeiu Oao-Othaa II, Aao-Oao, Eoeai-Nae e Eucue-Nae, a oaeaea a A?neoneii iiaeeueieea Oa?aaineie aeieeiu.I iacia/aiee i?eno?iae iiea o?oaeii neacaoue /oi-eeai ii?aaeaeaiiia. Oieueei a aeaoo iaeaiueeeo i?eno?ieeao auee iaeaeaiu einoe io caoi?iiaiee: a iaeiii neo/aa o?aaiaio einoe aeaoneiai /a?aia, a ae?oaii – iaeeea iaeiiee einoae ac?ineiai /aeiaaea. A i?eno?ieea e ia?aaeea 44 iaeaeaiu a?iiciaay na?ueaa e ninoae. A inoaeueiuo neo/ayo a i?eno?ieeao eeai ie/aai ia iaeaeaii, eeai a ieo iaoiaeeeenue ninoaeu (io iaeiiai aei aeaoo). Ia iniiaaiee yoeo oaeoia iu neeiiiu ?anniao?eaaoue i?eno?ieee a ea/anoaa ianoa aeey caoi?iiaiee (aeaoneeo e ac?ineuo), oioy ia eneeth/aii. *oi /anoue ec ieo auea ?eooaeueiui nii?oaeaieai. E oaeiaui a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, aeaeeii, neaaeoao ioianoe i?eno?ieee, a eioi?uo ionoonoaotho iiaeeueiua yiu.A iniiaiuo ia?aaeeao iiaeeu a?oioiaua. Oieueei oanoue ec 57 eiatho eaiaiioth eeaaeeo. O aeanyoe iiaee oi?ioi nio?aieeanue eaiaiiay eeaaeea a 1-3 ?yaea ii aa?oiaio e?ath yiu. Eiiaaea iiaeii oieueei i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi eiaaea-oi e?ay aua ianeieueeeo iiaee eiaee eeaaeeo ec oeiaeaiiuo a iaeei ?yae i/aiue e?oiiuo eaiiae, ec eioi?uo ooeaeaee eeoue aaeeie/iua. Oaeie aea i?eai iaeeaaeee e?ay yiu, ii ec aieaa iaeeeo eaiiae, ano?a/aaony e a iaeioi?uo i?eno?ieeao. Io naieo ia?ae?uoee yi ie/aai ia nio?aieeinue. I oii, /oi iie naa?oo iiaee cae?uaaoueny eaiaiiuie ieeoaie, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho inoaoee aieueoie eaiaiiie ieeou, eaaeaaoae iiaa?o iiaeeu a ia?aaeea 51, aaeeie/iua eaiie iaae iiaeeaie a ia?aaeeao 54 e 61 e ia?ae?uoua oiieeie eaiaiiuie ieeoaie o?e oaeoaeaiey a i?eno?ieeao e ia?aaeeai 15 e 35. Iaaethaeaiey ca inoaoeaie eeaaeie, aoaeue oi noaiee ia?aaeie, iaeeaaeea aa?oa eee noaiie iiaeeueiie yiu, aiai?yo i iaee/ee o ethaeae, inoaaeaoeo iiaeeueiee, oi?ioeo no?ieoaeueiuo iaaueia.?aaioa ia iiaeeueieea ia aeaea iieiaeeoaeueiuo aio?iiieiae/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia. Ieioay nio?aiiinoue einoyeia ia iicaieyao noaeeoue i niiniaa caoi?iiaiey, i?eaioaoeee iia?aaaiiuo e eo oece/aneii oeia.ssnii, /oi ninouanoaiaaee aeaa ia?yaea – niaeaeaiea e o?oiiiieiaeaiea. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony yoi neaaeothueie oaeoaie: ia?aaeee n inoaoeaie o?oiiniaeaeaiey (eo /aou?iaaeoeaoue) ia ioee/athony ie ii eiino?oeoeee, ie ii eiaaioa?th, ie ii ?aniieiaeaieth a ?yaeao iiaee io ia?aaeie n o?oiiiieiaeaieai (eo oanoue) (Eaoiaiue-Othaa a?oaieiaey e enoi?ey no?.30-38).Ionoonoaea aea a aieueoeinoaa iiaee /aeiaa/aneeo inoaieia auioaeaeaao neeiieoueny e iunee i i?aiaeaaeaiee o?oiiniaeaeaiey. O?oiiiieiaeaiea auei nei?/aiiui. Ia yoii iiaeii noaeeoue ii iieiaeaieth inoaoeia einoyeia a iiaeeao ia?aaeie 11/1, 42 e 71.Iia?aaaeueiue eiaaioa?ue i?aaenoaaeai a iniiaiii ea?aieeie. Oieueei a aeaoo iia?aaaieyo nio?aieeenue a?iiciaua i?aaeiaou eaea e na?ueaa.Ec iiaeeueieea yi ia?aaeie, ec caaea?iiaaiiiai neiy aioo?e ieo eee ca ec i?aaeaeaie, ec oaeoaeaiee a i?eno?ieeao ca /aou?a naciia iieo/aii 90 oeaeuo e o?aaiaioe?iaaiiuo ninoaeia.A iiaeeueiuo yiao iniiaiuo ia?aaeie ano?a/aeinue io iaeiiai aei iyoe ninoaeia. A ?acoeueoaoa iaaethaeaiee iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi eo noaaeee aaeieue naaa?iie, naaa?i-ainoi/iie eee thai-caiaaeiie noaiie yiu e a caiaaeiii oaeo. A i?eno?ieeao ninoaeu iaia?oaeaiu eeai a oeaio?a oaeoaeaiey, eeai o caiaaeiie noaiee, ano?a/aiu oaeaea a naaa?i-ainoi/iie /anoe, thaeiie, a naaa?i-caiaaeiie e thai-caiaaeiie. Ii iacaaeneii io noi?iiu ninoaeu ?aniieaaaeenue eiaiii a oie /anoe oaeoaeaiey, eioi?ay auea aeeaea e eeaaeea iniiaiie ia?aaeee. Yoi ioia/aii a neo/ayo ec 29 ecaanoiuo.Iieo/aiiue eiiieaen ea?aieee iicaieyao n/eoaoue aai o?iiieiae/anee aaeeiui. Ninoaeu ana ai?oeiia?aciie oi?iu, ieineiaeiiiua, anneiao?e/iua, n ieaaiie eeieae ia?aoiaea io aai/eea e ooeiao. Eeoue o iyoe ninoaeia a iineaaeiai neo/aa anoue /aoeee onooi/ee. Oanoi n i?eianueth ae?anau, ?aciie noaiaie iaaeeaa, n na?iaaoi-ei?e/iaaaoui oeaaoii iiaa?oiinoe. Oieueei oanoue oeaeuo e o?aaiaioa?iuo ninoaeia eiatho /a?iue oeaao oanoa e aiaoiae iiaa?oiinoe, ano?a/aiu iie a iiaeeueiuo yiao iniiaiuo ia?aaeie e a i?eno?ieeao aianoa ninoaeaie na?iaaoi-ei?e/iaaiai oeaaoa. Anoue ninoaeu ni neaaeaie neeueiie caeii/aiiinoe. O aeaoo o?aaiaioa?iuo ninoaeia ia noaieao eiathony ioaa?noey. Iiaeiaiua ninoaeu eniieueciaaee a auoo aeey ecaioiaeaiey iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia aiae?iiianeea ieaiaia THaeiiai O?aea.A eiiieaena ea?aieee ec iiaeeueieea Aeaeacu-Ea/o i?aiaeaaeatho iai?iaiaioe?iaaiiua ninoaeu. I?iaiaio eiatho i?eia?ii 20 ninoaeia. Ii auiieiai aeiaieueii iaa?aaeii. *aua anaai yoi ai?eciioaeueiua ?yaeu iana/ae ?aciie oi?iu, ?enoiie oeia «aei/ee», ?yaeu ceaciia?aciuo eeiee, o?aoaieueieee ec iana/ae, caoo?eoiaaiiua ?iiau e o?aoaieueieee; oaeu ec iana/ae, iinoaaeaiiuo aa?oeiaie aioo?ue aia?aaee noiyuaai oaea (Eaoiaiue-Othaa a?oaieiaey e enoi?ey no?.39-49).I?iaiaioe?iaaia , eae i?aaeei, oaeea eee aa?oiyy /anoue ooeiaa, eia-aaea e?ae aai/eea e ia iaeiii ninoaea – ianoi ia?aoiaea io ooeiaa ei aeio.Noiaenoai iaia/aiiuo oeiia iia?aaaiee yoiai iiaeeueieea a ono?ienoai, i/a?oaieyo e i?eaioaoeeyo eaiaiiuo eeaaeie e iiaeeueiuo yi, i?aaeeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea ia?aaeie ?aciuo oeiia a iaeiii e oii aea ?yaeo e iiaeea iaeiiai oeia a ?aciuo ?yaeao, aaeeinoai ea?aie/aneiai eiiieaena iicaieyao n/eoaoue ana ane?uoua a 1968-1973a.a. iia?aaaiey neio?iiiuie.Ia iniiaaiee aieueoiai noiaenoaa ?anniao?eaaaiiai iiaeeueieea a oi?ia ia?aaeie, niiniaa ono?ienoaa iiaeeueiuo eaia?, noiaenoai oi?i e ioaeaeueiuo iioeaia i?iaiaioa ea?aieee n iiaeeueieeii Oaeanneie, *oeneie, Oa?aaineie aeieei, ?yaea iaueo /a?o n iia?aaaieyie a aeieeia A?ia, THaeiiai Eacaonoaia e Oi?acia iie i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aeioe?iaaee enneaaeiaaiiue iaiyoiee eiioeii II – ia/aeii I oun. aei i.y. Ia iniiaa aieueoiai noiaenoaa ea?aie/aneeo eiiieaenia iiaeeueieea Aeaeacu-Ea/o (eaaue aa?aa ?.Ia?ui) e iinaeaiey Aeaeae-A?ue (i?aaue aa?aa ?.Ia?ui) iu iiaeai naeaeaoue auaiae i ninouanoaiaaiee yoeo iaiyoieeia.Iaee/ea e?iia iacaaiiuo e ae?oaeo iaiyoieeia yiioe a?iicu, ioe?uouo a 1973 aiaeo a aeieeia Eaoiai-Othaa ia aeinoaoi/iii ioaeaeaiee ae?oa io ae?oaa, iicaieytho iai naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua caeeth/aiey ii enoi?ee yoiai ?aeiia.O ian iiea niaa?oaiii iao aauanoaaiiuo a?oaieiae/aneeo aeaiiuo, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo a oie eee eiie ia?a i oeia oicyenoaa ianaeaiey aeieeiu a yiioo a?iicu. Ii aiaeiaee n ninaaeieie ai?iuie ?aeiiaie – Oaeanneei e Oa?aaineei – oaaeu e ie?oaeathuea Eaoiai-Othaeineoth eioeiaeio ai?iua o?aaou auee oe?iei inaiaiu a oicyenoaaiiii ioiioaiee, aeaeeii, oieueei n eiioea I oun. aei i.y. Ia yoii aiai?yo iiiai/eneaiiua iaiyoieee – eo?aaiiua iiaeeueieee I oun. aei i.y.A yiioo a?iicu caeanue, i/aaeaeii, iaeoaee iaaieueoea iainiaeaiiua iaueiu. Iie naeeeenue a ianoao, iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiuo aeey iaoie, niaea?aeaiey neioa e ioiou. Anai yoei oneiaeyi niioaaonoaoao o/anoie, ?aniieiaeaiiue aie?oa iiaeeueieea yiioe iicaeiae a?iicu Aeaeacu-Ea/o, a oaeaea any thai-caiaaeiay, eaaiaa?aaeiay /anoue eioeiaeiu, aaea ioia/aii iaee/ea aua aeaoo iiaeeueieeia iacaaiiiai a?aiaie. Iieaaie nacii iaeiie ec a?oii Eaoiai-Othaeineie a?oaieiae/aneie yeniaaeeoeee a 1973 aiaeo aue iinayuai ?aaeno?aoeee e ianeaaeiaaieth a?oaieiae/aneeo iaiyoieeia a oceie iieina eaaiaa?aaeuey ?.Ia?ui. Caeanue auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii ainaiue iiaeeueieeia yiioe ?aiieo ei/aaieeia, o?e /aoei aeaeiuo ia iiaa?oiinoe iiaeeueieea yiioe a?iicu (Eaoiaiue-Othaa a?oaieiaey e enoi?ey no?.52-66).Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi iie, eae i?aaeei, ?aniieiaeaiu a ianoao, aaea eiathony ?iaeieee eee aeeceia caeaaaiea a?oioiauo aiae. Oaeiaa, iai?eia?, iee?ioiiia?aoey iiaeeueieeia Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae, *e?ae-Aoeae e Aaeuo-Aoeae e ae?.Iiaeeueiee Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae ?aniieiaeai ia ia?aie iiaeiieiaiiie oa??ana ia eaaii aa?aao Ia?uia, a iaeiieiaiiii o?i/eua.Ia nia?aiaiiie iiaa?oiinoe io/aoeeai aeaeiu inoaoee 33 iaaeiiaeeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, neiaeaiiuo ec eaiiy.Eaiie n?aaeieo ?acia?ia (0,25-0,44 i a iiia?a/ieea). Eo?aaiu ?aniieiaeaiu oeaii/eaie auoyiooui n naaa?a ia tha. Iiieii oi?ioi caiaoiuo eo?aaiia a ii/aaiiii neia ano?a/athony neiieaiey eaiiae, eioi?ua oaeaea yaeythony ae?aaieie caoi?iiaieyie.A iieaaii naciia ?aneiiai aua iaeei iiaeeueiee iiae oneiaiui iacaaieai Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae I. Ii ?aniieiaeai o iiaeiiaeey 1-e iaaeiieiaiiie oa??anu ii ninaaenoao n iiaeeueieeii Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae . ?aneiiee eo?aaiia iieacaee, /oi eiino?oeoeey iaaeiiaeeueiuo nii?oaeaiee a i?eioeeia ia ioee/aeenue io eiino?oeoeee iaaeiiaeeueiuo nii?oaeaiee iiaeeueieea Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae. Eo?aaiu ?aniieiaeaiu ieioii iaeei e ae?oaiio. Ai anao ?aneiiaiiuo eo?aaiao auee iaeeea iaii?aaeaeyaiua a iieiaic?anoiii ioiioaiee iaeiiee einoae ac?ineuo ethaeae. O?aaiaiou eaiiie ea?aieee niaiaaeatho ii no?oeoo?a oanoa e oaoieea ecaioiaeaiey n ea?aieeie iiaeeueieea Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae.A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo oaeaaaeinue i?ineaaeeoue e?ay iiaeeueiuo yi, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo aeeeiie inueth ii eeiee caiaae-ainoie. A iaeioi?uo oai?aoe/aneeo noaoueyo ii a?oaieiaee nouanoaoao aeaeaiea a?oaieiae/aneeo iauaeoia ia aeaa eiiieaena – cae?uoue e ioe?uoue.Cae?uoui eiiieaenii, ii iiaieth E.N.Eaiaiaoeeiai, yaeyaony oio iauaeo, aaea «nii?iaiaeaeathuee iieieieea a eo?aaiao eee a eaiaiiuo yueeao iia?aaaeueiue eiaaioa?ue, a ia ai?iaeeuao e iinaeaieyo aeiiaoiyy ooaa?ue, aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny a ia?aiia/aeueiii ninoiyiee, INSITU a iiiaio ?aneiiie eee a iiiaio aeaaee aeeeeua». E, iaiai?io, «ioe?uoue eiiieaen yaeyaony i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth cae?uoiai». Anee yoi oae, oi ioe?uoue a?oaieiae/aneee eiiieaen – yoi oio iauaeo, aaea a iaeiii e oii aea eo?aaia aua a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe i?iecaiaeeeenue iaiaeiie?aoiua ?eooaeueiua oaieeueiua caoi?iiaiey eee iaiaeiie?aoiua ia?aaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ieacuaaeinue ?ac?ooaiiie iiaeeueiay yia, iio?aaiaeaiiui nii?iaiaeaeathuee eiaaioa?ue, a oaeaea ia?ooai aiaoiie/aneee ii?yaeie neaeaoa iia?aaaiiiai. Anee iiaeoiaeeoue e iiaeeueieeo Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae n yoeo iiceoeee, oi ii, ianiiiaiii, ioiineony e /eneo a?oaieiae/aneeo iauaeoia ioe?uoiai oeia.A iiaeeueieee Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae ana ianuie eo?aaiia ieacaeenue enii?/aiiuie aeiaieueii aeoaieeie a?aaeoaeueneeie eacaie. Ii/oe ai anao eo?aaiao ?ac?ooaiu eiioo?u iiaeeueiuo yi e iioiio onoaiiaeoue eo ia?aiia/aeueioth a?aieoeo i/aiue o?oaeii, eiiaaea ii/oe iaaiciiaeii.I ninoaaa iia?aaaeueiiai eiaaioa?y iiaeii noaeeoue eeoue ii inoaoeai ea?aieee, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iio?aaiaeaiiie a?aaeoaeyie. Ia?aaeaieyie iiaeii iauynieoue e ionoonoaea ae?oaeo iaoiaeie.Iaei/eneaiiua, ii ana aea ?aciiia?aciua ii oi?ia ninoaeu ec iiaeeueieea Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae ia eiatho ieeaeeo aiaoieo oe?aoaiee eee i?iaiaioa, anee ia n/eoaoue aaeeinoaaiiiai eoaoeia n caiuneiaaoie ?inienueth, iaianaiiie e?aniie e?aneie. Eoaoei a?ooaaeaeiie oi?iu ni neaaea auoyiooie e noaeathuaeny e aai/eeo ai?eiaeiie. Aeeaiao? aai o aai/eea 10 ni, aunioa – 16,6 ni. Naieo neaaeu ioeiieaiiie iaoeaia?aciie ?o/ee. Ii ecaioiaeai ec ao?iai. Aeiaieueii ieioiiai oanoa n i?eianueth aeeiu. Iaaeea ?aaiiia?iue e aeinoaoi/ii neeueiue (Eaoiaiue-Othaa a?oaieiaey e enoi?ey no?.66-78).Ana eaiiua ninoaeu naeaeaiu ec aeeiu oi?ioaai ea/anoaa. A oanoa ii/oe iacaiaoia i?eianue i?aaie/aneeo niaaeeiaiee e eeoue a eceiia iaeioi?uo ninoaeia aaeaa aeaeiu /anoeoeu ieia?aeueiuo aauanoa. Aeaa o?aaiaioa ia aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoe eiatho ioia/aoie oeaie. Iaaeeaaee ninoaeu, aa?iyoii, a ioe?uoii eino?a, i?e n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieie oaiia?aoo?a. Ia yoi oeacuaaao ia?aaiiia?iue oa?aeoa? ia?oaeiie ie?anee, neienoinoue /a?aiea a eceiia, a oaeaea ii?enoinoue aeeiu ec-ca iaaeinoaoi/iiai iaeaea i?e iaaeeaa. Aiai?y i oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey ea?aieee, neaaeoao ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea ia ia?aaioeo ia?oaeiie noi?iiu ninoaeia. Ii/oe ana ninoaeu ec Aeaeaiuo-Aoeaea eiatho naeaaeaiioth iie?ie o?yieie eee io/eii o?aau iiaa?oiinoue, /oi i?ineaaeeaaaony aeinoaoi/ii /aoei. Ea?aie/aneee eiiieaen ec Aeaeaiuo-Aoeaea aanueia a?oae/ai e ii/oe oiaeaeanoaai n ea?aieeie onoiueneiai eoeueoo?iiai a?aiea (III aae aei i.y.- I-V aae i.y.) a ninoaa eioi?iai aoiaeyo aeieeiu ?ae *o, Eee, Oeaio?aeueiue Oyiue-Oaiue e ?yae ae?oaeo ninaaeieo ?aaeiiia. Ea?aieea Aeaeaiuo-Aoeaea eiaao aiaeiaeth n?aaee iaoa?eaeia Oaeanneie e *oeneie aeieeiu, Naie?a/uey, a oaeaea iiaeeueieeia Ennue-Eoeueneie eioeiaeiu e Oeaio?aeueiiai Oyiue-Oaiy.«Iia?aaaeueiue eiiiiiaio», ia neieueei aai iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue iaeiiia?acai: einoyee eaaeao ia nieia, a auoyiooii iieiaeaiee, aieiaie ia caiaae. Oaeie ?eooae caoi?iiaiey iaoiaeeo ia?aeeaee a eo?aaiao onoiae ia oa??eoi?ee Ee?aecee e Eacaonoaia. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi e aeaoaee eiino?oeoeee iia?aaaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee – ia?ae?uoey a?oioiauo iiaeeueiuo yi eaiaiiuie ieeoaie – oaeaea niaiaaeatho n ao?eaooaie iaiyoieeia ?aiieo ei/aaieeia (naeia, onoiae) ae?oaeo ?aeiiia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, noiaenoai iia?aaaeueiuo ia?yaeia e eiino?oeoeee eo?aaiia iiaeeueieea Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae a Eaoiai-Othaa n iiaeeueieeaie Naie?a/uey e Oeaio?aeueiiai Oyiue-Oaiy aeaao iniiaaiea i?aaeiieaaaoue eo eoeueoo?iia aaeeinoai. Iiaeeueieee Aeaeaiuo-Aoeae a?oaieiae noieeioeenue n eiino?oeoeeae iiaeeu iiaeaieiiai oeia, aaea iia?aaaiiua eaaeao aieiaie ia ainoie. I?eaioaoeey oaeeo neaeaoia i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/athony io iieiaeaiey iia?aaaiiuo a iiaeiieiuo caoi?iiaieyo ae?oaeo ?aeiiia a?aiea ?aiia-ei/aaie/aneeo eoeueoo?. E iicaeiae a?iica oaeaea ioiinyony ?aiianaeneea iia?aaaiey. Iia?aaaiey yoiai ia?eiaea ii/oe iaeeiaeiau – yoi eo?aaiu n eaiaiiie ianuiueth, a eioi?ie auyaeythony eiioeaio?e/aneea e?oae (e?iieaoe) – yeeeiniaeaeiua a oeaio?a ianuie, ii e?ayi iiaeeueiie yiu, e i?aaeeueiua – aie?oa iiaeeueiie ianuie. E?iieao aueeaaeuaaaony aaeueeie, eaiiyie ieaoiy eee a?aiaiiuie ieeoaie ia ?aa?i. E?iieaoe a aieueoeo eo?aaiao eiiaaea i?eia?aoatho oeao?u eaae?eioia ec na?ee e?oaia, iaaiaeyueo eiioo?u nieioiie eaiaiiie ianuiueth.Aeaaa II. Eeaaeu e iaoaeeo?ae/aneea i?iecaiaenoaa1. EEAAeU YIIOE A?IICUIao ia?iaea aac aeuia,Iao caiee aac eeaaea.(Eu?aucneay ia?iaeiay iineiaeoea)Eeaae ia aeaeae, ii, /oiau aeieiiaouenyEneonnoai ioaeii e oiaiea acyoueny.(E.Aaoa)Aaeaa ee iaeaeaony /aeiaae, eioi?ue ia oioae au iaeoe eeaae. A iaoai iauaeaiiii i?aaenoaaeaiee yoi iiiyoea annioeee?oaony n iiiyoeai «nie?iaeua», oi anoue n ianiaoiui aiaaonoaii. Oaia eeaaea noaea «a?iaey/ae»a oieueeei?iii oai?/anoaa iiiaeo ia?iaeia ie?a. Ae?aaiea nie?iaeua ieoouaaeenue oaeinoaaiiinoueth e ienoeeie, naycaiiuie n iioonoi?iiiae, «ia/enoie» neeie. Ia?auaeenue e iae e ienaoaee e iiyou.*oi aea oaeia eeaae! Yioeeeeiiaaeey aeaao aeaiyeia ii?aaeaeaiea: «1 – ni?yoaiiua, /aua anaai ca?uoua a caieth aaue, ia acyoua aeaaeaeueoeai e iicaeiaa neo/aeii iaia?oaeaiiua; 2 – ca?uoua eee ne?uoua eiui niiniaii aeaiueae eee oeaiiua i?aaeiaou, nianoaaiiee eioi?uo ia iiaeao auoue onoaiiaeai eee a neeo caeiia oo?aoee ia ieo i?aai».Aeey iaoae oaiu aieueoa iiaeoiaeeo ia?aia ii?aaeaeaiea.Eeaaeu e nianoaaiiinoue iiyaeeenue, aa?iyoii, iaeiia?aiaiii, oi anoue ieiei iyoe ouny/ eao oiio iacaae. Ae?aaiaeoea ec ieo ioiinyony e yiieeoo e aeaaea e eiioeo iaieeoa.( Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.3-13)Eeaaeu aeaeyony ia o?e iniiaiua ?aciiaeaeiinoe:- eiathuea oieueei iao/ioth oeaiiinoue;- eiathuea oieueei iaoa?eaeueioth oeaiiinoue;- eiathuea e iao/ioth, e iaoa?eaeueioth oeaiiinoue.Aeaeaiea yoi aanueia e aanueia oneiaii.Iii ?ani?aaeaeyaony oieueei ia oa??eoi?eth iaoae no?aiu, oae eae ethaua ae?aaiinoe, eioi?ua, eacaeinue au, eiatho oieueei iao/ioth oeaiiinoue (ecaeaeey ec a?iicu eee, iai?eia?, ea?aieea), auniei oeaiyony ia aioeeaa?iuo ?uieao ca ?oaaaeii.Ia oa??eoi?ee N?aaeiae Acee iaeaeaiu eeaaeu anao o?ao oiiiyioouo ?aciiaeaeiinoae e ii/oe anao o?iiieiae/aneeo yiio. Aiaaoua eeaaeu auaatho e a aaaeiuo no?aiao, a aio eeaaeu, eioi?ua noaiiayony eoeueoo?iui aeinoiyieai /aeiaa/anoaa, iaoiaeyo oieueei ia oa??eoi?eyo, eioi?ua noaee i/aaaie ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee. Iaeiei ec oaeeo i/aaia auea N?aaeiyy Acey. Ai?u e noaie N?aaeiae Acee neoaeeee i?ethoii aeey neioiaiaeia, eioi?ua nicaeaee naith y?eoth naiiauoioth eoeueoo?o. I?ae?aniua ia?acoeu aa oe?aoatho iocae Eu?aucnoaia e Eacaonoaia. Ae?aaiaeoea eeaaeu Eu?aucnoaia auee ca?uou a caieth i?eia?ii o?e ouny/e eao oiio iacaae. A oi aeaeaeia a?aiy iaoe?iua i?ino?ainoaa I?eo?aeuey, Neae?e. Eacaonoaia e /anoe/ii N?aaeiae Acee auee ianaeaiu ?iaenoaaiiuie ieaiaiaie n y?eie e naiiauoiie eoeueoo?ie a?iicu, iieo/eaoae iacaaiea aiae?iiianeie (ii iaoiaeo iaoiaeee ia?aiai iaiyoieea o n.Aiae?iiiai aeec A/einea).Iniiaiuie aeaeaie iaiyoieeia yiioe a?iicu ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee yaeythony iinaeaiey, iia?aaaiey, ianeaeueiua ecia?aaeaiey e eeaaeu. Anee iia?aaaiee e iinaeaiee yiioe a?iicu ioe?uoi aua iaei, oi ii eiee/anoao iaeaeaiiuo eeaaeia. I?e/ai aeiaieueii aiaaouo, Eu?aucnoai caieiaao ia?aia ianoi a n?aaeiaaceaoneii ?aaeiia. Oieueei ia n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoii i?ino?ainoaa (io n.Naaeiaia ia caiaaea aei I?aeaaaeuenea ia ainoiea) iaeaeaii aeaayoue eeaaeia.Ia?aua o?e eeaaea auee iaia?oaeaiu aua a eiioea i?ioeiai aaea ia Ennue-Eoea. Iie o?aiyony a Ainoaea?noaaiiii iocaa e a Iocaa aio?iiieiaee IAO a Iineaa.( Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.14-16)1. Othineee eeaae. Ec /aou?ao i?aaeiaoia. Iaeaeai a 1984 a. ia aa?aao Othineiai caeeaa. Aue ia?aaeai I.I.Iaiooniaui a A?oaieiae/aneoth eiienneth. O?aieony a Ainoaea?noaaiiii enoi?e/aneii iocaa.2. Ea?aeieueneee I. Iaeaeai a oii aea aiaeo ieiei I?aeaaaeuenea (Ea?aeiea). A eeaaea auei /aou?a i?aaeiaoa.3. I?aia?aaeaineee. Ec naie i?aaeiaoia. Iaeaeai a eiioea XIX aaea o n.I?aia?aaeaineia (iuia n.Othi). Aeaa iineaaeieo (iacaaiiue auoa e yoio) eeaaea nia?ae i?ioanni? Ni?ieei e ia?aaeae a Iocae aio?iiieiaee i?e IAO.4. Nieoeoeneee I. Ia?aue e?oiiue eeaae, aue iaeaeai a 1938 a. ia i?aaii aa?aao ?.Nieoeoe o iaeiieiaiiiai naea i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa iinoa. Eeaae niaea?aeae naiiaaeoeaoue i?aaeiaoia.5. Nieoeoeneee II. Iaeaeai a 1958 aiaeo i?e ca/enoea ioeinia ?ani?aaeaeeoaey i?ineoaeueiie nenoaiu ia caieyo eieoica «Ae?oaeaa». Ian/eouaae 15-17 niaa?oaiii iaeeiaeiauo na?iia.6. A 1953 aiaeo iaeaeai eeaae ec 16 i?aaeiaoia aeec n.Naaeiaia.7. Ecoieoaeueiie nio?aiiinoe e e?aniou iyoue eeiaeaeia n iaaa?oeyie a aeaea a?oa?a e eioaaee ninoaaeee Ea?aeieueneee II eeaae. Iaeaeai a 1966 a a.I?aeaaaeuenea.Yoe oeaiiaeoea eeaaeu, e?iia ia?auo o?ao, o?aiyony a ?anioaeeeaineii Enoi?e/aneii iocaa a a.Aeoeaea.A iineaaeiea aiaeu iaeaeaii aua aeaa eeaaea yiioe a?iicu (iaa o?aiyony a Iocaa einoeoooa enoi?ee AI ?anioaeeee Eu?aucnoai).8. Oaioeineee eeaae.9. Ootheneee. Ec aeanyoe i?aaeiaoia. Iaeaeai a n.Oothe Ennue-Aoeineiai ?aeiia a 1977 a.Ana yoe aeaayoue eeaaeia aeaoe?othony oeiaeii yiioe a?iicu, o.a. XII-IX aa. aei i.y.Aieueoeinoai eeaaeia aeeth/aee naiua ?acee/iua i?aaeiaou, a iniiaiii, i?oaeea e i?oaeey o?oaea. N?aaee ieo aeneiiaooiua oiii?u, iaeiia/ieee eiiee, aeieioa, eiiaoee-eaeueou, na?iu, oanea, eeiaeaeu, iiaee, ?uaieiaiua e?th/ee. A caieth ne?uaaee e i?aaeiaou ooaeaoa, iai?eia?, a?iiciaua ca?eaea, caeieee aeey aiein e a?eoau. Caeanue aea i?yoaee ?acee/iiai oeia aeyoee n iaoeyie e aac ieo, eieueoea, oeeuey, neeoi/ee iaoaeea e ae?oaea i?aaeiaou. Iaai? aauae a eeaaeao auaeyaeeo aeiaieueii iaeiiia?acii. Oaeea eeaaeu iiaee i?eiaaeeaaeaoue aieueoie naiue.Auaeaeythony Nieoeoeneee II e Ea?aeieueneee II eeaaeu, niaea?aeauea oieueei iaeeiaeiaua i?aaeiaou. Oaeea eeaaeu i?eiyoi iacuaaoue oi?aiauie eee ?aianeaiiuie.Aieueoia /enei i?oaeee iaeiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iacia/aiey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia eo i?iecaiaenoaa aeey iaiaia. Eaeie auea ae?aaiyy oi?aiaey ia naiii aeaea, iu ia ciaai.Ianoiyuae yioeeeeiiaaeeae ii enoi?ee ae?aaiae iaoaeeo?aee Eu?aucnoaia noae oieeaeueiue Oaioeineee eeaae, enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea eioi?iai auoiaeeo aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeu iaoae ?anioaeeee. Ana ia/aeinue n oiai, /oi eieoiciee Ouiaeaae Aeaeaia?ia, aeeoaeue n.Oaioe Ei/ei?neiai ?aeiia Ia?uineie iaeanoe, eiiae a?ue ia i?eonaaeaaiii o/anoea. Ia aeoaeia 30-40 ni ii iaoeioeny ia i?aaeiao iie?uoue yaeiaeoi-caeaiui oeaaoii ieene iaaee. Ouiaeaae-aea ?anoe?ee yio e naeaeae ioe?uoea naiiai aiaaoiai eeaaea yiioe noaiiie a?iicu ia oa??eoi?ee NNN?. Caeanue eiiiaeoiie a?oiiie a i?ae?aniii nio?aiiinoe eaaeaei 27 i?aaeiaoia ec a?iicu: aeaa oiii?a, iieioie, aeaa aeieioa, aeaa oanea, o?e na?iaeina?y, eiiuea, a?eoaa, iiae, /aou?a ca?eaea, /aou?a aeyoe, aeaa eieueoea, oeei, ?uaieiaiue e?th/ie, aoeaaea n aaeo?iui iaaa?oeai, neeoie iaoaeea.( Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.27)Ii aue ioeeo a XII-IX (VIII) aa. aei i.y. ia ianoa, oae eae a aai ninoaaa anoue a?aeiaaiiia aeieoi (a?aeiaaiiua aaue ia auaatho i?aaeiaoaie oi?aiaee). Iaai? aauae a eeaaea ii naiae oi?ia niaoeeoe/ai aeey Eu?aucnoaia, Naie?a/uey, Ainoi/iiai, Naaa?iiai e Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia, Aeoay. Yoe oa??eoi?ee, ii iiaieth a?oaieiaia, aoiaeeee a aaeeioth iaoaeeo?ae/aneoth i?iaeioeeth. Ianeieueei eioth ea?oeio aeatho ?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey. Ii naiaio oeie/aneiio ninoaao iaoaee ecaeaeee Oaioeineiai eeaaea ?acei ioee/ai io iaoaeea Ainoi/iiai e Naaa?iiai e Iiaeiiuey, a oaeaea Naie?a/uey. Ninoaa eo ianoieueei aeecie, /oi yoi iicaieeei auneacaoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia eniieueciaaiee ?oaeu aaioeie/anee ?iaenoaaiiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Eeouea i?aaaee?iaaei iaae eiaeie. EC 27 i?aaeiaoia Oaioeineiai eeaaea oieueei o?e auiieiaiu eocia/iui niiniaii. Iaeiaei, iieiaea aoiaeeea a oaoiieiaeth ecaioiaeaiey eeouo ecaeaeee. Eeaae ec Oaioe iiaaaeae aua iaeei enoi?e/aneee oaeo i aeecie ethaeae oiai a?aiaie.Aeaei a oii, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa /enei i?aaeiaoia eeaaea iau/ii aeey oa??eoi?ee Eu?aucnoaia, Naie?a/uey, Eacaonoaia e Aeoay.Niaoeeaeenoia caeioa?aniaaee aeaa iaiau/iuo i?aaeiaoa: a?eoaa e aoeaaea n aaeo?iui iaaa?oeai. A?eoaa oaeiai oeia oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia a I?e/a?iiii?uea e e?aeia ?aaeei ano?a/aaony a aceaoneie /anoe no?aiu. Aaeo?iua aoeaaee, eae i?aaeei, iaoiaeyo a ianoao iaeoaiey caieaaeaeueoeaa thaeiuo ?aeiiia N?aaeiae Acee e E?aia.I?eioeeieaeueiay aaaeiinoue yoeo iiea aaeeie/iuo iaoiaeie ninoieo a oii, /oi iie aeieoiaioe?otho aeoeaiua nayce ianaeaiey Naaa?iiai Eu?aucnoaia a yiioo a?iicu n I?e/a?iiii?ueai e thaii N?aaeiae Acee, aiciiaeii, aeaaea n E?aiii. A oeaeii, Oaioeineee eeaae, iauaaeeiythuee ecaeaeey 20 oeiia ii naiae oeaiiinoe yaeyaony yoaeiiii i?e enneaaeiaaiee anao inoaeueiuo eeaaeia oeiaeueiiai yoaia aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?iie iauiinoe.Ana aeaayoue eeaaeia yiioe a?iicu a Eu?aucnoaia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi /aeiaae, niaieaoee eaiaiiua i?oaeey o?oaea ia a?iiciaua, anooiee ia iooue aeiaieueii auno?iai i?ia?anna. Aeaei a oii, /oi i?oaeey ec iaaee auee ai?acaei aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie e aeieaiaa/iuie, /ai i?oaeey ec e?aiiy. A VII-III aa. aei i.y. ia a?iiaaeiuo noaiiuo i?inoi?ao Aa?acee – io Aeoiay aei Aienay e Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia – ei/aauie ni naieie noaaeaie ?iaenoaaiiua ia?iaeu, eioi?ua noaee iniiaiiieiaeieeaie noaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee, i?eaeiaeueiie eoeueoo?u, ioee/iie io eoeueoo?u caieaaeaeue/aneeo ia?iaeia. A?aee iacaaee eo neeoaie, a ia?nu – naeaie. Naee auee ae?aaieie iaeoaoaeyie ai? e aeieei Oyiue-Oaiy. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia oieueei ianeaeueiua ?enoiee e ioaeaeueiua neo/aeiua iaoiaeee, ii e eeaaeu. Anaai ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee Eu?aucnoai ecaanoii aeaayoue eeaaeia, noi?iiaiiuo naeaie. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi iyoue ec ieo iaeaeaiu ia iiaa?aaeuea Ennue-Eoey, a o?e – iiae aai aieiaie. E eeoue iaeei ec eeaaeia naeia iaia?oaeai a *oeneie aeieeia. A Eu?aucnoaia iaeaeaii o?e eeaaea niaea?aeaueo i?aaeiaou, ioiinyueany e na?oa eiiy ae?aaiaai ei/aaieea. Ana iie auee ioeeou ec a?iicu.Othineee. Iaeaeai a ie?anoiinoyo n.I?aia?aaeaineia (iuia n.Othi) aua a eiioea XIX a. Ninoiy ec no?aiyaeaeiuo oaeee, ia?u inaeeaa, e?oaeie iaeiaiie aeyoe, ai?ai?ie e iaeeaaeiuo aeyo, oe?aoathueo ?aiie. Eeaae, oaeei ia?acii, yaeyeny iieiui iaai?ii iaoaeee/aneeo /anoae ocaea/ee VII-VI aa. aei i.y. Ii yoei /anoyi iiaeii ainnoaiiaeoue anth eiino?oeoeeth ocaea/ee. E?iia oiai, eeaae i?aaenoaaeyao eneonnoaiaaae/aneoth oeaiiinoue. Iiiaea aeyoe oe?aoaiu ecia?aaeaieyie caa?ae a ?aiianeeoneii noeea.Aa?neiiineee I. Ninoieo ec aeaoo ianneaiuo e?oaeuo aeyo. Iie auee ioeeou a iaeiie oi?ia. Aeyoe neoaeeee aeey ia?ae?anoiiai e?aieaiey ?aiiae na?oe eiiy. Eeaae yaeyaony aanoeaiiui aeey enoi?ee eneonnoaa Eu?aucnoaia: eaaeaeay aeyoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiia ecia?aaeaiea iaioa?u, naa?ioaoaeny a eieueoei. Yoi naiue ae?aaiee nthaeao (VIII-VII aa. aei i.y.) a eneonnoaa ae?aaieo ei/aaieeia, ecaanoiue ii iaoiaeeai ia a?iiaaeiie oa??eoi?ee io Ooau aei I?e/a?iiii?uey. Eeaae iaeaeai a ie?anoiinoyo n.Aa?neiii ia thaeiii iiaa?aaeuea ica?a Ennue-Eoeue e ia?aaeai a?oaieiao Ae.O.Aeiieeo. O?aieony a Enoi?e/aneii iocaa.( Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.28-29).Iiai-Iaaeianeee. Ninoieo ec no?aiyaeaeiuo oaeee inaeee, ioeeouo a ianoa, a oaeaea aeaoo iiaei?oaeiuo i?yaeae. Ana o?e i?aaeiaoa yaeythony i?iecaaaeaieyie eneonnoaa: eiioeu inaeee oe?aoaiu aieiaeaie eioaaeae n eiceeiuie ?iaaie, ia iiaei?oaeiuo aeyoao ecia?aaeaiu eaaeauea eueau. Eeaae yaeyaony i?ae?aniui aeieoiaioii i ?aiieo naycyo Eu?aucnoaia n ae?aaieie E?aiii e Ia?aaeiae Aceae. Eiaiii oai a VII-VI aa. aei i.y. auea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia ocaea n oeaeueiieeouie oaeeeaie e inaeeyie. Eeaae aue iaeaeai a n.Iiai-Iaaeiaea, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony a i?eai?iaea Aeoeaea. O?aieony a ?anioaeeeaineii Enoi?e/aneii iocaa.Eeaaeu ia aeia ica?a Ennue-Eoeue. Ai a?aiaia ae?aaieo ei/aaieeia (1 oun. aei i.y.) ca?eaei ica?a auei iaiiiai iaiueoa, /ai a iaoe aeie. Oai, aaea nae/an ieauoony aieiu, ethaee naaeaee aea?aauey, no?ieee naeaiey, ianuiaee aunieea eo?aaiu, i?ieaaaee aei?iae. Iicaea ica?i noaei iaiieiyoueny, auoiaeeoue ec aa?aaia e caoiieei neaaeu aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.(Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.29-30)Oaia?ue iinea ooi?ia ia iiaa?aaeuea Ennue-Eoey iaoiaeyo aua?ioaiiua aieiaie ae?aaiea ecaeaeey, a ?uaaee e a?oaieiae ia ?ac iaoueaeenue ia ieo e iiae aiaeie. A ia/aea 50-o aiaeia aeeoaee n.Eaiaiea (iuia n.Aeaea?eeiaaaa) eiaeee naoyie ciaiaieoiai ennue-eoeueneiai /aaaea, e iie iaoeioeenue ia i?aaeiao, iioiaeee ia e?oaeue «iaoaeee/aneee ueo» (nei?aa anaai, yoi aue aai/ee aieueoiai eioea). Ecaea/ue eioae ec ieioiuo aeiiiuo ioeiaeaiee ia oaeaeinue, caoi aioo?e ec caiieiyaoaai aai eea auee ecaea/aiu ainaiue i?aaeiaoia: /aou?a eiiieaeoa eieue/aouo oaeee, iaeiia/iee eiiuey ni aooeeie, aeieoiaeaeiue eino?oiaio n ooeii e aooeeie, aeeneiaeaeiia ca?eaei e eeiaeae n a?oneiaeaeiui iaaa?oeai e aa/eiaeaeiui ia?ae?anoeai. Eacaea eeiaeaea auei iaeiieaii aua a ae?aaiinoe e ooa?yii. Ana i?aaeiaou auee ioeeou ec a?iicu e ia i?aaenoaaeyee oeaiiinoe aeey ?uaaeia. E.?.Eiceania iioaeeeiaae eeaae e aeaoe?iaae aai V a. aei i.y. Aiciiaeii, ii yaeyaony aieaa ae?aaiei e ioiineony e VI-V aa. aei i.y. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana ainaiue i?aaeiaoia Eaiaineiai eeaaea o?aiyony a Iocaa eaoaae?u a?oaieiaee Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa.A 1982 a. iaeaeai aua iaeei «iiaeaiaeiue» eeaae. Iaoae aai eieoiciee ec n.Aea?oai Aeaeaou-Iaocneiai ?aeiia aaoa?ai aieiu Oieoiaae Iaaeeaa. Aeaa eeiaeaea, eioaeie, e?oiiue iaeiiie aieiaeiu aieueoiai eioea. Ana aaue auee a?iiciauie. Ia?aoeiny e ninoaao Aea?oaineiai eeaaea. N?aco a?inaaony a aeaca, /oi ana aaue aac eneeth/aiey iia?aaeaeaiu aua a ae?aaiinoe. O iaeiiai eeiaeaea auea ioeiiaia /anoue eacaey, caoi iieiinoueth nio?aieeenue oeao?iia iaaa?oea, aaai/eiaeaeiia ia?ae?anoea, ?oeiyoue n o?aiy i?iaeieueiuie aio?aie n iaaeo noi?ii. Yoio eeiaeae ioee/aaony naiei ooaeiaeanoaaiiui iaaa?oeai a aeaea aeaoo aieia ai?iiai eicea n e?oouie ?iaaie. Aeeeia nio?aieaoaeny /anoe eeiaeaea 161 ii, i?e/ai oieueei 37 ii i?eoiaeeony ia ?iiae/aneia a na/aiee iaithaeiino?ia eacaea. Oe?eia ?oeiyoee 18 ii, eeeiea o iniiaaiey – 25 ii, iaaa?oey – 44 ii.Aoi?ie eeiaeae iioiae ia ia?aue, oieueei iaaa?oea aai – i?inoie iiia?a/iue a?onie. Aeeeia ?oeiyoee 110 ii i?e oe?eia 18 ii, oe?eia iaaa?oey – 48,ia?ae?anoey – 58, eacaey – 20 ii. Eioaeie ni noa?e/aneei ei?ionii e ianneaiuie noaieaie. Iiae aai/eeii eioaeea nio?aieeny iinee – neea, eae o nia?aiaiiiai /aeieea. ?o/ea ia nio?aieeanue. Eeaae iiaeii ioianoe e VI-V aa. aei i.y. Yoio eeaae aue iaeaeai oeieueieeaie aieueoiai e noa?iai eu?aucneiai naea Aa?neiii, /oi ia thaeiii iiaa?aaeuea ic. Ennue-Eoeue. Iacaaiea Aa?neiii (Aa?noai) ecaanoii aua ii a?aaneei ?oeiienyi IX a. Aaea-oi iaiiaeaeaeo ?iaeeeny ecaanoiue oth?eneee o/aiue Iaoioae Eaoaa?e (IX a.).Nei?aa anaai, ionthaea auoae iniiaaoaeue aeeianoee Aaciaaeaeia a Oi?anaia oth?e ec ieaiaie «aa?noai» eiaa?iue e niaeue Naaoeoaaei (X a.). Ianoi ciaiaieoia. THiua enneaaeiaaoaee ia?aaeaee a?oaieiaai 112 oi?ioi nio?aieaoeony oeao?iuo aeyoae e 16 aaeeieoe iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa. Oeao?iua aeyoee ii oi?ia e oa?aeoa?o ecia?aaeaiey iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia o?e oeia: ciiii?oiua, aaiiao?e/aneea e ?anoeoaeueiua. Ii oneiaeyi e ninoaao iaoiaeee iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi oeieueieee iaia?oaeeee eeaae. Ii aue ca?uo a ianuie eo?aaia ii anae aa?iyoiinoe a IV a. aei i.y.Nie?iaeua «*oeneie oea?eoeu». Yoi nie?iaeua, neo/aeii iaeaeaiiua a *oeneie aeieeia. A ia/aea aaaonoa 1958 a. ia oceii iiea o aoiaea a ouaeuea Oaioe, /oi ?aniieiaeaii e thao io a.Oieiaea, eieoicieee oae?aee o?iaeae, aae?oa eieani eiiaaeiiaiai aa?aaaoa i?iaaeeeinue, iaoeia ?acei inoaiiaeeanue. Eiaaea aa auoaueee, oi oaeaeaee iiaecaiioth eaia?o, iioieie eioi?ie ia auaea?aeae iiiaioiiiie oyaeanoe e i?iaaeeeny. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eaia?a auea iieocanuiaia caieae, ethaee oaeaeaee cieioi. Iiiai cieioa! Iioii ?acaeaeeee aeiau/o ia /anoe e i?ei?yoaee a aeiiaoieo oaeieeao. Iie oi?yoaee ia iiiai, ia iaei – ieiei 80 i?ae?aniuo ecaeaeee ?aiian?aaeiaaaeiauo thaaee?ia. N?aaee ieo e cieioi, e na?aa?i, e naiioeaaou.Ecaeaeey ec cieioa. Ianea ia eeoei ec oiieiai eenoa. *a?ou eeoea iaia/aiu noaiaoe/ii. Oe?ieee ?io n oiieeie aoaaie. Ieiaeaeaaeaeiua aeaca ec na?aeieeea cae?aieaiu oiieie eaioi/eie cieioa, i?eiayiiie ?aa?ii e iniiaa.Ino?ue i?yiie iin naeaeai ec ioaeaeueiiai eenoa e oiaea i?eiayi. Ia iino e uaeao i?ieieaie ecia?aaeaiu o?e aei/eiaeaeiua «aea?aaa aeecie» (eieoaoeey oaooe?iaee). Ii e?ayi ianee eiathony ioaa?noey aeey e?aieaiey. Aan 61,49 a. E?oaeiaeiiiay oiieinoaiiay e?oaeea n ioiaiooui aai/eeii. ?o/ea i?ee?aieaia e noaieai i?e iiiiue e?oaeuo caeeaiie. Aeii i?eiayii. Aan 60,31 a.Aeaa niaa?oaiii iaeeiaeiauo ia?noiy. Eieueoei – oiieay cieioay eaioa, ia eioi?oth n aiaoiae noi?iiu iaiayiu ?aeueaoii «aa?aai/ee» ec aeaoo ia?aaeouo i?iaiei/ae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie ?aciauaia «nie?aeue» ec ne?o/aiiie eaioi/ee. Ueoie ia?noiy ninoieo ec o?ao /anoae: oeaio?aeueiue iaaeueiue, e?oiiue, n aeaoo noi?ii e iaio i?eiueatho iaeaiueeea e?oaeua anoaaee ec a?aiaoia, cae?aieaiiuo a aiacaeao ec aa?oeeaeueii iaiayiiuo eaioi/ae. Aie?oa aiacae iaiaeee ec ca?ie. Aan 18,5 a.Iaaeaeueii, iniiaaieai eioi?iai neoaeeo iaaeueiay ieanoeiea. A iai iia?oaeiia ecia?aaeaiea aeaiueiu iiiaieieaeiiai iaeeea. Aieinu ?an/anaiu ia i?yiie i?iai?. Iaeaaeaea n oe?ieeie ioai?ioaie e aeoaieei aeaeieueoa. Aa?aeueao eniieiai ec aeaoo oi?ioi i?eaiaiiuo eoneia a?aiaoa e ie?oaeai oe?ieei iaiaeeii, ?acaeaeaiiui ia ioaeaeueiua aiacaea n anoaaeaie ec a?aiaoa. A oanoe ianoao e iaaeaeueiio e?aieeinue iaea?aeuea, ninoaaeaiiia ec ioaeaeueiuo caaiueaa. Eaaeaeia caaii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noeeeciaaiiue eeno aea?aaa, naeaeaiiue ec y?eiai a?aiaoa e ii?aaeaiiue cieioii. Aan 65,52 a. Ii?a iaeiniuo iiaeaanie, eaaeaeay ninoieo ec o?ao /anoae: aeaoo iieuo oa?eeia e iieooa?ey n ie?aieaeaeueiuie iiaeaaneaie. Iiaa?oiinoue oa?eeia iie?uoa ie?oaeuie e ainueia?eiia?aciuie iaiayiiuie oci?aie ec i?iaieiee. Aan 29,3 a.( Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.30-32).Anao, eoi ciaeii n o?aaeeoeeiiiui eneonnoaii eu?aucneeo thaaee?ia, ii?aaeaei iaeeea e ?aciiia?acea ecaeaeee ec na?aa?a. A ia noieue oae aeaeaeii i?ioeii a aa?ieoo? oe?aoaiee ninoiyoaeueiie ee?aecee aoiaeeee eieueoea (oaeae), a?aneaou (aeea?ee), na?ueae (nieei), iiaeaanee e einai (/a/ o/ooe), ioaiaeoeu (oii/o) e ae?oaea i?aaeiaou. Na?aa?ii ieiauaaee naaeea, oe?aoaee na?oth eiiy, eiaeaiua e aea?aayiiua ninoaeu.Ia Ainoiea Eu?aucnoai ecaeaaia aue ecaanoai eae e?oiiue iinoaauee na?aa?a. Naiua e?oiiua caeaaee auee a Oaeanneie aeieeia. Iie ?ac?aaaouaaeenue aua a ia/aea iaoae y?u.Na?aa?yiuo aeae ianoa?a n?aaeiaaaeiaiai Oyiue-Oaiy aeiaeeenue auni/aeoaai ianoa?noaa. Ecaeaeey eo oeieu ia?yaeo n e?aineeie e niaaeeeneeie auniei eioe?iaaeenue ia ie?iaii ?uiea. Iaeiaei eeaaeia ecaeaeee ec na?aa?a ia oa??eoi?ee Eu?aucnoaia ia oaeeaeaiea iaei, a a Oaeanneie aeieeia e aiana ia iaia?oaeaii.A Eu?aucnoaia iaeaeaii o?e eeaaea na?aa?a a 1923 a. aeeoaeyie naea Iie?iaea, eioi?ia ?aniieaaaeinue ia ii/oiaii o?aeoa ainoi/iaa oacaeiiai ai?iaea Ieoiaea. Iaoea yoio eeaae iaeieaoiyy Ia?ey. Aue iaeaeai aia?aua a Eu?aucnoaia eeaae niaaeeeneiai na?aa?a. Eoaoei aue a?ooaaeaeiie oi?iu n ieineeie aeiii. Ia oaeea iinee-neea, ?o/ea iaoeaia?aciay, i?ee?aieaiiay e ooeiao iaeiei e e oaeea ninoaea ae?oaei eiioeii. Aunioa eoaoeia 28 ni, aan 1559 a., aieinoue 4,9 e. Ia aeia eoaoeia io/aeaiaiu e?anoiia?aciua ciaee – eeaeii ianoa?a.Aethaei e?oaeia, ieineia n aaeaa aicauoathueieny e?ayie. E iaio i?ee?aieaii eieueoei aeey oaeianoaa oaea?aeaiey aethaea. Aeeaiao? aethaea 26,6 ni, aan 703 a.E?oaeea ianneaiay n ie?oaeui aeiii. E iaio i?eiayia iiaeea a aeaea ?ano?oaa. Noaiee e?oaeee iaiiiai aiaioou. ?o/ea oeao?iay n e?oaeui iaaeaeueiiii. A iai i?ioeeueiia ecia?aaeaiea aieiau /aeiaaea aioe/iiai iaeeea. Aunioa ninoaea 8,5 ni, iaeaieueoay oe?eia 9,5 ni, aan 460 a. .( Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.32-35).Aoi?ie eeaae na?aa?a aue iaeaeai a nianai iaiau/iii ianoa – a ?onea ?aee Ao?aieiee, eioi?ay ia?anaeaao ae?aaiee ai?iae Aaeanaaoi n thaa ia naaa?. Ii aue ca?uo i?eia?ii a 300 i. E thao io e?aiinoiuo noai oeaio?aeueiuo ?acaaeei Ao?aieineiai ai?iaeeua. *anoue aai auea auiuoa aaoieie aiaeaie e nianaia aiec ii oa/aieth ?aee.Aaeanaaoineee eeaae iaoae Aeui Eueu/aa a ia?oa 1987 a. Ii naeae a Enoi?e/aneee iocae ?anioaeeee 23 oeaeuo e 270 o?aaiaioia neeoeia, aieaa 50 iaeiieia iiiao, iaaieueoia eiee/anoai iacaeii/aiiuo ecaeaeee e eiia iauei aanii 9390, 3 a. na?aa?a.Ana neeoee ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ?acia?aie, aanii e i?iaie. Iao aeaoo niaiaaeathueo ii yoei iieacaoaeyi. Iaeiiia?aciuie eo aeaeaao oi?ia: iaeia noi?iia neeoeia ieineay, a ae?oaay – noa?e/aneay. Iie iaiiieiatho ieineiauioeeoth eeico. Aeaeaeenue neeoee na?aa?a ii naiie i?eieoeaiie oaoiieiaee: a caieyiii iieo ianoa?neie iiai?ioii iiaea aeaeaee iaaeueioth eoieo aeeaiao?ii, i?eia?ii, 3o4, 5o6, 6o7 eee 8o9 ni e caeeaaee aa ?anieaaeaiiui na?aa?ii. Neeoee iieo/aeenue iai?eaeyaeiuie – n iicae?aaaoie iiaa?oiinoueth, e?ay ia?iaiua n cacoa?eiaie. Aan eo eieaaeaony io 45,4 aei 600 a.A eiioea 50-o aiaeia auei ?ac?aoaii no?ieoaeuenoai Oieoiaoeueneie AYN, a a 60-o aiaeao a ciia no?ieoaeuenoai aa ?acaa?ioeenue e?oiiua a?oaieiae/aneea ?aaiou. ?oeiaiaeee eie eaiaeeaeao enoi?e/aneeo iaoe Eniai Eiaeiiaa?aeeaa. A aeieeia Eaoiai-Othaa, eioi?ay iiaeeaaeaea /anoe/iiio caoiieaieth, auei iaiaei ae?aaieo iiaeeueieeia e n?aaeiaaaeiauo ai?iaeeu.A oiaea no?ieoaeuenoaa aue iaeaeai aeae?ino?ieoaeyie eeaae. Eeaae ninoiye ec iyoe i?aaeiaoia ec a?iicu. *aoa iieonoa?e/aneay, aai/ee iaiiiai ioiaioo, aunioa 10,8 ni, aeeaiao? 21,6 ni. Caiaoia aieueoay o?aueia ia e?aa. Any aiaoiyy iiaa?oiinoue /aoe caiieiaia aiaaoui ainoi/iui i?iaiaioii, ?aciauaiiui a aeanyoe ai?eciioaeueiuo iieinao e /aou?ao iaaeaeueiiao. *aoaa?oay naa?oo iieina – e?aneaay aycue a?aaneie iaaeiene, eioi?ay aeaneo: «E n/anouea, aeaaiiieo/ea, e n/anouea, e n/anouea».*aoa oie aea oi?iu, ii iaiueoa a aeeaiao?a. Aieueoay /anoue aeia aueiiaia. Noaiee a ioee/ea io ia?aie /aoe oe?aoaiu i/aiue aaaeii. Iioea i?iaiaioa i?eieoeaiue: ?yae e?oaeeia n oi/eie, iiiauaiiuo iaaeaeo aeaoiy ia?aeeaeueiuie aua?aae?iaaiiuie eeieyie.Iiaenoaaea – eieueoei ia o?ao iiaeeao. Aunioa aa 8 ni, aeeaiao? 18,7 ni. Eeoua. Aa?o oe?ieiai eieueoea eiaao oanoue oeao?iuo aunooiia a aeaea o?eeenoieea. Ia ieo aua?aae?iaai ?anoeoaeueiue i?iaiaio. Iiaeee ioeeou a aeaea caa?eiuo eai, eioi?ua aai/aao aieiaea e?ooi?iaiai aa?aia. .( Iie?uiei A.I.Ieineeo A.I no?.56-86).O?aaiaio eieueoea io oaeie aea iiaenoaaee n iaeiei aunooiii-o?eeenoieeii, caiieiaiiui ?anoeoaeueiui i?iaiaioii.Eoaoei, ooeiai a?ooaaeaeiia ia eiie/aneie iiaenoaaea. Oaeea aunieay, ainueiea?aiiay, caeai/eaaaony oa?iaeaeiui ?anoe?aieai n i?eiiaeiyoui aeeeiiui iineeii-neeaii. Ia ooeiaa eooe/aneei o?eooii a?acaia iiaeienue ianoa?a: «Naeaeae Aoiaae».Aunioa eoaoeia 25 ni, ?o/ea e e?uoea aueiiaiu, aeii ioiayeinue, ia noaieao ninoaea aiyoeiu e o?aueiu.A yeniiceoeee e a oiiaeao ?anioaeeeaineiai Enoi?e/aneiai iocay eiathony ianeieueei aiaaoi i?iaiaioe?iaaiiuo /ao, nooiee, /anoe a?iiciauo naaoeeueieeia.Ia ai?iaeeua Ao?aia iaeaeai iieiue eiiieaeo ianneaiiai a?iiciaiai naaoeeueieea. Aa iouneaee ia ai?iaeeua «Eocia/iay e?aiinoue». Naaoeeueiee ia o?ao iiaeeao. Iieonoa?e/aneee ninoae, iieiyueeny ia ?iaao o?ao eiceia (aa?aiia) – ae?aaiyy e oaeeaeoaeueii noieeay o?aaeeoeey Naie?a/uey. Oae, ia ica?a Ennue-Eoeue aue iaeaeai a?iiciaue eioae, iiaeeaie eioi?iai neoaeeee o?e iia?oaeiuo ecia?aaeaiey ?iaaouo a?oa?ia. Eioae aue ioeeo a V-III aa. aei i.y.A n?aaeiaaaeiauo ai?iaeao Naaa?iiai Eu?aucnoaia iiaeiaiay iiaeaeue aiieiuaia a oa??aeioa. Iai ecaanoia na?ey naaoeeueieeia-aoaoieeia, o eioi?uo ?aca?aoa? iiaeaea?aeeaaaony ?iaaie o?ao eiceia (ai?iaeeua Eeth/aaneia, «Eocia/iay e?aiinoue»). Oaeea naaoeeueieee auee «a iiaea» a VI-IX aa.Ocaaineee eeaae. Iaeaeai i?e oicyenoaaiiuo ?aaioao a iaeiii ec ee/iuo iiaeai?ee a a.Ocaaia. Aauae auei i/aiue iiiai: /aoe, eoaoeiu, naaoeeueieee, iiaeiinu, o?aiiae, oacu e iiiaia ae?oaia.2. IAOAEEO?AE*ANEIA I?IECAIAeNOAI YIIOE A?IICUAeaiiue ?acaeae iiaeaioiaeai ia iniiaa o?oaea Aeaaoy?aaie A.Ae. (Aecoaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee iicaieyao a iaueo /a?oao iaiaoeoue noaio oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey e ooi/ieoue a ?yaea neo/aaa ooieoeeiiaeueiia iacia/aiea i?oaeee o?oaea. Iainiiaaiiua oaoiieiae/aneea auaiaeu iiaoo auoue iieo/aiu oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa ni/aoaiey ii?oieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey n aeaiiuie no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca.Iaoiaee/aneea i?eioeeiu iaoaeeia?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca ?acia?aiu ii oeiai iaoaeea, eniieueciaaaoeony a yiioo iicaeiae a?iicu: /enoay iaaeue, ieiayiiay a?iica, eiiieaeniay ieiayiii-naeioeiaay a?iica, iuoueyeiaay a?iica. I?e ?anoeo?iaea iee?ino?oeoo? ae?aaieo a?iiciauo e iaaeiuo ecaeaeee iaie eniieueciaaeenue naaaeaiey i oa?aeoa?a e naienoaao nieaaia, aoeanu iee?ino?oeoo? iaoaeeiaaae/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, a oaeaea yoaeiiu iee?ino?oeoo?, iieo/aiiua I.A.?uiaeeiie e E.A.?aae/. Iaoiaee/aneea i?eioeeiu iee?ino?oeoo?iiai enneaaeiaaiey ae?aaiae iaaee iiae?iaii inaauaiu I.A.?uiaeeiie i?e eco/aiee o?eiieueneiai iaoaeea e ecaeaeee eoeueoo?u Aoiaeueieoea. Ieiayiiua, iei-ayiii-naeioeiaua, iuoueyeiaua a?iicu ioiinyony e /eneo nieaaia, ia?aie/aiii i?eiaiyaiuo a nia?aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iiyoiio a oaoie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a niaea?aeaony eeoue naiua iauea naaaeaiey i no?oeoo?ao a?iic. A nayce n yoei, eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiaa cia/aiea aeey ?aeiino?oeoeee ae?aaieo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia eiatho i?aaei?eiyoua a 80-a aiaea enneaaeiaaiey E.A.?aae/ ii ni caeaieth yoaeiiia ieiayiiuo e ieiayiii-naeioeiauo a?iic (1983, 1984), I.A.?uiaeeiie e E.A.?aae/ - ii nicaeaieth yoaeiiia iee?ino?oeoo? iuoueyeiauo a?iic e /enoie iaaee (1984, 1985) (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.6-7).Iaaeii?oaeiay aaca Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee e naeaeaoaeuenoaa aa eniieueciaaiey a yiioo iicaeiae a?iicuA ia?aii ?acaeaea aeaau a e?aoeie oi?ia aeaaony oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee. Ae?aaiaa ianaeaiea Eacaonoaia ?aniieaaaei cia/eoaeueiuie nu?ueaauie ?ano?naie eae iaaee, oae e ieiaa. A yiioo a?iicu ?ac?aaaouaaeenue e?oiiua caeaaee Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia - Aeaeaceacaaineea e Oniaineea ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Eniieueciaaeenue oaeaea iaaeiua e iieeiaoaeee/aneea ?oaeu Naaa?iiai, Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia, Ioaiaeaea?neea ianoi?iaeaeaiey. ?ac?aaioea naaa?iee?aecneeo iieeiaoaeee/aneeo caeaaeae a yiioo a?iicu i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeiaa?iyoiie a nayce n iaaaeiaiiinoueth ?oaeiuo oae iaaeueth. A ea/anoaa ianiiiaiiuo enoi/ieeia ieiaa a yiioo iicaeiae a?iicu aunooiaee ieiai?oaeiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi ieiai aeiauaaeinue e ia oa??eoi?ee Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia.Neaaeu iaoaeeo?ae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe auyaeaiu i?e enneaaeiaaiee iaiyoieeia Naaa?iiai e Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia.Ianoiue oa?aeoa? iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaai i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ianniauie iaoiaeeaie eaiaiiuo e aeeiyiiuo eeoaeiuo oi?i, oa?aeoa?enoeea eioi?uo iinayuai o?aoee ?acaeae aeaau.Noaoenoe/aneay ia?aaioea aeaiiuo niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca iaoaeee/aneiai eiaaioa?y Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee iicaieeea iainiiaaoue au/eaiaiea iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo a?oii iaaee e a?iic. A /aoaa?oii ?acaeaea auaeaeaiu 4 iaoaeeo?ae/aneea a?oiiu: ieiayiiie, eiiieaeniie iei-ayiii-naeioeiaie, iuoueyeiaie a?iic, "/enoie" iaaee. A?oiia ieiayiiuo a?iic yaeyaony /eneaiii i?aiaeaaeathuae. E iae ioiinyony 73,4% i?aaeiaoia, eco/aiiuo niaeo?iaiaeeoe/anee. Eiioeaio?aoeee ieiaa iaoiaeyony a i?aaeaeao io I aei 25%. Iino?iaiea /anoioiie aenoia?aiiu eiioeaio?aoeee i?eianae ieiaa iicaieeea auyaeoue iyoue iiaea?oii a a?oiia ieiayiiie a?iicu. A auaeaeaiiuo iiaea?oiiao eiioeaio?aoeee ieiaa iaoiaeyony a neaaeothueo eioa?aaeao: 1-6 %, 6-12 %, 12-18 %, 18-22 %, 24-26 %. Aieueoeinoai i?aaeiaoia - 76,5 % ecaioiaeaii ec a?iicu, eaae?iaaiiie ieiaii a eiee/anoaao 1-12% (I e II iiaea?oiiu). A?iicu oaeiai ninoaaa eiatho oi?iooth ieanoe/iinoue a ni/aoaiee n aunieie oaa?aeinoueth. Aeiey inoaeueiuo o?ao iiaea?oii (III, IV, V) ninoaaeyea oieueei 22,6 % io iauaai eiee/anoaa ieiayiiuo a?iic. Yoe a?iicu yaeythony i?aeiouanoaaiii eeoaeiui iaoa?eaeii, aeey ieo auea aeiionoeia oieueei ai?y/ay aeaoi?iaoeey iaoaeea i?e oneiaee i?iaaaeaiey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiiiaaiecaoeeiiiiai ioaeeaa. Eae aeaeii ec yoeo aeaiiuo, i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaaeinue a?iicai n niaea?aeaieai ieiaa 1-12 %. Yoi aucuaaeinue iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eiaoue a naiai ?anii?yaeaiee iaoa?eae, iaeaaeathuee ia oieueei oi?ioeie eeoaeiuie naienoaaie e aunieie oaa?aeinoueth, ii oaeaea aeinoaoi/iie ieanoe/iinoueth e eiaeinoueth.(Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.7-9).A?oiia ieiayiii-naeioeiauo a?iic iaiiiai/eneaiia, a aa ninoaaa 7,2% i?aaeiaoia, i?iaiaeece?iaaiiuo niaeo?aeueii. Iaoaee ecaeaeee a?oiiu eaae?iaai ieiaii a i?aaeaeao 3,5-14 % e naeioeii 1,2-10 %. A?oiia iuoueyeiauo a?iic ian/eouaaao anaai 5 ecaeaeee. Iuoueye a ninoaaa iaoaeea ecaeaeee niaea?aeeony a eiee/anoaao 1-2,5 %. A ninoaaa a?oiiu "/enoie" iaaee 32 i?aaeiaoa (11,4 % io iauaai /enea i?iaiaeece?iaaiiuo ecaeaeee). Ii oa?aeoa?o eniieuecoaiuo nieaaia iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaa i?iecaiaenoai Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee ioee/aaony io nii?aaeaeueiuo eoeueoo?. Oae, a iaoaeea n?oaiie eoeueoo?u, ii aeaiiui A.I.*a?iuo, iniiaiuie iaoaeeo?ae/aneeie a?oiiaie yaeyeenue aeaa -no?ueiyii-iuoueyeiaie a?iicu e "/enoie" iaaee, a a?oiia ieiayiiie a?iicu ian/eouaaea anaai 28,7 % i?aaeiaoia io iauaai eiee/anoaa i?iaiaeece?iaaiiuo ecaeaeee. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oeiii nieaaia a iaoaeea ea?anoeneie eoeueoo?u yaeyeny nieaa iaaee n iuoueyeii, nii?aaee/anee iiyaeyeny o?ieiie nieaa iaaeue-iuoueye-ieiai, ano?a/aeenue ecaeaeey ec /enoie iaaee (I.O.Na?aaaaa). A thaeiuo caieaaeaeue/aneeo eoeueoo?ao N?aaeiae Acee i?aiaeaaeaee i?aaeiaou ec iuoueyeiaie a?iicu, a oi a?aiy eae a iaiyoieeao noaiiiai e?oaa N?aaeiae Acee auea auniea aeiey ieiayiiuo a?iic - aei 88 % a oacaaaaueyaneii i/aaa iaoaeeo?aee.Oeiieiaey iaoaeee/aneiai eiaaioa?yI?e i?iaaaeaiee oeiieiae/aneiai /eaiaiey eniieueciaaeenue i?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu, au?aaioaiiua A.I.*a?iuo ia iaoa?eaeao Aieai-O?aeuey, Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey e Aieaa?ee. Nooue eo naiaeeeanue e onoaiiaeaieth oao eee eiuo aeeooa?aioee?othueo i?eciaeia, eo ni/aoaieth e iiaoi?yaiinoe a ?yaea ecaeaeee.A aeeieiiiie ?aaioa ?anniio?aia oeiieiaey e ciia ?ani?ino?aiaiey auaeaeaiiuo oeiia i?oaeey o?oaea - aeneiiaooiuo oiii?ia, eaeueoiia?aciuo iieioeia, aooeue/aouo, aeaeia/aouo, eiiueaaeaeiuo, i?yiieacaeeiuo aeieio, oanae n onooiaie, oanae n eiaiui ooeii, na?iia, iaeiieacaeeiuo e aeaoeacaeeiuo iiaeae, a?eoa, ieioeaoia, i?iaieieeia, oeeueaa, e?th/eia, eae. Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea auyaeaiu oeiu e onoaiiaeaia oa??eoi?ey eo ?ani?ino?aiaiey n?aaee i?aaeiaoia aii?oaeaiey. O/oaiu aooeue/aoua e /a?aoeiaua iaeiia/ieee eiiee, eeiaeaeu, naee?u, aoiee, aooeue/aoua e /a?aoeiaua iaeiia/ieee no?ae. O?aoee ?acaeae aeaau iinayuai auaeaeaieth oeiia oe?aoaiee - ca?eae, a?aneaoia, aoeaaie, na?aa, aon, aeyoae, iiaeaanie (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.10-12).I?e ?anniio?aiee aaia?aoe/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey eco/aaiuo oeiia iaoaeee/aneiai eiaaioa?y, a ea/anoaa niaoeeoe/iuo oieueei aeey enneaaeoaiiai ?aaeiia oi?i ecaeaeee auaeaeaiu: oiii?u aeneiiaooiua n a?aaai, iieioee eaeueoiia?aciua, oanea n onooiaie, na?iu-eina?e n i?yiie iyoeie, iiaee iaeiieacaeeiua n i?yiie auaeaeaiiie ?oeiyoueth, iaeiia/ieee eiiee n iiiaia?aiiui onooiii-oii?ii o iniiaaiey /a?aoea, no?aeu aooeue/aoua n aunooiathuae e ne?uoie aooeeie, eaaae?aoiua ca?eaea.Aianoa n oai, a eiaaioa?a Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee au/eaiaia a?oiia i?oaeee o?oaea e i?oaeey, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey anae iauiinoe eoeueoo? aaeeeiaie ea?aieee. Iniaaiii io/aoeeai noiaenoai ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeiia eiaaioa?y i?iyaeyaony aeey i/aaia iaoaeeiia?aaioee a i?aaeaeao ainoi/iie e eiioaeoiie cii eoeueoo? aaeeeiaie ea?aieee, auaeaeaiiuo A.I.*a?iuo. E /eneo oaeeo iaueo oeiia eiaaioa?y iiaeii ioianoe aeaeia/aoua, eiiueaaeaeiua, i?yiieacaeeiua aooeue/aoua aeieioa, a?eoau iaaeueii-ona/aiiie oi?iu n eieueoeaaui iaieuaii o iniiaaiey /a?aiea, aooeue/aoua eiiuey n i?i?acyie, /a?aoeiaua iaeiia/ieee eiiee a eieueoeaaui oii?ii o iniiaaiey /a?aoea, a?aneaou ie?oaei-auioeeua a na/aiee.Auaeaeaia a?oiia oe?aoaiee e i?oaeey, eioi?ua iiyaeeenue aua o ianaeaiey aeaeoeueneie eoeueoo?u e i?iaeieaeaee auoiaaoue a yiioo iicaeiae a?iicu n iaeioi?uie aeaeieciaiaieyie. E yoie a?oiia ioianaiu aeyoee ie?oaeua, auioeei-aiaiooua, n eiioeaio?e/aneeie ie?oaeiinoyie, e?anoiia?aciua iaeeaaeee, aonu ?acee/iuo oeiia, a?aneaou ie?oaei-auioeeua a na/aiee, aooeue/aoua iaeiia/ieee no?ae. (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.13-15).Acaeiiano?a/aaiinoue oeiia eiaaioa?y a iaiyoieeao iicaeiae a?iicu Eacaonoaia e Neae?e iicaieeea i?eaeoe e iaeioi?ui auaiaeai ioiineoaeueii o?iiieiae/aneiai niioiioaiey iaoaeea oaaei?ianeie eoeueoo?u e eiaaioa?y iicaeiae a?iicu Eacaonoaia. A oaaei?ianeeo iia?aaaieyo, a oaeaea a iaiyoieeao /a?iiica?nei-oiineiai aa?eaioa aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe n neeueiui oaaei?ianeei aeeyieai iaia?oaeaiu iiaee aeaoeacaeeiua n ?iiae/aneei ia?ae?anoeai, na?iu n cae?aeiaie-ai?oeeaie, aooeue/aoay no?aea n oeiii, e?oaeia ca?eaei n iaoaeueeie, na?ueae n ?ano?oaaie, ieanoei/aoua eieueoea n ianiieioouie ieii/aieyie. A oi aea a?aiy yoe oi?iu iaeaeaiu a eeaaeao e iia?aaaieyo Oeaio?aeueiiai, Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia e Naie?a/uey ia?eiaea OI-1O aa. aei i.y. Yoe oaeou naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i neio?iiiinoe iaiyoieeia oaaei?ianeie eoeueoo?u e eiiieaenia iicaeiae a?iicu Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oi/ea c?aiey ia ioiineoaeueii iicaeiae aeaoe?iaea - iineaaeiea aaea II oun. - ia/aei I oun. aei i.y. - iaiyoieeia Oaaei?ianeie.Oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeeeEacaonoaia e Ee?aecee?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey iaoaeee/aneiai eiaaioa?y naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aunieie oaoie/aneie eoeueoo?a iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ai anai ia?iiiii ?aaeiia i?iyaeyaony aaeeiiia?acea a eniieueciaaiee i?eaiia ia?aaioee iaoaeea. Niaethaeaaiia niioaaonoaea ?aaeeiia oa?ie/aneie e iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee ninoaao nieaaia yaeyaony iieacaoaeai iioeiaeueiinoe oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeee. I?e iee?ino?oeoo?iii enneaaeiaaiee auyaeaiu neaaeothuea aa?eaiou oaoiieiae/aneeo noai ecaioiaeaiey eiaaioa?y: I. eeouea aac aei?aaioee; 2. eeouea n iacia/eoaeueiie aei?aaioeie anaai ei?iona ioeeaee eee oieueei eacaeeiie e?iiee (noaiaie iaaeaoey 20-40 %); 3. eeouea n iacia/eoaeueiie aei?aaioeie anaai ei?iona ecaeaeey (noaiaie iaaeaoey 20-40 50 e nouanoaaiiie n iaeiia?aiaiiui oi?i/iaieai eiaeie ?aai/ae /anoe (noaiaie iaaeaoey 70-80 %) 4. neiaeiia eeouea n aeieeaeie iaaa?oee e neeueiie eocia/iie aei?aaioeie eacaeeiie /anoe (noaiaie iaaeaoey 80-90 %) 5. eeouea caaioiaee n iineaaeothuae oi?iiia?acothuae eiaeie anae ioeeaee (noaiaie iaaeaoey 70-100 %).(Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.15-17).Ei??aeyoeey i?eciaeia: oei ecaeaeey - iaoaeeo?ae/aneay a?oiia - aa?eaio oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu, iieacaea, /oi niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo ieie iaaethaeaaony a naiuo iaueo /a?oao, a ?aieao eaoaai?ee - i?oaeey o?oaea, i?aaeiaou aii?oaeaiey, oe?aoaiey.A ia?aii ?acaeaea aeaau ?anniio?aiu ?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey i?oaeee O?oaea. Iaoaeeia?aoe/aneiio aiaeeco iiaeaa?aiooi 76 ecaeaeee, a /enea eioi?uo aeneiiaooiua oiii?u, eaeueoiia?aciue iieioie, aeaeia/aoua, eiiueaaeaeiua, i?yiieacaeeiua aeieioa, ieieaoth?iua aeieioa n eeoie e eiaaiie aooeeie, coaeei, oanea n onooiaie, oanei n eiaiui ooeii, na?i-eina?ue n e?theii, na?iu-eina?e n i?yiie iyoeie, na?iu n cae?aeiaie-ai?oeeaie, iiaee iaeiieacaeeiua, a?eoau, ieioeao, i?iaieieee, oeeuey, e?th/ee. ?aoeaioo?a nieaaia, ea eioi?uo ecaioiaeaiu i?oaeey o?oaea, oa?aeoa?ecoaony au?aaeaiiie noaaeeueiinoueth e noaiaea?oiinoueth. Ecaeaeey ioeeou i?aeiouanoaaiii ec ieiayiiie a?iicu (60 ec 76 i?oaeee o?oaea). I?e yoii eniieueciaaeenue a iniiaiii ieiayiiua a?iicu I e I iiaea?oii (1-12 % ieiaa; 51 ecaeaeea ec 60). Oaeie iiaeai? eeaaoo?u aue iaeaieaa oaea/iui, oae eae a?iic iiaeiaiiai ninoaaa ioee/athony ia oieueei aunieie oaa?aeinoueth, aeeaeeioaeo/anoueth, ii iaeiia?aiaiii e oi?ioae ieanoe/iinoueth i?e aeaoi?iaoeee. Iineaaeiaa ianoiyoaeuenoai eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea, o/eouaay oi, /oi i?oaeey o?oaea iinea iieo/aiey ioeeaie iaycaoaeueii iiaeaa?aaeenue aeiiieieoaeueiie aei?aaioea. A?iicu n niaea?aeaieai ieiaa 12-26 % (III-V iiaea?oiiu), eiathuea iiieaeaiioth eiaeinoue, eniieueciaaeenue i?e ecaioiaeaiee i?oaeee o?oaea a aaeeie/iuo neo/ayo.I?oaeey o?oaea ecaioiaeaiu ii /aou?ai aa?eaioai oaoiieiae/aneeo noai - 1-3,5. Ia?aue aa?eaio eniieueciaaeny e?aeia ?aaeei, ioia/ai anaai a aeaoo neo/ayo (eiiuoiia?aciue iieioie, iiae). Oaeaea ?aaeei i?eiaiyeny e aoi?ie aa?eaio oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu. Ii caoeene?iaai a 9 neo/ayo (na?i n e?theii, oiii?ee n iieioi/eiia?aciui iaooii, iiae n "oainoii", oanei n onooiii, ieioeao, oeeuey). Iniiaiay ianna i?oaeee o?oaea ecaioiaeaia ii o?aoueaio aa?eaioo oaoiieiaee (45 ecaeaeee). Aieueoeinoai iaeeeo i?oaeee o?oaea ianeiaeiuo oi?i - oeeuey, e?th/ee, ieieaoth?iua aeieioa e iaeei iiae ecaioaaeeaaeenue ii 5 aa?eaioo.I?e eeouea ecaeaeee eniieueciaaeenue iaeiinoi?iiiea n ieineeie e?uoeaie, aeaonoi?iiiea, o?aoninoaaiua eeoaeiua oi?iu. Ioeeaee i?iecaiaeeeenue a aeeiyiuo, eaiaiiuo, iaoaeee/aneeo eeoaeiuo oi?iao. Iieo/aiiua ioeeaee, eae i?aaeei, iiaeaa?aaeenue eocia/iie aei?aaioea. Eiaea auea iai?aaeaia ia oaeaeaiea ii?ieia eeouey i?e iacia/eoaeueiuo noaiaiyo iaaeaoey iaoaeea anaai ei?iona ecaeaeee. Aieaa ouaoaeueii auea aei?aaioea ?aai/ae /anoe, aaea iia nii?iaiaeaeaeanue noaiaiyie iaaeaoey iaoaeea ii?yaeea 70-80 %. A i?ioeanna auoyaeee e caino?aiey eacaeeiuo ieii/aiee i?ienoiaeeei e eo iaeiia?aiaiiia oi?i/iaiea. (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.17-19).Aei?aaioea ieiayiiuo a?iic a aieueoeinoai neo/aaa i?iaiaeeeanue ii ai?y/aio iaoaeeo i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 600-700° (70 % i?oaeee o?oia, ecaioiaeaiiuo ec ieiayiiuo a?iic). Oieiaeiay eiaea iinea eeouey ioia/aia oieueei a iaeiii neo/aa, oieiaeiay eiaea n i?iiaaeooi/iuie ioaeeaaie - o 27 % ecaeaeee. I?oaeey o?oaea, aeaoi?ie?iaaiiua aoieiaeioth, a iniiaiii eiaee ieceia niaea?aeaiea ieiaa a i?aaeaeao 1-6 % . Iiaeiaiue auai? oaiia?aoo?iuo ?aaeeiia yaeyaony oaoiieiae/anee ii?aaaeaiiui, iineieueeo aeaaea iaaieueoea noaiaie iaaeaoay ieiayiiuo a?iic aucuaatho cia/eoaeueiia oi?i/iaiea iaoaeea. A nayce n yoei, iaaei auei i?eaaaaoue e /anoui ioaeeaai aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey ieanoe/iinoe iaoaeea. Iioeiaeueiinoue e noaaeeueiinoue ia?aaioee a?iic i?iyaeeanue oaeaea a eniieueciaaiee niaoeeaeueiiai i?eaia oa?iiia?aaioee ieiayiiuo a?iic - ioaeeaa aiiiaaiecaoeee. Aai neaaeu iaia?oaeaiu a iee?ino?oeoo?a 10 ecaeaeee, niaea?aeaueo a ninoaaa iaoaeea i?eianue ieiaa io 7 aei 25 %. Ioaeea i?iaiaeeeny i?e oaiia?aoo?a 700° n auaea?aeeie i?e yoie oaiia?aoo?a ia iaiaa /ana e iieiaeeoaeueii neacuaaeny ia ieanoe/iinoe iaoaeea. Ioiaeaeaiiua a?iicu n 15-20 % ieiaa iiaeii auei eaaei eiaaoue aai?y/oth, a oi a?aiy eae eo oieiaeiay eiaea auea iaaiciiaeiie. (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.19-24).I?oaeey o?oaea, ioeeoua ec iuoueyeiaie a?iicu, i?ieiaaiu eee ii oieiaeiiio iaoaeeo eee aoieiaeioth n i?iiaaeooi/iuie ioaeeaaie. Eocia/iay eiaea iaaeiuo ecaeaeee inouanoaeyeanue a iniiaiii a ?aaeeiao iaiieiie oieiaeiie - 134-405° eee iaiieiie ai?y/ae - 405-676°eiaee.Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aeaau eceaaathony ?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey i?aaeiaoia aii?oaeaiey. Eieeaeoeey i?aaeiaoia aii?oaeaiey, eco/aiiay iaoaeeia?aoe/anee, ian/eouaaao 26 ecaeaeee, a /enea eioi?uo aooeue/aoua e /a?aoeiaua iaeiia/ieee eiiee, eeiaeaeu, aooeue/aoua iaeiia/ieee no?ae. I?e ecaioiaeaiee i?oaeey i?iyaeyeanue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue, a iiaeai?a eeaaoo?u aeey yoie eaoaai?ee ecaeaeee. A iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa eniieueciaaeanue aunieiieiayiiay a?iica II-V iiaea?oii n niaea?aeaieai ieiaa 7-25 % (a 24 ea 26 ecaeaeee). D aeaoo neo/ayo i?eiaiaia eiiieaeniay ieiayiii-naeioeiaay eeaaoo?a. Eniieueciaaiea aunieiieiayiiie eeaaoo?u nouanoaaiii aeeyei ia oaa?aeinoue i?oaeey, cia/eoaeueii iiauoay aa. O yoie eaoaai?ee i?aaeiaoia iaeaieaa aunieea iieacaoaee iee?ioaa?aeinoe - 180-295 ea/ea.ii . I?oaeea ecaioaaeeaaeinue ii /aou?ai aa?eaioai oaoiieiae/aneeo noai - 1-4. Iniiaiay ianna i?aaeiaoia aii?oaeaiey iieo/aia ii aoi?iio aa?eaioo oaoiieiae/aneeo noai. Ia?aue e o?aoee aa?eaiou i?eiaiyeenue ?aaeei (ia?aue - a aeaoo neo/ayo, o?aoee - a /aou?ao). Ii /aoaa?oiio aa?eaioo oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiu oieueei eeiaeaeu II Ea?aeieueneiai eeaaea. I?aaeiaou aii?oaeaiey iieo/aee ioeeaeie a aeaonoi?iiieo oi?iao. Aaaeiia cia/aiea i?e yoii eiaei eniieueciaaiea ia?yaeo n aeeiyiuie e eaiaiiuie, iaoaeee/aneeo eeoaeiuo oi?i. Eieeeueiia eeouea aeaaaei ioeeaee n aieueoae ieioiinoueth, eo/oae ?acia?iie oi/iinoueth e /enoioie iiaa?oiinoe. Eiay aeaei n ia?aaioeie aunieiieiayiiuo a?iic, n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey aieueoae ieanoe/iinoe iaoaeea i?aeoeeiaaeny ioaeea aiiiaaiecaoeee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 700-800° e auaea?aeea i?e yoie oaiia?aoo?a ia iaiaa /ana. Neaaeu i?iaaaeaiey yoiai i?eaia oa?iiia?aaioee caoeene?iaaiu a iee?ino?oeoo?ao II ecaeaeee. Oaeaea eae e i?e aei?aaioea i?oaeee o?oaea i?oaeea i?aaeii/eoaee eiaaoue aai?y/oth (15 i?aaeiaoia), cia/eoaeueii ?aaea eiaaee aoieiaeioth n i?iiaaeooi/iuie ioaeeaaie (4 ecaeaeey) e nianai ?aaeei aoieiaeioth (2 ecaeaeey). (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.24-26).A o?aoueai ?acaeaea ?anniao?eaaaony oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey oe?aoaiee. Iee?ino?oeoo?iia enneaaeiaaiea i?ioee 44 ecaeaeey - ca?eaea, a?aneaou, aoeaaee, na?ueae, aonu, aeyoee, eieueoea. Oe?aoaiey iieo/aiu ii 1-3, 5 aa?eaioai oaoiieiae/aneeo noai. Ii ia?aiio aa?eaioo ecaioiaeaiu eieueoea e aonu ec no?ueiu. Aoi?ie e o?aoee aa?eaiou oaoiieiaee eniieueciaaeenue a ?aaiie ia?a i?e ecaioiaeaiee ca?eae, aoeaaie, aeyoae n iaoaeueeie eee oiaiueeii, e?anoiia?aciie iaeeaaeee. Ia?a/eneaiiua oe?aoaiey iieo/aiu eeoueai a iaeiinoi?iiieo n ieineeie e?uoeaie, aeaonoi?iiieo, o?aoninoaaiuo eeoaeiuo oi?iao, a oaeaea ii oo?a/eaaaiui aineiaui iiaeaeyi. Aeey yoeo oeiia ecaeaeee eniieueciaaee a iniiaiii ieiayiioth a?iico I e I iiaea?oii (niaea?aeaiea ieiaa 1-9 %). Iieo/aaiua ioeeaee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aei?aaaouaaee ai?y/ae eiaeie. Aeey iiauoaiey ieanoe/iinoe iaoaeea i?aeoeeiaaeinue i?iaaaeaiea I?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiiiaaiecaoeeiiiiai ioaeeaa.A?aneaou, na?ueae, aonu, aeyoee ie?oaeie e i?yiioaieueiie oi?iu ecaioaaeeaaeinue ii ? aa?eaioo oaoiieiaee. A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo aeaeia nu?uey aeey yoeo oe?aoaiee eniieueciaaeenue a?iica n niaea?aeaieai ieiaa 1,2-12 % e eiiieaeniay ieiayiii-naeioeiaay a?iica n eiioeaio?aoeeae ieiaa 5-14 % e naeioea 1,6-5 %. I?aeiouanoaaiiui niiniaii oi?iiaee ecaeaeee auea eiaea ii oieiaeiiio iaoaeeo n ieceioaiia?aoo?iuie ioaeeaaie. Iiaeiaiue auai? oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia aeeeoiaaeny /anoui eniieueciaaieai aeey ecaioiaeaiey oe?aoaiee ieiayiii-naeioeiaie a?iicu. Ai?y/ay aei?aaioea a?iic n iiauoaiiuie eiioeaio?aoeeyie naeioea (aieaa 0,03 %) nii?iaiaeaeaaony yaeaieai e?aniieiieinoe iaoaeea. Oe?aoaiey n aunieei niaea?aeaieai ieiaa a ninoaaa - 9-12 % ia?aoe eiaeie iiaeaa?aaeenue ioaeeao aiiiaaiecaoeee.A /aoaa?oii ?acaeaea aeaau ?anniio?aiu ?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey iooiaeia iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuaai i?iecaiaenoaa.I/aae iaoaeeo?aee e iaoaeeiia?aaioeeOaoiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea iaoaeee/aneiai eiaaioa?y iicaieeei auyaeoue aaeeinoai oaoie/aneeo o?aaeeoeee a yiioo iicaeiae a?iicu Eacaonoaia e Ee?aecee. Aianoa n oai, a ioaeaeueiuo ?aeiiao yoiai ia?iiiiai ?aaeiia i?ineaaeaia niaoeeoeea iaoaeeiia?aaioee. Yoe ?acee/ey naycaiu n aeayoaeueiinoueth ?acee/iuo i/aaia iaoaeeo?aee e iaoaeeiia?aaioee - naaa?ieacaonoaineiai, oeaio?aeueiieacaonoaineiai, ainoi/iieacaonoaineiai e naie?a/aineiai. I?e au/eaiaiey i/aaia iu enoiaeeee ec ii?aaeaeaiee iiiyoee, au?aaioaiiuo A.I.*a?iuo. A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo i?eciaeia aeayoaeueiinoe i/aaia aunooiatho naiaia?acea iaai?a oeiia eiaaioa?y, oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eaiia iaoaeeiia?aaioee e ?aoeaioo?u nieaaia. Auaeaeyy iaoaeeo?ae/aneea i/aae, iu i?eaioe?iaaeenue a iniiaiii ia iaee/ea a?oaieiae/anee e aaieiae/anee auyaeaiiuo neaaeia iaoaeeo?aee.Naaa?ieacaonoaineee i/aa iaoaeeo?aee. I/aa eieaeeciaai a i?aaeaeao I?eoiaieuey e I?eeoeiuey. Aeayoaeueiinoue i/aaa aace?iaaeanue ia nianoaaiiuo ?oaeiuo enoi/ieeao iaaee, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo Iaaeiaea?neeie, Yeeaanoocneeie, Ioaiaeaea?neeie ianoi?iaeaeaieyie. Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i/aaa iaoaeeo?aee aeieacuaaaony a?oaieiae/anee i?ineaaeaiiuie inoaoeaie iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai i?ioeanna. Aeey i?iaeoeoeee i/aaa oa?aeoa?iu oiii?u aeneiiaooiua n a?aaiai, aooeue/aoua aeieioa, oanea n onooiaie, na?iu-eina?e n i?yiie iyoeie, a?eoau, iaeiieacaeeiua iiaee, iaeiia/ieee no?ae n aunooiathuae e ne?uoie aooeeie, aooeue/aoia eiiuea n i?i?acyie, /a?aoeiaua iaeiia/ieee eiiee, a?aneaou auioeei-aiaiooua a na/aiee, ca?eaea eaaae?aoiua, aeyoee n iaoaeueeie. E /eneo naiaia?aciuo oeiia eiaaioa?y ioiinyony eeiaeaeu eenoiaeaeiie oi?iu n au?aaeaiiie ia?ath?ie e a?eaiaeaeiui iaaa?oeai, iaeiia/ieee no?ae n aunooiathuae aooeeie e ?iiae/aneei na/aieai ia?a. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai iaeiia/ieeia eiiee n ?iiae/aneei na/aieai e eieueoeaaui oii?ii o /a?aoea i?ienoiaeeo ec yoiai ?aeiia. Ianaeaiea naaa?ieacaonoaineiai i/aaa iaoiaeeeinue a oaniuo naycyo n ieaiaiaie iicaeian?oaiie eoeueoo?u, i /?i naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iaoiaeee yaii eiii?oiuo ec iicaeian?oaiiai i/aaa iaoaeeo?aee na?iia-eina?ae n e?theii, aeaoeacaeeiiai iiaea n iaia/aiiui ia?ae?anoueai. Ae?oaia iai?aaeaiea eoeueoo? ieo naycae - ainoi/iia, n ieaiaiaie ea?anoeneie eoeueoo?u. Yoi i?iyaeeinue a ianoiuo iiae?aaeaieyo oi?iai ea?anoeneeo iaeiieacaeeiuo iiaeae n eieueoeaaui caaa?oaieai ?oeiyoe e iaoiaeea eeiaeaea n oeiaie ea?anoeneiai iaeeea.Iaoaee Naaa?iiai Eacaonoaia i?aaenoaaeai 4 iaoaeeo?ae/aneeie a?oiiaie: ieiayiiie naeioeiai-ieiayiiie, iuoueyeiaie a?iicaie, "/enoie" iaaeueth.I?aiaeaaeathueie a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee yaeythony a?oiiu ieiayiiie a?iicu - 61,4 % e "/enoie" iaaee, ninoaaeyaoae 2896. Naaa?ieacaonoaineea a?iicu a ioee/ea io oeaio?aeueiieacaonoaineeo e ainoi/iieacaonoaineeo eiatho n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieea eiioeaio?aoeee ieiaa a ninoaaa. (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.26--27).Oeaio?aeueiieacaonoaineee i/aa iaoaeeo?aee eieaeeciaai a Aeaeaceacaaineie e ia thaa Ea?aaaiaeeineie iaeanoae. I/aa ioiineony e /eneo e?oiiaeoeo a Aa?aceeneie iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iaeioeee.Ia oa??eoi?ee i/aaa a yiioo iicaeiae a?iicu auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu aooeue/aoua aeieioa - aeaeia/aoua, eiiueaaeaeiua, i?yiieacaeeiua, na?iu-eina?e, iaeiieacaeeiua iiaee, a?eoau, /a?aoeiaua iaeiia/ieee eiiee, aooeue/aoua iaeiia/ieee no?ae n aunooiathuae e ne?uoie aooeeie, aoeaaee, eaaae?aoiua ca?eaea. Naiaia?acea iaoaeeiia?aaioee a oii ?aeiia iiae/a?eeaaaony iaee/eai o?aoeiianoiuo /a?aoeiauo iaeiia/ieeia no?ae, iaeiia/ieea no?aeu n aunooiathuae aooeeie e oeiii, iaeiia/ieea no?aeu ni ne?uoie aooeeie e aa?oeeaeueiuie eiaeiuie a?eaie, o?oa/aoiai ninoaaiiai a?aneaoa, e?anoiia?aciie iaeeaaeee. Eoeueoo?iua nayce nouanoaiaaee n ianaeaieai aeianeie, e?iaineie, oaaei?ianeie, ea?anoeneie eoeueoo?.Aeey oeaio?aeueiieacaonoaineiai i/aaa iaoaeeo?aee oa?aeoa?ii oiio?aaeaiea au?aaioaiiuo noaiaea?oiuo ?aoeaioia nieaaia. A iniiaiii yoi ieiayiiua a?iicu - 62 % e iaaeue - 29 %. O?e ecaeaeey ecaioiaeaiu ec ieiayiii-naeioeiaie a?iicu. Oeaio?aeueiieacaonoaineea a?iicu a n?aaiaiee n naaa?ieacaonoaineeie e naie?a/aineeie ioee/athony aieaa aunieei niaea?aeaieai ieiaa a ninoaaa. 78 % ecaeaeee ec ieiayiiie a?iicu eiatho i?eiane ieiaa a eiee/anoaao 6-18%. I?iaaaeaiiia oaoiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea auyaeei aunieoth oaoie/aneoth eoeueoo?o iaoaeeiia?aaioee n io/aoeeai au?aaeaiiie oaiaeaioeeae e noaiaea?oecaoeee. Aeeeoaeueiue iiuo ?aaiou i?eaae e au?aaioea iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia ecaioiaeaiey iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee. I?e ecaioiaeaiee ecaeaeee eniieueciaaeenue 2,3,5 aa?eaiou oaoiieiae/aneeo noai, i?aiaeaaeathueie a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee auee 2 e 3. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ecaeaeee, a oii /enea aeaaea e iaeeea oe?aoaiey - aonu - iieo/aiu a i?ioeanna eeouey a oi?iu. I?e eeouea iaeiia/ieeia no?ae e eiiee oe?iei eniieueciaaeenue iaoaeee/aneea eeoaeiua oi?iu. Eeoua ecaeaeey aei?aaaouaaee i?aeiouanoaaiii niiniaii ai?y/ae eiaee. Eocia/iie eiaea aunieiieiayiiuo a?iic iaycaoaeueii i?aaeoanoaiaaea eo oa?iiia?aaioea - i?iaaaeaiea ioaeeaa aiiiaaiecaoeee (60 % anao ecaeaeee n niaea?aeaieai ieiaa 6-22 %). Oaeei ia?acii, iaee/ea auniei?acaeoie e noaaeeueiie oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey iaoaeee/aneiai eiaaioa?y Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia oeacuaaao ia naiinoiyoaeueiia nouanoaiaaiea iaoaeeiia?aaioee, a aeaea iainiaeaiiie ?aianeaiiie io?anee.I?e niiinoaaeaiee oeie/aneiai ninoaaa e oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eaiia ecaioiaeaiey eiaaioa?y, i?ienoiaeyuaai ec iinaeai/aneeo iaoa?eaeia e iia?aaaeueiuo eiiieaenia iieo/ai aaaeiue auaiae. Iaoaee iiaeeueieeia aaaacu-aeaiaeuaaaaneie eoeueoo?u ii niaeo?iaiaeeoe/aneei aeaiiui e no?oeoo?iui iieacaoaeyi ia auaeaeyaony ec iauae na?ee a?iiciauo e iaaeiuo ecaeaeee Eacaonoaia. I?aaiia?ai auaiae, /oi i?aaeiaou aii?oaeaiey, oe?aoaiey e i?oaeey o?oaea ec iiaeeueieeia eiatho ianoiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea e enoi?eei-eoeueoo?ii iiaoo auoue naycaiu n iinaeaieyie Oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaonoaia.I?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a oeaio?aeueii-eacaonoaineiai i/aaa iaoaeeo?aee iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia III ?aiaii ii noaia, ?ac?aaioaiiie A.I.*a?iuo. A no?oeoo?a yoiai ?aiaa i?enoonoaotho o?e y/aeee:I. ai?iye; 2. iaoaeeo?a; 3. eociaoe-eeoaeuee. Ai?iia aeaei ioaeaeaii io iaoaeeo?aee. Iaoaeeiia?aaioea oaeaea auaeaeaia a naiinoiyoaeueioth io?aneue a ?aieao iaueiiiai ?aianea. Ii anae aeaeeiinoe, iauaaeeiaiey ianoa?ia eiaee eeaiiaoth eee ieaiiai-i?iecaiaenoaaiioth oi?io. Oaeay oi?ia iauaaeeiaiee i?aaeiieaaaao, ii aeaiiui A.I.*a?iuo, oa??eoi?eaeueiia ioaeaeaiea ianoa?ia, noaiaea?oecaoeeth oeiia iaoaeee/aneiai eiaaioa?y, ?aoeaioia nieaaia, aunieee o?iaaiue oaoiieiaee iaoaeeiia?aaioee, oe?ieoth ciio nauoa. (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.27-30).Ainoi/iieacaonoaineee i/aa iaoaeeo?aee ?aniieiaeai a i?aaeaeao Onoue-Eaiaiiai?neie e Naieiaeaoeineie iaeanoae. Ia oa??eoi?ee i/aaa i?iecaiaeeeenue aeaeia/aoua aeieioa, oanea n onooiaie, na?iu-eina?e, iaeiieacaeeiua iiaee, aooeue/aoua iaeiia/ieee eiiee, iaeiia/ieee no?ae n aunooiathuae e ne?uoie aooeeie, ioeaaeaeiua iaeiia/ieee no?ae. Iniaaiiinoueth iaoaeeiia?aaioee yaeyaony ?ani?ino?aiaiea caeanue na?iia n cae?aeiaie-ai?oeeaie, aooeue/aouo iaeiia/ieeia a eiiee n oii?ii o iniiaaiey aooeee, iaeiia/ieeia no?ae n aunooiathuae aooeeie e aa?oeeaeueiuie eiaeiuie a?eaie, ioiiaeaeiiai iaeiia/ieea no?aeu n aeaoiy oeiaie, aeaoeacaeeiuo iiaeae-eeiaeaeia n ?iiae/aneei ia?ae?anoueai. O ianaeaiey Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia nouanoaiaaee eioaineaiua eiioaeou n ianaeaieai oaaei?ianeie eoeueoo?u, /a?iiica?nei-oiineiai aa?eaioa aiae?iiianeie iauiinoe, a oaeaea aeianeie, e?iaineie eoeueao?.Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth ainoi/iieacaonoaineiai i/aaa iaoaeeo?a e yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea eneeth/eoaeueii ieiayiiuo a?iic. Ec i?iaiaeece?iaaiiuo ecaeaeee oieueei iaeii ecaioiaeaii ec ieiayiii-naeioeiaie a?iicu. Ainoi/iieacaonoaineea i?oaeey o?oaea e i?aaeiaou aii?oaeaiey ioeeou a iniiaiii ec a?iiciauo nieaaia, niaea?aeaaoeo aunieea eiioeaio?aoeee ieiaa a eioa?aaea 12-26 % (75 % ecaeaeee). Oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey oaeaea ioee/aaony aaeeiiia?aceai - iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ecaeaeee iieo/aii ii 2 e 3 aa?eaioai oaoiieiaee. Eo aei?aaioea inouanoaeyeanue i iniiaiii ii ai?y/aio iaoaeeo. Ii/oe 60 % ecaeaeee ia?aae eocia/iie eiaeie iiaeaa?aeinue ioaeeao aiiiaaiecaoeee. (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.30-32).Naie?a/aineee i/aa iaoaeeiia?aaioee eieaeeciaai a Naaa?iie Ee?aecee e THai-Ainoi/iii Eacaonoaia. Aeayoaeueiinoue aai aace?iaaeanue ia i?eaiciii nu?uea, iinooiaaoai, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, ec Oeaio?aeueiiai e Ainoi/iiai Eacaonoaia. Naie?a/aineee iaoaee iai ecaanoai a iniiaiii ii eeaaeai a?iiciauo ecaeaeee. Caeanue iaia?oaeaii 12 eeaaeia, niaea?aeaaoeo nauoa 100 ecaeaeee. Ii iiaieth A.I.*a?iuo, iniiaaiiiio ia eco/aiee iaoaeea Aaeeaii-Ea?iaouey e Naaa?iiai I?e/a?iiii?uey, eeaaeu iicaeiaai a?iiciaiai aaea neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae iaiyoieee, inoaaeaiiua i?ioanneiiaeaie-eeoaeueeaie.A naie?a/aineii i/aaa iaoaeeiia?aaioee auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu oiii?u aeneiiaooiua n a?aaiai, oiii?u n aaeeeiaui ooieuaieai e?ay aooeee, aeieioa, oanea n onooiii, a?eoaa, /a?aoeiaua iaeiia/ieee eiiee, na?iu-eina?e, iaeiieacaeeiua iiaee, aooeue/aoia eiiuea n i?i?acyie, naee?a, ca?eaea e?oaeua n ?o/eie e eaaae?aoiua na?ueae n ?ano?oaii, a?aneaou auioeei-aiaiooua a na/aiee, aeyoee, eiaaiua aonu, "aena?" ec no?ueiu. Oieueei a yoii ?aeiia iaia?oaeaiu oaeea naiaia?aciua oi?iu eae eaeueoiia?aciua iieioee, eeiaeaeu n iaaa?oeyie a aeaea oeao?ie aeeaioiuo, na?iu n cae?aeiaie-ai?oeeaie e /a?aoeiaui aunooiii. A /enea naie?a/aineeo ecaeaeee i?enoonoaotho i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua aeaiiino?e?oth-!' iaee/ea oaniuo eiioaeoia n ainoi/iieacaonoaineeie ieaiaiaie, ianaeaieai oaaei?ianeie, eae?aeeoineie, /onoeie eoeueoo?.Naie?a/aineee iaoaee i?aaenoaaeai 4 iaoaeeo?ae/aneeie a?oiiaie: ieiayiiie, ieiayiii-naeioeiaie, iuoueyeiaie a?iicaie e "/enoie" iaaeueth. Naiay iiiai/eneaiiay a?oiia - ieiayiiie a?iicu, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo 88,8 % anao ecaeaeee, enneaaeiaaiiuo niaeo?aeueii. Naie?a/aineea a?iicu, oaeaea eae e naaa?ieacaonoaineea, eiatho n?aaieoaeueii iaaunieea eiioeaio?aoeee ieiaa a ninoaaa. 92 % ecaeaeee, ioeeouo ec ieiayiiuo a?iic, niaea?aeao ieiai a ninoaaa a i?aaeaeao 1-12 %.Ii aeaiiui iaoaeeia?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e ecaioiaeaiee ecaeaeee eniieueciaaeenue 1-5 aa?eaiou oaoiieiae/aneeo noai; Iaeiaei* iaeaieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyeenue 3 e 5 aa?eaiou. Niaoeeoeea iaoaeeiia?aaioee i/aaa ninoieo a oii, /oi ia?yaeo n aunieiea/anoaaiiui eeoueai a ?acuaiiua eaiaiiua e aeeiyiua oi?iu eniieueciaaeanue oe?iei eocia/iay oi?iiaea oe?aoaiee ec caaioiaie. Ecaeaeey, iieo/aiiua a i?ioeanna eeouey, iiaeaa?aaeenue aeiiieieoaeueiie aei?aaioea. Eocia/iay aei?aaioea inouanoaeyeanue eae ii ai?y/aio iaoaeeo, oae e aoieiaeioth n i?iiaaeooi/iuie ioaeeaaie. Yoa iniaaiiinoue iaoaeeiia?aaioee naie?a/aineiai i/aaa naeeaeaao aai n naaa?ieacaonoaineei. Aianoa n oai, /anoi i?aeoeeiaaeinue i?iaaaeaiea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai ioaeeaa aiiiaaiecaoeee. I?iaaaeaiiia oaoiieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea naie?a/aineiai iaoaeea auyaeei naiaia?acea eniieueciaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo noai a *oeneie, Oaeanneie aeieeiao e Ennue-Eoeueneie eioeiaeia. A *oeneie aeieeia iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ecaeaeee iieo/aii ii 3 aa?eaioo oaoiieiaey. Naiaia?acea iaoaeeiia?aaioee a *oeneie aeieeia i?iyaeeinue a i?aaeii/oeoaeueiii eniieueciaaiee ai?y/ae aei?aaioee i?aaeiaoia - 78 % ecaeaeee.Oaoiieiaey ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeee Oaeanneie aeieeiu ioee/aaony caiaoiui aaeeiiia?aceai. Ana i?aaeiaou ecaioiaeaiu ii 5 aa?eaioo oaoiieiae/aneeo noai (eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho aonu ec no?ueiu). Eiaea i?iecaiaeeeanue aoieiaeioth, a caeeth/aiea ecaeaeea iiaeaa?aaeinue ieceioaiia?aoo?iiio ioaeeao.Niaoeeoe/iinoue iaoaeeiia?aaioee a Ennue-Eoeueneie eioeiaeia iiaeii eeethno?e?iaaoue ia i?eia?a neiaeiie oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey eeiaeaeia II Ea?aeieueneiai eeaaea (4 aa?eaio oaoiieiaee). (Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae no?.32-33).Oaeei ia?acii, a ?aieao naie?a/aineiai i/aaa iaoaeeiia?aaioee auaeaeythony o?e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaio?a - *oeaeee, Oaeanneee, Ennue-Eoeueneee, a eioi?uo i?iaeoeoeey i?iecaiaeeeanue ii nianoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui eaiiiai. Iiae i?iecaiaenoaaiiui oeaio?ii iu iiieiaai aeayoaeueiinoue iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo ianoa?neeo ii i?iecaiaenoao iaoaeee/aneeo ecaeaeee n au?aaioaiiuie onoie/eauie e naiaia?aciuie oaoiieiae/aneeie noaiaie ecaioiaeaiey eiaaioa?y.Caeeth/aieaOaeei ia?acii, e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie iiaeii n/eoaoue ieii/aoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiui oaeo iaee/ey iaiyoieeia eoeueoo?u a?iiciaiai aaea ia oa??eoi?ee Eu?aucnoaia. Enneaaeiaaoaee oeacaee oaeaea /a?ou, ninoaaeythuea aa naiaia?acea. Enoi/ieeiaaae/aneay aaca i?aaenoaaeaia aeinoaoi/ii ?aciiia?acii e o?iiieiae/anee oe?iei: iinaeaiey, ianeaeueiua ?enoiee, iia?aaaiey, ai?iua au?aaioee e neo/aeiua iaoiaeee; aeaoe?oaiua io ?aiiaai aei iicaeiaai yoaia yiioe a?iicu. Aaeeinoaaiiui ieionii yaeyaony ionoonoaea eiiieaenia.Yiioa yiaieeoa ia oa??eoi?ee iaoae no?aiu iiea iaecaanoia, ca eneeth/aieai ianeieueeeo ecia?aaeaiee Naeiaeu-Oaoa.Yiioa ?aiiae a?iicu – iia?aaaiea o n. I?eai?iaeiia, a ciia caoiieaiey Eaiaa?aoeineie OYN, iiaeeueieee Oao-Othaa II e Oao-Aaoao.Yiioa iicaeiae a?iicu (ia/aei I ouny/aeaoee aei i.y.) – iiiai/eneaiiua neo/aeiua iaoiaeee ia o?anna A*E, iiaeeueieee Eaeeee-Nae, Ao?ia/ai, Aeaeacu-Ea/o, Aeaeae-A?ue, eeaaeu Noeoeoeneee, Oiieineee e o.ae.Iaoa?eaeu ec ia?a/eneaiiuo iaiyoieeia iicaieeee enneaaeiaaoaeyi aeaoue aieaa eee iaiaa iiae?iaioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo eoeueoo?u neioiaiae/aneiai ianaeaiey a?iiciaiai aaea Eu?aucnoaia. I?e/ai, i?e anae aannii?iie aeecinoe aa e eoeueoo?ai noaiiiai iaeeea THaeiie Neae?e, O?aea e Eacaenoaia, iia ana aea oyaioeo, ii iiaio iiaieth, aieueoa e iineaaeiae, ii aei neo ii? ieii/aoaeueii ia ?aoai aii?in i oii, nouanoaiaaea ee caeanue naiinoiyoaeueiay eoeueoo?a a yiioo ?aiiaa?iiciaiai aaea. A yoii ioiioaiee aieaa ynia neooaoeey aeey iicaeiaai yoaia a?iicu, eiaaea ia oa??eoi?ee Eu?aucnoaia auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu iaiyoieee eieaeueiiai aa?eaioa aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u.A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaenoaaeyaony aeooaeueiui aiciaiiaeoue ?ac?aaioeo i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n a?iiciaui aaeii Eu?aucnoaia. Yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ?anoe?aieai enoi/ieeiaaae/aneie aacu ii a?iica n oa??eoi?eyie eioa?anothuaai ian ?aaeiia (/oi ia iaoei iiea aeieaeiiai io?aaeaiey a eeoa?aoo?a), n ae?oaie oniaoaie a eco/aiee a?oaieiaee yiioe a?iicu nii?aaeaeueiuo iaeanoae THaeiie e Ainoi/iie Neae?e, I?eaaeeaeuey, Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, Eacaonoaia e ae?. Ec /enea ?aiaa iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/, ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony, caaea/a eeanneoeeaoeee e oeiieiaee iiiai/eneaiiiai iaoa?eaea yiioe iicaeiae a?iicu, enoaoe ii Eu?aucnoaio, eaeie-eeai eeanneoeeaoeee iaiyoieeia (iieaaua e eaaeiaoiua enneaaeiaaiea), e aeaeueiaeoaa eo inaauaiea a iao/iuo o?oaeao. Yoi i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony ai ia?auo iaeiieaieai aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa iaoa?eaea ii Eu?aucnoaio o?aaothuaai e naaa iniaiai aieiaiey, ai aoi?uo oniaoaie ca?oaaaeiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae a yoie iaeanoe, a o?aoueeo n aicieeoae iio?aaiinoueth ia?aniio?a noa?uo aeaiiuo ia oiia ioe?uoee iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee, io iiaeaeoe, iniiaiie i?iaeaiie – aic?iaeaeaieai Eu?auceie a?oaieiaee.Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiay oeaeue aeaiiie ?aaiou ?ane?uoue ?aaeueioth ea?oeio eco/aiiinoe a?iiciaiai aaea a Eu?aucnoaia e ia?niaeoeaiinoue aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee a yoie iaeanoe, a oaeaea aaaaeaiea a iao/iue iai?io iaoa?eaeia, o?aiyueony a oiiaeao iocay – eaai?aoi?ee EAIO.Nienie eniieueciaaiiue eeoa?aoo?u1. Aaaianiaa I.A 1975 AEaiai-Ocai II-aoanoneee iiaeeiee oeaio?aeueiiai Eacaenoaia//ENEA aui.1422. Aaaianiaa I.A Eoeueoo?a ianoooaneeo ieaiai yiioe a?iicu Aceaoneie /anoe NNN? Oaoeaio 1991.3. Aaaaeaiiaa –Aa?acianeay E.A 1963 Oeie/aneee aiaeec iaoaeee/aneeo i?aaeiaoia ec Ieioneineie eioeiaeiu //iiaue iaoiaeu a a?oaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo,I.-E.4. A?yciiaI.I 1969 Eeanneoeeaoeey, oei, eoeueoo?a oai?aoe/aneea iniiau niaaoneie a?oaieiaee// oacenu aeieeaaeia oai?aoe/aneiai naieia? EEIA AI NNN?,E.5. Aaieia A.O 1961 I?iaeaiu eco/aiey aeaeaciiai aaea O?aea// AAO. Aui.1 Naa?aeeiane.6. Aeaaoy?iaa A.Ae Iaoaeeiia?aaioea a yiioo iicaeiee a?iicu ia oa??eoi?ee naie?a/ey I.-1985.7. Eoeia I.A 1977 Enoi?ey noaiiuo ieaiai THaeiiai I?ea?aeuey //O?oaeu OAYY.aui.O.8. Eocieia A.A Iaoaeee/aneea ecaeaeey yiaieeoa e a?iiciaiai aaea a N?aaeiae Acee.I-1966.9. Eiaeaiyei I.I Iia?aaaiey yiioe a?iicu a Ee?aecee //ecaanoey A.I.Ee?aecneie NN?,o. 2 aui.3 1960.10. Iaoiiaa Ae.A 1963 I?iecaiaenoaa e ia?iaioea ae?aaiuo iaaeiuo e a?iiciauo ecaeaeee Ieioneineie eioeiaeiu // Iiaua iaoiaeu a a?oaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo.I-E.11. Ieineeo A.I Iie?uiei A.I Eeaaeu a Eu?aucnoaia,ieou e ?aaeueiinoe. Aeoeae 1992.12. Ieineeo A.I Aeiee Ae.O Eaoiai-Othaa O?oca 1977.13. Naeueieeia E.A.1967 I/a?ee ae?aaiae enoi?ee thaeiiai O?aea I.14. Oaieiooia N.A 1927 Ae?aaiea iia?aaaiey a Ieioneineii e?aa//Iaoa?eaeu ii yoiia?aoee o.3.aui.2. E.15. Oaaei?iaa Aeaauaeiaa Y.A 1973 E i?iaeaia aiae?iiianeie eoeueoo?u// IAON,I.16. *a?ieeia N.N 1960 Ainoi/iue Eacaonoai a yiioo a?iicu //IEA.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019