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Петр I, взаимосвязь политических и социально-экономических процессов

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NIAeA?AEAIEA: no?.

1. Aaaaeaiea.
……………………………………………………… 3

2. I?eoiae e aeanoe. Iiiiceoeey. ……………………… 7

3. Nicaeaiea a?iee e oeioa. …………………………….. 12

4. ?aoi?iu aeanoe , auoa , eoeueoo?u. ……………… 17

5. Yeiiiieea. E?anoueyineea ainnoaiey . ………… 29

6. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea. ……………………………………….. 35

7. Caeeth/aiea.
……………………………………………………. 50

8. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. ……………………………………….. 54

I?aia?aciaaiey Iao?a Aaeeeiai, aai aeayoaeueiinoue, ee/iinoue, ?ieue a
noaeueaa ?innee – aii?inu eioa?anothuea e i?eaeaeathuea aieiaiea
enneaaeiaaoaeae iaoaai a?aiaie ia iaiaa /ai a i?ioeua aaea.

‘’ A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiiaea ienaoaee, ioaeeoeenou , i?iaeieaeay a yoii
ioiioaiee o?aaeeoeee neiayiioeeueneie e ia?iaeie/aneie enoi?eia?aoee,
ieooo i oii , /oi ia aoaeue Iao?a e aai i?aia?aciaaiee , ?acaeoea ?innee
iiaei iieoe ii eiiio , iaiaa ae?aiaoe/aneiio iooe. Aii?in a oii , a
eaeie ia?a i?aia?aciaaiey auee neo/aeiu eee caeiiiia?iu , icia/aee ee
iie ?aaeeeaeueiue ?ac?ua i?aainoaaiiinoe enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna eee ,
iai?ioea , auee aai eiae/aneei i?iaeieaeaieai , aue ee Iao? aaeeeei
i?aia?aciaaoaeai eee oe?aiii aiciee aeaaii , aaeaa ee ia a naio yiioo
i?aia?aciaaiee .’’ Ioaao ia yoe aii?inu , ii iiaio iiaieth , iaiaoiaeeii
eneaoue e a ee/iinoe Iao?a , e a oao ianoiyoaeuenoaao , eioi?uie ii aue
ie?oaeai , a oao iauaeoeaiuo oaiaeaioeeyo ?onneiai enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna , eioi?ua ieacuaaee aeeyiea ia oiae ?aoi?i , ai iiiaii
i?eaeaaaee ei oaeie no?aieoaeueiue , ii?ie iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?
. Yoa oaia iaiy i?eaeaeea naiae iiiaiieaiiainoueth, ?aciinoi?iiiinoueth
e aeoaeiie. Ia i?eia?a yoie oaiu iiaeii ?anniio?aoue i?ioeann ?acaeoey ,
noaiiaeaiey e oe?aieaiey ainoaea?noaa , au?anoaiea aei o?iaiy Aaeeeie
Aea?aeaau ; noaiiaeaiea aaniethoecia ,a oaeaea iiaeii auaeaeeoue ,
aeooaeueiue ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue, aniaeo yoie oaiu – ?ieue ee/iinoe a
enoi?ee.

?acee/iua enoi?eee ii-?aciiio ioeaieaatho Iao?a e aai aeayoaeueiinoue.
Iaeie , ainoeuaynue ei , ioiaeaeaatho ia aoi?ie ieai aai iaaeinoaoee e
iaoaea/e, ae?oaea , iaiai?io, no?aiyony aunoaaeoue ia ia?aia ianoi ana
aai ii?iee , iaaeieoue Iao?a a iai?aaeeueiii auai?a e i?anooiiuo
aeayieyo.

?anniao?eaay aeeciue e aeayoaeueiinoue Iao?a , iaeuecy caauaaoue i oii ,
/oi ii oai?ee a oneiaeyo aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae ai?ueau: aiaoiyy-
iinoiyiiua aiaiiua aeaenoaey , aioo?aiiea- yoi iiiiceoeey .
Iaaeiaieueiia aiy?noai ninoaaeyei iiiiceoeeiiiua e?oae , a a
aeaeueiaeoai e iei i?eieioe oea?aae/ Aeaenae . Nia?aiaiieeai Iao?a auei
neiaeii aai iiiyoue : oea?ue- ieioiee, oea?ue – eociaoe , oea?ue –
nieaeao , no?aieaoeeny aieeiooue ai ana iaei/e

niaa?oaaiiai ei aeaea . Ia?ac “iiiacaiieea Aiaeey “- oea?y- aaothoee,
oea?eaoee a niciaieyo ethaeae , iinoiyiii anooiae a eiioeeeo n ?aaeueiie
oeao?ie iiaiai oea?y.

Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi iiiaea ia iiieiaee Iao?a, aai noeey iuoeaiey, aai
eaeae , ca/anooth iaeoaaoeo a ae?oaii iieeoe/aneii i?ino?ainoaa.

Iao? ia aue iioiae ia naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ie aiaoiei iaeeeii , ie
aeeaui e ioe?uoui oa?aeoa?ii . Ee/iinoue Iao?a i/aiue neiaeia e
i?ioeai?a/eaa, ii i?e yoii Iao? I aue i/aiue oeaeueiie iaoo?ie . Ai anao
aai ia/eiaieyo, ii?ie i/aiue i?ioeai?a/eauo , auei ana aea
?aoeeiiaeueiia ca?ii. Eae aiai?eeinue auoa , iaaiciiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue
aeayoaeueiinoue Iao?a ia o/eouaay oiai, /oi ec 35 eao aai i?aaeaiey ,
eeoue ieiei 1.5 eao ?inney iaoiaeeeanue a ninoiyiee iieiiai ie?a.
Iinoiyiiua aiaiiua aeaenoaey ieacuaaee aeeyiea ia oiae ?aoi?i e aiiaua
ia anth aioo?aiithth e aiaoithth iieeoeeo.

Noa?ia ieeiaaea ia ooiaeeo n iauanoaaiiie noeaiu aeia?iaieueii e iiaia
anaaaea ?iaeaeaaony a aeanoeeo noaaoeao n ioaeeaoei. Iao?o i?eoeinue
ai?ioueny ni iiiaeie i?aae?annoaeeaie e ia?aaeeoeaie , eioi?ua eiiaaea
ieacuaaeenue neeoeii neeueiuie , /oiau neiieoue eo n ia?aiai oaea?a.

Yiioa Iao?a I i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aieueoie eioa?an aeey eco/aiey e
enneaaeiaaiey ,o.e. ?anniao?eaay aa iu ca i?ioeannii ?acaeoey e ?inoa
ainoaea?noaa. I?aa?auaieai ?innee ec aeeeiai aeaniioe/aneiai oea?noaa
Iineianeiai a Aaeeeoth eiia?eth. Ca ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee no?ieony
iiaay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ,nicaeaaony nenoaia ia?aciaaiey ,
ia?eiaee/aneay ia/aoue, oi?ie?oaony ?aaoey?iay a?iey, aicieeaao aiaiiue
oeio . ?acaeaaaony i?iiuoeaiiinoue , aeoeaece?oaony aiaoiyy oi?aiaey,
noaaeeece?oaony yeiiiieea. Aeaaiaea?y aiaoiae iieeoeea Iao?a , auei
iieii/aii n iieeoe/aneie ecieyoeeae, e oe?aieyeny iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
i?anoeae ?innee.

Iaeiei ec iaoiaeia iieeoieiaee yaeyaony enoi?e/aneee iaoiae, eioi?ue
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?anniao?eaaiea iieeoe/aneeo yaeaiee a eiioaenoa
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Enoi?ey , eae e ana a yoii ie?a ,iiae/eiyaony
oieaa?naeueiiio caeiio – caeiio “io?eoeaiea io?eoeaiey“. Nie?aeue
?acaeoey enoi?ee aeaao aiciiaeiinoue eco/ay i?ioeia , ?aoaoue i?iaeaiu
ianoiyuaai e iiaeaee?iaaoue aoaeouaa . Ei?ie ?aoaiee i?iaeai
naaiaeiyoiaai aeiy iaiaoiaeeii eneaoue a “aeaeao aeaaii ieioaoeo aeiae
“.

Anee n?aaieaaoue iieiaeaiea aioo?e ainoaea?noaa a eiioea XVIII a. e
iieiaeaiea a ainoaea?noaa a iaoe aeie ,oi ia iaeaeai ee iu noiaenoaa, ia
caiaoei ee iauiinoe i?iaeai e neiaeiinoae a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee ,
oeiainia nenoaia ia?aciaaiey , eoeueoo?u … E eiioeo OVII a ?inney
ionoaaaea io Aa?iiu ii anai ia?aiao?ai ii iaiueoae ia?a ia 200 eao. Ca
a?aiy oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a I ?inney aeiaiaea Aa?iio aeaaioneeie oaaaie ,
ii yoi noieei ae iaiaeuo iioa?ue yeiiiie/aneeo e ethaeneeo ?ano?nia.

Acaeyioa ia naaiaeiyoithth neooaoeeth a no?aia , iaaiciiaeii ia
caiaoeoue ionoaaaiey aa io eeaee?othueo no?ai ai iiiaeo noa?ao , e,
aa?iyoii, yoi ionoaaaiea aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny aei oao ii? iiea ia
iiyaeony “ iiaue” Iao? I -”aoi?ie Iao? I”. Aiciiaeii e a yoii
caeeth/aaony iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae iaioaeeoaoa iaoaai ia?iaea. A
eaaeaeii ia?eiaea aeecie ainoaea?noaa ?inneeneiai, a e?eoe/aneee iiiaio
enoi?ee iiyaeyeny naie ?aoi?iaoi?: O aae – Aeaaeeie? ; OVII-OVIII a
-Iao? I; OVIII – Aeaoa?eia II ; OIO – Aeaenaiae? II.

Ociaaay iiaia i Iao?a I , ii?aaeaao yoa iaen/a?iaaiay , eeio/ay
aeeciaiiay yia?aey , naiiioaa?aeaiiay i?aaeaiiinoue eaeaa, ia/oa ,
eioi?oth a aieueoae noaiaie Iao? niia aiieioeoue a aeeciue .

No?aieoaeueiue ?ino ?innee a ia?aie /aoaa?oe OVIII aaea ii?aaeaao ia
oieueei ian, ii ii?aaeae e nia?aiaiieeia Iao?a. Any Aa?iia oiai a?aiaie
iaaethaeaea e aeeaeeanue oiio, eae yoi ainoaea?noai i?iaoaeeei
ae?aiaaoea aioo?e neeu e i?iyaeei oio iioaioeeae yia?aee, eioi?ue iii
oae aeieai ne?uaaei a naiae aeoaeia.

Ai anao aeaeao eneonnoaa oaia Iao?a oaeaeyeinue aieiaiea . Iaienaii
iiiaeanoai iiyi, ?iiaiia, ea?oei e iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Ana
aaoi?u iaeciaiii i?eciatho Iao?a aaeeeei .

I iiuiue aeanoaeei noaeueau !

Ia oae ee ou iaae naiie aacaeiie,

Ia aunioa, ocaeie aeaeaciie ,

?inneth iiaeiye ia aeuau?

A.N.Iooeei.

I?EOIAe E AEANOE. IIIICEOeEss.

“Iao? i?eoae e aeanoe iinea ianeieueeeo eao ai?ueau ca i?anoie, eioi?oth
aaee aeaa a?oiie?iaee, aicaeaaeyaiua Ieeineaaneeie e Ia?uoeeiuie.“1
No?aeueoeu ,aicaeaaeyaiua Nioueae , iuoaeenue ono?ieoue iiaue ia?aai?io
n oeaeueth iecaa?aeaiey Iao?a. Oaeei ia?acii i/aiue nei?i Iao? iuooee oo
ionoioo , ia eioi?ie iniiauaaeanue aai aeanoue . Yoi iieiaeaiea
iniciaaae ia oieueei Iao? , ii e aai i?aaeoanoaaiieee , e iie iuoaeenue
iaeoe ec iaai auoiae. Iie ia/a?oaee i?ia?aiio i?aia?aciaaiee,
i?aneaaeiaaaooth naiae oeaeueth eeoue eni?aaeaiea nouanoaiaaaoeo onoiaa
iauanoaa , ii ia eo caiaio. I?aia?aciaaiey aeieaeiu auee einiooueny

?ai?aaiecaoeee aii?oaeaiiuo nee, noa?u oeiainia , yeiiiieee e oi?aiaee.
Auea i?eciaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aieaa oaniiai nii?eeiniiaaiey n
aa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie e ia?auaiey e iei ca iiiiuueth. A ieaiao eiaeenue
oaeaea eciaiaiey a nioeeaeueiie noa?a : i?aaeinoaaeaiea naiioi?aaeaiey
ai?iaeneiio ianaeaieth e aeaaea /anoe/iay ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa .

Aa?iainy oaia?ue e Iao?o e iiniio?ei , /oi aea naeaeae ii .Iao? i?eiye
oaea eiaaoothny i?ia?aiio , iaiiiai eciaiea aa e ?anoe?ea .Aeiaaaee
?aoi?io i?aaia , eciaiaiey a ia?aca iiaaaeaiey , ii i?eia?o
onoaiiaeaoeony a Aa?iia , ii inoaaee iai?eeiniiaaiiie aeaaioth i?iaeaio
nioeeaeueiie noa?u – e?aiinoiia i?aaith.

Caoyioaoayny aieia , aeeeaoayny 20 eao , ?oeiaiaeeea i?eiyoeai iiiaeo
?aoaiee ,neaaenoaeai yoiai auei onei?aiea oiaea i?aia?aciaaiee e ,ii?ie
, iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee e i?iaiaeeiuo ia?ii?eyoee.
“Iinoiyiii ?acae?aaeaaiue aieiie , oaeaeaaiue aa aieiith , Iao? ia eiae
aiciiaeiinoe nenoaiaoece?iaaoue naieo ieaiia ; ii aeo?ai i?iianny iaae
naiae aea?aeaaie e naiei ia?iaeii. Ii ecia?aoae , oai?ee e iaaiaeee
oaean.”2

I?aia?aciaaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue Iao? ia/ae n?aco aea ii
aica?auaieth Aaeeeiai iinieuenoaa ec Aa?iiu. Ioeoeeaeueiie oeaeueth
Iinieuenoaa auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea ae?oaeaneeo ioiioaiee ?innee n
aa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie e iiene nithcieeia i?ioea Oo?oeee, ii ?aaeueiie
caaea/ae aeey Iao?a auei ociaoue i iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie
Aa?iiu , ainoaea?noaaiiii ono?ienoaa , nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, ono?ienoaa e
iniauaiee a?iee, i oeioa -Iao?a eioa?aniaaei aaniethoii ana. *oi aea
eanaaony aeeieiiaoe/aneeo oeaeae iooaoanoaey , oi ioaeii caiaoeoue, /oi
no?aiu Aa?iiu i?eiyee ?onneia iinieuenoai, iyaei aiai?y, i?ioeaaeii:
?inney ia oieueei ia iaoea nithcieeia i?ioea Oo?oeee , ii aua ieacaeinue
, /oi ia/aee oi?ie?iaaoueny yeaiaiou aioe?onneiai aeiea a Aa?iia. Ia
aeeieiiaoe/aneii iii?eua y?eeo oniaoia aeinoe/ue ia oaeaeinue. Ii yoa
iiacaeea aeaea i/aiue iiiaia Iao?o: ii oaeaeae e ?aoee aeey naay
iiiaeanoai eioa?aniaaaoeo aai aii?inia.

“ Aa?ioaoenue ec iooaoanoaey ii Aa?iia a aaaonoa 1699a. , oea?ue yaeeny
e naiei iiaeaeaiiui a iaeayiee aeeoaey Caiaaea, a eiai aai aua ia
aeaeuaaee. A /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae, 29 aaaonoa 1699a. , auoae oeac ,ii
eioi?iio aaeaii auei ai?iaeu a?eoue e iaeaaaoueny a eiino?aiiia ieaouea,
aaiaa?neiai eee o?aioeocneiai iie?iy, ia?acoeu onoaiiaeaiiiai ieaouey
auee ?aneeaaiu ii oeeoeai. Aaaeiui ?ac?aoaeinue iineoue noa?ia ieaouea ,
ii n 1705 a. ana aeieaeiu auee iineoue iiaia ieaouea iiae no?aoii oo?aoa
eee aieaa no?iaiai iaeacaiey.”1 Ai?iaea ecaeaaia n/eoaeanue
iai?eeiniiaaiiui oe?aoaieai, i?eciaeii /anoe , ?iaeiaeoinoe , i?aaeiaoii
ai?aeinoe, iiyoiio yoio oeac aucaae nii?ioeaeaiea, ii Iao? ?aoee yoo
i?iaeaio yeiiiie/aneei iooai: iioaiea ai?iaeu iaeaaaeinue iniaui
iaeiaii, aaee/eia eioi?iai ii?aaeaeyeanue ninoiyoaeueiinoueth
iaeaaeaoaey naai oe?aoaiey. ?aneieueieeai e aiaaoui eoioeai ai?iaea
iaoiaeeeanue a aiae 100 ?oaeae, i?e oieaoa iaeiaa auaeaaaeanue aeyoa n
iaaeienueth ”ai?iaea – eeoiyy oyaioa” .Aeiaieueii oaeeaeoaeueiia ia/aei
i?aia?aciaaiee, ii anee aieaa aeoaiei caaeoiaoueny iaae yoei aii?inii ,
ia?aoeoueny e enneaaeiaaieyi a iaeanoe ineoieiaee, oi iu oaeaeei ,/oi
oaeei ia?acii aue /anoe/ii neiieai ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea? iaaeaeo
?inneae e Caiaaeii, e aeaaea, a eaeie-oi noaiaie yoi iiaeaioiaeei
niciaiey ethaeae e aini?eyoeth aeaeueiaeoeo eciaiaiee.

Aeaaiui oaaii Iao?a a ia?aua aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey auei oie/oiaeaiea
no?aeueoeia, eioi?ua n naiiai aeaonoaa oea?y noaiiaeeenue o iaai ia
iooe. Iinea oiai eae Iao? cayaee i naiai iaia?aiee ?aoi?ie?iaaoue
aii?oaeaiiua neeu e noi?ie?iaaoue iiaoth a?ieth ia aa?iiaeneee eaae, ii
eae au aeae iiiyoue, /oi a?aiy , eiaaea no?aeueoeu auee naiie
aianiiniaiie neeie i?ioei. Oaeei ia?acii no?aeueoeu auee inoaeaeaiu ia
oie/oiaeaiea. Co?aeaoeeea iieee oaia?ue ioi?aaeyee ia naiua a?yciua
?aaiou, iiaeaeueoa io Iineau, – no?aeueoeu iaee a iiaeo. A ia?oa 1698 a.
iie iiaeiyee aoio, a yoi a?aiy Iao? iaoiaeeeny a Aiaeee. No?aeueoeu
iineaee ec Aciaa a Iineao aeaiooaoeeth n eceiaeaieai naieo naoiaaiee.
Aeaiooaoeey aa?ioeanue ie n /ai , ii i?eaacea n niaie aoaei?aaeauea
ecaanoey i oii, /oi Iao? aeooie e oaeii i?aaeaeny /oaeacaioeai, a
caeeth/aiiay a Aeaae/ueai iiianou?a oea?aaia Niouey i?ecuaaao naieo
i?aaeieo noi?iiieeia ia caueoo o?iia e aeoa?y io iyoaaeiiai e
ia/anoeaiai oea?y”.2 Co?aeueoeu iiaeiyee aoio e aeaeioeenue ia Iineao.
Ia ano?a/o ei aunooiee aaia?ae Oaei, ano?aoeeenue iie 17ethiy 1698a.
ieiei Aine?anaineiai iiianou?y. Aienei aaia?aea Oaeia i?aainoiaeeei e ii
/eneaiiinoe, e ii iniauaiiinoe , iiyoiio iiaaaea auea ia noi?iia
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo aiene. Ianeieueei /aeiaae auei oaeoi, a inoaeueiua
auee caa?aiu a ieai. Iao?, ociaa ia yoii,oi?iieeny n aica?auaieai e,
ainiieueciaaaoenue neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeeae, ?aoee, /oi yoi oaea/iue
i?aaeeia aeey iaianaiey ieii/aoaeueiiai oaea?a ii no?aeaoeeei
oi?ie?iaaieyi. I?eaoaa a Iineao, Iao? n?aco aea iauyaee ?icune, eioi?ue
aue ianei?i i?iaaaeai aaia?aeii Oaeiui e ?iiiaeaiianeei, ii yoiai auei
iaei e ?icunee aiciaiiaeyeenue ianeieueei ?ac. Iieiaiiuo no?aeueoeia
eeai oaeaaee , eeai ioi?aaeyee a canoaiee. I?iaiaeeeenue iuoee n
oeaeueth iieo/aiey yaiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa o/anoey oea?aaiu Niouee a
caaiai?a i?ioea Iao?a. ?icunee nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ianniauie eaciyie. Iao?
caaeaeny oeaeueth ?ac e iaanaaaea ecaaaeoueny io no?aeueoeia e naeaeae
ana aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee. No?aeueoeu en/acee. Ia auei aieaa
no?aeueoeia , ii ia auei e aienea. ”Nionoy ianeieueei ianyoeaa oea?ue
iniciae naith iiniaoiinoue, iioiio ii aue auioaeaeai “aica?auaoue e
aeecie oia?oeo” e a 1700 a. a aeoaa iiae Ia?aie i?eieiaee o/anoea
noaeaoeeea iieee – yoi i?iaeioeeaeueiua no?aeueoeu, eioi?ua oeacii io 11
naioya?y 1698 a. auee eeoaiu naiaai eiaie e i?aaiecaoeee, a oeacii io 29
yiaa?y 1699a. ei auei aica?auaii e oi eae?oaia.“1 Ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea
ia oie/oiaeaiee no?aeueoeia auei i?eiyoi a 1705 a. iinea A?oaiaaeueneiai
aoioa, a eioi?ii i?eieiaee o/anoea inoaoee ia aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiuo
iie/eu.

Iinea oie/oiaeaiey no?aeueoeia ia?aae oea?ai aicieeea ae?oaay i?iaeaia:
o ?innee ia auei a?iee, eioi?ay iiaea au ieacaoue na?ueaciia
nii?ioeaeaiea. Iiae noaiaie Aciaa Iao? eniuoae oeaiiinoue naiaai aienea
e iaia?oaeee, /oi aii?oaeaiiay neea , eioi?oth ii iaaeayeny a ieo iaeoe,
ia nouanoaiaaea.

No?aeaoeeia ainnoaiea auei ia i?inoi au?aaeaieai iaaeiaieuenoaa, oai eae
n ieie iaioeenue, iaeaeaiiuo no?aeueoeia- yoi auei auyaeaieai
nouanoaiaaaoeo iiiiceoeeiiiuo iano?iaiee a no?aia. Ia yaeyaony nae?aoii
oio oaeo, /oi iiiaea noa?ua aiy?a ia iiieiaee Iao?a, a ,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia i?eaaonoaiaaee aai caoae. Iaaeaeaiea /oi-eeai
iaiyoue, eiina?aaoeaiinoue iuoeaiey e a?aaeaeaaiue iano?ie ei anaio
eiicaiiiio, iiaiio iiie/eee i?ioea oea?y /anoue aiy?noaa. E n yoei
i?eoiaeeeinue n/eoaoueny Iao?o. Aiciiaeii eiaiii yoio oaeoi? ia aeae
aiciiaeiinoe Iao?o iieoe aeaeueoa e aeoaaea a naieo i?aia?aciaaieyo.
Iiiiceoeey ca/anooth ea?aea oi?iicyuoth ?ieue a i?iaeaeaeaiee ?aoi?i.

Aieueoei oaea?ii aeey Iao?a auei oi , /oi a iiiiceoeeiiiua e?oae aioae
aai nui Aeaenae. Iao? ia ?ac iuoaeny i?eaea/ue Aeaenay e naiei aeaeai e
caaioai, ii oea?aae/ i?iyaeye e yoiio iieiaeoaa ?aaiiaeooea.“ Iaeiiaoe,
27 ieoya?y 1715 a. Iao? iinoaaee nuia ia?aae auai?ii: eeai oio
iaeoiaaony e aianoa n iooeii aicueiaony ca aeaei, eee io?a/aony io
i?anoieiianeaaeiaaiey.. Ia o?aaiaaiea iooea ii?aaeaeeoue naia ianoi a
aeecie, Aeaenae ioaaoee, /oi niaeanai iino?e/ueny a iiiaoe.“1 Ii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe o Aeaenay ia auei aeaeaiey aanoe iiiaoaneoth aeeciue.
Aeaenae aeaeae aeey naay auoiae a aaanoaa ca a?aieoeo. Oea?aae/ aaaeae a
Aano?eth, aaea aio auei oaeii i?aaeinoaaeaii oaaaeeua. Nionoy ei?ioeia
a?aiy ii aue iaeaeai e 31 yiaa?y 1718 a. i?eaacai a Iineao. Iieo/ea
i?iuaiea iooea ii iiaeienae ca?aiaa i?eaioiaeaiiue iaieoano ia io?a/aiee
io i?anoiea. Iinea yoiai oea?aae/ ?ane?ue anao naieo niiauieeia, eioi?ua
auee inoaeaeaiu , eaciaiu eee nineaiu a Neae?ue. Iinea yoeo niauoee
ia?oa 1718 a. oea?neee aeai? ia?aaoae a Iaoa?ao?a. ”No?ao ca naith
aeeciue caiooee Aeaenath ?annoaeie. Ai a?aiy aeii?inia ii eaae,
iaiaa?eaae ae?oaeo, /oiau oiaeeoue naith aeio. Ii Iaoa?ao?aneee yoai
?icunea onoaiiaee aai aannii?ioth aeio. 14 ethiy 1718 a. Aeaenay acyee
iiae no?aaeo e iinaaeeee a Iao?iiaaeianeoth e?aiinoue. Noae , ninoiyaoee
ec 127 aaaeiuo /eiia, aaeeiiaeanii iauyaee oea?aae/a aeinoieiui nia?oe.
24ethiy 1718 a. Aeaenath iauyaeee nia?oiue i?eaiai? ca ainoaea?noaaiioth
eciaio.”2

NICAeAIEA A?IEE E OEIOA.

Io naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia Iao? oianeaaeiaae aieueooth aiaiioth neeo.
Iineianeia ainoaea?noai OVII aaea auei a ninoiyiee aunoaaeoue a?ieth
aieaa /ai a 200 000 /aeiaae. Ii yoa ia?iiiay a?iey auea i/aiue
iaiaeii?iaeiie ii ninoaao e iao/aieth. ssae?i iineianeie a?iee
ninoaaeyei iiie/aiea. Oaeei ia?acii, yoi ia?iiiia aiaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea
iaei iioiaeeei ia ?aaoey?ioth a?ieth. A?iey aeinoaaoayny Iao?o auea
ianeaaenoaaiiie , iia iaoiaeeeanue ia naiiiaania/aiee. Eaaeaeue aiei oae
a iioiae e niaea?aeae naay a aienea ia nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa. Ieeaeiai
iniaiai iao/aiey a a?iee ia nouanoaiaaei, oi/ii oae aea eae e ia auei e
iaeii?iaeiiai iaioiaee?iaaiey, e aii?oaeaiey. ?oeiaiaeyuea aeieaeiinoe a
a?iee caieiaeenue a nayce ia n caneoaaie eee niaoeeaeueiui ia?aciaaieai,
a , eae aiai?eeinue ii ii?iaea. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, a?iey ia yaeyeanue oie
neeie, eioi?ay iiaea au ieacaoue nii?ioeaeaiea nia?aiaiiie ae
aa?iiaeneie a?iee, io eioi?ie e eiioeo OVII aaea iia aieaa /ai
ionoaaaea.

“Aua ioaoe Iao?a ,Aeaenae Ieoaeeiae/, i?aaei?eieiae iiiuoee
ia?aono?ienoaa a?iee. I?e iai a 1681 a. auea nicaeaia eiienney iiae
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii eiycy A.A. Aieeoeeia, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea
eciaieoue ono?ienoai a?iee. Auee i?iaaaeaiu iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey: a?iey
noaea aieaa no?oeoo?e?iaaiiie, oaia?ue iia aeaeeeanue ia iieee e ?iou,
oaeaea auee iacia/aiu ioeoea?u a caaeneiinoe io iiuoa e caneoa ,a ia io
i?ienoiaeaeaiey. 12 yiaa?y 1682 a.Aiy?neay Aeoia i?eiyea iinoaiiaeaiea,
a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue, /oi noa?oei ioeoea?ii iiaeao noaoue e iaciaoiue
/aeiaae, ii iiuoiue e ciathuee, e ana iacaaeneii io i?ienoiaeaeaiey
aeieaeiu aio iiae/eiyoueny.”1

Aeaaiaea?y yoei eciaiaieyi iineianeia aienei noaei aieaa i?aaieciaaiiui
e no?oeoo?e?iaaiiui. Ii ana aea yoo aiaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth iaeuecy auei
iacaaoue ?aaeueiie ?aaoey?iie a?ieae ec-ca ia?iiiiai eiee/anoaa
ia?aaeeoeia, nio?aieaoeony n aeaaieo a?aiai, iaeioi?ua ec ieo
ioiineeenue aua e a?aiaiai oea?noaiaaiey Aaneeey III.

Oaeei ia?acii Iao? iieo/ee a?ieth oioue e ia oaeiaeaoai?yaooth anai
o?aaiaaieyi aiaiiie iaoee, ii a eaeie-oi ia?a oaea iiaeaioiaeaiiie e
aeaeueiaeoei i?aia?aciaaieyi.

N ?aiiaai aeaonoaa Iao?a oaeaeaei aiaiiia aeaei .A naeao , a eioi?uo
aeee iaeaiueeee oea?ue, nicaeae aeaa “iioaoiuo“ iieea: Naiaiianeee e
I?aia?aaeaineee- oaea niaa?oaiii ii iiaui i?aaeeai, ioaa/aaoei
aa?iiaeneei noaiaea?oai. E 1692 a. yoe iieee auee ieii/aoaeueii
noi?ie?iaaiu. Ii eo ia?acoeo iicaea auee nicaeaiu e ae?oaea iieee.

“A 1699a.Iao? aaeae i?iecaanoe iauee ?ae?ooneee iaai? e ia/aoue iao/aiea
iiaia?aioeaa, ii ia?acoeo I?aia?aaeaineiai e Naiaiianeiai iieeia, a
nayce n iiaeaioiaeie e aieia ni Oaaoeeae. Yoi ia?ii?eyoea aeaei 25 iiauo
iaoioiuo iieeia e 2 eaaaea?eenei-ae?aaoineeo. Any a?iey auea ?acaeaeaia
ia aaia?aeuenoaa.“1 Aeey iiaia?aioeaa aue ninoaaeai iniaue a?oeeoe ,
o/anoea a ninoaaeaiee eioi?iai i?eieiae nai oea?ue. Iao?ianeay a?iey
auea iaioiaee?iaaia ii ia?acoeo iaiaoeeie iaoiou. Aue nicaeai
niaoeeaeueiue aiaiiue noae, iniaia aaaeiinoai, caieiaaoaany aii?inaie
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai iaania/aiey a?iee – oaia?ue a?iey niaea?aeaeanue ca
ainoaea?noaaiiue n/ao.

Iinea iia?iia iiae Ia?aie a 1700a. Iao? niiaa ia/eiaao i?iaiaeeoue
i?aia?aciaaiey e iao/aiea aiaiiiio aeaeo a a?iee: eco/aaony iiaay
oaeoeea aaaeaiey aiy, eaeoo ?aaoey?iua o/aiey iiauo nieaeao.

Oaeei ia?acii a ia?aii aeanyoeeaoee OVIII a. ?inneeneay a?iey oaea
nouanoaaiii ioee/aeanue io oie , eioi?ay aeinoaeanue a ianeaaenoai
Iao?o. Yoa a?iey yaeeanue oie neeie , eioi?ay iiaea ieacaoue ?aaeueiia
nii?ioeaeaiea, a iinea iiaaaeu a Naaa?iie aieia iia canoaaeea anth
Aa?iio acaeyiooue ia ?inneth , eae ia neeueioth aea?aeaao.

Iao? inoaaee iinea naay aiaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth, aeieacaaooth naie
aeanoyuea aiaaua ea/anoaa e ninoaaeythuoth iaeio ec aannii?iuo e neaaiuo
caneoa I?aia?aciaaoaey. Aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey i?aaiecaoeee a?iee eiaea
oaaaeue i ?aiaao, ii iia eiaea cia/aiea e aeey ooaoneeo i?aaiecaoeee.
Yoio caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeo ii?aaeaeee ii?yaeie i?ioiaeaeaiey neoaeau eae
aiaiiuo oae e ooaoneeo /eiiaieeia. Oaaaeue i?aaeoniao?eaaea iinoaiaiiia
i?iaeaeaeaiea aaa?o ii neoaeaaiie eanoieoea, ii ia eneeth/aea
aiciiaeiinoe ia?aoiiai aeaeaeaiey.

*eiu aiaiiua

ooaoneea /eiu Eeannu

Ii?neea Nooiiooiua

Aaia?ae-aaeie?ae Aaia?aeenneion

Oaeueaeia?oae Eaioeea?

I

aaeie?ae Aaia?ae ii a?oeeea?ee; aaia?ae io eaaaea?ee; aaia?ae io
eioaioa?ee. Ioaaonoaaiiue oaeiue niaaoiee. II

aeoea-aaeie?ae. Eiio?-aaeie?ae Aaia?ae-eaeoaiaio;

aaia?ae-iaei?. Oaeiue niaaoiee. Aeaenoaeoaeueiue noaoneee niaaoiee.

III- IV

eaieoai-eiiaiaei? A?eaaaee? Noaoneee niaaoiee.

V

Eaieoai I ?aiaa. Iieeiaiee. Eieeaaeneee niaaoiee.

VI

Eaieoai II ?aiaa. Iiaeiieeiaiee. Iaaeai?iue niaaoiee.

VII

Oeioa eaieoai-eaeoaiaio. A?oeeea?eeneee eaieoai.

III ?aiaa. Iaei?. Eieeaaeneee ananni?.

VIII

Oeioa eaeoaiaio. A?oeeea?eeneee eaieoai. Eaieoai eee ?ioieno?.
Oeooey?iue niaaoiee.

IO

A?oeeea?eeneee eaeoaiaio. Ooaan-eaieoai eee ooaan-?ioieno?. Eieeaaeneee
nae?aoa?ue.

O

Naiaoneee nae?aoa?ue.

OI

Oeioa ie/iai. Ii?o/ee Aoaa?ineee nae?aoa?ue.

OII

A?oeeea?eeneee eiinoaaeue. Ii?o/ee Naiaoneee ?aaeno?aoa?.

OIII

I?aii?uee eee ei?iao. Eieeaaeneee ?aaeno?aoi?.

OIV

Oaaaeue auea iauyaeaia 24 yiaa?y 1722aiaea. Oeac i oaaaee ia aeiioneae
eaeeo-eeai ia?ooaiee a ii?yaeea i?ioiaeaeaiey neoaeau.

Ia?iiiia cia/aiea Iao? i?eaeaaae aiaiii-ii?neiio oeioo, aai nicaeaieth e
?acaeoeth. Iaoaea/e ia?aiai Acianeiai iioiaea i/aiue ynii iieacaee, /oi
aac neieueei-ieaoaeue neeueiiai oeioa i?e/a?iiii?neoth e?aiinoue acyoue
iaaiciiaeii. Iiyoiio Iao? ioaeaao oeac i iino?iaiee oeioeeee. Nicaeaiiay
a iaeio ceio oeioeeey auea i?iaaaeaia ii iaeeei ?aeai e Aciao. Oeioeeey
noiyea a /oaeii ii?a, aaea ia auei ie iaeiie aaaaie, eioi?ay au
i?eiaaeeaaeaea ae. Ei?aaee yoie oeioeeee auee iino?iaiu ec ia?ceiai
aea?aaa e ,ii neiaai eiino?aiiuo yenia?oia , aiaeeeenue eeoue ia ae?iaa.
Iao? aeaeae ana aiciiaeiia ni naiae noi?iiu aeey oe?aieaiey e ?acaeoey
oeioa, ii yoie i?e/eia ia niaio iaeia?aiioiui ianoa?ai auee i?eaeaoaiu
aiaeeeneea e aieeaiaeneea ianoa?a, eioi?ua neaaeeenue naiei ianoa?noaii
a yoii aeaea.

Aicieeee a?naiaeu e ii?oiaua ianoa?neea. Ianei?i auee iao/aiu iao?inu e
ioeoea?u. Auei ono?iaii iauaa oi?aaeaiea oeioii; aaeie?ae E?then
ninoaaee i?aaeea ii?neie neoaeau. E oaea a 1710a. *a?iia ii?a ia?anaeaee
?onneea ei?aaee.

Aua aei ia/aea aieiu ni oaaaeaie ,ia/eiathony noieeiiaaiey n ieie. Iao?
iiieiaao ,/oi aac aiaiiiai oeioa aio ia iaeaaeaoue Iaaie e aa onoueyie.
Aaeaeo yoiai Iao? ia/eiaao iino?ieeo iiaiai oeioa e aa?ao a iae nai
aeoeaiia o/anoea ia?aaia n ianoa?aie-ieioieeaie, eociaoeaie e ae?.
.?onneea noaea no?ieee ii eo/oei aiaeeeneei e aieeaiaeneei /a?oaaeai.
Io?eoeaoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea oeioa ieacuaaea ioaeaeaiiinoue
aa?oae io ii?y. Yoi iaoneiaeei iaiaoiaeeiinoue iicaaioeoueny ia
iaono?ienoaa ei?aaeano?iaiey a Iaoa?ao?aa, no?ieoaeuenoai ei?aaaeueiuo
ianoa?neeo ia/aeinue 5 iiya?y 1704aiaea.

“Ia?auie ?onneeie iao?inaie auee oa aea “iioaoiua“. Iao? ia/ae
caaioeoueny i nicaeaiee ee/iiai ninoaaa oeioa aua a 1697aiaeo:ii
ioi?aaee ianeieueei ia?oee o/aieeia a Aaiaoeeth, Aiaeeth e Aieeaiaeeth.
A 1699a. iie aa?ioeenue ia?aoii a ?inneth .Iaaeaynue iaia?oaeeoue
aeoaieea iiciaiey a ei?aaaeueiii e ii?neii aeaea o o/aieeia, Iao?
aeaeaao ei yecaiai a ai?iaea Ai?iiaaea. Ec anao o/aieeia, oioy au
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii, yecaiai auaea?aeaee oieueei 4 /aeiaaea.“1
Iuouaeanue ino?ay iaoaaoea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia, iiyoiio Iao?o
i?eoeinue iaiyoue iao?inia, ioeoea?ia e ei?aaeano?ieoaeae a Aiaeee e
Aieeaiaeee.

Aeaoeua Iao?a – ?inneeneee oeio ia ?ac nua?ae aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie
ainoaea?noaa. Ia?aay iiaaaea ?onneeo ia ii?a-iiaaaea o iuna Aaiaoo, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie Iao? caiieo/ee Oeieyiaeeth. Yoa iiaaaea aeieacaea
aiaiioth iiuue e ciaiea ii?neiai aeaea . Iinea iiaaaeu o i. Aaiaoo Iao?
noae i?iaiaeeoue aeiaieueii aeaeueiea aiaiiua ?aeaeu. ?onneee oeio
noaiiaeeny ana neeueiaa e iiuoiaa. Ii noae oeioii, eioi?ue oaaaeaee
aea?aeaau-iaeaaeaoaeueieoeu e?oiiaeoeo oeioia: Aiaeey, Aeaiey,
Aieeaiaeey. y?eei i?eia?ii yoiai auei niauoea 1716a.: Iao?o I
i?aaeeiaeeee eiiaiaeiaaoue oeioaie /aou?ao aea?aeaa( Aeaiey, Aiaeey,
Aieeaiaeey, ?inney) aeey io?aiu oi?aiauo ei?aaeae io oaaaeneeo eaia?ia.
Yoi niauoeai ia?iiiie aaaeiinoe aeey Iao?a e ii i?iyaee naay iaeeo/oei
ia?acii a yoie eaiiaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii Iao? I auaae ?inneth a ?aia ii?neeo aea?aeaa. A aieueoae
noaiaie aeaaiaea?y eiaiii aiaiii-ii?neiio oeioo oaeaeinue “i?i?oaeoue
ieii a Aa?iio”, /oi ieacaei naia aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
eiia?ee e oe?aieaiey aa iiaouanoaa.

?AOI?IU AEANOE,AUOA,EOEUeOO?1

Noa?ua iaaaooaeua i?aaiu oi?aaeaiey auee oaea iai?eaiaeiu aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai oiio?aaeaiey e iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?aia?aciaaiee nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey auea aucaaia ianoiyoaeueiie iio?aaiinoueth oiai a?aiaie.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?aia?aciaaiey Iao? I ia/ae i?iaiaeeoue a eiioea OVII
a., ii iie i?ioiaeeee a i/aiue neiaeiuo oneiaeyo. Ia?yaeo n iiauie
i?aaiaie aaeieieno?aoeee nouanoaiaaee noa?ua neeueii onoa?aaoea eo oi?iu
– oaeia ni/aoaiea noieue ?acee/iuo e ianiioaaonoaothueo ae?oa ae?oao
i?aaiia i?eaaei e oiio, /oi iie ia oieueei iaoaee , ii e a?aaeeee ae?oa
ae?oao. Iiaua niiaeaeaeieee Iao?a iaeaoua e nia?yaeaiiua ia aa?iiaeneee
eaae noiyee ?yaeii n ieieueie/eie, e?aa/eie, iinoaeueie/eie; noa?ua
i?eeacu e?aniaaeenue ?yaeii n o/?aaeaeaieyie Iiaiai ia?aciaaiey. Aeaaiie
aea i?iaeaiie yaeyeinue oi, /oi iiaua o/?aaeaeaiey caeinoaiaaee o
caiaaeiuo oieueei oi?io, a inoaeny i?aaeiei. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, noa?ia
niaea?aeaiea ia?aeeee a iiaoth oi?io, ii io yoiai aea iii ia
eciaieeinue. Yoi i?ioeai?a/ea i?eaaei e oiio, /oi i?eioeei aeaenoaey
iiauo i?aaiia inoaeny noa?ui. ”A 1708a. auea i?iaaaeaia
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiay ?aoi?ia, neaaenoaeai eioi?ie auei
nicaeaiea 8 e?oiiuo aoaa?iaoi?noa. Yoi ?aoaiea auei aucaaii aieiie, o.e.
neieueei iiauo aaeeieoe , noieueei yaea? iiauo aiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.
?acoeueoaoii yoie ?aoi?iu oaea a 1709a. i?iyaeeny a oiaea aeoau iiae
Iieoaaie.“1 Nicaeaiiua aoaa?iaoi?noaa i?aaenoaaeyee niaie aiaiiua e
oeiainiaua ie?oaa. ?aoaiea i nicaeaiee aoaa?iaoi?noa auei oanii naycaii
n aeaeaie eacia/aenoaa: ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoay nenoaia iinooieaiey
aeioiaeia i?aaeiieaaaea oi , /oi yoi iinooieaiea aeieaeii auoue
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui a a ?iee oeaio?a aunooiaea ?aoooa. Ii o Iao?a auee
naie ieaiu, nin?aaeioi/aiea aeioiaeia a ?aoooa i?eaaei au e oiio, /oi
n?aaenoaa auee au iaieioaii ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
o/?aaeaeaieyie, eiaaoeie naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae a ai?iaeneie oi?aaa; a
oea?ue iaia?eaaeny aieueooth /anoue aeioiaeia eniieueciaaoue ia aiaiiua
oeaee. ?acuaaeeiaiiua, aac iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n ainoaea?noaii,
e?iia eae aiee oea?y, aoaa?iaoi?noaa aeieaeiu auee aio a yoii iiiiaaoue.
Yoi e yaeyeinue iniiaiie i?e/eiie eo nicaeaiey. O iiaio/?aaeaeaiiuo
aaeieieno?aoeee ia auei /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiuo ooieoeee e iieiiii/ee, ii
aeaaiie aiceaaaaiie ia ieo caaea/ae auei iiiieiaiea aiaiiie eaciu.
Aiciee eiioeeeo, o.e. oea?ue aeoiae ia oaaee/aiee iinooieaiee a eacio io
nicaeaiiuo aaeieieno?aoeee , a oa n/eoaee naay iaycaiiuie caueuaoue naie
eioa?anu. Iao? i?eaaaioe e iau/iiio i?eaio: oeacii io 6 ethiy 1712 a.
aeaiueae auee i?inoi ioia?aiu e ia?aaeaiu Aaeie?aeoaenoao. Yoi n?aaenoai
ieacaeinue ianoieueei oaea/iui, /oi aai noaee i?eiaiyoue aeiaieueii
/anoi, neaaenoaeai yoiai auei auno?ia enoiuaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.
”Ieeoi ia niaeaniauaaeny n ?inienueth aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia. Oea?ee
iieiaeoee aanii?yaeie.“ 1

Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey yaeyeanue i/aiue neiaeiui e caiooaiiui iaoaieciii.
Nicaeaiiay nenoaia iiae/eiaiey aoaa?iaoi?noa eeiieeanue e oiio , /oiau
naeaeaoue ec aoaa?iaoi?noa iianaianoiuo a?aiaeaoi?ia, niaaaeaiiuo ii/oe
aaca?aie/iuie iieiiii/eyie aeey aeiauaaiey n?aaenoa, ec eioi?uo iie
iiaee au oiea/eaaoue aiaiiua iaeiae.

Ieioi i?in/eoaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ia/aea i?eieiaoue ana aieaa
no?ieiue aeae eeoue e eiioeo oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a I.

?aoi?ia 1708-1710aa.ie/aai ia i?aaei?eiyea aeey oiai, /oiau niaeaniaaoue
iiaue aeae i?iaeioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ni noa?ie aaeieieno?aoeeae,
nin?aaeioi/aiiie a Iineaa. Ia auei /aoeiai iaoaiecia acaeiiaeaenoaey
i?iaeioeee n oeaio?ii.

A ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a noa?ay nenoaia aaeieieno?aoeee. Ii ia/aee
aicieeaoue. ia?yaeo ni noa?uie , iiaua i?aaiu. Iiaua i?eeacu
?ani?ino?aiyee naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia anth oa??eoi?eth ?innee. A yoii
iie auee noiaee n aoaeoueie eieeaaeyie. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoeie niauoeyie
ee/iay eaioeaey?ey oea?y iinoaiaiii iooaniyea Aiy?neoth Aeoio ia aoi?ie
ieai. I?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiay eiiea noa?uo ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee.

O/?aaeaeaiea Naiaoa a 1711a. yaeyaony aaaeiui oaaii ia iooe oie/oiaeaiey
onoa?aaoeo aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia. Naiao, o/?aaeaeaiiue oeacii oea?y
2 ia?oa 1711a.,noae aunoei i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui i?aaiii .Ii caiaiee
Aiy?neoth Aeoio, i?inouanoaiaaaooth aieaa 200eio. Aeaaiie caaea/ae
aeayoaeueiinoe iiaiai i?aaia auei neaaeaiea ca ?anii?yaeaieai oeiainaie,
ae?oaea aea ooieoeee Naiaoa aia/aea nouanoaiaaiey auee iayniu. Iie
auyniyeenue iinoaiaiii: iie ?inee e iiiieiyeenue ec aiaea a aiae, ec
ianyoea a ianyoe. Aei iiiaioa aaaaeaiey eieeaaee Naiao ioaaouaae ana
noa?u i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe: i?aainoaeea,
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea, iieeoeeth, oeiainu, a?ieth, oi?aiaeth e aiaoithth
iieeoeeo. Naiao acye ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue i aieiao, iaoiaeyueony a
iioiaea, i i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ca n/ao ainoaea?noaa, i i?iaaaeaiee eaiaeia
e o.ae. .*eaiu Naiaoa iacia/aeenue naiei oea?ai. Iao? ii?aaeaeee a Naiao
9 /aeiaae. Naiao nicaeaaaeny a niaoea aac /aoeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i aai
i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo. Iiyoiio iiiaea enoi?eee nii?yo eaeei aea i?aaiii
yaeyeny Naiao: iinoiyiiui eee a?aiaiiui, nicaeaiiui eeoue ec-ca
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiio?iey e oaaee/aiey aeioiaeia. Iaeiia?aiaiii n
o/?aaeaeaieai Naiaoa aue aaaaeai einoeooo oeneaeia. N naiiai ia/aea Iao?
aeaeae iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiiieieoue Naiao i?aaiii eiio?iey. Aia/aea , ia
canaaeaieyo iiaiai nia?aiey , niaiyynue aaeaiany/ii, aeieaeai aue
i?enoonoaiaaoue ooaan-ioeoea? io aaa?aeee.” Ioeoea? aeieaeai aue
i?enoonoaiaaoue, aeaau Naiao aeieaeiinoue naith eni?aaeye ii aeaiiie ei
eino?oeoeee. “2 A iicaea auee o/?aaeaeaiu oeneaeu. Iiiyoea yoi ia
yaeyeinue iiaui aeey aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa(iii auei caeinoaiaaii io
oaaaeneeo eiio?iea?ia), ii aeiaieueii naiaia?aciia ioiioaiea e Naiaoo
naeaeaei eo oieiiaie. A ?aaeaiaioa, ninoaaeaiiii aeey oeneaeia
ioia/aeinue neaaeothuaa: ”Aua?aoue iaa?-oeneaea – /aeiaaea oiiiai e
aeia?iai, ec eaeiai /eia ii au ia aue . Aeaea aea aai nooue nee :
aeieaeai ii iaae anaie aeaeaie oaeii iaaeniao?eaaoue e i?iaaaeuaaoue
iai?aaue noae, oaeaea a iaaeniao?eaaoue e a nai? eaciu e i?i/aai, e eoi
iai?aaaeo o/eieo, oi aeieaeai oeneaea iicaaoue aai ia?aae Naiao e oai
aai oee/eoue, a aoaea oee/aoue eiai, oi iieiaeia oo?aoa a eacio, ae?oaay
aio, oeneaeo, aoaea aea eiai ia oee/aoue , oi ioithaeue a aeio oeneaeo
oiai ia noaaeoue, ieaea aeinaaeiaaoue iiae aeanoeei iaeacaieai e
?aci?aieai anaai eiaiey. Oaeaea iiaeeaaeeo eiaoue ianeieueei iiae niaie
i?iaeioeeae-oeneaeia, e o eaaeaeiai aeaea ii iaeiiio, eioi?ua eiatho ai
anai oaeoth aea neeo eae e iaa?-oeneae, e?iia oiai, /oi aunoaai noaeueth
eee aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa iiae noae aac iaa?-oeneaea iicaaoue ia iiaoo.“1
Oaeei ia?acii aeaaiue eiio?iea? aue i?enoaaeai e Naiaoo, a a 1722a. yoa
aeieaeiinoue auea caiaiaia aeieaeiinoueth i?ieo?i?a aineiio?iey.
Aaaaeaiea yoie aeieaeiinoe niaeaenoaiaaei niaeaniaaieth ioaeaeueiuo
i?iyaeaiee aeanoe, aeieai aeaenoaothueo aac anyeie nayce iaaeaeo niaie
aioo?e iaoaiecia. I?ieo?i? aineiio?iey acaeiiaeaenoaiaae n ?acee/iuie
eniieieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie /a?ac i?ieo?i?ia, noiyaoeo iiae aai
ia/aeuenoaii, a nai i?ieo?i? aineiio?iey yaeyeny iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo
oea?ai e Naiaoii. A eoiaa yoeo i?aia?aciaaiee a 1722 a. aue ia?aciaai
einoeooo i?ieo?aoo?u. Ia aeieaeiinoue aaia?ae-i?ieo?i?a aue iacia/ai
I.E. ssaoaeeineee, A aai iiae/eiaiee iaoiaeeeanue eaioeaey?ey Naiaoa e
i?ieo?aoo?u oeaio?aeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. A aai caaea/o aoiaeeei ?ane?uoea
i?anooieaiee, eo i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea; ii eiae i?aai i?eieiaoue o/anoea a
ianoaeaeaiee ethaiai aii?ina, iia oeacaoue ia aai iacaeiiiinoue,
o?aaiaaoue ia?aniio?a aii?ina e aeaaea i?einoaiiaeoue ?aoaiea Naiaoa.

Ia?ano?ieea i?aaiia aeanoe ia ianoao auea ia/aoa aua a 1708-1709
aa.,eiaaea ?inney auea ?acaeaeaia ia aoaa?iaoi?noaa, a a 1719a. iie a
naith i/a?aaeue aeaeeeenue ia oacaeu. Neiaeiay nenoaia i?aaiia aeanoe e
oi?aaeaiey ia ianoao aeaaaea: ai-ia?auo oi, /oi ianoiia aeai?yinoai
iiaei aieaa aeoeaii aeeyoue ia oi?aaeai/aneee aiia?ao; ai aoi?uo oi, /oi
aeai?yinoai auneacuaaei iaoaeiaieuenoaea oaaee/aieai iauaia naiae
neoaeau.

A 1720 a. aue nicaeai aeaaiue iaaeno?ao, eioi?ue eiae naiae oeaeueth
iai?aaeoue aeayoaeueiinoue ai?iaeiauo iaaeno?aoia, nicaeaiea eioi?uo
auei iaoneiaeaii eioa?anaie ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e oi?aiaee.
Ai?iaeiaua Iaaeno?aou ecae?aeenue ianaeaieai ai?iaea a niioaaonoaee n
ii?aaeaeaiiui eiouanoaaiiui oeaicii. aeey aaaeaiey ai?iaeneeo aeae. A
1721 a. aue aaaaeai Onoaa Iaaeno?aoa, eioi?ue niaea?aeae a naaa
neaaeothuea iieiaeaiey: “ Ai anao ai?iaeao ii?yaei/iuo iaaeno?ao
o/?aaeeoue , iiue aeia?uie onoaaaie niaaaeeoue, oiai niio?aoue , /oiau
auei i?aainoaeea, aeia?oth iieeoeeth o/eieoue, eoia/anoai e iaiooaeoo?u
?aciiiaeaoue.“2 Ii yoiio Onoaao ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea aeaeeeinue ia o?e
aeeueaeee: ?aaoey?iua ethaee ia?aie aeeueaeee – iie i?aaenoaaeyeenue
ciaoiui eoia/anoaii, ianoa?aie ii cieioo, na?aa?yieeaie, eeiiiienoeaie,
aeeaiienoeaie e o.ae.; ?aaoey?iua ethaee aoi?ie aeeueaeee- yoi a
iniiaiii iaeeea oi?aiaoeu, ianoa?a -?aianeaiieee; a o?aoueth aeeueaeeth
aoiaeeea oa ianna ianaeaiey , eioi?ay auea eeoaia i?aaa o/anoaiaaoue a
ai?iaeneii naiioi?aaeaiee- yoi ethaee, ?aaioathuea ia /a?iiauo ?aaioao e
o.ae. .

Oaeaea auee ia?aciaaiu e eiioi?u, e aeaia?oaiaiou, aaaeaaoea aii?inaie
ii oi?aaeaieth e oicyenoao ai?iaea. Oaeei ia?acii , iu iiaeai aeaeaoue,
eae iauay iiaeaeue oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii auea ia?aianaia ia ianoiue
o?iaaiue; n oai aeaaiui ioee/eai, /oi i?aaiu ai?iaeneiai oi?aaeaiey auee
auai?iuie. Aiciiaeii anee au yoio iiiaio iieo/ee ?acaeoea -oi niia au
aei?anoe aei o?iaiy iauaainoaea?noaaiiiai; oai naiui Iao? ia?aaeae a
?oee ai?iaeneeo yeeo yeiiiie/aneoth eieoeeaoeao, o.e. yoa ?aoi?ia
i?iaiaeeeanue ,ia ?yaeo n ae?oaeie, aeey iaiieiaiey ai?iaeneie eaciu e
?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A ia/aea OVII a. Inouanoaeaieai aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aia?aciaaiee auei
caaa?oaii ioi?ieaiea aaniethoecia a ?innee. Oaia?ue a ?oeao iiia?oa
iaoiaeeeanue ?aaeueii aeaenoaothuay neea. Iuouaiea ionoiou iiae
iiaouanoaii, eioi?ia Iao? neeueii iuouae aia/aea oea?noaiaaiey, i?ioei.
Iao? aeaeae naith ?aaeueioth iii?o, no?oeoo?e?iaaiioth, i?eaaaeaiioth,
oioy aua ia ieii/aoaeueii, ii a aieaa no?ieiue aeae: /eiiaieee,
?aaoey?iay a?iey, neeueiue aiaiii-ii?neie oeio; i?aaiu iieeoe/aneiai
nunea iaoiaeeeenue a ?anii?yaeaiee oea?y aeey iaia?aie/aiiiai e
aaneiio?ieueiiai oi?aaeaiey no?aiie. Iaia?aie/aiiay aeanoue oea?y auea
aeiaieueii ii?aaeaeaiii au?aaeaia a Aieineii onoaaa,10-e a?oeeoe,
eioi?ue aeanee:”… Aai Aaee/anoai anoue naiiaeanoiue iiia?o, eioi?ue
ieeiio ia naaoa i naieo aeaeao ioaaoo aeaoue ia aeieaeai, ii e neeo , e
aeanoue eiaao naie ainoaea?noao e caiee, yei o?enoeaineee ainoaea?ue, ii
aiea e aeaaineiaeaieth oi?aaeyoue.“1 Oea?eiaue, eae iaeia ec
iiae/eiaiiuo ainoaea?noao no?oeoo?, ni naiae noi?iiu a aeooiaiii
?aaeaiaioa iiaeoaa?aeaeaea: ”Iiia?oia aeanoue anoue naiiaea?aeaaiay,
eioi?ui iiaeiiaaoueny nai Aia iiaaeaaaao.“2 I?eiyoea Iao?ii oeooea
eiia?aoi?a yaeyeinue ia oieueei iuiaoiei au?aaeaieai, ii e
iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai ooaa?aeaeathuaainy aaniethoecia a ?innee.

Aaniethoeci ,eae aunoay oi?ia oaiaeaeueiie iiia?oee, i?aaeiieaaaao
iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee e aeieaeiiai
?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe a no?aia. Auiieiaiea ia?aiai ec yoeo oneiaee
nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee oeiaine?iaaiey ?ac?anoathuaeny aiaiiie e
a?aaeaeaineie ath?ie?aoee, aoi?ia – neoaeeo iaoa?eaeueiie aacie aeey
?acaeoey ?aaoey?iie a?iee e oeioa. Aaniethoiay iiia?oey i?aaeaea anaai
i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?anu aeai?yinoaa. Ii o/eouaay iacaaiiua oneiaey, a aa
iianaaeiaaiie iieeoeea iaiaoiaeeii auei i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey ,
oe?aieythuea iiceoeee eoia/anoaa e i?iiuoeaiieeia.

Aeaeiia ianoi n?aaee i?aia?aciaaiee Iao?a caieiaao Aeooiaiay ?aoi?ia.
Iao? i?ae?anii ciae enoi?eth ai?ueau ca aeanoue naiaai iooea n
iao?ea?oii Ieeiiii, aio oaeaea auei ecaanoii ioiioaiea Aeooiaainoaa e
aai i?aia?aciaaieyi. A yoi a?aiy iao?ea?oii a ?innee aue Aae?eai.
Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Iao?ii e iao?ea?oii auee yaii iaoyioouie. Iao? ioee/ii
iiieiae no?aieaiea oea?eae ii/eieoue naaa naaoneoth aeanoue- yoi e
iaoneiaeei oa ia?ii?eyoey , eioi?ua auee i?iaaaeaiu a yoie noa?a. A 1700
a. oia? iao?ea?o Aiae?eai, ii oea?ue ia niaoee n eca?aieai iiaiai
iao?ea?oa. ?oeiaiaenoai aeaeaie oea?eae auei ia?aaeaii ?ycaineiio
ieo?iiieeoo Noaoaio ssai?neiio, aai iauyaeee aethnoeoaeai iao?ea?oaai
i?anoiea. Oioue a eeoea ssai?neiai Iao? e ia aeaeae a eeoea ssai?neiai
Iao? e ia aeaeae aeoeaiiai noi?iiieea, ii, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ssai?neee ia
i/aiue y?inoii aunooia i?ioea iieeoeee Iao?a.

Ia aei?iaa Iao?a noaea aua iaeia i?iaeaia – ?aneieueie/anoai.” Iao?o
i?eoeinue ia/aoue ai?ueao n ?aneieueie/anoaii. ?aneieueieee, aeaaeay
aieueoeie aiaaonoaaie, ioeacuaaeenue i?eieiaoue o/anoea a iaueo
iiaeiiinoyo : iinooiaoue ia neoaeao aiaiioth eee a?aaeaeaineoth. Iao?
iaoae ?aoaiea yoiio aii?ino- ii iaeiaeee eo aeaieiui iaeiaii.
?aneieueieee ioeacaeenue ieaoeoue- ?acai?aeanue ai?ueaa. ?aneieueieeia
eacieee, nnueaee a nnueeo eee ii?iee.“3 Iao? no?aieeny ia?aaeeoue naay
io aeeyiey oea?eae, a nayce n yoei ii ia/eiaao ia?aie/eaaoue i?aaa
oea?eae e aai aa aeaau: aue niaeai niaao aieneiiia, niae?aaoeeny
ia?eiaee/anee a Iineaa, a caoai , a 1711a. , iinea nicaeaiey Neiiaea-
aeaaa oea?eae iioa?ye iineaaeiea oo?eoe iacaaeneiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii
oea?eiaue auea iieiinoueth iiae/eiaia ainoaea?noao. I oea?ue i?ae?anii
iiieiae , /oi iiae/eiaiea oea?eae i?inoiio i?aaio oi?aaeaiey yaeyaony
iaaiciiaeiui. E a 1721 a. aue nicaeai Nayoaeoee Neiiae, aaaeaaoee
aeaeaie oea?eae. ”Neiiae aue iinoaaeai a iaeei ?aia n Naiaoii, auoa anao
inoaeueiuo eieeaaee e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia. No?oeoo?a Neiiaea ie/ai
ia ioee/aeanue io no?oeoo?u ethaie eieeaaee. A Neiiae aoiaeeee 12
/aeiaae. Aicaeaaeye Neiiae i?aceaeaio , 2 aeoea-i?aceaeaioa, 4 niaaoieea
, 5 annani?ia.“1 A 1722a. iacaaiey auee eciaiaiu . I?aceaeaioii Neiiaea
aue iacia/ai Noaoai ssai?neee. Iinea nia?oe ssai?neiai aai iaycaiiinoe
oaeoe/anee auiieiye Oaioai I?ieiiiae/, /aeiaae, ii ioeaiea Iao?a, oiiue
e ia?aciaaiiue. N Iao?ii ii aue ciaeii aeaaii, aua n 1716a. ,eiaaea
oea?ue caiaoee yoiai iieiaeiai e e?anii?a/eaiai i?iiiaaaeieea e aucaae
aai a Iaoa?ao?a. N yoiai a?aiaie Oaioai I?ieiiiae/ noae aeayoaeueiui
iiiiuieeii oea?y a ninoaaeaiee oeaeiai ?yaea iiauo ?aoi?i. N oea?eiaiie
eaoaae?u ii caueuae eaeae e no?aieaiey oea?y – i?aia?aciaaoaey.

“Ii oeaco io 25 yiaa?y 1721 a. Neiiae aue iniiaai, a oaea 27 yiaa?y ,
ca?aiaa nicaaiiua /eaiu Neiiaea i?eianee i?enyao e 14 oaa?aey 1721 a.
i?iecioei oi?aeanoaaiiia ioe?uoea. Aeooiaiue ?aaeaiaio, aeey
?oeiaiaenoaa aeayoaeueiinoueth Neiiaea, aue iaienai Oaioaiii
I?ieiiiae/ai e eni?aaeai e iaeia?ai oea?ai.”2

Aeooiaiue ?aaeaiaio yoi caeiiiaeaoaeueiue aeo, ii?aaeaeyaoee ooieoeee
,i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe Neiiaea, aai /eaiia ii oi?aaeaieth ?onneie
i?aaineaaiie oea?eiaueth. Ii i?e?aaieaae /eaiia Neiiaea e /eaiai ae?oaeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Oea?eiaue ioiuia iieiinoueth iiae/eiyeanue naaoneie aeanoe. Ia?ooaeanue
aeaaea oaeia eniiaaaee. Ii oeaco Neiiaea io 26 ia?oa 1722 a. anai
nayuaiieeai i?aaeienuaaeinue aeiiineoue aeanoyi i iaia?aiee
eniiaaaeaaoaainy niaa?oeoue eciaio eee aoio. A 1722 a. oea?eiaiay
?aoi?ia auea caaa?oaia onoaiiaeaieai aeieaeiinoe iaa?-i?ieo?i?a Neiiaea.
Oaeei ia?acii Oea?eiaue eeoeeanue naiinoiyoaeueiie iieeoe/aneie ?iee e
i?aa?aoeeanue a ninoaaioth /anoue ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. Iao ie/aai
oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi oaeea iiaiaaaaeaiey aucaaee iaaeiaieuenoai
aeooiaainoaa, eiaiii ii yoie i?e/eia iie auee ia noi?iia iiiiceoeee e
o/anoaiaaee a ?aaeoeeiiiuo caaiai?ao.

Ia oieueei aiaoiee aeae oi?aaeaiey oea?eiaueth eciaieeny, ii e aioo?e
oea?eae i?iecioee ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey. Iao? ia aeaeiaae ie “aaeuo“
ie ”/a?iuo“ iiiaoia. Aeaey a eeoea iiianou?ae noaoueth iaii?aaaeaiiuo
?anoiaeia, oea?ue ?aoee nie?aoeoue ?anoiae oeiainia ia yoo noa?o,
cayaea, /oi oeaaeao iiiaoai iooue e nayoinoe ia inao?aie , iaaeaie e
aeiaie ,a oeaaii, aiaeie e ?aaioie ia aeaai ?innee. Ii yoie i?e/eia
iiianou?e auee iaeiaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaeiaaie, iiieii yoiai ei
iaaeeaaeaei caieiaoueny: noiey?iui aeaeii, eeiiiienueth, i?yaeaieai,
oeoueai e o.ae. – anai oai, /oi ia auei i?ioeaiiieacaii iiiaoanoao.

Nicaeaiea oaeiai aeaea oi?aaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee oea?eae nai Iao?
iauyniee neaaeothuei ia?acii:” Io niai?iiai i?aaeaiey iiaeii ia
iianaoueny Ioa/anoao iyoaaeae e niouaiey, eaeiaua i?ienoiaeyo io
aaeeiiai nianoaaiiiai i?aaeaiey aeooiaiiai…“1

Oaeei ia?acii Iao? ono?aiee oa?ico iieooaiey aeooiaiie aeanoe ia
naaoneoth, e iinoaaee oea?eiaue ia neoaeao ainoaea?noao. Ioiuia
oea?eiaue yaeyeanue /anoueth oie iii?u ia ,eioi?ie noiyea aaniethoiay
iiia?oey.

?aoi?iu Iao?a Aaeeeiai eanaeenue ?acee/iuo noa? aeecie iauanoaa. A 1699
a. Iao? ecaeae oeac i eciaiaiee eaeaiaea?y. ?aiaa eaoien/eneaiea aaeinue
ii eaeaiaea?th aecaioeeneiai ia?acoea: Iiaue aiae ia/eiaeny 1 naioya?y.
N 1699 aiaea Iiaue aiae aeieaeai aue ia/eiaoueny n 1 yiaa?y, ii
aa?iiaeneiio ia?acoeo. Yoa ?aoi?ia aucaaea aieueoia iaaeiaieuenoai, o.e.
?aiaa eaoien/eneaiea aaeinue io nioai?aiey ie?a, a a ia?an/aoa ia iiaue
eaae 1700 a. aeieaeai aue ianooieoue oieueei /a?ac 8 eao.

A iiaii 1700 aiaeo aue ecaeai oeac i nicaeaiee a Iineaa ia?auo aioae;
ae?oaei oeacii cai?auaeinue iioaiea iiaeae iiae no?aoii eiooa eee
nnueee. A 1701 a. eeaa?aeueiue aeoo iiaiai oea?noaiaaiey aue au?aaeai a
?yaea oeacia: aini?auaeinue iaaeaoue ia eieaie i?e iiyaeaiee ainoaea?y;
iaiaaeaoue aieiao ceiie , i?ioiaey ieii aeai?oea. A 1702 a. ianooiee
/a?aae ?aoi?ie?iaaiey naiaeiie aeecie: auee naeaeaiu iiiuoee iaania/eoue
a?a/iue nithc aieaa i?i/iuie i?aanoaaiiuie aa?aioeyie. Iinea iinauaiey
O?aioeee Iao? ecaeaao oeac i ainoai?eeinoaa.

?aaeeeaeueii eciaiyaony iieiaeaiea aeaiueiu a iauanoaa. Iao? iiiuoaeny
i?eiaueoue aa e nia?aiaiiie naaoneie aeecie, ii i?eia?o Caiaaea,
iaania/eoue aunoea e?oae e iiaui oi?iai iaoiaeaeaiey.

Iieeoe/aneay enoi?ey : ?inney – NNN? -?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey : A
2-o o.O-1–I.: Oa??a 1996 – 656n.-no?.87-88.

1 Iaaeaiei I.E. Iao? Aaeeeee – I.:1990-592 n. no. -41.

2 Eioaiaaoc A.A. ?inney i?e Iao?a I -I.:O*iaaeaec -1995.-176n. no?. –

1 Eiycueeia N. Ec i?ioeiai ?onneie caiee. A?aiy Iao?a I.:I.:Ieaiaoa.
1991a.- 712n.– no?.-70.

2 Ainnoaiea iineianeeo no?aeueoeia 1698a.:/Iaoa?eaeu neaaenoa. aeaea.
na. aeieoiaioia/ AINNN? EI-OA Enoi?ee NNN?:[nino. aao. eno.-a?oaia?.
iaci?a e eiiaio. A. Eacaeaae/, i?aaeene. A.E.Aoaaiia]-I.:Iaoea-1980
n.-306. no?. – 51. 2.-no?.-59.

1 Cae/eei E.A. Ii/ea?aa E.I. ?onneay enoi?ey IO-OVIII. iiioey?iue i/a?e\
?aae.: A. A, I?aia?aaeaineee -I.:Iuneue 1992-797n. no?.-491.

1 Iaaeaiei I.E. Iao? Aaeeeee.- I.:1990.-592n. no?.-571.

2 Iaaeaiei I.E.Iao? Aaeeeee. -I.: 1990.- 592n. no?.-573.

1 Aaeeoaaneee Eaceie? Iao? Aaeeeee: Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e a 3-o /anoyo :/-1
Ainieoaiea; /-2 Ee/iinoue; /-3 Aeaei–I.:NI “EAAAe?AO” 1993–448n.
no?.-240.

1 Aoaaiia A.E., Cu?yiia I.I. Enoi?ey ?innee OVII-OIOa. O/aaiee aeey
10ee. iiae ?aae. A.I.Naoi?iaa-I.: I?inaauaiea. 1995– 304n. no?.- 41.

1 Iaaeaiei I.E. Iao? Aaeeeee. I.: Iuneue 1990-592n. no?.-320

1 Aaaaa? o. ?aoi?iu Iao?aI ia?. enneaae.. Ia?aa. n aeao. A.A.Aica?eia,
Anooi. no. e iau. aaaaeaiea A.E.Aoaaiiaa- I.:I?IA?ANN, 1985- 199n.
no?.–81

1 1. Aaaaa? O. ?aoi?iu Iao?a Aaeeeiai. ia?. enneaae.. Ia?aa. n aeao.
A.A. Aica?eia.Anooi. no. e iau. ?aae. A.E.Aoaaiia.- I. I?ia?ann 1985-
199n. no?.-85.

2 Aaeeoaaneee Eaceie? Iao? Aaeeeee : Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e a 3-o /anoyo /-1
Ainieoaiea; 2-Ee/iinoue; /-3 Aeaei- I.:NI EAAAe?AO 1993-448n.
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1 Aaeeoaaneee e. Iao? Aaeeeee:Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e A 3-o /anoyo 1-
Ainieoaiea; 2- Ee/iinoue; 3- aeaei;NI EAAAe?AO- 448n. no?.-283.

2 Iaaeaiei I.E. Iao? Aaeeeee- I.Iuneue 1990- 592no?. no?.– 471.

1 Aoaaiia A.E. Iao? Aaeeeee e aai a?aiy./ ioa. ?aae. A.A.Iiaineeueoeaa.
AINNN?-I.:Iaoea 1989-187n. no?.–73.

2 Iaa?iaeei A.E. Iao?I -E.:Ainiieeoecaeao 1945a.–176n. no?.– 73.

3 Eiycueeia N. Ec i?ioeiai caiee ?onneie : A?aiy Iao?a Aaeeeiai: Eieaa
aeey /oaiey ii ?onneie enoi?ee. I.: Ieaiaoa 1991-712n. no?.–180.

1 Aoaaiia A.E. Cu?yiia I.I. Enoi?ey ?innee,eiiaoe OVII-OIOa.:O/aaiee
aeey 10 ee. / iiae ?aae. A.I.Naoa?iaa- I.:I?inaauaiea 1995-304n.
no?.- 43.

2 Eiycueeia N. Ec i?ioeiai caiee ?onneie .I.:Ieaiaoa 1991a.–712n.
no?.–182.

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