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AEeooy ? iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue Iao?a Eiiiiiae/a Naaaeaea/iiai
(Eiiaoaae/a-Naaaeaea/iiai) aaaaoi a /iio noaieinia c ?noi???th Oe?a?ie
ia?oi? /aa?o? XVII no.— neeaaeiiai, ana ua iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiiai
ia??iaeo. Oea aoa /an aei?noieiai nioe?aeueiiai ?
ia?iiaeueii-?ae?a?eiiai aiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ao?oeeaiai
c?inoaiiy aecaieueiiai ?ooo, aa?i?/ieo iioiae?a eicae?a ia oo?aoeuee?
oi?oaoe?, iiaeo yaeu o ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e oiui.

Na?aeeii ? iaa?oue aaciina?aaei?i o/anieeii aaaaoueio oiai/anieo iiae?e
noaa Iao?i Naaaeaea/iee – iniaeno?noue noia?a/eeaa e iaiaeiicia/ia.
sseeo o?eueee ai?oao?a – a?ae i?aeianaieo aei i?eieceeaeo,- yeeo
oa?aeoa?enoee -ni?aaaaeeeaeo ? oia?aaeaeaieo – ia aeiaaeiny aeneooaoe
eiio ca aeeooy. Naaaeaea/iee iae?aany aaoueiaiii ? ciiao ao?a/aa
aaoueiainueeo aoeaao, ciaoiaeea ni?eueio iiao c iiaeiiaeaaeoeyie e
iaeii/anii iaa aaoi?eoao na?aae oe?ieeo e?e eicaoeoaa. Eiai iie?oe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue i?eaa?oaea oaaao e?oiienoe?a oa ?noi?ee?a, iaioa?eno?a ?
iiao?a. ? ciiao iaiaeiicia/i?noue ioe?iie – a?ae aiieiaaoeee aei i?yiiai
caia?a/aiiy aieeao aaoueiaia ia iiae?? ia?oi? iieiaeie XVII no. Oae o
/iio ae i?e/eie oaeiai noia?a/eeaiai noaaeaiiy aei oe??? iniae c aieo
no/aniee?a ? iei?oi?o aeine?aeiee?a?

Neoi? aeai? aeaea?ae aeathoue iiaeeea?noue eeoa ane?cii ?aeiino?othaaoe
?aii?e ia??iae aeeooy Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai. C «A??o?a ia aeae?niee
iia?aa» aaoueiaia, iaienaieo ?aeoi?ii Ee?anueei? a?aonueei? oeiee
Ean?yiii Naeiae/ai, ae?cia?iiny, ui a?i ia?iaeeany iiaeeco Ia?aieoey
(iaaooue, o n. Eoeue/eioe? a?ey Naiai?a), a n?i’? i?aaineaaiiai
oeyooe/a. Ianooiiith a?oith a eiai aeeoo? noaei ia?aaoaaiiy o ciaiaieo?e
Ino?icuee?e oeie? (o «A??oao» aiai?eoueny, ui Naaaeaea/iee iii?yioaaa
«iio?i aei Ino?iaa, aeey iaoe /aiieo»). I/aaeaeii, a?i i?ieoia iiaiee
eo?n iaa/aiiy (?iaeoa aaaeei iiynieoe neiaa E. Naeiae/a, ui «oai oiae?
Eiiaoaae/ /an iaiaeee aeea»). A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui a canaaeao
Ino?icueei? oeiee i?inoaaeothoueny ?ene iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo aeuiai
oeio, iiaeia aaaeaoe, ui Naaaeaea/iee iaea?aeaa o ?? no?iao aeia?o, ye
ia oie /an, ina?oo. Aoiinoa?a, yea iaioaaea a Ino?ic?, aenieee ??aaiue
aeeeaaeaiiy i?aaeiao?a caeeoeee, aacnoii?aii, iaaeo?aaiee ne?ae o aeoo?
thiaea.

E?eueea ianooiieo ?ie?a aeeooy Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai i?eoiaai? a?ae ian
caiiiith /ano. Iiaeia eeoa c iaai?noth oaa?aeeoe, ui iacaaa?ii aeiey
i?eaaea eiai o A?enueei Caii?icueea. ?icoiiee, aenieiina?/aiee, aeia?a
ia?ciaiee ?c iie?oe/iith ianoaiiaeith, a?i oaeaeei caaithaaa aaoi?eoao
na?aae eicaoeoaa. No/anieeoeyooe/ a?aecia/aa, ui «Iao?i Eiiaoaae/,
/ieia?e iaaecae/aeii? ioae?ino? e c??eiai noaeaeaiiy o ni?aaao, ni?eoiee
o neiaao ? a/eieao, oi/a ca iioiaeaeaiiyi, niiniaii aeeooy ? cae/eaie
aoa i?inoith ethaeeiith, iaeiae a i/ao iauaaee?a a?i a?aeiee noaoe
ii?yae c iaeaeaeaoi?oeie ethaeueie naiai /ano a Iieueu?». Uiaei
iniaenoiai aeeooy Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai a?aeiii, ui a?i aoa iae?oaeaiee c
Aianoan??th Iia/ainueeith. ?oi? aca?ieie aaaeei iacaaoe ?aeee?/ieie.
Neiioiiaoe/iei ? oie oaeo, ui ca?aeii ?c caiia?oii aaoueiai «a?aeaeaa
ia?oie na?e ia oea?eae, ia oieoae?, ia oeiee ? iiianoe??, e??i ae?oaeeie
nai??». I?ioa Aianoan?y caeeoaeany aaeiaith iaaeiaai – aaea /a?ac aeaa
?iee aiia aeeoea cai?ae ca oeyooe/a ?aaia I?ii/eia. Ia?iaeia i?naiia
o?aaeeoe?y oaeiae aeineoue /?oei a?aeaeca?eaeeea oeae aniaeo iniaenoiai
aeeooy aaoueiaia. Ia aeiaaeeiai, aaaea?ii, a aeia?a a?aeii?e i?ni?
.iiaeoueny, ui a?i «i?ii?iya ae?ieo ia othothi oa etheueeo».

I. I. Iaeneiiae/ noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui Naaaeaea/iee oaea 1598 ?. iaea?aeaa
aaoueiainueeo aoeaao. I?ioa iaa?yae /e oea a?aeiia?aea? ae?eniino?
-aaeaea ?noi?eeai a?aeiii e?eueea in?a, ye? iai?ee?ioe? XVI – ia ii/aoeo
XVII no. aieiae?ee oeei aenieei oeooeii o A?enueeo Caii?icueeiio.
Eiia??i?oa, ui oey iiae?y a?aeaoeany aeanue ia ii/aoeo XVII no; O
iiaoeciaai?e a?ia?ao?? Naaaeaea/iiai, neeaaeai?e E. Naeiae/ai,
cacia/a?oueny, ui i?ney iaa/aiiy a Ino?icuee?e oeie? a?i «oieaei
caii?icneiai neaaiiai ?ue?oea?noaa, iaaee eioi?ue?i, i?ac /an ia iaeee
aeeth/e e ?ue?oea?neeo aeieaeiinoae oai aeieacoth/e, aaoueiaiii iioii
naaa Aienei aai ia?aei». A?aeoiae? ii/aeany aaeeeio?oaeia ae?yeuei?noue
Naaaeaea/iiai ia iie?oe/iiio iii?eu?.

Ia?oith ? iniiaiith nai?th ni?aaith iieiaeee oa aia?a?eiee aaoueiai
aaaaeaa i?aai?caoe?th iioiae?a i?ioe noeoainueei? Oo?a//eie.
Iacaaaeath/e ia canoa?aaei? caoiaee oo?e?a, caii?iaeoe? 1600 ?.
ae?aaeeny ca Ia?aeii, 1609 ?. niaeeee ?cia?e, Eee?th, A?eai?iae.
Ni?aaae? o??oioaeueiei noaa iio?ae eicae?a ia Neiii 1614 ?. Iaeaea
iiai?noth aoei cieuaii i?noeaaee aa?i?cii, caoiieaii caiane ca?i? oa
ei?aae?, aecaieaii iaa?eueiee?a. Ia?aiiaith oa?i/aany e iio?ae 80
eicaoeueeeo /aeie ia Eiinoaioeiiiieue. 1615 ?. aiie aeinyaee ieieeoeue
noieeoe?, niaeeee aea? i?enoai? e ia?aeyeaee naiiai noeoaia, yeee
?icaaaeaany ia iiethaaii?. O aeoa? c ai?iaeith aneaae?ith oi?ia?? eicaee
caeiaoee e?eueea aaea? ? iaa?oue caoiieee a iieii oo?aoeueeiai
ai?ia/aeueieea. Ianooiiiai ?ieo caii?iaeoe?, i/ieai? I. Naaaeaea/iei,
cae?enieee oni?oiee iaiaae ia iaeei ?c iaea?eueoeo iaa?eueieoeueeeo
?eie?a *i?iiii?nueeiai ocaa?aaeaey – Eaoo, a caiaeii – ia O?aiacoiae.
?iceth/aiee noeoai iaeacaa iiea?aoe aaeeeiai a?ce?a (eiai caaeooeee) oa
?ioeo aeueo o?yaeiaoe?a.

Ooo aeoaea /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny iaeia c iaeaaaeeea?oeo noi??i
ae?yeueiino? Naaaeaea/iiai – eiai o/anoue o ai?iouea? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo i?ioe oo?aoeueei-oaoa?nueeeo iiiaaiethaa/?a. Nai?ie aeeneo/eie
iioiaeaie ia *i?ia ii?a aaoueiai caeiaoa neaao oaea/eeaiai eicaoeueeiai
aaoaaeea.

Uiaei a?aeiinei Naaaeaea/iiai c iieuenueeei o?yaeii, oi aiie aoee
aeaeaei ia i?inoeie. Aaoueiai ye ni?aaaei?e iie?oee o ae??oaii? aino?eo
ieoaiue aeyaeya aaeeeo aio/e?noue, iaa noeeuei?noue aei eiii?ii?n?a ? ia
?ac ?oia ia ia?aaiai?e c Aa?oaaith. Aiaeii/an, nie?ath/enue ia eicaoeoai
(ye ?a?no?iaa, oae ? caii?icueea), a?i i?a aeicaieeoe nia? aaaeaiiy
oe?eeii naiino?eii? e?i??. Anoia?a/ eaoaai?e/iei caai?iiai o?yaeiaeo e?e
aaoueiai /anoi i?aai?ciaoaaa iioiaee i?ioe E?einueeiai oainoaa e
Iooiiainueei? Ii?oe, i?aeo?eioaaa aea?aei? aeey iueiai aeiiae eicaoeoaa
? o. i. Ia ne?ae caia?a/oaaoe ? oiai oaeoo, ui i?ioyaii 1615 – 1616 ??.
I. Naaaeaea/iee, iacaaaeath/e ia a??ci? naeiia? iinoaiiae, nai i/iethaaa
aenooie ??cieo i?ioa?e?a ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. O?aa ia neiioiiaoe/iei ?
oaa?aeaeaiiy iieuenueeiai naeio (aa?anaiue 1616 ?.), ui eicaee «nai?
anoaiiaeththoue nia? i?aai, nai? iae?athoue o?yaeiaoe?a oa aaoaaee?a ?
i?aeoi noai?ththoue o Aaeee?e ?a/? Iiniieeo?e ae?oao ?anioae?eo». I?i
ia?inoaiiy oaee? ia?iaeiiai ?ooo na?ae/aoue ? ?io? oaeoe. sse
cacia/a?oueny o /eneaiieo aeoiaeo eieaao, eicaoeueeeie caaiiaie 1618 ?.
aoee «niethiae?iaai?» aaee/aci? iaoe?e Oe?a?ie, Iie?nny e Eeoae.
Iaaooue, iaia? iaiao?aeiino? iia’ycoaaoe iiaeaeueoa iiaeeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii? oa iaoe?iiaeueii-?ae?a?eii? eiio?iioaoe?? o noni?euenoa?
aeeeth/ii c iniaith I. Naaaeaea/iiai (oea aoei a ? oeaii, ?
ia?noi?e/ii). I?ioa ?aii?oaaoe iayai?noue oaeiai ca’yceo ie oaeiae ia
ai?aa?. Iai?eeeaae, aeia?a a?aeiii, ui aaoueiai iae?aco ae i?ney
oeeaaeaiiy i?eieceeai? aeey eicae?a ?inoaaeoeueei? oaiaee (1619 ?.)
ii/aa i?aeaioiaeo aei ?? aeaiiinaoe??, ui aeeeeeaei iiaa i?aeianaiiy
iao??ioe/ieo ii/ooo?a na?aae ia?iaeo.

I?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iie?oe/iiai e?aaei Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai ?noi?eee, ye
i?aaeei, iaaieioothoue ia oaeo? iioiaeo oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a ia /ie? c
aaoueiaiii o neeaae? caaii?a iieuenueeiai ei?ieaae/a Aeaaeeneaaa ia
Iineao (1618). Aeine?aeieeai ua iaeaaeeoue aea/eoe ? aeaoe aeeaieo e
ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo oe?e iiae??. Ie ae o?eueee a?aecia/eii, ui,
?icaeyaeath/e aeaiee aniaeo a?o/eciyii? ?noi???, a/ai? (iniaeeai
?aaeyinuee?) ia?aaaaeii aano?aaoaaeeny a?ae caaaeueii?noi?e/iiai
eiioaenoo ae?oaiai aeanyoee?ooy XVII no. Cie?aia, ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui
aaoueiai aoc i?aeaeaiei iieuenueei? ei?iie, a oea aenoaaei ia?aae iei
?yae ciaia’ycaiue iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui iioiaeii ia
Iineao Naaaeaea/iee ? /anoeia eiai ioi/aiiy iiea/oaaee a?aeiio naeiiao
eiinoeoooe?th «I?i ?ae?a?th a?aoeueeo», yea ia?aaeaa/aea ocaeiiaiiy
naiaiaee i?aaineaaiiai a??iniia?aeaiiy o ?a/? Iiniieeo?e. Ua iaeio c
i?e/ei cae?eniaii? eicaeaie 1618 ?. aeoe?? a?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee
E. A. Aoneenoee aaa/aa o ai?iaeiio noaaeaii? «/anoeie oe?a?inueeiai
eicaoeoaa aei o?yaeo Ieoaeea Oaaei?iae/a, aeeieiiaoe yeiai a oeae /an
i?aeo?eioaaee a?aeiineie c Oo?a//eiith ? E?eiii, niiioeath/e ?oi? i?aee
iaiaaeaoe ia ??/ Iiniieeoo, ui caa?iaeoaaei oe?a?inueeei caieyi».
I/aaeaeii, ?nioaaee e ?io? i?e/eie oeueiai iioiaeo I. Naaaeaea/iiai.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaei ? ?ioa ieoaiiy – yea i?noea iin?aeaa ai?ciae 1618 ?. o
iie?oe/i?e ea?’??? Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai ? yeei aoei eiai noaaeaiiy aei
oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei? Iiia?aaeiy ?, aieiaiei /eiii,
iiaeaeueoa ae?yeuei?noue aaoueiaia aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aeiia?noe ia
iueiai oe?eeii eiie?aoii e iaeiicia/ii – a?i ia aoa i?eioeeiiaei
i?ioeaieeii caeeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie c ?in??th. Oaea a n?/i? 1620 ?. iinee
Naaaeaea/iiai, i/ieai? ioaiaiii Iao?ii Iaeeioeai, /a?ac Iooeaeue
ae?ooeee aei Iineae. 26 ethoiai aiie oaeinoi?eenue io?oe?eiiai i?eeiio
aeoiieie aeyeaie ?aaiii A?aiaoeiei ? Naaith ?iiai/oeiaei. I?ae /an
oea?aiii?? iinee a?ae ?iai? anueiai A?enueea Caii?icueeiai iaieineee, ui
«iie ana oioyo aio, aaeeeiio ainoaea?th, neoaeeoue aieiaaie naieie
ii-i?aaeiaio, eae iia neoaeeee i?aaeiei aaeeeei ?inneeneei ainoaea?ai e
a eo aino-aea?neeo iiaaeaieyo aue?ee, e ia iaae?oaia eo oiaeeee, e
e?ue?ineea oeonue? a?iieee…». I?aai?caoe?y iinieuenoaa o Iineao aoea
i?iaeoiaiith ? aeaaaeaiith iie?oe/iith aeoe??th I. Naaaeaea/iiai. Iai?yi
? ci?no ia?aaiai??a, ui iaee i?noea o Iinieuenuee?e iaeao? E?aiey,
oaeiae ia aeeeeeathoue aeiaeiiai noii?ao – eoeiny i?i i?iiiceoe?th
eicae?a ianoe neoaeao ia ei?enoue ?in?enueeiai oea?y. Uii?aaaea,
aeeieiiaoe/ia i?n?y caii?iaeoe?a ia oa?i/aeany oni?oii. Iineaiaeaeaee
«eaaea oea?nueea aeaeoaaiiy – 300 ea?aiaaioe?a a?ioae», aea oaiaeo ia
aoei oeeaaeaii.

Aaaeeeaith iiae??th aeey oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue noaei a?aeiiaeaiiy
i?aaineaaii? ???a?o??, yea i?eieieea nai? ?nioaaiiy i?ney Aa?anoaenueei?
oea?eiaii? oi?? 1596 ?. A oe?e iie?oe/i?e aeoe?? iaaaeyeo ?ieue
noaeeeiny a?ae?a?aoe Iao?o Naaaeaea/iiio. I?eyci? noinoiee i?ae
aaoueiaiii ? iao??a?oii Oaioaiii, yeee aeeiiaa oeth aaaeeeao i?n?th,
iaa?yae /e aoee aeiaaeeiaeie. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui ua ioaiai Iao?i
Iaeeiaoeue o ethoiio 1620 ?. ca aei?o/aiiyi Naaaeaea/iiai cono??/aany c
iao??a?oii o Iinea?, aea e aeeeaa iiceoe?th aaoueiaia c oeueiai ieoaiiy.
O aa?aci? Oaioai i?eaoa a Oe?a?io. Ia ei?aeii? eiai cono??/aee
caii?icuee? eicaee ia /ie? c Naaaeaea/iei, eio??, ca iia?aeiieaiiyi
Aonoeinueeiai e?oiieno, «iaoi/eoa aai no?aaeaith, yee i/aeue? iaoeoeo
naith», noi?iaiaeeee aei Ee?aa. Ooo Oaioai ni?eeoaaany c i?aaenoaaieeaie
i?noeaaiai a?aonoaa, i?aaineaaiei aeoo?aieoeoaii, iiaoaaa o ciaiaieoiio
eicaoeueeiio O?aooaie??anueeiio iiianoe??. 6 aeiaoiy 1621 ?. o
a?aonuee?e Aiaiyaeainuee?e oea?ea? iao??a?o aenayoea ?aoiaia
Ieoaee?anueeiai Cieioiaa?oiai iiianoe?y ?iaa Ai?aoeueeiai o nai
ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa, iaaeea??nueei-ai ?aoiaia ?naeth Eiieinueeiai –
ia ia?aieoeuenueeiai ?ieneiia, a Iaeao?y Niio?eoeueeiai – ia
iieioeueeiai a?o??ieneiia. I/aaeaeii, iaia? iaiao?aeiino? aeiaiaeeoe, ui
oey iiae?y, cia/aiiy yei? aeeoei aeaeaei ca ?aiee oea?eiaiiai aeeooy,
noaea iiaeeeaith eeoa caaaeyee iiaooi?e i?aeo?eioe? A?enueea
Caii?icueeiai e iniaenoi Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai (ia oie /an oaea
iieeiaieea). Ae?? i?aaenoaaiee?a aeuiai i?aaineaaiiai aeoo?aieoeoaa
ia’?eoeaii ni?eyee iineeaiith aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?.

I?ae aaciina?aaei?i aieeaii oeeo iiae?e iii?oii aeoea?coaaeany
?aeaieia?/ia ai?ioueaa ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, yea oaia? oaea ca/?iaea
ia eeoa ?ae?a?ei?, a e oe?o? ieoaiiy. C-i?ae ia?a ?iaa Ai?aoeueeiai
aeoiaeeoue o?aeoao «I?ioanoaoe?y ? aeaai/anoeaa thnoeo?eaoe?y»,
c’yaey?oueny iieai?/iee oa?? «Iae?iiae?y» Caoa??? Eiienoainueeiai,
«Eieaa i?i a??o» oa ?io?. Aaoi?e oeeo i?aoeue, ui iaee cia/iee
noni?eueiee ?aciiain, i?aaioee a?aeoai?eoe ?noi?e/ii i?aaaeea? ea?oeie
aeeooy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a oe?ieiio caaaeueiineia’yinueeiio
eiioaeno?. A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia eicaoeoao, ienueiaiieee-iieai?noe
iaceaaee ?o «niaaeei?ioeyie noa?i? ?on?», iaaieiooth/e, ui aiie
«oaa?ae?noth nai?th ia?aaa?oothoue ?einueeeo Noe?i?ii?a ? ea?oaaainueeeo
Aai?aae?a».

Cia/aiiy eicaoeoaa iniaeeai c?inei i?ney ieu?aii? ii?acee iieye?a a?ae
oo?e?a ia Oeaoei?nueeeo iieyo o Iieaeaa?? (1620), eiee ??/ Iiniieeoa
iieieeany ia?aae caa?icith ao?aoe nai?? aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?.
Ei?iiia a?enueei caciaei ?ica?iio, aaaaoi ciaoii? oeyooe, a oiio /ene?
aaoueiaia N. AEieeaanueeiai, aoei aaeoi, /eiaei iio?aieei a iieii. Ca
oiia, ui neeaeeny, iieuenueeee o?yae ooaaeea ??oaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?th
iiaiai a?enueea. Oeyoii iaaieo iinooiie naei iaiaaaany i?eaa?iooe ia
na?e a?e oe?a?inueeeo eicae?a, iaaaci?aenoaaii aaaaeath/e ?o
iaeai?caeaoi?oith ? iae’ i?aai?ciaai?oith a?enueeiaith neeith. Ia?aae
caa?icith aoi?aiaiiy a iaae? Oe?a?ie iaaoaaea neeueii? oo?aoeueei? a?i??
eicaoeoai, a?aeeeioaoe aeani? i?iaeaie (noia?a/iino? i?ae iiaei
aaoueiaiii ssoeueeii Ia?iaee/ai-Ai?iaeaaeith ? Iao?ii Naaaeaea/iei),
ae??oeei i?aeo?eiaoe iieye?a o iaeaooi?e a?ei? c oo?aoeueeeie
caaieiaieeaie. Caaaeueia ?aaea, neeeeaia o /a?ai? 1621 ?. a o?i/eu? Nooa
Ae?a?iaa, i?eeiyea i?iiiceoe?th naeio e iiaiaeeeany ia ni?eueiee iio?ae
eicaoeueeeo ? iieuenueeeo a?enuee. Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe, ui oi/
Naaaeaea/iee ia oie /an oaea iicaoany aaoueiainueei? aoeaae, a?i
i?iaeiaaeoaaa a?ae?a?aaaoe aecia/io ?ieue na?aae eicaoeoaa. Oea,
cie?aia, cana?ae/o? oie oaeo, ui naia a?i i/ieea iinieuenoai, iai?aaeaia
?aaeith o Aa?oaao. Oai i?ae /an aoae??ioe?? o Nea?cioiaea III
Naaaeaea/iee aeiaaaa ie?aieo ?ae?a?eieo iin?oiie c aieo ei?ie?anueeiai
o?yaeo – cie?aia ocaeiiaiiy i?aaineaaii? ???a?o??. Ia iiaeia neacaoe, ui
eicaoeuee? aeiiae aoee ?aaeeeaeueieie. I?ioa, a?aoiaoth/e oie
noni?eueiee ?icaiein, yeee iaee iiae?? 1621 ?., aiie cao/aee aeooaeueii
e, i/aaeaeii, a?aeia?aaeaee aeoiee oa iano?i? oe?ieeo aa?noa eicaoeoaa,
ui c?a?aeiny ia ?aaeo a Noo?e Ae?a?ia?.

Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai ia iiaeia caeioaaoeoe a iaeiaeooiino? aai iaaaaeaii?
a?aoe o/anoue o ai?iieo ae?yo eicae?a i?ioe oo?aoeueei? a?i??. I?yii c
Aa?oaae, i?ney i?iuaeueii? cono??/? c iieuenueeei ei?ieai, a?i ae?ooea o
?icoaooaaiiy nai?o a?enuee iiaeeco Oioeia. A noaiiaeua ooo neeaeiny
aeoaea iai?oaeaia – aaeaea ia’?aeiaiei neeai iieuenueeeo ? eicaoeueeeo
a?enuee (aeecueei 80 oen. /ie.) i?ioenoiyea 162-oeny/ia oo?aoeueea a?i?y
(ca ?ioeie aeaieie, 250-oeny/ia).

C naiiai ii/aoeo ai?iieo ae?e eicaee aeyaeyee /oaeana oi?ia?ino? e
aa?i?cio. Ia iiaeooue ia aeeeeeaoe ii/oooy caoiieaiiy ae?? iaaaeeeiai
eicaoeueeiai caaiio, ioi/aiiai oo?eaie, iicaaaeaiiai i?ia?aioo e
aeiiiiiae cciai?, yeee aeae?eueea aei?a a?a ai?ioueao i?ioe ica?i?iiai
aa?iaoaie ai?iaa. «Ioi/ai? c on?o aie?a eicaee ona ae iaaaaeeeeny
iii??yoenue neeaie c i?ioeaieeii (ai ae a?ae/ae ia??aeei niiioea? aei
aeaai?iaeii? nia?o?) e anoeaee i?iaeoeny e??cue caeeaiaai? oa
ia?aiieioai? oo?aoeuee? a?enueea; aea aeniaaeai? aieiaeii ? i?aoeath,
ae?eo? ii?ioiaei ieeii, aiie neeaee aieiae ?acii ?c ca?i?th»,- ienaa
aeaeaeee a?ae neiiao?? aei eicae?a-aa?i?a sse?a Ni aanueeee.

O na?ii? 1621 ?. iaei ia caaeioa nai Iao?i Naaaeaea/iee. I?ney ia?aaee c
eiiaiaeoth/ei iieuenueeith a?i??th E. Oiaeeaae/ai a?i ae?ooea aei
eicaoeueeiai a?enueea, yea oiae? iia?eueii i?inoaaeiny aei Oioeia, oa ii
aei?ic? c?oeioany c aaeeeei oo?aoeueeei caaiiii. ?icii/aany a?e, yeee
i?a cae?i/eoeny o?aa?/ii aeey Naaaeaea/iiai. C i?ino?aeaiith ?oeith,
ao?aoeaoe aaaaoi e?ia?, a?i /oaeii a?ae??aaany a?ae iiaii?, noiaaany o
iaeaeeae/iio e?n? ? eeoa aii/? i?ia?aany o na?e oaa??.

Ie iaaeeceeeny aei oiai iiiaioo a aeeoo? I. Naaaeaea/iiai, yeee o iueiai
naiiai aeeeeeaa aeiei?e noie?iiy. Iai?ee?ioe? na?iiy 1621 ?., i?ney
i?eaoooy aaoi?eoaoiiai aaoaaeea a ?icoaooaaiiy eicae?a, o a?enueeo
noaeany ci?ia aeaaee: aaoueiai Ai?iaeaaea ao?aoea aoeaao, aoa
caa?aooiaaiee, a caiaeii (8 aa?aniy) ca iaeacii Naaaeaea/iiai no?a/aiee.
Inoaiiueiai ia?aee aaoueiaiii. Oaeo neeiaiiy ? no?aoe Ai?iaeaaee
ii-??ciiio ioe?ithaaany no/anieeaie. Cie?aia, iieuenuee? iaioa?enoe
??cei iaaaoeaii noaaeeeny aei iniae Ai?iaeaaee, yeee, i/aaeaeii,
i?aaenoaaeya iacaiiaeio /anoeio eicaoeoaa ? iaa o ?? na?aaeiaeu? oe?ieo
iiioey?i?noue. Ia aeiaaeeiai ua N. AEieeaanueeee oa?aeoa?ecoaaa eiai ye
«iaeiaio i?ae ieie (eicaeaie.- Aao.) aeia?i/aniiai ? iaea?eueo
noeeueiiai aei aoio?a, eio?ee ia?oeya eicaeai ?oe c ieie ia o?eueee ia
ii?a, aea oi/ ae ? a iaeei». C onueiai aeaeii, ui e nai Naaaeaea/iee
a?ae/oaaa i?iaeio ca nia?oue ethaeeie, yea /eiaei c?iaeea aeey oni?oo
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue a Oe?a?i? (Ai?iaeaaea a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o
a?aeiiaeaii? i?aaineaaii? ???a?o??, i/iethaaa iianoainueeee ?oo oiui).
Inue /iio, aaea aoaeo/e ia nia?oiiio iae??. Naaaeaea/iee aeaa aei?o/aiiy
caienaoe o na?e iii’yiee Ai?iaeaaeo i?ae ?iaiai «sse?a-aaoueiai».
I/aaeaeii, oae a?i oio?a aeneiaeoe nai? cai?ci?ea eayooy o i?e/aoiino?
aei nia?o? oe??? ethaeeie.

I?ioa oea aoei caiaeii. A o aa?aniaa? aei? 1621 ?. aaoueiaia iieiieee
?io? aeoiee – aaeaea i?ae Oioeiii ae??ooaaeany aeiey ia o?eueee Iieueu?,
a e Oe?a?ie. Iniai II, ?ic?aoiaoth/e ia aeeneaae/i? oaea?e naiai
a?enueea, niiae?aaany oaeaeei ?ica?iieoe eicaoeuee? iieee.
Naiiaiaaiai?noue noeoaia ia iaea iaae. sse ienaa i/aaeaeaoeue oeo
iiae?e, a?i «iieeyany i?/iai ia ?noe, aeiee ia a?aei?aaeoue o iaeei ia
aa/a?th an?o iieye?a aei inoaiiueiai, ? iieacaa i?eeeaae, iaaa/aiee ?
ia/oaaiee ?ai?oa a ?noi??? ai?iieo ae?e, a naia: eaaeaa iiaa/eaoe iao?
neee, a?i, ia aeaaoe a?aeii/eieo nai?i a?enueeai, noiieaiei a?ae
iioiaeo, a?aeaeaa iaeac aoaeoaaoe iieye?a ? a oie aea /an aeaooiaoaaoe
oaa??». C eiaeiith aiaeeiith a?e noaaaa aeaaeae? aei?noie?oei. Aieiaiee
oaea? ai?iaa i?eeiyee ia naaa eicaoeuee? caaiie, ye? oi iai?iiyeeny, oi
ia?aoiaeeee o ianooi. Eeoa oaa/a?? 3 aa?aciy aca?ii? aoaee i?eieieeeny.
?acoeueoaoe ia?oiai aeiy Oioeinueei? a?eie na?ae/eee, ui ia?aaaaa, oi/ ?
iacia/ia, aoea ia aioe? eicaoeueei-iieuenueeiai a?enueea. Aiii caeiaoei
aaaao? o?ioa? (eiiae, e?inueeo ca?oth, eiooiaiee iaeya, ca?ith,
ai?i?eiane).

O ianooii? aei? (5 ? 9 aa?aniy) iai?oaa aeoae ia niaaeaea. ? ciiao
eicaee, i/iethaai? I. Naaaeaea/iei, aeyaeyth/e /oaeana oi?ia?ino? e
aa?i?cio, a?eaaeeny o oaa?? ai?iaa, cieuoaaee aeeao neeo i?ioeaieea,
caoiiethaaee ca?ith, ai?i?eiane oa i?ia?aio. Iniaeeai oni?oiith aoea
aeeacea eicae?a ? iieuenueei? iaicii? /aeyae? a i?/ ia 9 aa?aniy. O
?icoaooaaii? oo?aoeueeeo a?enuee ?icii/aeany ni?aaaeiy iai?ea – ao?eaee
noeoai ? ?yaeia? ai?ie, io?ce e /eneaiia ianeoaa. O?eueee
ia?icoi?iii?noue E. Oiaeeaae/a ia?aoeiaeeea inoaoi/iiio ?ica?iiia?
ai?iaa. Iiae?? o??? ii/? aeaii?ae?coaaee oo?e?a. ss. Niaanueeee ienaa,
ui «i?ney ianiiae?aaiiai aoi?aiaiiy caii?iaeoe?a o oaa?? Iniaia oo?eaie
iaieiae?ea iai?ea: ethaee an?o caaiue ? noai?a aoee a aaeee?e o?eaic?;
nai Iniai, yeee iauiaeaaii aeoiaa, ui iaia? i?eiai a na?o? iiaooi?oiai
ca iueiai, oaia? ia aeani? i/? iiaa/ea onth oeoe?noue naiai noaiiaeua, ?
eieeoiy ieoao?noue ci?ieeanue ae?ii/eie nea?aaie, eiee a?i ia?aeiiaany a
aaci?aenoaaiino? nai?o niiae?aaiue».

Ao?aoeaoe iaae?th ia oaeaeea caaa?oaiiy a?eie, oo?ee ii/aee
aeiaaio?eaaeo iaeiao iieuenueei-eicaoeueeiai a?enueea. I?ioyaii e?eueeio
oeaei?a oi/eeeny ae??ai? eieaeuei? ai? i?ae yie/a?aie e caii?icueeeie
caaiiaie. ? eeoa i?ney i?eaoooy a oo?aoeueeee oaa?? i?aee??ieaiiy Iniai
II iaaaaeeany ia iiaee a?e. 28 aa?aniy aeia??i? noeoainuee? a?enueea
?icai?ioee ianooi. Iaeaea oe?eee aeaiue o?eaaea oey e?iaii?ieeoia n?/a.
«Iiiaae 60 aa?iao,- iia?aeiiey? i/aaeaeaoeue,- a?ei?ei aacia?a?aii, iaai
iaeaei, a iia?o?y caoueia?thaaeinue a?ae aeeio, caiey aeaeao?ea,
noiaiaee e?ne, neae? ?icneiaeeny ia a?oaeee. ?Oei aa/eei iei i?ioyaii
oe?eiai aeiy, oiai ia iieoao ia iaei?e /e aeaio noi??ieao; iaiiaeeeai
ae?aceoe oi/ii, c yeei caacyooyi ? ioaei?noth aai, oaeaeoa, c a?ae/a?i
aeeeny iaeaea? noi?iie». I?ioa aoaee oo?aoeueeeo a?enuee aoei a?aeaeoi.
? ciiao, aaea aeio?a, aeiao?aeeea?noue Naaaeaea/iiai, yeee oaea?ii c
oeeo cionea oo?e?a oo?eaoe, ae??oeea aeieth aith. Aianie oe?a?inueeeo
eicae?a ? ?oiueiai ea??aieea aaoueiaia Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai o ?ica?ii
oo?aoeueeeo a?enuee o Oioeinuee?e a?ei? 1621 ?. aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe.
Iieueua aoea a?yoiaaia a?ae ?iicaiiiai iiiaaieaiiy ? ao?aoe aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino?. ?acii ?c oeei, aaaea?ii, aa?oee oaaae ua iaeei aniaeo
aeaii? iiae??. Caie?eaiiy E. Oiaeeaae/a oa ?ioeo ai?ia/aeueiee?a, ?oi?
ni?iae aeinyaoe ia?aiiae iaae ai?iaii oe?iith eicaoeueei? e?ia? ia
iiaeooue caoueia?eoe ?ioiai, a?eueo aaaiiiai e ?noi?e/ii cia/ouiai:
aia?oa i?ney A?thi-aaeueaenueei? aeoae i?aaenoaaieee aeaio aaeeeeo
neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a i?iaeaiiino?oaaee ia iie? aith caeaoi?noue aei
ni?eueii? ai?ioueae i?ioe ?iicaiieo iiiaaiethaa/?a a ?i’y ?aeaae?a
naiaiaee e iacaeaaeiino? ??aeii? caie?. Aaaeeeaee ? oie oaeo, ui a aeoa?
i?ae Oioeiii a?aee o/anoue iieaeaaaie, i?noeaaa oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy, a
oaeiae caa?i aeiinueeeo eicae?a.

Cia/aiiy oeeo iiae?e ia iaiaaeoaaeiny eieaeueieie ?aieaie. C iaai?noth
iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia?aiiaa o Oioeinuee?e a?ei? coieieea
i?inoaaiiy noeoainueei? Oo?a//eie a ?io? ?a?iiaenuee? e?a?ie ? noaea
i?ia?nieeii ?? caiaiaaeo.

A?e i?ae Oioeiii noaa inoaii?i ia aaaaoiio ?aoieie iiaeaeaaie aeeoo?aiio
oeyoo I. Naaaeaea/iiai. Ii?aiaiee a iaei?e ?c aa?aniaaeo nooe/ie ?c
ai?iaii, aaoueiai aeiaai e oyaeei oai??a. O na?aaeei? eenoiiaaea 1621 ?.
eiai ia?aaacee aei Ee?aa (E. Naeiae/ ieoa: «…ia oii aea ieyoeo oia iao
aaoueiai iino?aeaiue?e i?eaoae aei Ee?aa, iaiieue? oia?eue?e».) I?ioa
nia?oaeueii oai?ee aaoueiai ia onoioany a?ae o/ano? a
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?. C-iii?ae ?ioeo iaa?aeeeaaeieo caaaeaiue
a?i aaaaeaa iaiao?aeiei aeiiiaoeny aeciaiiy ei?ie?anueeei o?yaeii
oea?eiaii? ???a?o??, a?aeiiaeaii? ??onaeeinueeei iao??a?oii Oaioaiii a
Oe?a?i?. C oe??th iaoith ia ii/aoeo 1622 ?. aei Aa?oaae ae?oaei iniaeeaa
eicaoeueea iinieuenoai, yea eeiiioaei ia can?aeaiiyo naeio i?i cieuaiiy
oi?? ? «caniiei?iiy i?aaineaaieo». Iaeii/anii aaoueiai iaienaa aeaa
eenoe iieuenueeiio ei?ieth. Eiyeuei? ca oi?iith, aiie aiaeii/an i?noeee
oaa?aeo aeiiao i?eieieoe ia?ane?aeoaaiiy e «iceiaeaiiy» eicae?a, a
oaeiae iieeanoe e?ae ?iciianthaeaeaiith oi?aonoaa ia oe?a?inueeeo
caieyo. Aea Naaaeaea/iiio aaea ia noaeeeiny ia?aaeeoe a??eioo
?ic/a?oaaiiy a?ae iaaaea/? eicaoeueei? i?n??. A?i iiia? 10 ea?oiy 1622
?. o Ee?a?.

Ca e?eueea aei?a aei nia?o? a i?enooiino? ee?anueeiai ieo?iiieeoa ?iaa
Ai?aoeueeiai ? naiai ianooiieea ia aaoueiainuee?e iinaae? Ie?oa?a Aieoaa
«i?e aeia?ie iaiyoe e caei?iaii oia» I. Naaaeaea/iee neeaa caiia?o, ca
yeei ia?aaeaaaa i?aoi?e oeny/? cieioeo ia oeieo «a?aonoaa Eueaianeiai,
ia iaoeo e ia oeae/aiuey aaeaeaa?ia o/iiue?o… ia aue?oiaaiuea o/aiiai
iaeno?a, a a?a/aneii ycue?eo aaaeiai…». Cia/io noio a?i ia?aeacaa
Ee?anueeiio a?aonoao, aei yeiai ua ?ai?oa aienaany c on?i A?enueeii
Caii?icueeei, a oaeiae caiia?a a?io? oe?e?e iecoe? oea?eia, iiianoe??a
oa oe?e. Iioiaaiiy Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai a?aeaoeiny o oea?ea? Ee?anueeiai
a?aonoaa. I?ae /an iioi?iio aeaaaeoeyoue nooaeaio?a iaeei ca iaeiei
aeaeeaioaaee a??o? Ean?yia Naeiae/a, a yeeo i?ineaaeyee ? caaee/oaaee
iie?eiiai aaoueiaia, ini?aoaaee eiai caneoae a ai?iouea? i?ioe
noeoainueei? Oo?a//eie, a?aeaeaaaee iaeaaeia oo?aioai i?i ?icaeoie
iaoee, ooaa?aeaeaiiy eicaoeueeeo aieueiinoae, a oaeiae i?aeo?eioe?
i?aaineaaii? oea?eae.

Ioe?ithth/e aeeoo?aee oeyo Naaaeaea/iiai, ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui i?ooi c
eiai no/aniee?a /e ?noi?ee?a iiaiai /ano ia caia?a/oaaa iieeiaiae/iai
oenoo oe??? ethaeeie. Ui ae aei eiai iie?oe/iiai e?aaei, oi aiii
aeeeeeaei (? i?iaeiaaeo? aeeeeeaoe) noia?a/ee oa iaoeia? aeeneon??.
Aacoiiaii, aaoueiai aoa iaa?aaeiei ? i?aaiaoe/iei iie?oeeii. A?aee?eoa
a?enueeiaa eiio?iioaoe?y c iieuenueeei o?yaeii caeaaaeany eiio iaio
i?eeiyoiith, i?ae oeyo ia?aaiai??a ? eiii?ii?n?a. Aiie i?eiineee iaai?
oni?oe, aea aoee oaeiae ? iaaaea/?. O nioe?aeueieo ieoaiiyo aaoueiai
caaaeaee iaiieyaaa ia iaiao?aeiino? i?eaeooaiiy «naaa?eey /a?i?».

?acii c oei ie ia ai?aa? ?aii?oaaoe aaeeeiai aianeo Iao?a Naaaeaea/iiai
o ?icaeoie aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?. Ca eiai aaciina?aaeiueith
o/anoth 1620 ?. a?aeiiaeea naith ae?yeuei?noue i?aaineaaia oea?eiaia
???a?o?y, ui yaeyei niaith aeaeaeiaeyaeio iie?oe/io aeoe?th. Ia iiaeia
iaaeiioe?ithaaoe e i?eeoaaiiy aaoueiaia i?i ?icaeoie Ee?anueeiai ?
Euea?anueeiai a?aonoa, eiai iaoa??aeueio i?aeo?eieo oe?e, i?aaiaiiy
aeaoe ina?oo aeanyoeai iieiaeeo ethaeae. Oae, ia?aie?oath/enue,
aeiiiaithth/e aai noia?a/a/e iaeia iaei?e, oe? ?ene oa?aeoa?o
noai?thaaee oe?e?niee ? naiiaooi?e ia?ac Iao?a Eiiaoaae/a-Naaaeaea/iiai
– a?aeiiiai iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a ia?oi? iieiaeie XVII no., eicaoeueeiai
aaoaaeea, i?inoi ethaeeie.

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