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Iuea? aea Oa?ia

Aiaeeoee, aoaeue
/anoai !

Eia/a ii/ueth
Yeaeaeiieae-inoeoaeue

Niaeiao oaia ai?ei
nia?oaeueiie oineie..

Eoe Oa??ii, “Iiuo
itheaeaeueiie aaiiao?ee”

“Iuea?, nui Aeiieieea Oa?ia, ao?aeoa e aoi?iai eiinoeaoa ai?iaea Aiiiia
, e?auai 20 aaaonoa 1601 a. E?anoiue ioaoe – Iuea? Oa?ia, eoiaoe e a?ao
iacaaiiiai Aeiieieea, e?anoiay iaoue – AEaiia Eacitha, e y”. Iiaeienue
ionoonoaoao, ii i?aaeuaeouay caienue iiaeienaia: “Aethia, aeea?ee”. Yoio
aeieoiaio eneaee iieoi?a aaea e iaia?oaeeee eeoue a 1846 a. aeaaiaea?y
oneeeyi aaeaieaoa Oiieaea. Aei yoiai n/eoaeinue, /oi Oa?ia ?iaeeeny e
oia? a Ooeoca, aaea 34 (!) aiaea eni?aaii neoaeee /eiiaieeii
eannaoeeiiiie iaeaou Ooeocneiai ia?eaiaioa. Iaeaiueeee ai?iaeie Aiiii
ia eaaii aa?aao Aa?iiiu aaeece Iiioaaaia-ia-Oa?ia (ai O?aioeee aieaa 30
Aiiiiia) e ana aai iyoue ouny/ aeeoaeae ii nae aeaiue ia a neeao
iniciaoue cia/eiinoue iaoiaeee aeioioiiai aaeaieaoa. Caeanue ?iaeeeny
aaeeeee Oa?ia, iineaaeiee iaoaiaoee-aeoeiee, ?aoaaoee i?acaeiua caaea/e
a?yaeoueo noieaoee, oeoaeoee noaeaeneee e?th/ie, eoeaaue noeien,
caio/eaoee /aeiaa/anoai naieie caaaaeeaie, inoi?iaeiue e aeaaii?aaiue
/eiooa, iiaeoaniauee, eio?eaai, aeiiinaae, caaenoiee, aaieaeueiue
eiiieeyoi?, iaeei ec /aou?ao oeoaiia iaoaiaoeee iiaiai a?aiaie.

Yoio nia?aiaiiee Ae’A?oaiueyia ii/oe ia auacaeae ec Ooeocu, aaea inae
iinea aeaieoueau ia eoceia naiae iaoa?e Eoeca aea Eii, aei/a?e niaaoieea
oiai-naiiai ia?eaiaioa. Aeaaiaea?y oanoth ii aeineoaeeeny aei caaiey
niaaoieea e i?eia?ae aiaeaeaeaiioth i?enoaaeo “aea”. Nui o?aoueaai
nineiaey, i?aeoe/iue ioi?une aiaaouo eiaeaaieeia, iaoieaiaaiiue
eaouiueth e o?aioeeneaineei aeaai/anoeai, ii ia noaaee ia?aae niaie
a?aiaeeiciuo caaea/ a ?aaeueiie aeecie. Ii eiae iyoa?uo /aae, a
iineaaenoaee noaaoeo noaeaeneeie /eiiaieeaie e nayuaiieeaie. Aeaa
aei/a?e Oa?ia i?eiyee iiiaoanoai.

A naie ao?iue aae ii i?iaeee iniiaaoaeueii e oeoi. Ii ia ienae
oeeinioneeo o?aeoaoia, eae Aeaea?o, ia aue iaia?nieeii o?aioeocneeo
ei?ieae, eae Aeao, ia aiaaae, ia iooaoanoaiaae, ia nicaeaaae e ia
iinauae iaoaiaoe/aneea e?oaeee, ia eiae o/aieeia e ii/oe ia ia/aoaeny
i?e aeecie. *eiiaieeai i?iaeioeeaeueiuo noaeia i?aaeienuaaeinue aanoe
caieioooth aeeciue, ecaaaay ethauo i?iyaeaiee ioaee/iinoe. Aa?iyoii
Oa?ia, n/eoay naay nieeaeiui /aeiaaeii, noaniyeny naiae no?anoe e
aeinoaeei oi?iaeueiui ea?ai. Ia neeiia eao iao aa?ie ieoao: “Oae eae,
aiai?y ioe?iaaiii, y n/eoath aaiiao?eth naiui aunieei oi?aaeiaieai aeey
oia, ii iaeiia?aiaiii noieue aaniieaciui, /oi y aeaeath iaei ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii, eioi?ue caieiaaony oieueei aaiiao?eae, e eneoniui
?aianeaiieeii. ss iacuaath aaiiao?eth naiie i?ae?aniie i?ioanneae a
ie?a, ii ana aea oieueei i?ioanneae , e y /anoi aiai?th, /oi iia oi?ioa
aeey i?iau nee, ii ia aeey oiai, /oiau aeeaaeuaaoue a iaa ana neeu…” .
Ii eciaiee naaa eeoue ia?aae nia?oueth, iioaeeeiaaa a Ooeoca aeaeaei ia
naiua aeanoyuea ec naieo iaoiaeie a iaaieueoii o?aeoaoa “I n?aaiaiee
e?eauo eeiee i?yiuie”. Ia iaia?oaeea ieeaeeo niciaoaeueiuo i?aoaicee ia
ianoi a enoi?ee, Oa?ia iaiaeeaeaiii oie?aao a aic?anoa 64 eao ai a?aiy
iiacaeee ii aeaeai neoaeau.

Aai i?eaeeciaiiay ecaanoiinoue iniiaaia ia iaeeueiie ia?aienea, a
eioi?ie ii aeiieiae ae?ocae e iaae?oaia iaiau/iuie caaea/aie. Aai
iinia?oiay neaaa ?ac?ineanue aeaaiaea?y ne?iiiui iiiaoeai ia iieyo
“A?eoiaoeee” Aeeioaioa. Iau/ii /aeiaa/anoao iaiaoiaeeii ianeieueei
aeanyoeia eao, /oiau ?acia?aoueny n ianeaaeeai i/a?aaeiiai iaoaiiiai
aaiey. Aeaaea oaeie caaaaei/iue “eca?aiiee aiaia” eae Yaa?eno Aaeoa
iia?aaeee naia a?aiy iaeneioi ia 60 eao. Ia ieii/aoaeueiia iniuneaiea
caaaaeie Oa?ia iiiaaeiaeeinue aac iaeiai /aou?a aaea. Ao, Aaoa /anoue,
aeia?aeoee ainiiaeei Iuea?, ii/aio io Aan oae iaoiao na?ie ?

Eioa?an e iaoaiaoeea iaicia/eeny o Oa?ia eae-oi iaiaeeaeaiii e a
aeinoaoi/ii c?aeii aic?anoa. A 1629 a. a aai ?oee iiiaaeaao eaoeineee
ia?aaiae ?aaiou Iaiia, niaea?aeauee e?aoeoth naiaeeo ?acoeueoaoia
Aiieeiiey i naienoaao eiie/aneeo na/aiee. Oa?ia, iieeaeio, ciaoie
i?aaa e aioe/iie oeeieiaee, aae?oa caaeaaony oeaeueth iieiinoueth
ainnoaiiaeoue oiae ?annoaeaeaiee ciaiaieoiai o/aiiai. N oaeei aea
oniaoii nia?aiaiiue aaeaieao iiaeao iiiuoaoueny naiinoiyoaeueii
aini?iecaanoe ana aeieacaoaeuenoaa a iiiia?aoee ii aeaaa?ae/aneie
oiiieiaee. Iaeiaei, iaiuneeiia i?aaei?eyoea oaai/eaaaony oniaoii. Aieaa
oiai, aieeay a aaiiao?e/aneea iino?iaiey ae?aaieo, ii niaa?oaao
oaeeaeoaeueiia ioe?uoea: aeey iaoiaeaeaiey iaeneioiia e ieieioiia
ieiuaaeae oeao? ia ioaeiu oeo?ioiiua /a?oaaee. Anaaaea iiaeii ninoaaeoue
e ?aoeoue iaeia i?inoia aeaaa?ae/aneia o?aaiaiea, ei?ie eioi?iai
ii?aaeaeytho yeno?aioi. Ii i?eaeoiae aeai?eoi, eioi?ue noaiao iniiaie
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai en/eneaiey. A ia?uaeao ienai, a iacaaa?oaiiuo
?oeiienyo neaicue a?iiicaeeea aa?aaeueiua iaicia/aiey ia eaouie
io/aoeeai i?inooiaao ia/oi io/eoaeueii ciaeiiia:

.

Ii auno?i i?iaeaeioeny aeaeueoa. Ii iaoae aeinoaoi/iua oneiaey
nouanoaiaaiey iaeneioiia, iao/eeny ii?aaeaeyoue oi/ee ia?aaeaa, i?iaae
eanaoaeueiua ei anai ecaanoiui e?eaui aoi?iai e o?aoueaai ii?yaeea. Aua
ianeieueei eao, e ii iaoiaeeo iiaue /enoi aeaaa?ae/aneee iaoiae
iaoiaeaeaiey eaaae?aoo? aeey ia?aaie e aeia?aie i?iecaieueiiai ii?yaeea
(oi anoue eioaa?aeia io ooieoeee aeaea yp = Cxq e ypxq = N ) , au/eneyao
ieiuaaee, iauaiu, iiiaiou eia?oeee oae a?auaiey. Yoi aue ianoiyuee
i?i?ua. *oanoaoy yoi, Oa?ia ia/eiaao eneaoue iauaiey n iaoaiaoe/aneeie
aaoi?eoaoaie oiai a?aiaie. Ii oaa?ai a naaa e aeaaeaeao i?eciaiey.

A 1636 a. ii ieoao ia?aia ienueii Aai i?aiiaeiaeth Ia?aio Ia?naiio:
”Nayoie ioaoe! ss Aai /?acau/aeii i?eciaoaeai ca /anoue, eioi?oth Au iia
ieacaee, iiaeaa iaaeaaeaeo ia oi, /oi iu niiaeai aanaaeiaaoue
ienueiaiii; …ss aoaeo i/aiue ?aae ociaoue io Aan i anao iiauo
o?aeoaoao e eieaao ii Iaoaiaoeea, eioi?ua iiyaeeanue ca iineaaeiea
iyoue-oanoue eao. …ss iaoae oaeaea iiiai aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia aeey
?acee/iuo i?iaeai, eae /eneiauo, oae e aaiiao?e/aneeo, aeey ?aoaiey
eioi?uo aiaeec Aeaoa iaaeinoaoi/ai. Anai yoei y iiaeaethnue n Aaie,
eiaaea Au caoioeoa, e i?eoii aac anyeiai aunieiia?ey, io eioi?iai y
aieaa naiaiaeai e aieaa aeaeae, /ai ethaie ae?oaie /aeiaae ia naaoa.”

Eoi oaeie ioaoe Ia?naii? Yoi o?aioeeneaineee iiiao, o/aiue ne?iiiuo
aea?iaaiee e caia/aoaeueiue i?aaiecaoi?, a oa/aiee 30 eao aicaeaaeyaoee
ia?eaeneee iaoaiaoe/aneee e?oaeie, eioi?ue noae iiaeeeiiui oeaio?ii
o?aioeocneie iaoee. A iineaaenoaee e?oaeie Ia?naiia oeacii Ethaeiaeea
XIV aoaeao i?aia?aciaai a Ia?eaeneoth aeaaeaieth iaoe. Ia?naii iaonoaiii
aae ia?iiioth ia?aieneo, e aai eaeuey a iiianou?a i?aeaia ieieiia ia
Ei?ieaaneie ieiuaaee auea naiaai ?iaea “ii/oaioii aeey anao o/aiuo
Aa?iiu, ia/eiay io Aaeeeay e eii/ay Aiaanii”. Ia?aienea caiaiyea oiaaea
iao/iua aeo?iaeu, eioi?ua iiyaeeenue cia/eoaeueii iicaea. Nai?eua o
Ia?naiia i?ienoiaeeee aaeaiaaeaeueii. ssae?i e?oaeea ninoaaeyee naiua
aeanoyuea anoanoaieniuoaoaee oiai a?aiai: ?iaa?aeeue, Ianeaeue-ioaoe,
Aeaca?a, Ieaei?ae, A?aee e eiia/ii aea ciaiaieoue e iianaianoii
i?eciaiiue Aeaea?o. ?aia aeth Ia??ii Aeaea?o (Ea?oacee), aeai?yineay
iaioey, aeaa ?iaeiauo iiianouey, iniiaiiieiaeiee ea?oaceainoaa, “ioaoe”
aiaeeoe/aneie aaiiao?ee, iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae iiaie iaoaiaoeee, a oae
aea ae?oa e oiaa?eu Ia?naiia ii eacoeoneiio eieeaaeaeo. Yoio
caia/aoaeueiue /aeiaae noaiao eioia?ii aeey Oa?ia.

Ia?naii n/ae ?acoeueoaou Oa?ia aeinoaoi/ii eioa?aniuie, /oiau aaanoe
i?iaeioeeaea a naie yeeoiue eeoa. Oa?ia ooo aea caaycuaaao ia?aieneo ni
iiiaeie /eaiaie e?oaeea e aoeaaeueii canuiaao ienueiaie naiiai Ia?naiia.
E?iia oiai ii ionueaao ia noae o/aiuo ioaeae caeii/aiiua ?oeiiene:
“Aaaaeaiea e ieineei e oaeaniui ianoai”, a aiae nionoy – “Niinia
iouneaiey iaeneioiia e ieieioiia” e “Ioaaou ia aii?inu A. Eaaaeuea?e”.
Oi, /oi eceaaae Oa?ia auea aaniethoiay iiaue, iaeiaei nainaoeey ia
ninoiyeanue. Nia?aiaiieee ia niae?iaioeenue. Iie iaei, /oi iiiyee, ii
caoi iaoee iaeiicia/iua oeacaiea ia oi, /oi eaeay aeai?eoia
iaeneiecaoeee Oa?ia caeinoaiaae ec o?aeoaoa Eioaiiana Eaiea?a n caaaaiui
iacaaieai “Iiaay noa?aiiao?ey aeiiuo ai/ae”. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a
?annoaeaeaiey Eaiea?a ano?a/athony o?acu oeia “Iauai oeao?u iaeaieueoee,
anee ii iaa noi?iiu io ianoa iaeaieueoaai cia/aiey oauaaiea nia/aea
ia/oanoaeoaeueii”. Ii eaeay iaeinoe i?e?auaiey ooieoeee aaeece
yeno?aioia aiana ia iineeanue a aicaeooa. Eo/oea aiaeeoe/aneea oiu oiai
a?aiaie auee ia aioiau e iaieioeyoeeyi n iaeuie aaee/eiaie. Aeaei a
oii, /oi a oi a?aiy aeaaa?a n/eoaeanue ?aciiaeaeiinoueth a?eoiaoeee, oi
anoue iaoaiaoeeie aoi?iai ni?oa, i?eieoeaiui iiae?o/iui n?aaenoaii,
?ac?aaioaiiui aeey ioaeae ieciaiiie i?aeoeee (“oi?ioi n/eoatho oieueei
oi?aiaoeu”). O?aaeeoeey i?aaeienuaaea i?eaea?aeeaaoueny noaoai
aaiiao?e/aneeo iaoiaeia aeieacaoaeuenoa, ainoiaeyueo e aioe/iie
iaoaiaoeea. Oa?ia ia?aue iiiye, /oi aaneiia/ii iaeua aaee/eiu iiaeii
neeaaeuaaoue e nie?auaoue, ii aeiaieueii cao?oaeieoaeueii ecia?aaeaoue a
aeaea io?aceia.

Iiiaaeiaeeinue ii/oe noieaoea, /oiau AEai ae’Aeaiaa? a ciaiaieoie
“Yioeeeeiiaaeee” i?eciae: “Oa?ia aue ecia?aoaoaeai iiauo en/eneaiee.
Eiaiii o iaai iu ano?a/aai ia?aia i?eeiaeaiea aeeooa?aioeeaeia aeey
iaoiaeaeaiey eanaoaeueiuo”. A eiioea XVIII aaea aua aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii
auneaaeaony AEicao Eoe a?ao aea Eaa?aiae: “Ii aaiiao?u – nia?aiaiieee
Oa?ia – ia iiiyee yoiai iiaiai ?iaea en/eneaiey. Iie oniio?aee eeoue
/anoiua neo/ae. E yoi ecia?aoaiea, eioi?ia iiyaeeinue iacaaeieai ia?aae
“Aaiiao?eae” Aeaea?oa, inoaaaeinue aanieiaeiui a oa/aiee ni?iea eao”.
Eaa?aiae eiaao a aeaeo 1674 a., eiaaea auoee a naao “Eaeoeee” Enaaea
Aa??io, iiae?iaii inaauaaoea iaoiae Oa?ia.

E?iia anaai i?i/aai auno?i iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi Oa?ia aieaa neeiiai
oi?ioee?iaaoue iiaua i?iaeaiu, iaaeaee, /ai nie?aiii ?aoaoue caaea/e,
i?aaeeiaeaiiua iao?aie. A yiioo aeoyeae iaiai caaea/aie iaaeaeo o/aiuie
ioaeaie aue iauai?eiyo, eae oi?ia auyniaiey i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
noai?aeeiaoeeae . Iaeiaei Oa?ia yaii ia ciaao ia?u. Eaaeaeia aai ienueii
– yoi aucia, niaea?aeauee aeanyoee neiaeiuo ia?aoaiiuo caaea/, i?e/ai ia
naiua iaiaeeaeaiiua oaiu. Aio ia?ac/ee aai noeey (aae?aniaaii O?aieeeth
aea Aanne): “Item, eaeia iaeiaiueoee eaaae?ao, eioi?ue i?e oiaiueoaiee
ia 109 e i?eaaaeaiee aaeeieoeu aeano eaaae?ao? Anee Au ia i?eoeaoa iia
iauaai ?aoaiey, oi i?eoeeoa /anoiia aeey yoeo aeaoo /enae, eioi?ua y
aua?ae iaaieueoeie, /oiau Aan ia i/aiue cao?oaeieoue. Iinea oiai eae ss
iieo/o io Aan ioaao, y i?aaeeiaeo Aai iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aaue. ssnii aac
iniauo iaiai?ie, /oi a iiai i?aaeeiaeaiee o?aaoaony iaeoe oeaeua /enea,
iineieueeo a neo/aa ae?iaiuo /enae naiue iacia/eoaeueiue a?eoiaoee niia
au i?eeoe e oeaee.” Oa?ia /anoi iiaoi?yeny, oi?ioee?oy iaeie e oa aea
aii?inu ii ianeieueei ?ac, e ioe?iaaiii aeaoiaae, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi
?aniieaaaao iaiaueiiaaiii ecyuiui ?aoaieai i?aaeeiaeaiiie caaea/e. Ia
iaoiaeeeinue e aac i?yiuo ioeaie. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo auee caia/aiu
nia?aiaiieeaie, a eia eaeea eiaa?iua ooaa?aeaeaiey aaiaeeee a
caaeoaeaeaiea /eoaoaeae a oa/aiee noieaoee.

E?oaeie Ia?naiia i?i?aaae?iaae aaeaeaaoii. Eeoue ?iaa?aeeue,
aaeeinoaaiiue /eai e?oaeea, eiaaoee i?iaeaiu n i?ienoiaeaeaieai,
nio?aiyao ae?oaeaneee oii ienai. Aeia?ue ianou?ue ioaoe Ia?naii iuoaeny
a?acoieoue “ooeocneiai iaoaea”. Ii Oa?ia ia iaia?ai ii?aaaeuaaoueny:
”I?aiiaeiaiue ioaoe! Au iia ieoaoa, /oi iinoaiiaea iieo iaaiciiaeiuo
i?iaeai ?anna?aeeea e ioeaaeeea ainiiae Nai-Ia?oaia e O?aieeey e /oi yoi
iineoaeeei i?e/eiie i?ae?auaiey eo ienai. Iaeiaei y oi/o aic?aceoue ei,
/oi oi, /oi eaaeaony nia/aea iaaiciiaeiui, ia naiii aeaea ia yaeyaony
oaeiaui e /oi anoue iiiai i?iaeai, i eioi?uo, eae neacae A?oeiaae … ”
e o.ae..

Iaeiaei Oa?ia eoeaaeo. Eiaiii O?aieeeth ii iineae caaea/o i
iaoiaeaeaiee i?yiioaieueiiai o?aoaieueieea n oeaei/eneaiiuie noi?iiaie,
ieiuaaeue eioi?iai ?aaia eaaae?aoo oeaeiai /enea. Iineae, oioy ciae, /oi
caaea/a caaaaeiii ia eiaao ?aoaiey.

Naioth a?aaeaeaaioth iiceoeeth ii ioiioaieth e Oa?ia caiye Aeaea?o. A
aai ienueia Ia?naiio io 1938 a. /eoaai: “oae eae y ociae, /oi yoi oio
naiue /aeiaae eioi?ue ia?aae oai iuoaeny ii?iaa?aiooue iith
“Aeeiio?eeo”, e oae eae Au niiaueee iia, /oi ii iineae yoi iinea oiai,
eae i?i/ae iith “Aaiiao?eth” e a oaeeaeaiee, /oi y ia iaoae oo aea
aauue, o. a. (eae eiath iniiaaiea aai enoieeiaaoue) iineae yoi n
oeaeueth anooieoue a niia?ie/anoai e iieacaoue, /oi a yoii ii ciaao
aieueoa, /ai y, e oae eae aua ec aaoeo ienai y ociae, /oi ca iei
/eneeony ?aiooaoeey aanueia naaaeouaai aaiiao?a, oi y n/eoath naay
iaycaiiui aio ioaaoeoue.” Naie ioaao Aeaea?o a iineaaenoaee
oi?aeanoaaiii iaicia/eo eae “iaeue i?ioeann Iaoaiaoeee i?ioea a. Oa?ia”.

Eaaei iiiyoue, /oi i?eaaei a y?inoue eiaieoiai o/aiiai. Ai-ia?auo, a
?annoaeaeaieyo Oa?ia iinoiyiii oeao?e?otho eii?aeeiaoiua ine e
i?aaenoaaeaiea /enae io?aceaie – i?eai, eioi?ue Aeaea?o ananoi?iiia
?acaeaaao a naiae oieueei /oi ecaeaiiie “Aaiiao?ee”. Oa?ia i?eoiaeeo e
eaeaa caiaiu /a?oaaea au/eneaieyie niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueii, a /ai-oi
ii aeaaea aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeai, /ai Aeaea?o. Ai-aoi?uo, Oa?ia aeanoyua
aeaiiino?e?oao yooaeoeaiinoue naiaai iaoiaea iaoiaeaeaiey ieieioiia ia
i?eia?a caaea/e i e?ao/aeoai iooe naaoiaiai eo/a, ooi/iyy e aeiiieiyy
Aeaea?oa n aai “Aeeiio?eeie”.

Caneoae Aeaea?oa eae iuneeoaey e iiaaoi?a ia?iiiu, ii ioe?iai
nia?aiaiioth “Iaoaiaoe/aneoth yioeeeeiiaaeeth” e i?iniio?ei nienie
oa?ieiia naycaiiuo n aai eiaiai: “Aeaea?oiau eii?aeeiaou” (Eaeaieoe,
1692) , “Aeaea?oia eeno”, “Aeaea?oa iaaeu ”. Ie iaeii ec aai
?annoaeaeaiee ia aioei a enoi?eth eae “Oai?aia Aeaea?oa”. Aeaea?o a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eaeaieia: ii iniiaaoaeue oeeinioneie oeieu, ii
oi?ie?oao iiiyoey, niaa?oainoaoao nenoaio aoeaaiiuo iaicia/aiee, ii a
aai oai?/aneii ianeaaeee iaei iiauo eiie?aoiuo i?eaiia. A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aio Iuea? Oa?ia iaei ieoao, ii ii ethaiio iiaiaeo
iiaeao i?eaeoiaoue ianno ino?ioiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo o?theia (ni. oai aea
“Oai?aia Oa?ia”, ”I?eioeei Oa?ia”, ”Iaoiae aaneiia/iiai nionea Oa?ia”).
Aa?iyoii, iie aiieia ni?aaaaeeeai caaeaeiaaee ae?oa ae?oao. Noieeiiaaiea
auei iaecaaaeii. I?e eacoeoneii iin?aaeie/anoaa Ia?naiia ?acai?aaony
aieia, aeeeaoayny aeaa aiaea. Ai?i/ai, Ia?naii e caeanue ieacaeny i?aa
ia?aae enoi?eae: y?inoiay noaaoea aeaoo oeoaiia, eo iai?yaeaiiay, iyaei
aiai?y, iieaieea niinianoaiaaea iniuneaieth eeth/aauo iiiyoee
iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

Ia?aui oa?yao eioa?an e aeeneonnee Oa?ia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ii iai?yioth
iauynieeny n Aeaea?oii e aieueoa ieeiaaea ia caaeaaae niia?ieea. A
iaeiie ec naieo iineaaeieo ?aaio “Neioac aeey ?ao?aeoeee”, ?oeiienue
eioi?ie ii iineae aea ea Oaia?o, Oa?ia /a?ac neiai iiieiaao “o/aiaeoaai
Aeaea?oa” e any/anee iiae/a?eeaaao aai i?ei?eoao a aii?inao iioeee.
Iaaeaeo oai eiaiii yoa ?oeiienue niaea?aeaea iienaiea ciaiaieoiai
“i?eioeeia Oa?ia”, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao en/a?iuaathuaa iauyniaiea
caeiiia io?aaeaiey e i?aeiieaiey naaoa. ?aaa?ainu a noi?iio Aeaea?oa a
?aaioa oaeiai o?iaiy auee niaa?oaiii eceeoie.

*oi aea i?iecioei? Ii/aio Oa?ia, ioeiaeea a noi?iio naiiethaea, iioae
ia i?eie?aiea? *eoay ienueia Oa?ia oao eao (1638 – 1640 aa.), iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue naiia i?inoia: a yoio ia?eiae aai iao/iua eioa?anu ?acei
eciaieeenue. Ii caa?anuaaao iiaeioth oeeeeieaeo, ia?anoaao
eioa?aniaaoueny eanaoaeueiuie e ieiuaaeyie, e ia aeieaea 20 eao caauaaao
i naiai iaoiaea iaoiaeaeaiey iaeneioia. Eiay ia?iiiua caneoae a
iaoaiaoeea iai?a?uaiiai, Oa?ia oeaeeeii iia?oaeaaony a iaoaiaoeeo
aeene?aoiiai, inoaaea iiinoueaaoea aaiiao?e/aneea /a?oaaee naiei
iiiiiaioai. Aai iiaie no?anoueth noaiiayony /enea. Nianoaaiii aiai?y,
any “Oai?ey /enae”, eae naiinoiyoaeueiay iaoaiaoe/aneay aeenoeeieeia,
naiei iiyaeaieai ia naao oeaeeeii iaycaia aeecie e oai?/anoao Oa?ia.

A o?oaeao ae?aaieo, n eo eoeueoii /a?oaaea, iu iaoiaeei oaeeaeoaeueii
iaei enneaaeiaaiee ii oai?ee /enae. Aaeeeae ioia/aao eia-eaeea i?aaeea
aeaeeiinoe e aeieacuaaao aaneiia/iinoue iiiaeanoaa i?inouo /enae. Iiaeii
oaeaea i?eiiiieoue cribrum Eratosthenis (?aoaoi Y?aoinoaia) – iaoiae
auaeaeaiey i?inouo /enae ec iaoo?aeueiiai ?yaea. Aio, iiaeaeoe, e ana.
Iniaiyeii noiyo ni/eiaiey Aeeioaioa (III aae aei i. y.), eioi?ue
?anniao?eaae caaea/e i i?aaenoaaeaiee /enae e ?aoae iaii?aaeaeaiiua
o?aaiaiey a oeaeuo /eneao. Ec o?eiaaeoeaoe eiea aai “A?eoiaoeee” aei
iaoeo aeiae aeioei eeoue oanoue. A Aa?iia ia?aaiaeu ni/eiaiee Aeeioaioa
ia eaoeineee e o?aioeocneee ycuee iiyaeeenue eeoue a ia/aea XVII a. Aaoa
aea Iace?eae a 1621 a. ecaeae ia?aaiae “A?eoiaoeee” n nianoaaiiuie
iiae?iaiuie eiiiaioa?eyie e aeiiieiaieyie. Eiaiii yoi ecaeaiea,
iiiaaoenue a ?oee Oa?ia, nua?aao auaeathuothny ?ieue a enoi?ee
iaoaiaoeee.

Oa?ia aieiaoaeueiaeoei ia?acii oooaee?oao “A?eoiaoeeo” e iiiauaao ia
iieyo eieae 46 caia/aiee e oaenoo. E?iia yoeo iiiaoie, iieiaeaiey ec
oai?ee /enae (a iniiaiii aac aeieacaoaeuenoa) ?annayiu a ienueiao
Oa?ia. Yoiai aiieia oaaoeei aeey aicieeiiaaiey iiaiai iai?aaeaiey a
iaoaiaoeea. Iinea nia?oe Oa?ia aai nui Naithyeue ecaeae a 1670 a.
i?eiaaeeaaeauee iooeo yecaiiey? “A?eoiaoeee” iiae iacaaieai “Oanoue eiea
a?eoiaoeee aeaenaiae?eeoea Aeeioaioa n eiiiaioa?eyie E. A. Aaoa e
caia/aieyie I. aea Oa?ia, ooeocneiai naiaoi?a”. A eieao auee aeeth/aiu
oaeaea iaeioi?ua ienueia Aeaea?oa e iieiue oaeno ni/eiaiey AEaea aea
Aeeuee “Iiaia ioe?uoea a eneonnoaa aiaeeca”, iaienaiiia ia iniiaa ienai
Oa?ia. Ecaeaiea eiaei iaaa?iyoiue oniao. Ia?aae ecoieaiiuie
niaoeeaeenoaie ioe?ueny iaaeaeaiiue y?eee ie?. Iaiaeeaeaiiinoue, a
aeaaiia aeinooiiinoue, aeaiie?aoe/iinoue oai?aoeei-/eneiauo ?acoeueoaoia
Oa?ia ii?iaeeee ianno iiae?aaeaiee. A oi a?aiy iaei eoi iiieiae eae
au/eneyaony ieiuaaeue ia?aaieu, ii eaaeaeue oeiey? iia iniciaoue
oi?ioee?iaeo Aaeeeie oai?aiu Oa?ia. Ia/aeanue ianoiyuay ioioa ca
iaecaanoiuie e ooa?yiiuie ienueiaie o/aiiai. Aei eiioea XVII a. auei
ecaeaii e ia?aecaeaii eaaeaeia iaeaeaiiia aai neiai. Ii ao?iay enoi?ey
?acaeoey eaeae Oa?ia oieueei ia/eiaeanue.

A iineaaenoaee Oa?ia iauynieo naia oaea/aiea /eneaie a ienueia
aiaeeeneei iaoaiaoeeai Aeeaae e A?ioiea?o. Yoi ienueii eiaao
niaoeeaeueiue iiaecaaieiaie: “Aoi?ie aucia Oa?ia iaoaiaoeeai”. Oa?ia
ieoao: “Aaeaa ee eoi-ieaoaeue iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue eee aeaaea iiiyoue
/enoi a?eoiaoe/aneea caaea/e. Eai ?acaa A?eoiaoeea ia oieeiaaeanue
nei?aa aaiiao?e/anee, /ai a?eoiaoe/anee. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
aieueoeinoai o?oaeia ae?aaieo e iiauo aaoi?ia; iiaeoaa?aeaeatho yoi e
o?oaeu naiiai Aeeioaioa. Ii ianeieueei aieaa ae?oaeo ioaeaeeeny io
aaiiao?ee, eiaaea ia/ae eceaaaoue Aiaeeoeeo a ?aoeeiiaeueiuo /eneao;
iaeiaei e yoa /anoue ia nianai eeoaia aaiiao?ee, /oi aiieia aeieacaee
eieae Aeaoa “Caoaoeea”, aaea iaoiae Aeeioaioa ia?aiineony ia iai?a?uaiua
aaee/eiu, a cia/eo, e ia aaiiao?eth. … Eeoue y, neiaii eaeouee
aia?aaee oaeaeiiinaoe, i?aaeeaaath aai aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa eee
iino?iaiey neaaeothuoth oai?aio eee caaea/o. Anee au aa ?aoeoa, oi
iieiaoa, /oi caaea/e oaeiai ?iaea ie oiieinoueth, ie o?oaeiinoueth, ie
niiniaii aeieacaoaeuenoaa ia onooiatho ciaiaieoaeoei i?iaeaiai
aaiiao?ee”.

*oi aea eneae e /oi ioe?ue Iuea? Oa?ia, caieiaynue /eneaie? ?eneiai
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi aieaa anaai Oa?ia eioa?aniaaee niiniau iino?iaiey
i?inouo /enae. Ii ia/oae iaeoe yaioth oi?ioeo, eioi?ay iicaieyao auno?i
au/eneyoue neieue oaiaeii aieueoea i?inoua /enea. Ia iieyo “A?eoiaoeee”
ii auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi oaeei “aaia?aoi?ii” i?inouo /enae
aoaeao oi?ioea

, n = 0,1,2,…

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?e n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 iieo/aai i?inoua /enea 3, 5, 17,
257, 65537. Oa?ia iieaaae, /oi i?e anao i?i/eo n /enea F(n) – i?inoua,
e iaiaeiie?aoii i?aaeeaaae naiei ei??aniiiaeaioai aeieacaoue yoio
?acoeueoao .

eiaiii 3, 5, 17 e o.ae.. nooue i?inoua, i?e/ai nai ii, ii aai
i?eciaieth, ia niia yoiai aeieacaoue e, ianeieueei y ciath, iinea iaai
ieeoi ia aeieacae”. Yeea? ia?o eao iiaeoiae e iieacae, /oi oaea i?e n =
5 /enei F(5) aeaeeony ia 641:

.

Aeey iieo/aiey yoiai ?acoeueoaoa Yeea?o i?eoeinue eniuoaoue 160
aeaeeoaeae. Ninoaaiuie ieacaeenue e iiiaea ae?oaea /enea Oa?ia (i?e n
=6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 23, 36, 38, 73). Iaeaieueoaa ec
ecaanoiuo a ianoiyuee iiiaio ninoaaiuo /enae Oa?ia F(452) ninoieo ec
10135 oeeo? e aeaeeony ia 27(2455+1 ( iieacaii n iiiiuueth YAI).
Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi Oa?ia, n/eoay /enea
F(n) i?inouie, ieeiaaea ia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ?aniieaaaao
aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiai oaeoa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie
ecaanoii noieueei aea i?inouo /enae Oa?ia, neieueei ec ciaee ai a?aiaia
Oa?ia, a eiaiii: 3, 5, 17, 257, 65537.

i?e n ( ( .

. Oi auea ianoue Oa?ia nianeaui aaiiao?ai. Oai?aia Aaonna iiaeaaea
/a?oo iiae iiiaiaaeiauie nii?aie ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiinoe iino?iaiey
i?aaeeueiuo iiiaioaieueieeia e nyeiiiieea ianno a?aiaie ethaeoaeyi
iaoaiaoeee. Ec yoie oai?aiu neaaeoao, /oi iiaeii iino?ieoue i?aaeeueiua
3-, 5-, 17-, 257-, 65537- e ae?oaea iiiaioaieueieee e iaeuecy
iino?ieoue, iai?eia?, i?aaeeueiua 7-, 11-, 13- oaieueieee. Aeey
iaaa?othueo Aaonn ia iieaieeny iino?ieoue i?aaeeueiue 17-oaieueiee.

Caieiaynue oaeiaie i?inouo /enae Oa?ia noi?ioee?iaae iiiai iieiaeaiee i
i?aaenoaaeiinoe /enae eaaae?aoe/iuie oi?iaie. Iai?eia?, ii iaia?oaeee
neaaeothuea oaeeaeoaeueii i?inoua e aeoaieea caeiiiia?iinoe:

1. Oi?iie x2+y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eioi?ua eaaeao a
i?ia?annee 4n+1 , i?e/ai eaaeaeia ec ieo i?aaenoaaeii yoie oi?iie
aaeeinoaaiiui ia?acii. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 4n+3 ia
i?aaenoaaeii noiiith aeaoo eaaae?aoia.

2. Oi?iie x2+2y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eaaeauea a i?ia?anneyo
8n+1 e 8n+3. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 8n+5 e 8n+7 ia
i?aaenoaaeii a aeaea x2+2y2 .

3. Oi?iie x2-2y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eaaeauea a i?ia?anneyo
8n+1 e 8n+7. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 8n+5 e 8n+3 ia
i?aaenoaaeii a aeaea x2-2y2 .

4. Oi?iaie x2+3y2 e x2+xy+y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eaaeauea
a i?ia?annee 3n+1. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 3n+2 ia
i?aaenoaaeii oeacaiiuie oi?iaie.

Oa?ia inoaaee e?aeia iaei iiyniaiee, aeathueo aiciiaeiinoue
onoaiiaeoue, eae aio oaeaeinue iieo/eoue yoe a aunoae noaiaie iauea
?acoeueoaou. Eeoue ia?aae nia?oueth a ienueia e aea Ea?eaae Oa?ia
/anoe/ii iainiiaae iieiaeaiea (1) n iiiiuueth naiaai iaoiaea
aaneiia/iiai nionea. Iiaeii eeoue iiaeaeaoue nia?aiaiieeia Oa?ia,
eioi?ua ?aaoey?ii iieo/aee aa?eaoeee ia oaio ooaa?aeaeaiee (1) – (4) a
ea/anoaa caaea/. Ia?aua iieiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa yoeo ooaa?aeaeaiee
oaeaeinue iieo/eoue eeoue Yeea?o. Iiiooii ii noi?ioee?iaae i/aiue
aaaeioth oai?aio i aeaeeiinoe – oae iacuaaaiie eaaae?aoe/iue caeii
acaeiiinoe, aeieacaoaeuenoai eioi?iai aeae Aaonn. *a?ac oaea/aiea
eaaae?aoe/iuie oi?iaie i?ioee Eaa?aiae, Eaaeaiae?, *aauoaa, a a iaoa aae
– Aaeeue, A?oei e iiiaea ae?oaea aeanoyuea iaoaiaoeee. Eae anaaaea
eaeae Oa?ia ieacaeenue /?acau/aeii ieiaeioai?iu a niunea iino?iaiey
aeaeaei eaeoueo iaiauaiee e oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo iiiyoee. Aeia?ay iieiaeia
oa?ieiia nia?aiaiiie aano?aeoiie aeaaa?u aicieeea ec iiiuoie aeieacaoue
ooaa?aeaeaiey Oa?ia.

Iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo ?acoeueoaoia Oa?ia iieo/ee niaoeeaeueiia iacaaiea
“Iaeay oai?aia Oa?ia”. Yoi ooiaeaiaioaeueiue oaeo oai?ee aeaeeiinoe ia
i?inoua /enea: aeey ethaiai i?inoiai p e ethaiai a(1, eioi?ia ia
aeaeeony ia p, ?aciinoue ap -1-1 aeaeeony ia p. Iai?eia?, ionoue a=5,

p=2, 3, 7, 11. Oiaaea 52-1-1=2(2, 53-1-1=3(8, 57-1-1=7(2232,
511-1-1=11(8878 . Oa?ia auneacae yoo oai?aio a ienueia O?aieeeth aea
Aanne a 1640 a. n iau/iui aeey iaai caia/aieai: “… y au Aai i?eneae
aeieacaoaeuenoai, anee au ia iianaeny auoue neeoeii aeeeiiui”.

Ia?aia aeieacaoaeuenoai “Iaeie oai?aiu Oa?ia” aeae Eaeaieoe. Caoai
Yeea?, ia/eiay n 1736 a., ioaeeeoao n?aco o?e ?acee/iuo
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua iieacuaatho, /oi Oa?ia aiieia iia oiaoue
aeieacuaaoue naith oai?aio. Iioiiee /anoi eneaee yeaiaioa?iua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa ooaa?aeaeaiee Oa?ia, iuoaynue iiiyoue ianeieueei
eoeaaee aaeeeee ooeocaoe. I?iaeaiu Oa?ia aieiiaaee Yeea?a ia i?ioyaeaiee
anae aeecie. A 1760 a. ii iieo/ee nouanoaaiiia iaiauaiea aai “Iaeie
oai?aiu”: ionoue ((m) – /enei iaoo?aeueiuo /enae, ia i?aainoiaeyueo m e
acaeiii i?inouo n m . Oiaaea aeey ethaiai m e ethaiai a(1, acaeiii
i?inoiai n m, ?aciinoue a((m)-1 aeaeeony ia m. Yoo oa?aio Yeea? ne?iiii
iioaeeeiaae a ea/anoaa /aoaa?oiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa “Iaeie oai?aiu Oa?ia”

Iaeiiaoe, iu ia?aoiaeei e eceiaeaieth naiie ciaiaieoie oai?aiu a
enoi?ee iaoaiaoeee. Yoa oai?aia iieo/eea ecaanoiinoue eae “Aaeeeay
oai?aia Oa?ia” (iia aea “Aieueoay”, iia aea “Iineaaeiyy”). Ia
nia?aiaiiii yoi ycuea cao/eo oae:

ia nouanoaoao ioee/iuo io ioey oeaeuo /enae x, y e z, aeey eioi?uo
eiaao ianoi ?aaainoai

i?e n>2.

?acoiaaony, ieeaeiai o?aaiaiey o Oa?ia ia auei. Ii aiiaua ia ciae ciaea
?aaainoaa, a eniieueciaae eaoeineia eq. I?eaiaeei ooaa?aeaeaiea Oa?ia a
i?eaeiaeueiii aeaea:

“Eoa, iaeiaei, ia aeaa eoaa eee eaaae?ieaaae?ao ia aeaa
eaaae?ieaaae?aoa e aiiaua ieeaeoth aei aaneiia/iinoe naa?o eaaae?aoa
noaiaiue a aeaa oiai aea iacaaiey iaaiciiaeii ?acaeaeeoue”. E ia
iinoaaea oi/eo, Oa?ia i?eienae: ”y ioe?ue iienoeia oaeeaeoaeueiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii iii ia oiauaaony ia oceeo
iieyo.“

Yoie o?acie Oa?ia i?ieiiiaioe?iaae caaea/o ec Aeeioaioa: “Caaeaiiue
eaaae?ao ?aceiaeeoue ia aeaa eaaae?aoa”. Aeaiiia caia/aiea yaeyaony
aoi?ui ii n/aoo ec naeaeaiiuo ei ia iieyo “A?eoiaoeee”. Ia?aia eanaeinue
aeeoaeneeo oai.

eioa?aniaaee ae?aaieo a?aeia a nayce n oai?aiie Ieoaai?a. Iie eneaee
(e iaoiaeeee) o?ieee oeaeuo /enae, ia?acothuea noi?iiu i?yiioaieueiiai
o?aoaieueieea. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?e n =1, 2 o?aaiaiea a ?aiea eiaao
aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai ?aoaiee. Aeiaaaeea Oa?ia caeeth/aeanue a oii,
/oi i?e anao i?i/eo n oaeeo o?iae ia nouanoaoao.

A?yae ee Oa?ia aue ia?aui, eoi i?eoae e iiaeiaiiio auaiaeo. Iai?eia?,
ieiei ouny/e eao iacaae ocaaeneee iaoaiaoee Oaieae ae-Oaaeaeaiaee (/oi
icia/aao Oaieae ec Eaieiaaaaea) ooaa?aeaeae, /oi o?aaiaiea x3+y3=z3 ia
eiaao ?aoaiee a oeaeuo /eneao. Naaiaeiy ynii, /oi Oaieae ia eiae ieeaeeo
oainia aeieacaoue yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea.

A ioiioaiee Oa?ia aeinoiaa?ii ecaanoii, /oi ii aeieacae “Aaeeeoth
oai?aio” i?e n=4 ia iieyo ana oie aea “A?eoiaoeee”. E yoi aaeeinoaaiiia
oai?aoeei-/eneiaia aeieacaoaeuenoai Oa?ia aeioaaeoaa aei iaoeo aeiae. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee 20 eao Oa?ia oii?ii noa?aaony i?eaea/ue aieiaiea iaoaiaoeeia
e “Aaeeeie oai?aia”, i?aaeeaaay /anoiua neo/ae a ea/anoaa caaea/.
Neo/ae n=3 ii oi?ioee?oao a iyoe ienueiao, i?e/ai a iineaaeiai ienueia
(io aaaonoa 1659 a.) ieoao, /oi aeieacae oai?aio aeey n=3 iaoiaeii
nionea. Iaaeaeo oai “Aaeeeoth oai?aio” aeey iauaai neo/ay n>2 Oa?ia
noi?ioee?iaae oieueei iaeei ?ac a oiiiyiooii caia/aiee ia iieyo
“A?eoiaoeee”. Ii ia oi?ioee?oao aa ie ?aco ie a iaeiii ec ienai. Ii
i?aaeeaaaao oieueei /anoiua neo/ae (n=3, 4), a ioiioaiee eioi?uo
oaa?aiii aiai?eo, /oi ?aniieaaaao aeieacaoaeuenoaii. Aeaaea a ienueia e
aea Ea?eaae io 1659 a., a eioi?ii Oa?ia ia?a/eneyao naie iniiaiua
aeinoeaeaiey, i “Aaeeeie oai?aia” a iauai aeaea iao ie neiaa. Yoi iiaeao
icia/aoue oieueei iaeii: Oa?ia iaia?oaeee i?iaaeu a naiai “iienoeia
oaeeaeoaeueiii aeieacaoaeuenoaa”, eioi?ua oae e ia niia ono?aieoue.

?acoiaaony, yoi ia ioeaaeeei iioiieia. Ia/eiay n eiioea XVII a.
ia/aeanue iaaeaeaiiay ii naiae iai?yaeaiiinoe aiiea ca aeieacaoaeuenoaii
“Aaeeeie oai?aiu Oa?ia”. Iaiai/eaay i?inoioa oi?ioee?iaee oai?aiu
ia?aeea ouny/e iieeiiieeia iaoaiaoeee ia aanieiaeiua iienee
aeieacaoaeuenoaa eee ii?iaa?aeaiey oai?aiu. Aieaa noa eao ieeiio ec
o/aiuo ia oaeaaaeinue i?iaeaeiooueny aia?aae aeaaea i?e ?anniio?aiee
/anoiuo neo/aaa eiie?aoiuo cia/aiee iieacaoaey n.

, aaea a, b – oeaeua /enea. A XVII a. iiaeiaiay a?anue ia iiaea
i?eaeoe a aieiao aeaaea Oa?ia.

. A /anoiinoe ii i?aaeiieaaae aaeeinoaaiiinoue ?aceiaeaiey oaeeo /enae
ia i?inoua iiiaeeoaee. Aeey ono?aiaiey i?iaaeia a aeieacaoaeuenoaa
Yeea?a iiiaaeiaeeenue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aeaaa?ae/aneea aano?aeoeee:
/eneiaua eieueoea e iiey. ?aaeecaoeeth yoie i?ia?aiiu ia/ae Aaonn,
eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?aia aaniethoii no?iaia aeieacaoaeuenoai
“Aaeeeie oai?aiu Oa?ia” aeey n=3.

Aeieacaoaeuenoai aeey neo/ay n=5 i?aaeeiaeeee ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii a
aoiinoa?a ino?iai niia?ie/anoaa aeaa o?aioeoca: Eaaeai-Aee?eoea e
Eaaeaiae? (1825). Iaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa auee i/aiue neiaeiuie. A 1839 a.
oai?aia Oa?ia auea aeieacaia aeey neaaeothuaai i?inoiai iieacaoaey n=7.
Yoi oaeaeinue aeaaiaea?y oeoaie/aneei oneeeyi Eaia. Ii aea a 1847 a.
iauyaee, /oi aeieacae oai?aio aeey anao i?inouo iieacaoaeae n>3 .
Iaeiaei aaeeoaeueiue Eeoaeeue n?aco aea iaia?oaeee a ?annoaeaeaieyo Eaia
ioeaeo noiaeioth n oie, eioi?oth aeiionoee Yeea?. Eaia aue auioaeaeai
i?eciaoue naia ii?aaeaiea.

Iiea ai O?aioeee i?ienoiaeeee yoe niauoey, a Aa?iaiee iieiaeie
iaoaiaoee Eoiia? oii?ii caieiaaony oai?aiie Oa?ia. Iiaoi?ea ana ioeaee
Eaia, ii i?eoae e iiiyoeth “eaeaaeueiuo /enae”, aeey eioi?uo ?aceiaeaiea
ia i?inoua iiiaeeoaee aaeeinoaaiii. Iaiauaiea yoiai iiiyoey i?eaaei e
nicaeaieth aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiuo aano?aeoiuo eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ua
naaiaeiy eco/athony a niaoeeaeueiii ?acaeaea aeaaa?a iiae iacaaieai
“Oai?ey eaeaaeia”. Eoiia?, iinayoeaoee oai?aia ianeieueei aeanyoeia eao,
e eiioeo aeecie oiae aeieacuaaoue “Aaeeeoth oai?aio Oa?ia” aeey anao
i?inouo iieacaoaeae n

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