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Первобытное общество – предыстория цивилизаций

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?AOA?AO IA OAIO

IA?AIAUOIIA IAUANOAI –

I?AAeUNOI?Ess OeEAEEECAOeEE

IEAI

1. Ia?eiaeecaoeey e iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae.

2. Nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey.

3. Yaiethoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

4. Aicieeiiaaiea iuoeaiey, ?a/e e ciaiee.

5. Aeooiaiua aniaeou ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa.

6. Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. Ia?eiaeecaoeey e iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae.

*aeiaae e iauanoai i?ioee aeeeoaeueiue iooue ?acaeoey, ii iineaaeiei
aeaiiui ninoaaeythuee ieiei 3 iei. eao. Ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa aei oeeaeeecaoeee iacuaaaony eaiaiiui aaeii. A
enoi?ee eaiaiiiai aaea auaeaeytho 3 yiioe:

1) iaeaieeo (ae?aaiaeaiaiiue aae)

2) iacieeo (n?aaeiaeaiaiiue aae)

3) iaieeo (iiaieaiaiiue aae).

Neaaeothuoth ca iaieeoii yiioo iacuaatho yiaieeoii (iaaeiieaiaiiue aae).
Ii ioe?uaaao yiioo iaoaeea e oeeaeeecaoeee. Iaeaieeo aeaeeony ia ?yae
noaaeee: ?aiiee (ieaeiee) iaeaieeo, aeeth/athuee ieaeoaaeneee ia?eiae (3
– 1,5 iei. eao iacaae), aoaeue (1,5 iei. – 100 oun. eao iacaae),
ionouea, eee n?aaeiee iaeaieeo (100 – 40 oun. eao iacaae) e iicaeiee
(aa?oiee) iaeaieeo (40-10 oun. eao aei i.y.) Iacieeo aeeeeny io 10 aei
8-7 oun. eao aei i.y., iaieeo io 8-7 oun. eao aei 5-4 oun. eao aei i.y.,
yiaieeo – 4–3 oun. aei i.y.

A ieaeoaaeneii ia?eiaea ninouanoaiaaee ia?aio?iiu (ceiaeaeaio?iiu),
aano?aeiieoaee (i?aceiaeaeaio?iiu), eioi?uo iieaiaio?iiieiae ia ioiinyo
e i?yiui i?aaeeai /aeiaaea, e aiii aaaeeen (homo habilis) – /aeiaae
oiaeue, aieueoeinoaii o/aiuo i?eciaiiue oaeiaui. Ieiei 1,8 iei. eao
iacaae iiyaeyaony aiii y?aeoon (homo erectus) – /aeiaae i?yiioiaeyuee,
i?inouanoaiaaaoee ii/oe 1,5 iei. eao. Aai iacuaatho oaeaea a?oaio?iiii e
ae?aaiaeoei aiieieaeii (ae?aaiaeoai /aeiaaeii). E a?oaio?iiai ioiinyony
ieoaeaio?iiu e neiaio?iiu. A iicaeiai aoaea iiyaeythony e i?iaeieaeatho
?acaeaaoueny iaeaiaio?iiu, eee ae?aaiea aiieieaeu (ae?aaiaeoea ethaee),
e eioi?ui ioiinyony iaaiaea?oaeueoeu, aaeaeaeueaa?aneee /aeiaae e
ae?oaea aeaeu. *aeiaae nia?aiaiiiai iaeeea e eioaeeaeoa, homo sapiens
(/aeiaae ?acoiiue) caaa?oaao aio?iiiaaiac a iicaeiai iaeaieeoa, 40 oun.
eao iacaae.

A enoi?ee ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa a iineaaeiaa a?aiy auaeaeytho 3 yiioe:
1. yiioa ia?aiauoiiai noaaea, eee i?aiaueiu, a oaeaea
aio?iiinioeeiaaiaca; iia caieiaao ia?iiiue ia?eiae io Ieaeoaay aei
Ionouea e naycaia n a?oaio?iiaie e iaeaiaio?iiaie; 2. yiioa ia?aiauoiie
?iaeiaie iaueiu, ia/eiaaony a aa?oiai iaeaieeoa e caeai/eaaaony e yiioa
?aiiaai iaoaeea; 3. yiioa ia?aiauoiie ninaaeneie (i?ioie?anoueyineie)
iaueiu.

A yiioo ia?aiauoiiai noaaea /aeiaae auaeaeyaony ec aeeaioiiai ie?a,
ia?acoaony iauanoai. I?aiaueia ninoiyea ec iaeiie eee ianeieueeeo
aa?aiiuo naiae. Iioanoa?iua ooieoeee a oaeii niiauanoaa iiaee ianoe
iaeaieaa neeueiua a eioaeeaeooaeueiii niunea eiaeeaeaeooiu. Nia?oue,
anoanoaaiiay eee o?aae/aneay, oaeiai aiaeaea iiaea i?eaiaeeoue e
?aniaaeo eee aeeaaieth aai a iaeia ae?oaia iauaaeeiaiea.

A oneiaeyo onoaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e iieiauo oaao iaiaoiaeeii
auei ?aaoee?iaaoue e oicyenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, e iieiaua, e
ia?aaeaeaeaiea i?aiauei. Iaiaeoth ?ieue a yoii ea?aee auaeaeaaaoeany
aiaeaee, iaeaaeaaoea neeie, niiniaiinoueth e oaaaeaeaieth e
i?aaiecaoeee. I?e iaeaeoae ioeaea aai iia niaieoue ae?oaie.

A yiioo ia?aiauoiie ?iaeiaie iaueiu iiyaeeenue a?oiiu ?iaenoaaiiuo
naiae. ?iae aue eieeaeoeaii ethaeae, iniciaaoeo naia ?iaenoai ii iaeiie
eeiee e naycaiiuo iau/aai yeciaaiee. A ia?aiauoiie ?iaeiaie iaueia
aeaenoaiaae i?eioeei ia?iaeiaeanoey. Eieeaeoeaiay aiey ni?iaee/ae eiaea
ii?aaeaeythuaa cia/aiea i?e ?aoaiee ethauo aii?inia. Iniaui aaoi?eoaoii
i?e yoii iaeaaeaee c?aeua, oioae?aiiua iiuoii ethaee, eae i?aaeei,
noa?oaa iieieaiea. Eiaiii yoa n?aaea auaeaeaaea aeaaa?ae, eioi?ua
?oeiaiaeeee iianaaeiaaiie oicyenoaaiiie, iauanoaaiiie e eaeaieiae/aneie
aeeciueth eieeaeoeaa. Aeaaa?ai iiaee i?eciaaaoue naiiai noa?oaai ec
o?oaeiniiniaiuo, eeai naiiai ioae?iai, iiaee e auae?aoue. Auai?u aeaaa?y
aace?iaaeenue ia iiuoa, eioaeeaeooaeueiii i?aainoiaenoaa, oiaiee
oaaaeaeaoue. Aeanoue noa?aeoeiu inouanoaeyeanue a oi?ia ?anii?yaeaiee,
niaaoia, i?eeacia, eioi?ua io?aaeaee eioa?anu anae a?oiiu, iiyoiio
i?aeoe/anee anaaaea eniieiyeenue. Ineooaaoeany iiaeaa?aaeenue
inoaeaeaieth ni noi?iiu anao /eaiia eieeaeoeaa.

A eiioea yoie yiioe ieaiy, iiyaeaoaany ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii n ?iaeii,
i?eia?aoaao /aoeoth no?oeoo?o, ieaiaiiie niaao, aiaeaey. Nai ?iae
naaiaioe?oaony, oneiaeiyaony i?aaiecaoeey iauanoaa. Yoe i?ioeannu
i?eaiaeyo e e ea?a?oecaoeee eieeaeoeaiie aeanoe.

A yiioo ia?aiauoiie ninaaeneie (i?ioie?anoueyineie) iaueiu ia/aeinue
eeanniia?aciaaiea. A yoio ia?eiae iauay nianoaaiiinoue ?iaea e iaueiu
auoaniyaony nianoaaiiinoueth ioaeaeueiuo aeiiioicyenoa, o?aaieoaeueiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea onooiaao ianoi o?oaeiaiio, iaueiii-?iaeiaua nayce
caiaiythony iaueiii-ninaaeneeie, iiyaeythony ia/aeueiua oi?iu
yenieoaoaoeee, ecauoi/iue i?iaeoeo i?aa?auaaony a i?eaaai/iue,
ca?iaeaeaaony /anoiay nianoaaiiinoue e, iaeiiaoe, iiyaeythony
iauanoaaiiua eeannu e ainoaea?noaaiiinoue.

2. Nioeeaeueiua ioiioaiey.

Iauanoaaiiay aeeciue a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa ?aaoee?iaaeanue ii?iaie
iiaaaeaiey, niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo a nia?aiaiiie iaoea i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
iiiiii?iaoeeie. A ooieoeeiiaeueiii ieaia yoe ii?iu ni/aoaee e i?aaiaua,
e ii?aeueiua, e yoeeaoiua, aua ia aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua a ia?ae/iii,
ia?an/eaiaiiii iauanoaaiiii niciaiee, iiyoiio eo e ii?aaeaeeee eae
iiiiii?iu. Iie iiyaeythony a aeaea ieuaauo e naenoaeueiuo cai?aoia, a
ia?aiauoiii /aeiaa/aneii noaaea, o.a. ?aiiai aoaea.

Aeey iiiiii?iaoeee oa?aeoa?ai eieeaeoeaeci a niaea?aeaiee e noa?a
i?eeiaeaiey. Ana i?aaeienaiey e cai?aou aae?aniaaeenue ia e ioaeaeueiui
eeoeai, a e nioeeaeueiui a?oiiai: aic?anoiui eeannai, ioae/eiai e
aeaiueiai, niieaiaiieeai e /oaeaieaiaiieeai. I?e yoii e?eoa?eai
ii?aeueiinoe iiaaaeaiey yaeyeenue ioiioaiey ?iaenoaa, a oi?iie
?aaoee?iaaiey yoeo ioiioaiee – iau/ae.

Yoiia?aoe/aneea aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi any ieoieiaey
niaea?aeeo oaeia iainiiaaiea iau/aaa, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo /aeiaa/aneea
acaeiiioiioaiey. Iau/ae, caeiiu, ia?yaeu onoaiiaeaiu i?aaeeaie eee
aa?iyie, iicaea ae?oaeie aiaaie, iiyoiio nayuaiiu, a ca ia?ooaiea eo
aeieaeia iineaaeiaaoue ea?a io yoeo aeooia, aiaia.

Ae?oaie oi?iie iniciaiey ii?i auei o?aaeeoeeiiiia, au?aaeaiiia a
oi?ioeao: “oae ana aeaeatho; oae i?eiyoi”, eee “oae ieeoi ia aeaeaao;
oae ia i?eiyoi”. Iaa oi?iu iniciaiey ii?aee /aua anaai aeaenoaiaaee
aianoa: iau/ae auiieiyee e iioiio, /oi oae ana aeaeatho, e iioiio, /oi
eo onoaiiaeee aeooe eee aiae.

O?aineyoeey ii?i iiaaaeaiey a iieiii iauaia i?iaiaeeeanue noa?oeie
/eaiaie iauei i?e iinayuaieyo – eieoeeaoeeyo, aaea thiioai e aeaaooeai
niiauatho nayuaiiua i?aaeaiey e aa?iaaiey ?iaea, ieaiaie, aiooatho
iiaeiiaaiea iau/ayi e ii?aeueiui i?aaeienaieyi, iniaaiii a iaeanoe
iieiaie aeecie e a ioiioaiee e noa?aeoei. Iaioeoai iauyniyee, /oi a
neo/aa ia?ooaiey yoeo ii?i iie aoaeoo iaeacaiu aiaeanoaaie, aeooaie,
onoaiiaeaoeie yoe i?aaeea.

Niaa?oaiiua i?anooieaiey ?anniao?eaaeenue e ?acae?aeenue eieeaeoeaii.
Niaianoii ii?aaeaeyeanue ia?a aeiu – e a caaeneiinoe io cia/eiinoe
ia?ooaiee ii?iu, e n iiiiuueth iaae/aneeo eniuoaiee (iaiai, aiaeie e
o.i.) – iacia/aeinue iaeacaiea, inouanoaeaiea eioi?iai i?iecaiaeeeinue
caeioa?aniaaiiie noi?iiie, eeai iacia/aiiuie eeoeaie, eeai aeeaeaeoeie
?iaenoaaiieeaie aeiiaiiai eee iino?aaeaaoaai. Naieoeee auee ?aciiia?aciu
– nia?oue,oece/aneia iaeacaiea, oaauaaaiea e o.ae. Ia?a eo caaenaea io
oyaeanoe i?anooieaiey.

Iniiao nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee ninoaaeyei ?iaenoai, a iineieueeo iaeaieaa
noaaeeueiie /anoueth eieeaeoeaia auee aeaiueiu, oi i?e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe
iooeianoaa ?iaenoai aeieaeii auei iniciaaaoueny eae ?iaenoai iaaeaeo
iioiieaie iaeiie iaoa?e, o.a. ii iaoa?eineie, aeaineie eeiee.
Nouanoaiaae oaeaea iau/ae yeciaaiee, o.a. cai?auaiea a?a/iiai iauaiey
aioo?e ?iaeiaie a?oiiu e i?aaeienaiea yoiai iauaiey ca aa i?aaeaeaie.

Auaeaeyeenue iieiaic?anoiua a?oiiu, ?acee/aaoeany i?aaeienaiiuie ei
iaycaiiinoyie e i?aaaie, iauanoaaiiui iieiaeaieai e o.ae. *aua anaai yoe
a?oiiu oi?iaeeciaaiu, e ia?aoiae ec iaeiie aic?anoiie a?oiiu a ae?oaoth
nii?iaiaeaeaeny eniuoaieyie e oi?aeanoaaiiuie oaeiuie ia?yaeaie –
eieoeeaoeeyie. Nooue eieoeeaoeee ninoiyea a i?eiauaiee iiae?inoeia e
oicyenoaaiiie, iauanoaaiiie, eaeaieiae/aneie, a?a/iie aeecie
iieiii?aaiuo /eaiia iaueiu. Iaeue/eeia eniuouaaee aieiaeii, iaianaieai
?ai, i?eaeeaaieai iaiai e o.ae., o/eee aeaaeaoue i?oaeeai, ainieouaaee
o?aa?inoue, auiineeainoue, aeenoeeieeio, iinayuaee aai a oaeiua iau/ae,
ia?yaeu e aa?iaaiey ieaiaie. AEaineea eieoeeaoeee auee i?iua e
caeeth/aeenue a iao/aiee ianiyi e ieoai, ?anneacao i a?a/iie aeecie.

Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iieaie a ?iaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee ?aaoee?iaaeenue a?aeii.
Iaeiia?aiaiii n a?aeii aiciee einoeooo naiuee, ?aaoee?othuee eae
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noi?oaaie, oae e iaaeaeo ?iaeeoaeyie e aeaoueie.

A?ae ?aaoee?iaae ioiioaiey iaaeaeo acaeiia?a/iuie a?oiiaie e iaaeaeo
oaeoe/aneeie noi?oaaie, iiyoiio aai iiaeii iacaaoue ia?ii-a?oiiiaui.

Iauiinoue eioa?ania naiuee caeeth/aeanue a nioeeaeecaoeee aeaoae.
I?aaaea, iie, eae oieueei iiae?anoaee, ainieouaaeenue ia oieueei
?iaeeoaeyie, ii anae aeeceie ?iaeiae.

?acaeoea o?oaeiaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey, i?e eioi?ii ioaoe iia iaoa?eaeueii
caaioeoueny i naieo aeaoyo, oe?aieyei ia?ioth naiueth. A iae iiyaeyaony
iauaa eiouanoai. Iooeu noa?athony ia?aaeaoue naia eiouanoai naiei
aeaoyi. Ii ia ianeaaenoai ioae/ei i?aoaiaeiaaee ia oieueei eo aeaoe, ii
e eo ni?iaee/e. E ioae, e aeaia ii-i?aaeiaio ia ii?uaaee oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae n ?iaeiae.

I?e ioiineoaeueiie aeenyeiiiie/iinoe e aeeneieaeueiinoe a?aea
aaaeiaeoeie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie y/aeeaie auee iaueia e ?iae,
eioi?ua ia ?aiieo yoaiao ?iaeiaiai no?iy, ii anae aeaeeiinoe,
niaiaaeaee. Iaueia ninoiyea ec a?oiiu eee a?oii ?iaenoaaiiuo naiae.

?ac?anoathueany ?iaeu aeaeeeenue ia aioo?e?iaeiaua a?oiiu, oa a naith
i/a?aaeue – ia aua iaiueoea a?oiiu ni?iaee/ae e o.ae. Oaeea a?oiiu
iacuaatho eeieaeaeaie. ?iaeu a?oiie?iaaeenue ai o?ao?ee, eioi?ua iiaee
auoue e enoiaeiuie, ia?aiia/aeueiuie ?iaeaie, a iiaee aicieeaoue a
?acoeueoaoa eneonnoaaiiiai iauaaeeiaiey ianeieueeeo ?iaeia. O?ao?ee
iauaaeeiyeenue a ieaiaia. ?iaeu yaeyeenue yeciaaiiuie eieeaeoeaaie
iao?eeeiaeiuo ?iaenoaaiieeia, iauaaeeiaiiuo ioiioaieyie iauae
nianoaaiiinoe, acaeiiiai ianeaaeiaaiey, acaeiiiiiiue e acaeiicaueou. Iie
eiaee naie oioaiiua eiaia. ?iae eiae i?aai aaeiioeee, naia ioaeaeueiia
io ae?oaeo ?iaeia eeaaeaeua. O?ao?ey auea iauaaeeiaieai “a?aoneeo”
?iaeia, aeey eioi?uo ?iaeu ae?oaie o?ao?ee auee aeaith?iaeiuie. ?iaeu
iaeiie o?ao?ee aunooiaee nieeaea?ii, iiaeaea?aeeaay ae?oa ae?oaa,
iniaaiii a yeno?aiaeueiuo neooaoeeyo – a neo/ayo oaeenoaa a ieaiaie,
auai?ao i?aaeaiaeeoaey e o.i. O?ao?ee eiaee naie ?aeeaeiciua a?aonoaa,
iniaua ia?yaeu iinayuaiey, oea?aiiiee. Ieaiy auei yiaeiaaiiui, yaeyeinue
aa?oiaiui nianoaaiieeii oa??eoi?ee, iineoaeai ii?aaeaeaiiie eoeueoo?u –
auoiaie iauiinoe, iaeaaeaei yoiieoeueoo?iuie iniaaiiinoyie e nioeeaeueii
– iioanoa?iuie ooieoeeyie.

3. Yaiethoeey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iniiao oicyenoaa ninoaaeyee n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai niae?aoaeuenoai, ioioa
e ?uaieianoai. N eciaiaieai eeeiaoa aneaaenoaea iioaieaiey e oayiey
eaaeieeia (10-12 oun. eao iacaae), o.a. n ianooieaieai iiaie
aaieiae/aneie yiioe – aieioeaia – iaiyaony oei?a e oaoia. Auie?atho
e?oiiua “oieiaeiethaeaua” aeeaioiua – iaiiio, oa?noenoue iini?ia. Aeey
ioiou ia iaeeeo aeeaioiuo e ioeoe eniieuecoaony eoe ni no?aeaie, neeee,
eiaooee, aa?ioiu, ino?iae. Ia?yaeo n caaiiiie iieo/eea ?acaeoea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ioioie n canaaeaie e ne?aaeuaaieai, auea i?e?o/aia
niaaea. Oe?a noaei i?aeoeeiaaoueny ?uaieianoai n iiiiuueth e?theia,
naoae, aa?oae, cai?oae.

I?inoia i?enaaeaathuaa oicyenoai iecoeo ioioieeia, niae?aoaeae e ?uaaeia
iicaieyei iieo/aoue eeoue aeeciaiaania/eaathuee e oieueei eae
eneeth/aiea ecauoi/iue i?iaeoeo. Iiyoiio aeey i?aiaueiu e
?aiiaia?aiauoiie iaueiu auee iaiaoiaeeiu eieeaeoeaiay nianoaaiiinoue e
o?aaieoaeueiia, eee ?aaiiiaania/eaathuaa ?ani?aaeaeaiea.

A eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoe iaoiaeeeenue, i/aaeaeii, i?aaeaea anaai
i?iiuneiaay oa??eoi?ey ni anaie eiaaoeieny a aa i?aaeaeao iauaeoaie
ioiou, ?uaieianoaa e niae?aoaeuenoaa, nu?ueai aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
i?oaeee, ooaa?e e o.ae., eae yoi ioia/aii o aano?aeeeoeaa. Eieeaeoeaiie
iiaea auoue e nianoaaiiinoue ia ioioie/uee caaiiu, ?uaieiaiua cai?oaeu,
eiaeee, aeeeeua, iaiiue. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aea i?oaeey o?oaea, – oiii?u,
eiiuey, eoee ni no?aeaie, auoiaay ooaa?ue, iaeaaeaea, oe?aoaiey
yaeyeenue ee/iie nianoaaiiinoueth.

Nianoaaiiinoue ia ieuo eee ae?oaoth aeiau/o auea oaeaea eieeaeoeaiie.
?ani?aaeaeaiea aa auei o?aaieoaeueiui eee ?aaiiiaania/eaathuei.

Ia noaaeee ia?aiauoiie ?iaeiaie iaueiu, a iaieeoa, i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae
e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiio oicyenoao, ?acaeaaaony neioiaiaenoai e
caieaaeaeea. Yoio ia?aoiae A.*aeeae iacaae iaieeoe/aneie ?aaiethoeeae.

I?e ?aiiai i?iecaiaeyuai e aunieiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiii i?enaaeaathuai
oicyenoaa ii-i?aaeiaio iaiaoiaeeia auea oaniay eiiia?aoeey o?oaeiauo
oiaiee, a cia/eo e nio?aiaiea eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoe e
o?aaieoaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Eieeaeoeaiie, i?aeiouanoaaiii ?iaeiaie,
auea nianoaaiiinoue ia aicaeaeuaaaioth caieth, ianoaeua, ioioie/uee,
?uaieiaiua e niae?aoaeueneea oaiaeuey. Aioo?e ?iaea ia?aaaouaaaiay caiey
ia?aaeaaaeanue ai aeaaeaiea a?oiiai aeeaeaeoeo ni?iaee/ae e a
iieueciaaiea ioaeaeueiui /eaiai eieeaeoeaa. Neio, i?oaeey, ooaa?ue e
o.i. auee ee/iie nianoaaiiinoueth e iiaee io/oaeaeaoueny. O?aaieoaeueiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea iinoaiaiii caiaiyeinue o?oaeiaui ?ani?aaeaeaieai, i?e
eioi?ii /aeiaae, iieo/eaoee oi?ioee o?iaeae, i?eieiae neioa, aeiau/o,
iia inoaaeoue aai naaa eee aeaeeoueny ei n oaie, n eai oioae. Yoa
ia?aaea/a i?iaeoeoa aeaaaea i?anoeae eae /aeiaaeo, eioi?ue yoi aeaeae,
oae e nioeeaeueiiio i?aaiecio, /eaiii eioi?iai ii yaeyeny. ?acaeaaaony
aea?iiaiai iaaeaeo eieeaeoeaaie. Nenoaia aea?iiaiaia auea a nouiinoe
nenoaiie i?anoeaeiie yeiiiieee. Aea? aeieaeai aue auoue aiciauai
yeaeaaeaioiui ioaea?ii. I?anoeaeiue aea?iiaiai i?eieiae
oea?aiiieaeueioth oi?io. Aea?aiea i?iecaiaeeeinue ai a?aiy oi?aeanoa, ia
eioi?ua iaeia iaueia i?eaeaoaea /eaiia ae?oaeo. Oaeiau ie?u “ia?oauo” o
yneeiinia Aeynee, naeiua i?acaeieee o iaioania ia?eiae-aiei, iioea/e
eiaeeeoeaa Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai iiaa?aaeuey Naaa?iie Aia?eee. Aea?aiea aaei
e naiaia?aciiio iaeiieaieth eiouanoaa, eioi?ui /aeiaae iia ?aniieaaaoue
aia eiio?iey iaueiu. A yoii i?iyaeeinue ?ac?ooaiea yaaeeoa?iinoe:
auaeaeeeenue aaaeiua (aeaiaiu) e i?aeeia?iua ethaee, a caoai iiyaeeenue
e aaaeiyee. Iioea/e, ie?u, oea?aiiieaeueiue iaiai e ae?oaea i?iyaeaiey
i?anoeaeiie yeiiiieee auee iiuiui noeioeii i?iecaiaenoaa. Noaee
iiyaeyoueny iaiaiiua yeaeaaeaiou: ?aaeeea ?aeiaeiu, oe?aoaiey, eaiaiue,
ioe/uee ia?uey.

I?oaeey ia?auo ethaeae – homo habilis, aeeaoeo a ia?eiae Ieaeoaay,
ecaioiaeyeenue ec ?acee/iuo aoeeaie/aneeo eaaiauo ii?iae: aacaeueoia,
aiaeaceoia, neaioea, eaa?oea e ae?. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiu /iiia?u e /iiieiae
– i?oaeey ec aaeae, iaeei e?ae eioi?uo iaaeo ianeieueeeie oaea?aie n
iaeiie noi?iiu (/iiia?) eee n aeaoo (/iiieia). Aeey auoiauo ioaeae
eniieueciaaeenue e iouaiu, e aeeneiaeaeiua, e noa?ieaeiua eonee ii?iae,
eioi?uie neiaeeee, ?anoe?aee, ?aneaeuaaee e ?ac?acaee.

Oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey homo erectus, aeeaoaai a ia?eiae Aoaey,
au?aaeaiu a aeoaneaeueiie eiaeono?ee, ?ani?ino?aiaiiie a Ao?eea, Aa?iia,
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, ia Eaaeaca. Aeoanu – aeaonoi?iiia ia?aaioaiiua
i?oaeey o?aoaieueiie, ieiaeaeaaeaeiie e aeeneiaeaeiie oi?i. Oiaaea aea
eniieueciaaeenue e i?oaeey iaiueoeo ?acia?ia: a?oaua ino?ieiia/ieee,
ne?aaea, ino?ea.

Yiioa Ionouea – a?aiy oi?ie?iaaiey ?acee/iuo oaoiieiaee. Iiyaeythony
ne?aaee, ?acoeu, i?ieieee, naa?ea, iiaee ?aciiia?aciuo oi?i – n
auaieaie, coa/aoua, aeaonoi?iiia ia?aaioaiiua e neaaea iiaei?aaeaiiua
iaeeeie neieaie. Ana /aua aeey ioi?ieaiey eacaee e oueueiuo /anoae
i?oaeee i?eiaiyaony ?aoooue – aoi?e/iay ia?aaioea, caeeth/athuayny a
au?aaieaaiee eee cacoa?eaaiee, caino?aiee eee caooieaieee e?ay caaioiaee
iaeeeie niyoeyie. A Ionouea eniieueciaaeanue eiio?oaea?iay ?aoooue.
Iiyaeythony e i?oaeey, ia?aaioaiiua ioaeeiiie ?aoooueth, eioi?ay
i?iecaiaeeeanue aeaaeaieai einoyiiai eee ?iaiaiai ioaeeiieea.
Iaaiaea?oaeueoeu ecia?aoatho e ninoaaiua i?oaeey – eiiuey, ae?ioeee,
iaeiia/ieee eioi?uo auee eaiaiiuie, a ae?aaee aea?aayiiuie, iiaee n
eaiaiiie iniiaie e aea?aayiiie ?oeiyoeith.

Oaoie/aneea iiaoanoaa Homo Sapiens i?aainoiaeyo i?aaeoanoaothuea
ia?eiaeu. ?acei ?anoe?yaony anni?oeiaio i?oaeee o?oaea, ?aciiia?aciuo e
i/aiue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo. ?acee/aaony 92 oeia i?oaeee: ne?aaeia,
?acoeia, ino?ee, i?ieieie, i?iaa?oie, neiaaeae, iiaeae, iaeiia/ieeia,
eiiee e ae?ioeeia. Aeey oaaee/aiey oaieiie neeu iaoaoaeueiiai i?oaeey
eniieuecothony eiiueaiaoaeee. Iiyaeythony ninoaaiua i?oaeey, iniiaa
eioi?uo ecaioiaeaia ec einoe eee aea?aaa, a eacaeai neoaeeee iaeeea
ieanoeiu, anoaaeyaiua a iacu – i?i?ace iniiau.

Oe?iei eniieuecoaony einoue e ?ia aeey ecaioiaeaiey i?oaeee o?oaea. Ec
ieo aeaeatho einoyiua iaeiia/ieee, aa?ioiu, ianneaiua oaea?iua i?oaeey
oeia eaee, eaeu n ooeii, i?ieieee, oeeuey, eiiuey ec aeaiae iaiiioia.

Neaaeothuei yoaiii ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee auea yiioa iacieeoa.
Aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuea i?oaeey, iniaaiii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a
eaniuo ?aeiiao, ia oieueei iaaeaathony, ii e caoeeoiauaathony ia ?aai/ae
/anoe. Iie ?aciiia?aciu e oceiooieoeeiiaeueiu – oiii?u, aeieioa, oanea.
Aeey iieo/aiey iaeeeo i?oaeee i?eiaiyaony oaoieea ioaeeia n iaaieueoeo
ioeeaonia. Yoio niinia ?anuaieaiey iicaieee iieo/eoue ianno iaeeeo,
i/aiue oiieeo, i?aaeeueii ia?aiaiiuo ieanoeiie oe?eiie io 0,4 aei 1,0
ni, ec eioi?uo n iiiiuueth ?aoooe ecaioiaeyee iiaee, ?acoeu, i?ieieee,
ne?aaee, i?iaa?oee, naa?ea, aeeaaeuoe aeey iiaeae, eeiaeaeia,
iaeiia/ieeia eiiee, ae?ioeeia aeey aa?ioiia. ss?eei ia?ea?ii
iacieeoe/aneie yiioe yaeyaony eoe. No?aeu auee ninoaaiua, n eaiaiiuie
iaeiia/ieeaie, aea?aayiiua, einoyiua. Ec einoe ecaioiaeyee e aa?ioiu,
ino?iae, ?uaieiaiua e?th/ee, iiaee, oeeuey, eaeu, iooou. Ec ?uaieiaiuo
nianoae e?iia oiiiyioouo e?th/eia e aa?ioiia oaea eniieueciaaee naoe n
eaiaiiuie a?oceeaie.

A ia?eiae iicaeia?iaeiaie iaueiu, a?oaieiae/anee niioaaonoaothuae
iaieeoo, oaoieea ia?aaioee eaiiy e einoe aeinoeaaao niaa?oainoaa.
Ainiiaenoaotho, aeeaaeuoaaua i?oaeey iniaaiii a caieaaeaeue/aneeo
?aeiiao, aaea iie oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu na?iaie e aeaoaaiiuie iiaeaie,
iniiau eioi?uo ecaioiaeaiu ec einoe eee aea?aaa. Ca?iaeeaoayny a
iacieeoa oaoieea oeeoiaaiey aeinoeaaao ?anoeaaoa a iaieeoa. Oiii?u,
oanea, aeieioa, noaianee, iiaee aeaeatho ec aeei?eoa, iao?eoa,
oooiii?oe?eoa, neaioeaa.

A iaieeoa ?acaeaathony iiaecaiiua au?aaioee eaiaiiiai nu?uey. Auee
inaiaiu ana iniiaiua i?eaiu ai?iiai aeaea – oaoou, iiaeaie, oo?aee,
e?aiaaeiua noieau, aaioeeyoeeiiiua ieia. E?aiaiue aeiauaaee ?iaiauie
iiouaaie, eaeeaie, ee?eaie.

Ai?iua au?aaioee e aunieee o?iaaiue ia?aaioee eaiiy iiaeaioiaeee a
VI-Voun. aei i.y. iiyaeaiea iaoaeeo?aee. A yiaieeoa iiyaeyaony
ianeieueei oeaio?ia iaaeiie iaoaeeiia?aaioee: aeeaeiaainoi/iue,
Aaeeaineee, Ao?eeaineee, Eaaeacneee, Aeoaeneee, O?aeueneee. Aeiau/a
iaaeiie ?oaeu i?iecaiaeeeanue n iiiiuueth iaiy. Ia?aiia/aeueii ecaeaeey
ec iaaee ecaioaaeeaaeenue iooai eiaee. Yoi auee iaeeea aaue – oeeuey,
eaeu, a?aneaou, iiienoi, iiaeaanee. E eiioeo yiaieeoa ia/eiatho
i?iecaiaeeoue ianneaiua iaaeiua ecaeaeey, nia/aea iaoiaeii eiaee,
iicaeiaa eeoueai. I?e eeouea ia ecaeaeea cao?a/eaaaony iaiueoaa
eiee/anoai iaoaeea, oi?iu i?oaeee noaiiayony ecyuiaa. Ioeeaathony
oiii?u, iieiou, oanea, eaeu, oeeuey, aeieioa, i?iaieieee, oe?aoaieay.

Aeieaee, ii/oe aeaooieeeeiiiieaoiee, iooue ?acaeoey i?ioei
aeiiino?ieoaeuenoai. Naiui ae?aaiei aeeeeuai iiaeii n/eoaoue nii?oaeaiea
ia noiyiea a Ieaeoaaeneii ouaeuea. A aoaeueneoth yiioo homo erectus
i?iaeaeioeny a Aa?iio, ia Eaaeac, a E?ui, N?aaeithth Aceth, THaeioth
Neae?ue, THai-Ainoi/ioth Aceth. Iinaeaiey eiatho oa?aeoa? ioioie/ueeo
eaaa?ae, aieaa eee iaiaa iinoiyiiuo. Inoaoee eino?eu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
i ciaeiinoaa n iaiai, aiciiaeii, /oi oaea auee ecia?aoaiu niiniau
eneonnoaaiiiai aeiauaaiey iaiy. AEeeeuaie neoaeeee iaua?iua iaaanu e
a?iou e oeaeeiu iiae ioe?uoui iaaii.

Iacieeoe/aneea aeeeeua i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ie?oaeua eee eaaae?aoiua
iino?ieee n iieii ec eoneia aa?aciaie e niniiaie ei?u, noaiu eioi?uo
ninoiyee ec aioeioouo a a?oio oiieeo aea?aeae, naycaiiuo aianoa
(Iaaeaiica).

A iaieeoa a aeiiino?ieoaeuenoaa i?ineaaeeaathony 2 eeiee: a eaniie ciia
no?iyony aea?aayiiua aeiia, iacaiiua e oaeoaeaiiua a caieth; a
caieaaeaeue/aneie ciia iiyaeyaony aeeiiaeoiay a?oeoaeoo?a. Iiyaeythony
naaeiua iino?ieee, nii?oaeaiiua ia caaiei/aiiuo i?ea?aaeiuo eoaao. A
naaeiuo iino?ieeao iaia?oaeaia e iaaaeue: neaiuee, noieu, noiaeoee.

Aeiia aiaoieeeneiai iinaeaiey *aoae Aothe, enneaaeiaaiiiai Aeae.
Iaeea?oii, iino?iaiu oeaeeeii ec oi?iiaaiiiai ee?ie/a-nu?oea, ia
ee?ie/iuo iniiaaieyo. Niiauaiea iaaeaeo aeiiaie inouanoaeyeinue ii
e?uoa, iaoiaeeaoaeny ia ?aciie aunioa, o.e. aeiia oa??anaie
iiaeieiaeenue ii neeiio oieia.

Aa?iiaeneea caieaaeaeueoeu inoaaeee oieeaeueiua nii?oaeaiey ec eaiiy –
iaaaeeou – eoeueoiaua nii?oaeaiey, auiieiaiiua ec iaeiiai eee iiiaeo
aeieia aeeeiai eee a?oaaeoiai eaiiy.

E iaaaeeoai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu i?eiaaeeaaeao iaiae?u – aieueoea
i?iaeieaiaaoua eaiie aunioie 4-5 e aieaa iao?ia, iinoaaeaiiua
aa?oeeaeueii. Ciaiaieou aeeae iaiae?ia o Ea?iaea a A?aoiie, aaea
ian/eouaaaony ieiei 3 oun. eaiiae. Ae?oaei aeaeii iaaaeeoia yaeythony
e?iieaoe – a?oiiu iaiae?ia, ia?acothuea iaeei eee ianeieueei
eiioeaio?e/aneeo e?oaia. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiu ec ieo Noiioaiaeae e Yaath?e
a Aiaeee. E iaaaeeoai ioiinyony aeieueiaiu – eieeaeoeaiua, ?aaea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua a?iaieoeu, neiaeaiiua ec aieueoeo eaiaiiuo ieeo e
aeua, iinoaaeaiiuo ia ?aa?a aa?oeeaeueii eee neaaea iaeeiiii e iie?uouo
iaeiie eee ianeieueeeie ieeoaie naa?oo. Aoiae a aeieueiai cae?uaaeny
ie?oaeie ieeoie.

O?ainii?o i?aaeoeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea i?aaenoaaeai euaeaie, naiyie,
eiaeeaie, iiyaeaoeieny a iacieeoa. Euaee e iieicuey naiae auee oe?ieeie
e ei?ioeeie. Eiaeee ecaioaaeeaaee iooai auaeaeaeeaaiey na?aeoeaaeiu
aea?aaa e iaaeeaaiey. Eiaeee niaaaeaeenue aaneaie. A yiaieeoa iiyaeyaony
eieaniue o?ainii?o – oaeaaeee, iiaicee, ai?yaeaiiua a aueia.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee nioai ouny/aeaoee ethaee iieueciaaeenue iinoaeie ec ei?u,
aea?aaa, eaiiy, ?aeiaei, ei?ceiaie ec i?ooueaa, eiaeaiuie iaoeaie. A
iaieeoa iiyaeyaony aeeiyiay iinoaea. Caieaaeaeueoeu eaieee iinoaeo
?aciiia?aciuo oi?i – ai?oee, eoaoeiu, eoaee, aethaea, ?eooaeueiua
aio?iiiii?oiua e ciiii?oiua ninoaeu, ieieaoth?iua /aoa/ee e ia?iiiua,
aunioie aei 1 i e aieaa, ninoaeu aeey o?aiaiey ca?ia n e?uoeaie. A IV
oun. aei i.y. aue ecia?aoai aii/a?iue e?oa, iicaieeaoee ecaioiaeyoue
iinoaeo n oiieeie noaieaie, aieaa iaeiiia?acioth, a aieueoeo
eiee/anoaao.

Oaea a VI oun. aei i.y. nouanoaiaae oeaoeeee noaiie, /anoe eioi?iai
iaeaeaiu i?e ?aneiieao naaeiuo iino?iae a i?eaeueieeneie ciia. Oai aea
iaia?oaeaiu auee e ecaeaeey ec eueia, oa?noe, ieoee, oio?ee, aa?aaea,
oanueia, naoe, oeaie, aycaiiua aaue, i?oaeey oaenoeeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
– eueii/anaeee, aea?aayiiua aa?aoaia, aycaeueiua e?th/ee, oeaoeeea
/aeiiee.

4. Aicieeiiaaiea iuoeaiey, ?a/e e ciaiee.

A iaeanoe ia?aiauoiie eoeueoo?u iiuiui noeioeii noaei aicieeiiaaiea
iuoeaiey e ?a/e. ?a/ue aicieeaao eae ioaao ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee io iaeiiai /eaia eieeaeoeaa e ae?oaiio: i?e iao/aiee a
iaeaaeaiee iiauie oaoie/aneeie iaaueaie, acaeiiaeaenoaee ia ioioa e i?e
aeeeoaeueiuo ia?aaeaeaeaieyo, i?e auai?a ia?o?ooia e iano ioiou,
niaianoiie iai?iia.

?acaeoea ycuea oei ia?aeeaeueii oaaee/aieth iauaia eioi?iaoeee e
niinianoaiaaei aa aeeoioeyoeee e ia?aaea/a. Iaeaieeaaeny iiuo,
niiinoaaeyeenue i?e/eiu e neaaenoaey yaeaiee, iaiauaeenue e
nenoaiaoece?iaaeenue iaaethaeaiey. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi auee ciaiey
ia ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaea. Yiie?e/anee iaeaieeaaeenue ca/aoee oece/aneeo
ciaiee.

N iaeaieeoa inaaeaaaony e ieia?aeiaey. Oaea iaaiaea?oaeaoe ciae
iiiaeanoai ii?iae eaiiy, a e yiaieeoo /aeiaae iaeaaeae niiniaaie
ia?aaioee ii/oe anao ecaanoiuo naaiaeiy ieia?aeia, a oii /enea e iaaeiuo
?oae e iaoai?eoiiai aeaeaca. N ionouea?neie yiioe inaaeaathony e?anee –
io?a, aeaoieenue ia?aaioea, aaiaeyony niiniau eo ?acaaaeaiey e iaianaiey
ia ?acee/iua iaoa?eaeu.

?acaeoea iieo/eee oaeea io?anee ciaiey, eae iaaeeoeeia, oa?iaeieiaey,
oieneeieiaey. Iacieeoe/aneea iaaeeee i?iecaiaeeee o?aiaiaoeeth /a?aia e
aiiooaoeeth eiia/iinoae, a iaieeoa eniieueciaaee e ineoioa?aieth, e
oeoioa?aieth.

Aeieiae/aneea ciaiey i?iyaeeenue ia naiuo ?aiieo yoaiao enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa. N iacieeoa yoe ciaiey i?eaaee e aeiianoeeaoeee aeeaioiuo,
naeaeoeee – eneonnoaaiiiai ioai?a iaeaieaa iieaciuo ii?iae aeiiaoieo
aeeaioiuo. Ciaiea naienoa ?aciuo ?anoaiee – nuaaeiaiuo, ianuaaeiaiuo,
niiniaiuo e eoeueoeaaoeee e ia niiniaiuo i?eaiaeeo iaci- iaieeoe/aneia
ianaeaiea e caieaaeaeue/aneie eoeueoo?a.

Iaoaiaoeea ia/eiaaony oaeaea a iaeaieeoa. Naeaeaoaeuenoaaie n/aoiuo
iia?aoeee a iaeaieeoa noaee iaoiaeee iaeeie ieanoeee e oe?aoaiee ni
ciaeaie e ?iniene a iaua?ao.

A yiioo iaeaieeoa ooiaeyo e enoiee ano?iiiie/aneeo ciaiee. Enneaaeiaaiey
iaeeie ieanoeee, i?iaiaioa, aeeaiieniuo ecia?aaeaiee a iaua?ao
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee ciaeiinoai iaeaieeoe/aneeo ethaeae ni caacaeiui
iaaii, n caeiiiia?iinoyie aeaeaeaiey Eoiu, Nieioea, THieoa?a. Ia iniiaa
yoeo ciaiee nicaeaaaeenue eaeaiaea?e.

?acaeoea ano?iiiie/aneeo ciaiee a iineaaeothuea yiioe i?eaaei e
iiyaeaieth aieaa neiaeiuo eaeaiaea?ae, ioia/athueo oacu ia?auaiey naaoee
Eoiu e Nieioea. “Iana?aaoi?eyie” yaeythony oaiaeaee A?eoaiee e ?iiaeaeu
Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiui n/eoaaony Noiioaiaeae. Iaou –
eaiie e yiu oaiaeaea neoaeeee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eoiiuo e nieia/iuo
ainoiaeia, aeey ecia?aiey naciiia, iieoaiaeee, aiaea, aeey au/eneaiey
nieia/iuo caoiaiee.

A yiioo ia?aiauoiie ?iaeiaie iaueiu iiyaeeenue ca/aoee
“i?aaeienueiaiiinoe” – ieeoia?aoey, eee ?enoii/iia.

5. Aeooiaiua aniaeou ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa.

Aeooiaiia ?acaeoea ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae y?/a anaai au?aaeaii a eneonnoaa.
I?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa iaeuo oi?i eniieiyeenue n iiiiuueth ?acoea,
ne?aaea. A?aath?a e aa?aeueao ia noaiao iaua? i?iecaiaeeeenue a?oauie
?acoeaie. Aeey iaianaiey ?iniene ia noaiu iaua? i?eiaiyeenue e?anee
anoanoaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. *aua anaai eniieueciaaeanue aeaeacenoay
io?a, eioi?oth i?ieaeeaaee ia iaia, caoai ?anoe?aee. *a?iay e?anea
aeiauaaeanue ec aeaoieene iaaiacee. Naycothuei iaoa?eaeii, nei?aa anaai,
aue aee? aeeaioiuo. E?anea iaiineeanue iaeueoeai eee, iaei/eie,
aiciiaeii eenoueth, eioi?ie iia neoaeeoue io/ie oa?noe. Eniieueciaaeenue
eiiaaea anoanoaaiiua ?aeueaou a iaua?ao, eiaaea aunooiu e aiaaeeiu ia
noaiao iaua? iooai iaaieueoie iiaei?aaee i?aa?auaeenue a oeao?u
aeeaioiuo eee ethaeae.

Iniiaioth ianno nthaeaoia ninoaaeytho ecia?aaeaiey aeeaioiuo, aeaaiui
ia?acii e?oiiuo o?aaiyaeiuo: eioaaee, aeciiu, iaiiiou, eiceu,
aeaai?iaeiua ieaie, eaie, ?aaea oeuieee – eaa, iaaeaaaeue, aiee, ?unue.
N?aaee aio?iiiiioiuo ecia?aaeaiee i?aiaeaaeatho aeaineea. ss?/aeoeie
ia?acoeaie aeeaiiene iaeaieeoa yaeythony ?iniene a iaua?ao Eynei,
Aeueoaie?a, (Eniaiey) Ey Iaaeeai, Eiiaa?aeue,(O?aioeey) Eaiiaie (?inney)
e iiiaeo ae?oaeo. Ia noaiao iaua? ?acai?a/eaathony eiiiiceoeee, aeey
eioi?uo naienoaaiai oaea aeeiaieci, iieeo?iiiinoue a ecia?aaeaiee
aeeaioiuo. Aua ?aiueoa ca?iaeeeanue neoeueioo?a, iiyaeeenue
“Iaeaieeoe/aneea Aaia?u”, neiaieece?iaaaoea neeu ieiaei?iaeey.
Caieaaeaeue/aneia ianaeaiea inoaaeei aiaaoaeooth eaiaiioth e aeeiyioth
neoeueioo?o e ?iniene noai aeiiia e nayoeeeu. Ecia?aceoaeueiia
oai?/anoai ?acaeaaeinue iaeiia?aiaiii n oaioeai e iocueie.
Iiiai/eneaiiua oeaeou – einoyiua o?oaee n ioaa?noeyie – iaia?oaeaiu ia
iaeaieeoe/aneeo noiyieao. Ii-aeaeeiiio, auee anaaiciiaeiua aeoaeee,
aoaeaeee, naenoee, o?oau, ueieiaua eino?oiaiou, i?ioioeiii eioi?uo auea,
aa?iyoii, oaoeaa eoea. Iocuea, oaiaoe, ecia?aceoaeueiia oai?/anoai
neoaeeee iniiaie aeey oaao?aeeciaaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, iinoaiiaee ieoa.

A iaeaieeoa oaea ca?iaeaeaaony ieoieiae/aneay ea?oeia ie?a – oeaeinoiia
aeaeaiea ie?a, ioi?ieaiiia a i?aaeii/oaieyo, eoeueoao, ?eooaeao,
aa?iaaieyo e ciaieyo.

A iaieeoa no?oeoo?a ie?a i?iyaeyaony a ia?aca ie?iaiai aea?aaa. Yoi e
aeaenoaeoaeueii ecia?aaeaiea aea?aaa eee noieaa, e oneiaiay
aa?oeeaeueiay eiiiiceoeey, ?acaeaeaiiay ia 3 /anoe. Iiyaeythony ieou,
iauyniythuea niaio aeiy e ii/e (eioaaeue e aue), aeeciue e nia?oue
(nicaeaiu neiaeiua iia?aaaeueiua ?eooaeu). ?acaeaathony ieou i
nioai?aiee ie?a: ec yeoea (Oeieyiaeey, Neaiaeeiaaey, Ea?aeey), ec caiee,
aeiauoie ooeie (O?ae, Neae?ue). Ieoieiaey aieaoaia a ie?iaic?aiea
ethaeae, auaoaa ?aeeaeiciui.

?aeeaeiciua i?aaenoaaeaiey iiyaeythony, ii a?oaieiae/aneei aeaiiui, ii
e?aeiae ia?a a ionouea?neoth yiioo. Ia yoii aiai?yo iaaiaea?oaeueneea
iia?aaaiey e oae iacuaaaiua “iaaeaaaeuee iaua?u”. Iauiinoue aea /eaiia
eieeaeoeaa auea iniciaia a oi?ia oioaiecia – aa?u a aeoaieia oiaeaeanoai
anao /eaiia oiai eee eiiai ia?aiauoiiai eieeaeoeaa (/aua anaai ?iaea) n
iniayie iaeiiai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea aeeaioiuo, iicaea ?anoaiee.

A iaeaieeoa iiyaeyaony e iaaey – aa?a a niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea iniaui
ia?acii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ae?oaeo ethaeae, aeeaioiuo, ?anoaiey,
yaeaiey i?e?iaeu, a oaeaea e naie yoe aeaenoaey. Ieeoee, aaeueee n
iana/eaie, i?iaiaioii, io?ie iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi iaaey auea
ae?aaiaeoae oi?iie ?aeeaee.

Ia/ae neeaaeuaaoueny eoeueo i?e?iaeu, ieeoeaoai?ythueeny a ia?acao
aeooia aeeaioiiai e ?iaenoaaiiiai ie?a, caiiuo e iaaaniuo nee. Ia ii/aa
aic?anoiuo eieoeeaoeee neeaaeuaathony ?aiiaieaiaiiua eoeueou n aeaaiui
iauaeoii yoiai eoeueoa – ia?acii aeooa – iie?iaeoaey eieoeeaoeee, a
aeaeueiaeoai – ieaiaiiiai aiaa. N ?acaeoeai caieaaeaeey oneiaeiyaony
i?iiuneiaue eoeueo, iiyaeythony iniaua Aia iaaa e aiaeanoaa noeoee,
oi?ie?oaony eoeueo oie?athuaai e aine?anoaai aiaa ieiaei?iaeey. I?aaeiyy
iaoue – i?a?iaeeoaeueieoea noaiiaeony Aaeeeie Aiaeiae. Oa?aeoa?iie
/a?oie ?acee/iuo aicc?aiee ?aiiacaieaaeaeue/aneie yiioe aue
aio?iiiii?oiue iaeee aeooia e aiaeanoa.

Oneiaeiyaony eoeueoiaay i?aeoeea. O ?acaeouo ioioieeia e ?uaieiaia
aicieeatho ia?iiiua nayoeeeua o ianeaeueiuo ecia?aaeaiee. Ia ?aaieiao
nii?oaeathony nayoeeeua, iiaeiaiua a?eoaineei oaiaeaeai, aeeayi
iaiae?ia, ?iiaeaeai a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia. O caieaaeaeueoeaa
auaeaeythony o?aiu oeia *aoae-Aothea, Iannaaeaeee-Aeaia, nayoeeeua n
au/ueeie ?iaaie a Oaeue-Anaaaea, o?aiu Y?eaeo e Oaia-Aaa?a oaaeaeneiai
ia?eiaea. A ieo niaa?oaeenue ia?yaeu, oi?iieeenue nayuaiiua
ecia?aaeaiey, ianee, eiiaaea a ieo oi?iieee ethaeae n aunieei noaoonii.
Iiyaeaiea oaeeo nayoeeeu yaeyaony naeaeaoaeuenoaii ca?iaeaeaiey eanou
ae?aoeia.

A?oeoaeoo?a, aeeaiienue, neoeueioo?a, aeeoioee?oy aeinoeaeaiey
i?ioaaeoeo a?aiai e iaania/eaay iiaua iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa nicaeaee
oneiaey aeey aoaeouaai ?anoeaaoa eneonnoaa. *aeiaa/anoai iiaeioei e
oeeaeeecaoeee.

Eeoaa?o?a.

1. Aaeaiaeei ?.E., Aiiaea?aa E.A. I?e?iaea e oeeaeeecaoeey. -I.: Iuneue,
1988.

2. Aiaeueyiia TH. ?iaeaeaiea e aeaaeue oeeaeeecaoeee. I.: Aa/a. 1999.

3. Iieeea?iia A.N. Enoi?ey iaoee e oaoieee. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio:
Oaieen,1998.

4. Ii?oiaa A.O. I ia/aea /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. I.,1974.

5. Oieiae Aeae. Iinoeaeaiea enoi?ee. I.: I?ia?ann. 1996.

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