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Первый европейский университет в Болонье

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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?ANIOAEEEE AAEA?ONUe

AAEI?ONNEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

ENOI?E*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

?AOA?AO IA OAIO «IA?AUE AA?IIAENEEE OIEAA?NEOAO A AIEIIUeA (1158)»

IEINE

2007

Aeaaa 1. I?aaeiinueee e ia?aciaaieth oieaa?neoaoa a Eoaeee

A 476 aiaeo iiae oaea?aie aa?aa?neeo ieaiai aa?iaioeaa iaea Caiaaeiay
?eineay eiia?ey – oeaio? ia oieueei iieeoe/aneie, ii e eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeecie ie?a a yiioo aioe/iinoe. Nianoaaiii, yoei niauoeai enoi?ey
aioe/iinoe e caeai/eaaaony – ia/eiaaony iiaay yiioa, iieo/eaoay a
enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iacaaiea «N?aaeiaaaeiauey». Aiaee/aia iacuaatho
N?aaeiaaaeiauea ia eia/a eae dark ages, oi anoue, «oaiiua aaea».
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eae ienae aaeeeee niaaoneee enoi?ee Aaaaiee Oa?ea,
«700-800 eao, ioaeaeythueo Caiaaeioth ?eineoth eiia?eth io yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey aanueia neoaeiu naaoyueieny oi/eaie, iayeaie e oeaio?aie
I?inaauaiey». Yoe neiaa a iieiie ia?a ioiinyony e ei anae Aa?iia, e e
Eoaeee.

Iai?aaeeueii aeoiaoue, /oi Eoaeey iieiinoueth ?anoa?yea o?aaeeoeee
Oeeoea?iia e Aa?aeeey. Ec aeayoaeae VI-X aaeia iiaeii aniiiieoue
Eanneaei?a, Aiyoeey, iaio Neeueaano?a, aei i?eiyoey noieue aunieiai naia
yaeyaoaainy aeanoyuei iaoaiaoeeii Aa?aa?oii. Ii?aaeaeaiiue iiaeuai
eoeueoo?iie aeecie aucaaei oae iacuaaaiia «ea?ieeianeia Aic?iaeaeaiea».
Oai ia iaiaa, io aueie neaau iaoee e ecyuiie neiaaniinoe ia inoaeinue
i?aeoe/anee ie/aai.

Ia/aei XI noieaoey ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieei oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae.
Iauyniyaony yoi oai oaeoii, /oi a yoi a?aiy Eoaeey noaea a?aiie
iai?eie?eiie ai?ueau iaaeaeo ia?oeyie aaaeueoia e aeaaeeeiia – ia?oeyie
?eineiai iaiu e eiia?aoi?a Nayuaiiie ?eineie eiia?ee. Aeey
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey naieo iiceoeee iaa noi?iiu aeoeaii eniieueciaaee
i?iecaaaeaiey ioaeeoeenoe/aneeo aeai?ia. Oaeay iieaieea i?eaaea e
iaeeaeaieth eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe no?aiu. Yoi, a oaeaea
iiceoeey oea?eae (eea?eeaeu iaia?oaeeee iaoaaoeo a naieo ?yaeao iiuiuo
eioaeeaeooaeia e oaeaea iiniinianoaiaaee oieaa?neoaoneiio aoio) i?eaaei
e iiyaeaieth a Eoaeee oeaeiai ?yaea aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

Aeaaa 2. Aieiineee oieaa?neoao

Aieiineee oieaa?neoao, ioeoeeaeueii n/eoaaony ia?aui oieaa?neoaoii ia
oieueei a Eoaeee, ii e a Aa?iia. Aieiiuey ?aniieiaeaia a iaeanoe
Eiiaa?aeey. Eiiaa?aeneea oi?aiaua ai?iaea aua n aeaaieo ii? ioee/aeenue
ia nianai oeie/iui aeey n?aaeiaaaeiauey no?aieaieai ciaoiuo e aiaaouo
ai?iaeai aeaoue naiei aeaoyi oi?ioaa (ii oai a?aiaiai) ia?aciaaiea.
Niaeanii ae?aaiae eaaaiaea, oaea a 433 aiaeo eiia?aoi? Oaiaeinee iniiaae
a Aieiiuea aunooth th?eaee/aneoth oeieo. I?aaaea, yoa eaaaiaea ia
iieuecoaony aeiaa?eai o o/aiuo: nei?aa anaai iia auea i?eaeoiaia a XIII
aaea oaie th?enoaie, eioi?ua oioaee oiai, /oiau /anoue iniiaaiiiai e
oiio a?aiaie oieaa?neoaoa i?eiaaeeaaeaea eiia?aoi?ai Nayuaiiie ?eineie
eiia?ee.

Iiyoiio ii-ianoiyuaio ia?aui, eoi caiyeny a Aieiiuea i?aiiaeaaaieai,
n/eoaaony aeieoi? i?aaa Iaii, ecaanoiue a eaoiienyo eae legis doctor.
Aai eaeoeee, iaeiaei, ia iieueciaaeenue iniaie iiioey?iinoueth. Caoi
aieueoeo aunio aeiaeeny aai iineaaeiaaoaeue E?ia?ee, ioe?uaoee a 1088
aiaeo niaoeeaeueioth Aieiineoth th?eaee/aneoth oeieo.

Eaeoeee E?ia?ey ia caiaaeeeee i?eianoe oeiea nei?oth iiioey?iinoue. O
iaai iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai o/aieeia, n?aaee eioi?uo iniaaiii
auaeaeythony /aou?a aeieoi?a i?aaa: Aoeueaa? Ia?oei, Aicea, Aoa e AEae
aea-ea-Ii?oa ?aaaiaioa. I/aiue nei?i aieiineea i?ioanni?a i?eia?aee
oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue e i?eia?aee i?aeiouanoai iaae ae?oaeie o/aiuie
ai?iaeaie. Anoue ianeieueei i?e/ei oaeiai oniaoa. Ai-ia?auo, iao/iua
i?aeiouanoaa iaoiaea i?aiiaeaaaiey. Aieiineea th?enou niaa?oeee
ia?aai?io a eco/aiee ?eineiai i?aaa: iie eco/aee e i?aiiaeaaaee aai ia
eae i?eaeaoie e ?eoi?eea, a eae naiinoiyoaeueiue i?aaeiao, e i?eoii ia
io?uai/ii, a a iieiii iauaia. E ai-aoi?uo, iie?iaeoaeuenoai aa?iaineiai
eiia?aoi?a O?eae?eoa ?, auaoaai a oi aea a?aiy ei?ieai Eiiaa?aeee.
Eiia?aoi? aue aanueia caeioa?aniaai a iiiu?aiee caiyoee ?eineei i?aaii,
ia aaoi?eoao eioi?iai anaaaea iiaeii auei iia?aoueny a neo/aa ?acee/iuo
aeiiiaaoaeuenoa ei?iiu.

A 1158 a. O?eae?eo ? oi?aeanoaaiii aeae niaeanea i?aaeinoaaeoue ioiuia
anai, yaeaoeiny a Aieiiueth, neaaeothuea eueaiou:

1. Naiaiaeii iooaoanoaiaaoue ii anai no?aiai iiae yaeaeith aai
aaoi?eoaoa, aac iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiyoiio iiaeaa?aaoueny anaaiciiaeiui
iai?eyoiinoyi, eniuouaaaiui eiino?aioeaie;

2. Iiaeeaaeaoue a ai?iaea eneeth/eoaeueii noaeo i?ioanni?ia eee
aieneiia.

Ianoiiieiaeaiea Aieiiuee, aa caei?iaue eeeiao, aiaaonoai ai?iaea, nai
aai noaoon aeaaiaea?y iaaeaaii iieo/aiiie aaoiiiiee – ana yoi iauyniyao
i?e/eiu /?acau/aeiie iiioey?iinoe th?eaee/aneie oeieu. Ia?yaeo n
iieiaeaaeueth, ethaee oaea c?aeiai aic?anoa, /anoi inoaaea ia ?iaeeia
naiueth, caiyoea, ii/aoiia iieiaeaiea no?aiyony a Aieiiueth, /oiau
naeaeaoueny scolarii. Aeaoe ei?iiiaaiiuo inia, e oa iinueaeenue a yoio
ai?iae aeey eco/aiey i?aaa e ecyuiuo eneonnoa. Iiioey?iinoue oeieu
iauyniyaony oaeaea oai, /oi a iaae?a “oaeueceineiai o?aia i?aioae?inoe”,
eae aaee/aee Aieiineee oieaa?neoao ai a?aiaia E?ia?ey e Aeeo?ney,
aeiioneaeenue e aeaiueiu e, /oi naiia aeaaiia, ia oieueei e neooaieth
eaeoeee, ii e a ea/anoaa i?aiiaeaaaoaeueieoe (eaeo?enn).

Iaiaoeeanue oaeaea iniiaiay /a?oa, ioee/athuay anth n?aaeiaaaeiaoth
oieaa?neoaoneoth enoi?eth: ei?ii?aoeaiia, oeaoiaia ia/aei auei oae
neeueii a oa a?aiaia, /oi e oieaa?neoao, a nouiinoe, yaeyeny aeaoiy
iauaaeeiaiiuie oeaoaie. Iaa yoeo oeaoa, “o/aueony” e “o/aueo”, a
caaeneiinoe io iaoeee e niaoeeaeueiinoe aoiaeyueo a ieo eeoe,
iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia aieaa iaeeea eaoaai?ee. A Aieiiuea, a /anoiinoe,
auei /aou?a iaoeee: eaiiaineay, oineaineay, eiiaa?aeneay e ?eineay.
Nia?aiea anao nooaeai/aneeo ei?ii?aoeee iiae iauei noaoooii e ninoaaeei
e eiioeo O?? aaea oieaa?neoao a Aieiiuea. Oieaa?neoao yoio, yaeythueeny
(ia?yaeo n ia?eaeneei, iniiaaiiui a oo aea yiioo – 1200 a.), naiui
noa?eiiui a Aa?iia, oaea ni aeiy naiaai ia?aciaaiey eiae aeaa iniaaiiua
/a?ou, auoaeathuea ec naieo oneiaee aai ia?aciaaiey:

1. Yoi ia auea annioeeaoeey i?ioanni?ia (universitas magistrorum),
aeanoe eioi?uo eneeth/eoaeueii aeieaeiu auee iiae/eiyoueny o/aieee.
Iai?ioea, yoi auea annioeeaoeey studenti (universitas scholarium), naia
auae?athuay ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ui, a naith i/a?aaeue, iiae/eiyeenue
i?ioanni?a. Aieiineea nooaeaiou aeaeeeenue ia aeaa /anoe:
oeueo?aiiioaiia e oeeo?aiiioaiia, ec eioi?uo eaaeaeay aaeaaiaeii
ecae?aea ?aeoi?a; iaa /anoe o/anoaiaaee a oi?aaeaiee oieaa?neoaoii.
I?ioanni?a auae?aeenue nooaeaioaie ia ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, iieo/aee
aiii?a? ii oneiaeth e iaycuaaeenue ieaaea, e?iia eae a Aieiiuea, ia
i?aiiaeaaaoue. Iaoiaeynue ii noaoooo, oaeei ia?acii, a caaeneiinoe io
oieaa?neoaoa e aoaeo/e naiaiaeiuie eeoue a ?oeiaiaenoaa caiyoeyie
nooaeaioia, iie iiaee i?eia?anoe aaoi?eoao e aeeyiea ia neooaoaeae
eneeth/eoaeueii naieie ee/iuie ea/anoaaie e iaaeaaiae/aneeie oaeaioaie.

2.A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue Ia?eaeneiio, eioi?ue aue aia/aea iinayuai
aaeeinoaaiii oaieiaee, Aieiineee aue th?eaee/aneei. Eco/aiea ?eineiai
i?aaa, iieiaeeaoaai ia/aei oieaa?neoaoo, a oaeaea eaiiie/aneiai,
aaaaeaiiiai a i?ia?aiio n O?? aaea, inoaeenue aeaaiuie, anee ia
eneeth/eoaeueiuie, i?aaeiaoaie oieaa?neoaoneiai i?aiiaeaaaiey.
Iaaeeoeeia e naiaiaeiua eneonnoaa i?aiiaeaaaeenue a iai,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, a oa/aiea O??? a. ciaiaieouie i?ioanni?aie, ii
neooaoaee eo, oai ia iaiaa, n/eoaeenue i?eiaaeeaaeaueie e th?eaee/aneiio
oaeoeueoaoo, e oieueei a O?V a. ia?yaeo n ieie ia?aciaaeenue aeaa
ae?oaeo oaeoeueoaoa: iaaeeoeeiu e oeeinioee, a oaeaea oaieiaee.

Naiui aeanoyuei ia?eiaeii aieiineie oeieu i?aaa aue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie
iaaeaeo ia/aeii O?? no. e aoi?ie iieiaeiie O?? no., ioaaouaathuee niaie
eaeoeee E?ia?ey e i?aiiaeaaaiea aeinnaoi?noaa Aeeo?neai. A yoio ia?eiae
iaoae naiia oe?ieia e ieiaeioai?iia i?eiaiaiea, eae a onoiii eceiaeaiee,
oae e a ni/eiaieyo aeinnaoi?ia, iiaue iaoiae iao/aiey. A oa/aiea yoiai
aeeeiiiai ia?eiaea naiuie ecaanoiuie ec aeinnaoi?ia, iinea oiiiyioouo
?aiaa /aou?ao aeieoi?ia, auee: Ieaoeaioei, ?aaioaaoee aeaaiui ia?acii
iaae eiaeaenii THnoeieaia e iniiaaaoee oeieo a Iiiiaeuea; Ao?aoiaeei –
iaeei ec iaiiiaeo aeinnaoi?ia, ciaaoeo a?a/aneee ycue; ?iaea?, AEai
Aanneyi, Ieeeeon, Aci (?aaiou eioi?iai iieueciaaeenue oaeie
iiioey?iinoueth, /oi aeaaea neiaeeeanue iiaiai?ea: “Chi non ha Azo, non
vado a palazzo”; e, iaeiiaoe, Aeeo?nee, naiue ciaiaieoue ec aeinnaoi?ia.

Naith ethaiaue e caiyoeth th?eni?oaeaioeeae Aeeo?nee ia?aaeae e naiei
aeaoyi, a aei/ue aai Aeioa ae’Aeei?ni, oaeinoiaiiay oieaa?neoaoii
noaiaie aeieoi?a i?aa e aeiiouaiiay e ioaee/iiio i?aiiaeaaaieth, auea
ia?aie ec aeaiuei, oiiieiaaiuo a eaoiienyo oieaa?neoaoa.

A ia?eiae iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa a Aieiineii oieaa?neoaoa i?aaa ia?yaeo n
th?eni?oaeaioeeae ia/eiatho i?ioeaaoaoue e ae?oaea iaoee. Oae, e
o?eaeoio, eiiieaeno iaoe ?aiiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey, eioi?ue ninoiye ec
a?aiiaoeee, ?eoi?eee e aeeaeaeoeee, i?eaaaeeny a yoo yiioo iicaeiaai
N?aaeiaaaeiauey eaaae?eoi: a?eoiaoeea, aaiiao?ey, ano?iiiiey e iocuea
iethn (/ooue iicaeiaa) eiaeea e iaoaiaoeea. I?ioeaaoatho caeanue e
ae?oaea iaoee: oeeinioey, eaoeineay e a?a/aneay eeoa?aoo?u e iaaeeoeeia.

Iaeiaei ca aceaoii anei?a i?eoiaeeo e iaaeaiea. Iiiaia iiniinianoaiaaei
yoiio: ai?ueaa aaaeueoia e aeaaeeeiia e, eae neaaenoaea, o/anoea naieo
i?ioanni?ia oieaa?neoaoa a ia?oeeiuo ?ani?yo; iinoaiaiiia iiaeiaaeaiea
i?ioanni?ia iiae aeeyiea ai?iaeneiai ioieoeeiaeeoaoa, i?aoaiaeiaaaoaai
ia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?ioanni?neiai i?aiiaeaaaiey, ia n/eoaynue n ee/iuie
niiniaiinoyie i?aiiaeaaaoaey e n eioa?anaie iaoee. Oaeei ia?acii,
oieaa?neoao Aieiiuee iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaae naia ia?aainoai a
i?aiiaeaaaiee i?aaa. A aeiaa?oaiea anaai naiua ciaiaieoua eaaenou
iaei-iiiaeo noaee i?aiiaeaaaoue i?aai oaea a Ieca, Ia?oca, Iaaeoa e
Iaaee.

Ca a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey Aieiineay oeiea ieacuaaea ia?iiiia aeeyiea
ia oieueei ia Eoaeeth, ii e ia Caiaaeioth Aa?iio. Aeaaiaea?y naiei
iaoiaeai e aeieo?eia, iia a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaiiaeea iaoeo i?aaa e
ieacaea ia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, o/?aaeaeaiey e ia naie eaeae aa?iiaeneiai
iauanoaa ia?iiiia aeeyiea, eioi?ia /oanoaiaaeinue ia i?ioyaeaiee anao
N?aaeieo aaeia.

Aieiineee oieaa?neoao noae i?iia?acii iiiaeo ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo
caaaaeaiee a Aa?iia. Aeaaea aieaa oiai, ii noae “eieoeeaoi?ii”
ia?aciaaiey iiiaeo th?eaee/aneeo oaeoeueoaoia (oieaa?neoaoia), eae a
Eoaeee, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie. I?ioanni?a e nooaeaiou Aieiiuee
?annaeaaeenue ii Aa?iia, ?ani?ino?aiyy iaoeo, eioi?oth iie naie iieo/eee
oai. Oae, a Eoaeee auee ia?aciaaiu oieaa?neoaou a: Ae/aioea (1203),
A?aoeoei (1215), Iaaeoa (1222). Ai O?aioeee aea aue iniiaai oieaa?neoao
a Iiiiaeuea (1137).

ENOI*IEEE

1) Oa?ea Aaaaiee. «Enoi?ey Eoaeee a N?aaeiea aaea».

2) Eioa?iao-naeo Portalus.ru. Noaouey «Eoaeueyineea oieaa?neoaou XI-XIII
aa.».

3) Eioa?iao-naeo library.by. Noaouey «Aieiineee oieaa?neoao».

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