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Iuea? aea Oa?ia

Aiaeeoee, aoaeue
/anoai !

Eia/a ii/ueth
Yeaeaeiieae-inoeoaeue

Niaeiao oaia ai?ei
nia?oaeueiie oineie..

Eoe Oa??ii, “Iiuo
itheaeaeueiie aaiiao?ee”

“Iuea?, nui Aeiieieea Oa?ia, ao?aeoa e aoi?iai eiinoeaoa ai?iaea Aiiiia
, e?auai 20 aaaonoa 1601 a. E?anoiue ioaoe – Iuea? Oa?ia, eoiaoe e a?ao
iacaaiiiai Aeiieieea, e?anoiay iaoue – AEaiia Eacitha, e y”. Iiaeienue
ionoonoaoao, ii i?aaeuaeouay caienue iiaeienaia: “Aethia, aeea?ee”. Yoio
aeieoiaio eneaee iieoi?a aaea e iaia?oaeeee eeoue a 1846 a. aeaaiaea?y
oneeeyi aaeaieaoa Oiieaea. Aei yoiai n/eoaeinue, /oi Oa?ia ?iaeeeny e
oia? a Ooeoca, aaea 34 (!) aiaea eni?aaii neoaeee /eiiaieeii
eannaoeeiiiie iaeaou Ooeocneiai ia?eaiaioa. Iaeaiueeee ai?iaeie Aiiii
ia eaaii aa?aao Aa?iiiu aaeece Iiioaaaia-ia-Oa?ia (ai O?aioeee aieaa 30
Aiiiiia) e ana aai iyoue ouny/ aeeoaeae ii nae aeaiue ia a neeao
iniciaoue cia/eiinoue iaoiaeee aeioioiiai aaeaieaoa. Caeanue ?iaeeeny
aaeeeee Oa?ia, iineaaeiee iaoaiaoee-aeoeiee, ?aoaaoee i?acaeiua caaea/e
a?yaeoueo noieaoee, oeoaeoee noaeaeneee e?th/ie, eoeaaue noeien,
caio/eaoee /aeiaa/anoai naieie caaaaeeaie, inoi?iaeiue e aeaaii?aaiue
/eiooa, iiaeoaniauee, eio?eaai, aeiiinaae, caaenoiee, aaieaeueiue
eiiieeyoi?, iaeei ec /aou?ao oeoaiia iaoaiaoeee iiaiai a?aiaie.

Yoio nia?aiaiiee Ae’A?oaiueyia ii/oe ia auacaeae ec Ooeocu, aaea inae
iinea aeaieoueau ia eoceia naiae iaoa?e Eoeca aea Eii, aei/a?e niaaoieea
oiai-naiiai ia?eaiaioa. Aeaaiaea?y oanoth ii aeineoaeeeny aei caaiey
niaaoieea e i?eia?ae aiaeaeaeaiioth i?enoaaeo “aea”. Nui o?aoueaai
nineiaey, i?aeoe/iue ioi?une aiaaouo eiaeaaieeia, iaoieaiaaiiue
eaouiueth e o?aioeeneaineei aeaai/anoeai, ii ia noaaee ia?aae niaie
a?aiaeeiciuo caaea/ a ?aaeueiie aeecie. Ii eiae iyoa?uo /aae, a
iineaaenoaee noaaoeo noaeaeneeie /eiiaieeaie e nayuaiieeaie. Aeaa
aei/a?e Oa?ia i?eiyee iiiaoanoai.

A naie ao?iue aae ii i?iaeee iniiaaoaeueii e oeoi. Ii ia ienae
oeeinioneeo o?aeoaoia, eae Aeaea?o, ia aue iaia?nieeii o?aioeocneeo
ei?ieae, eae Aeao, ia aiaaae, ia iooaoanoaiaae, ia nicaeaaae e ia
iinauae iaoaiaoe/aneea e?oaeee, ia eiae o/aieeia e ii/oe ia ia/aoaeny
i?e aeecie. *eiiaieeai i?iaeioeeaeueiuo noaeia i?aaeienuaaeinue aanoe
caieioooth aeeciue, ecaaaay ethauo i?iyaeaiee ioaee/iinoe. Aa?iyoii
Oa?ia, n/eoay naay nieeaeiui /aeiaaeii, noaniyeny naiae no?anoe e
aeinoaeei oi?iaeueiui ea?ai. Ia neeiia eao iao aa?ie ieoao: “Oae eae,
aiai?y ioe?iaaiii, y n/eoath aaiiao?eth naiui aunieei oi?aaeiaieai aeey
oia, ii iaeiia?aiaiii noieue aaniieaciui, /oi y aeaeath iaei ?acee/ey
iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii, eioi?ue caieiaaony oieueei aaiiao?eae, e eneoniui
?aianeaiieeii. ss iacuaath aaiiao?eth naiie i?ae?aniie i?ioanneae a
ie?a, ii ana aea oieueei i?ioanneae , e y /anoi aiai?th, /oi iia oi?ioa
aeey i?iau nee, ii ia aeey oiai, /oiau aeeaaeuaaoue a iaa ana neeu…” .
Ii eciaiee naaa eeoue ia?aae nia?oueth, iioaeeeiaaa a Ooeoca aeaeaei ia
naiua aeanoyuea ec naieo iaoiaeie a iaaieueoii o?aeoaoa “I n?aaiaiee
e?eauo eeiee i?yiuie”. Ia iaia?oaeea ieeaeeo niciaoaeueiuo i?aoaicee ia
ianoi a enoi?ee, Oa?ia iaiaeeaeaiii oie?aao a aic?anoa 64 eao ai a?aiy
iiacaeee ii aeaeai neoaeau.

Aai i?eaeeciaiiay ecaanoiinoue iniiaaia ia iaeeueiie ia?aienea, a
eioi?ie ii aeiieiae ae?ocae e iaae?oaia iaiau/iuie caaea/aie. Aai
iinia?oiay neaaa ?ac?ineanue aeaaiaea?y ne?iiiui iiiaoeai ia iieyo
“A?eoiaoeee” Aeeioaioa. Iau/ii /aeiaa/anoao iaiaoiaeeii ianeieueei
aeanyoeia eao, /oiau ?acia?aoueny n ianeaaeeai i/a?aaeiiai iaoaiiiai
aaiey. Aeaaea oaeie caaaaei/iue “eca?aiiee aiaia” eae Yaa?eno Aaeoa
iia?aaeee naia a?aiy iaeneioi ia 60 eao. Ia ieii/aoaeueiia iniuneaiea
caaaaeie Oa?ia iiiaaeiaeeinue aac iaeiai /aou?a aaea. Ao, Aaoa /anoue,
aeia?aeoee ainiiaeei Iuea?, ii/aio io Aan oae iaoiao na?ie ?

Eioa?an e iaoaiaoeea iaicia/eeny o Oa?ia eae-oi iaiaeeaeaiii e a
aeinoaoi/ii c?aeii aic?anoa. A 1629 a. a aai ?oee iiiaaeaao eaoeineee
ia?aaiae ?aaiou Iaiia, niaea?aeauee e?aoeoth naiaeeo ?acoeueoaoia
Aiieeiiey i naienoaao eiie/aneeo na/aiee. Oa?ia, iieeaeio, ciaoie
i?aaa e aioe/iie oeeieiaee, aae?oa caaeaaony oeaeueth iieiinoueth
ainnoaiiaeoue oiae ?annoaeaeaiee ciaiaieoiai o/aiiai. N oaeei aea
oniaoii nia?aiaiiue aaeaieao iiaeao iiiuoaoueny naiinoiyoaeueii
aini?iecaanoe ana aeieacaoaeuenoaa a iiiia?aoee ii aeaaa?ae/aneie
oiiieiaee. Iaeiaei, iaiuneeiia i?aaei?eyoea oaai/eaaaony oniaoii. Aieaa
oiai, aieeay a aaiiao?e/aneea iino?iaiey ae?aaieo, ii niaa?oaao
oaeeaeoaeueiia ioe?uoea: aeey iaoiaeaeaiey iaeneioiia e ieieioiia
ieiuaaeae oeao? ia ioaeiu oeo?ioiiua /a?oaaee. Anaaaea iiaeii ninoaaeoue
e ?aoeoue iaeia i?inoia aeaaa?ae/aneia o?aaiaiea, ei?ie eioi?iai
ii?aaeaeytho yeno?aioi. Ii i?eaeoiae aeai?eoi, eioi?ue noaiao iniiaie
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai en/eneaiey. A ia?uaeao ienai, a iacaaa?oaiiuo
?oeiienyo neaicue a?iiicaeeea aa?aaeueiua iaicia/aiey ia eaouie
io/aoeeai i?inooiaao ia/oi io/eoaeueii ciaeiiia:

.

Ii auno?i i?iaeaeioeny aeaeueoa. Ii iaoae aeinoaoi/iua oneiaey
nouanoaiaaiey iaeneioiia, iao/eeny ii?aaeaeyoue oi/ee ia?aaeaa, i?iaae
eanaoaeueiua ei anai ecaanoiui e?eaui aoi?iai e o?aoueaai ii?yaeea. Aua
ianeieueei eao, e ii iaoiaeeo iiaue /enoi aeaaa?ae/aneee iaoiae
iaoiaeaeaiey eaaae?aoo? aeey ia?aaie e aeia?aie i?iecaieueiiai ii?yaeea
(oi anoue eioaa?aeia io ooieoeee aeaea yp = Cxq e ypxq = N ) , au/eneyao
ieiuaaee, iauaiu, iiiaiou eia?oeee oae a?auaiey. Yoi aue ianoiyuee
i?i?ua. *oanoaoy yoi, Oa?ia ia/eiaao eneaoue iauaiey n iaoaiaoe/aneeie
aaoi?eoaoaie oiai a?aiaie. Ii oaa?ai a naaa e aeaaeaeao i?eciaiey.

A 1636 a. ii ieoao ia?aia ienueii Aai i?aiiaeiaeth Ia?aio Ia?naiio:
”Nayoie ioaoe! ss Aai /?acau/aeii i?eciaoaeai ca /anoue, eioi?oth Au iia
ieacaee, iiaeaa iaaeaaeaeo ia oi, /oi iu niiaeai aanaaeiaaoue
ienueiaiii; …ss aoaeo i/aiue ?aae ociaoue io Aan i anao iiauo
o?aeoaoao e eieaao ii Iaoaiaoeea, eioi?ua iiyaeeanue ca iineaaeiea
iyoue-oanoue eao. …ss iaoae oaeaea iiiai aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia aeey
?acee/iuo i?iaeai, eae /eneiauo, oae e aaiiao?e/aneeo, aeey ?aoaiey
eioi?uo aiaeec Aeaoa iaaeinoaoi/ai. Anai yoei y iiaeaethnue n Aaie,
eiaaea Au caoioeoa, e i?eoii aac anyeiai aunieiia?ey, io eioi?iai y
aieaa naiaiaeai e aieaa aeaeae, /ai ethaie ae?oaie /aeiaae ia naaoa.”

Eoi oaeie ioaoe Ia?naii? Yoi o?aioeeneaineee iiiao, o/aiue ne?iiiuo
aea?iaaiee e caia/aoaeueiue i?aaiecaoi?, a oa/aiee 30 eao aicaeaaeyaoee
ia?eaeneee iaoaiaoe/aneee e?oaeie, eioi?ue noae iiaeeeiiui oeaio?ii
o?aioeocneie iaoee. A iineaaenoaee e?oaeie Ia?naiia oeacii Ethaeiaeea
XIV aoaeao i?aia?aciaai a Ia?eaeneoth aeaaeaieth iaoe. Ia?naii iaonoaiii
aae ia?iiioth ia?aieneo, e aai eaeuey a iiianou?a i?aeaia ieieiia ia
Ei?ieaaneie ieiuaaee auea naiaai ?iaea “ii/oaioii aeey anao o/aiuo
Aa?iiu, ia/eiay io Aaeeeay e eii/ay Aiaanii”. Ia?aienea caiaiyea oiaaea
iao/iua aeo?iaeu, eioi?ua iiyaeeenue cia/eoaeueii iicaea. Nai?eua o
Ia?naiia i?ienoiaeeee aaeaiaaeaeueii. ssae?i e?oaeea ninoaaeyee naiua
aeanoyuea anoanoaieniuoaoaee oiai a?aiai: ?iaa?aeeue, Ianeaeue-ioaoe,
Aeaca?a, Ieaei?ae, A?aee e eiia/ii aea ciaiaieoue e iianaianoii
i?eciaiiue Aeaea?o. ?aia aeth Ia??ii Aeaea?o (Ea?oacee), aeai?yineay
iaioey, aeaa ?iaeiauo iiianouey, iniiaiiieiaeiee ea?oaceainoaa, “ioaoe”
aiaeeoe/aneie aaiiao?ee, iaeei ec iniiaaoaeae iiaie iaoaiaoeee, a oae
aea ae?oa e oiaa?eu Ia?naiia ii eacoeoneiio eieeaaeaeo. Yoio
caia/aoaeueiue /aeiaae noaiao eioia?ii aeey Oa?ia.

Ia?naii n/ae ?acoeueoaou Oa?ia aeinoaoi/ii eioa?aniuie, /oiau aaanoe
i?iaeioeeaea a naie yeeoiue eeoa. Oa?ia ooo aea caaycuaaao ia?aieneo ni
iiiaeie /eaiaie e?oaeea e aoeaaeueii canuiaao ienueiaie naiiai Ia?naiia.
E?iia oiai ii ionueaao ia noae o/aiuo ioaeae caeii/aiiua ?oeiiene:
“Aaaaeaiea e ieineei e oaeaniui ianoai”, a aiae nionoy – “Niinia
iouneaiey iaeneioiia e ieieioiia” e “Ioaaou ia aii?inu A. Eaaaeuea?e”.
Oi, /oi eceaaae Oa?ia auea aaniethoiay iiaue, iaeiaei nainaoeey ia
ninoiyeanue. Nia?aiaiieee ia niae?iaioeenue. Iie iaei, /oi iiiyee, ii
caoi iaoee iaeiicia/iua oeacaiea ia oi, /oi eaeay aeai?eoia
iaeneiecaoeee Oa?ia caeinoaiaae ec o?aeoaoa Eioaiiana Eaiea?a n caaaaiui
iacaaieai “Iiaay noa?aiiao?ey aeiiuo ai/ae”. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a
?annoaeaeaiey Eaiea?a ano?a/athony o?acu oeia “Iauai oeao?u iaeaieueoee,
anee ii iaa noi?iiu io ianoa iaeaieueoaai cia/aiey oauaaiea nia/aea
ia/oanoaeoaeueii”. Ii eaeay iaeinoe i?e?auaiey ooieoeee aaeece
yeno?aioia aiana ia iineeanue a aicaeooa. Eo/oea aiaeeoe/aneea oiu oiai
a?aiaie auee ia aioiau e iaieioeyoeeyi n iaeuie aaee/eiaie. Aeaei a
oii, /oi a oi a?aiy aeaaa?a n/eoaeanue ?aciiaeaeiinoueth a?eoiaoeee, oi
anoue iaoaiaoeeie aoi?iai ni?oa, i?eieoeaiui iiae?o/iui n?aaenoaii,
?ac?aaioaiiui aeey ioaeae ieciaiiie i?aeoeee (“oi?ioi n/eoatho oieueei
oi?aiaoeu”). O?aaeeoeey i?aaeienuaaea i?eaea?aeeaaoueny noaoai
aaiiao?e/aneeo iaoiaeia aeieacaoaeuenoa, ainoiaeyueo e aioe/iie
iaoaiaoeea. Oa?ia ia?aue iiiye, /oi aaneiia/ii iaeua aaee/eiu iiaeii
neeaaeuaaoue e nie?auaoue, ii aeiaieueii cao?oaeieoaeueii ecia?aaeaoue a
aeaea io?aceia.

Iiiaaeiaeeinue ii/oe noieaoea, /oiau AEai ae’Aeaiaa? a ciaiaieoie
“Yioeeeeiiaaeee” i?eciae: “Oa?ia aue ecia?aoaoaeai iiauo en/eneaiee.
Eiaiii o iaai iu ano?a/aai ia?aia i?eeiaeaiea aeeooa?aioeeaeia aeey
iaoiaeaeaiey eanaoaeueiuo”. A eiioea XVIII aaea aua aieaa ii?aaeaeaiii
auneaaeaony AEicao Eoe a?ao aea Eaa?aiae: “Ii aaiiao?u – nia?aiaiieee
Oa?ia – ia iiiyee yoiai iiaiai ?iaea en/eneaiey. Iie oniio?aee eeoue
/anoiua neo/ae. E yoi ecia?aoaiea, eioi?ia iiyaeeinue iacaaeieai ia?aae
“Aaiiao?eae” Aeaea?oa, inoaaaeinue aanieiaeiui a oa/aiee ni?iea eao”.
Eaa?aiae eiaao a aeaeo 1674 a., eiaaea auoee a naao “Eaeoeee” Enaaea
Aa??io, iiae?iaii inaauaaoea iaoiae Oa?ia.

E?iia anaai i?i/aai auno?i iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi Oa?ia aieaa neeiiai
oi?ioee?iaaoue iiaua i?iaeaiu, iaaeaee, /ai nie?aiii ?aoaoue caaea/e,
i?aaeeiaeaiiua iao?aie. A yiioo aeoyeae iaiai caaea/aie iaaeaeo o/aiuie
ioaeaie aue iauai?eiyo, eae oi?ia auyniaiey i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
noai?aeeiaoeeae . Iaeiaei Oa?ia yaii ia ciaao ia?u. Eaaeaeia aai ienueii
– yoi aucia, niaea?aeauee aeanyoee neiaeiuo ia?aoaiiuo caaea/, i?e/ai ia
naiua iaiaeeaeaiiua oaiu. Aio ia?ac/ee aai noeey (aae?aniaaii O?aieeeth
aea Aanne): “Item, eaeia iaeiaiueoee eaaae?ao, eioi?ue i?e oiaiueoaiee
ia 109 e i?eaaaeaiee aaeeieoeu aeano eaaae?ao? Anee Au ia i?eoeaoa iia
iauaai ?aoaiey, oi i?eoeeoa /anoiia aeey yoeo aeaoo /enae, eioi?ua y
aua?ae iaaieueoeie, /oiau Aan ia i/aiue cao?oaeieoue. Iinea oiai eae ss
iieo/o io Aan ioaao, y i?aaeeiaeo Aai iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aaue. ssnii aac
iniauo iaiai?ie, /oi a iiai i?aaeeiaeaiee o?aaoaony iaeoe oeaeua /enea,
iineieueeo a neo/aa ae?iaiuo /enae naiue iacia/eoaeueiue a?eoiaoee niia
au i?eeoe e oeaee.” Oa?ia /anoi iiaoi?yeny, oi?ioee?oy iaeie e oa aea
aii?inu ii ianeieueei ?ac, e ioe?iaaiii aeaoiaae, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi
?aniieaaaao iaiaueiiaaiii ecyuiui ?aoaieai i?aaeeiaeaiiie caaea/e. Ia
iaoiaeeeinue e aac i?yiuo ioeaie. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo auee caia/aiu
nia?aiaiieeaie, a eia eaeea eiaa?iua ooaa?aeaeaiey aaiaeeee a
caaeoaeaeaiea /eoaoaeae a oa/aiee noieaoee.

E?oaeie Ia?naiia i?i?aaae?iaae aaeaeaaoii. Eeoue ?iaa?aeeue,
aaeeinoaaiiue /eai e?oaeea, eiaaoee i?iaeaiu n i?ienoiaeaeaieai,
nio?aiyao ae?oaeaneee oii ienai. Aeia?ue ianou?ue ioaoe Ia?naii iuoaeny
a?acoieoue “ooeocneiai iaoaea”. Ii Oa?ia ia iaia?ai ii?aaaeuaaoueny:
”I?aiiaeiaiue ioaoe! Au iia ieoaoa, /oi iinoaiiaea iieo iaaiciiaeiuo
i?iaeai ?anna?aeeea e ioeaaeeea ainiiae Nai-Ia?oaia e O?aieeey e /oi yoi
iineoaeeei i?e/eiie i?ae?auaiey eo ienai. Iaeiaei y oi/o aic?aceoue ei,
/oi oi, /oi eaaeaony nia/aea iaaiciiaeiui, ia naiii aeaea ia yaeyaony
oaeiaui e /oi anoue iiiai i?iaeai, i eioi?uo, eae neacae A?oeiaae … ”
e o.ae..

Iaeiaei Oa?ia eoeaaeo. Eiaiii O?aieeeth ii iineae caaea/o i
iaoiaeaeaiee i?yiioaieueiiai o?aoaieueieea n oeaei/eneaiiuie noi?iiaie,
ieiuaaeue eioi?iai ?aaia eaaae?aoo oeaeiai /enea. Iineae, oioy ciae, /oi
caaea/a caaaaeiii ia eiaao ?aoaiey.

Naioth a?aaeaeaaioth iiceoeeth ii ioiioaieth e Oa?ia caiye Aeaea?o. A
aai ienueia Ia?naiio io 1938 a. /eoaai: “oae eae y ociae, /oi yoi oio
naiue /aeiaae eioi?ue ia?aae oai iuoaeny ii?iaa?aiooue iith
“Aeeiio?eeo”, e oae eae Au niiaueee iia, /oi ii iineae yoi iinea oiai,
eae i?i/ae iith “Aaiiao?eth” e a oaeeaeaiee, /oi y ia iaoae oo aea
aauue, o. a. (eae eiath iniiaaiea aai enoieeiaaoue) iineae yoi n
oeaeueth anooieoue a niia?ie/anoai e iieacaoue, /oi a yoii ii ciaao
aieueoa, /ai y, e oae eae aua ec aaoeo ienai y ociae, /oi ca iei
/eneeony ?aiooaoeey aanueia naaaeouaai aaiiao?a, oi y n/eoath naay
iaycaiiui aio ioaaoeoue.” Naie ioaao Aeaea?o a iineaaenoaee
oi?aeanoaaiii iaicia/eo eae “iaeue i?ioeann Iaoaiaoeee i?ioea a. Oa?ia”.

Eaaei iiiyoue, /oi i?eaaei a y?inoue eiaieoiai o/aiiai. Ai-ia?auo, a
?annoaeaeaieyo Oa?ia iinoiyiii oeao?e?otho eii?aeeiaoiua ine e
i?aaenoaaeaiea /enae io?aceaie – i?eai, eioi?ue Aeaea?o ananoi?iiia
?acaeaaao a naiae oieueei /oi ecaeaiiie “Aaiiao?ee”. Oa?ia i?eoiaeeo e
eaeaa caiaiu /a?oaaea au/eneaieyie niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueii, a /ai-oi
ii aeaaea aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeai, /ai Aeaea?o. Ai-aoi?uo, Oa?ia aeanoyua
aeaiiino?e?oao yooaeoeaiinoue naiaai iaoiaea iaoiaeaeaiey ieieioiia ia
i?eia?a caaea/e i e?ao/aeoai iooe naaoiaiai eo/a, ooi/iyy e aeiiieiyy
Aeaea?oa n aai “Aeeiio?eeie”.

Caneoae Aeaea?oa eae iuneeoaey e iiaaoi?a ia?iiiu, ii ioe?iai
nia?aiaiioth “Iaoaiaoe/aneoth yioeeeeiiaaeeth” e i?iniio?ei nienie
oa?ieiia naycaiiuo n aai eiaiai: “Aeaea?oiau eii?aeeiaou” (Eaeaieoe,
1692) , “Aeaea?oia eeno”, “Aeaea?oa iaaeu ”. Ie iaeii ec aai
?annoaeaeaiee ia aioei a enoi?eth eae “Oai?aia Aeaea?oa”. Aeaea?o a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eaeaieia: ii iniiaaoaeue oeeinioneie oeieu, ii
oi?ie?oao iiiyoey, niaa?oainoaoao nenoaio aoeaaiiuo iaicia/aiee, ii a
aai oai?/aneii ianeaaeee iaei iiauo eiie?aoiuo i?eaiia. A
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aio Iuea? Oa?ia iaei ieoao, ii ii ethaiio iiaiaeo
iiaeao i?eaeoiaoue ianno ino?ioiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo o?theia (ni. oai aea
“Oai?aia Oa?ia”, ”I?eioeei Oa?ia”, ”Iaoiae aaneiia/iiai nionea Oa?ia”).
Aa?iyoii, iie aiieia ni?aaaaeeeai caaeaeiaaee ae?oa ae?oao. Noieeiiaaiea
auei iaecaaaeii. I?e eacoeoneii iin?aaeie/anoaa Ia?naiia ?acai?aaony
aieia, aeeeaoayny aeaa aiaea. Ai?i/ai, Ia?naii e caeanue ieacaeny i?aa
ia?aae enoi?eae: y?inoiay noaaoea aeaoo oeoaiia, eo iai?yaeaiiay, iyaei
aiai?y, iieaieea niinianoaiaaea iniuneaieth eeth/aauo iiiyoee
iaoaiaoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

Ia?aui oa?yao eioa?an e aeeneonnee Oa?ia. Ii-aeaeeiiio, ii iai?yioth
iauynieeny n Aeaea?oii e aieueoa ieeiaaea ia caaeaaae niia?ieea. A
iaeiie ec naieo iineaaeieo ?aaio “Neioac aeey ?ao?aeoeee”, ?oeiienue
eioi?ie ii iineae aea ea Oaia?o, Oa?ia /a?ac neiai iiieiaao “o/aiaeoaai
Aeaea?oa” e any/anee iiae/a?eeaaao aai i?ei?eoao a aii?inao iioeee.
Iaaeaeo oai eiaiii yoa ?oeiienue niaea?aeaea iienaiea ciaiaieoiai
“i?eioeeia Oa?ia”, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao en/a?iuaathuaa iauyniaiea
caeiiia io?aaeaiey e i?aeiieaiey naaoa. ?aaa?ainu a noi?iio Aeaea?oa a
?aaioa oaeiai o?iaiy auee niaa?oaiii eceeoie.

*oi aea i?iecioei? Ii/aio Oa?ia, ioeiaeea a noi?iio naiiethaea, iioae
ia i?eie?aiea? *eoay ienueia Oa?ia oao eao (1638 – 1640 aa.), iiaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue naiia i?inoia: a yoio ia?eiae aai iao/iua eioa?anu ?acei
eciaieeenue. Ii caa?anuaaao iiaeioth oeeeeieaeo, ia?anoaao
eioa?aniaaoueny eanaoaeueiuie e ieiuaaeyie, e ia aeieaea 20 eao caauaaao
i naiai iaoiaea iaoiaeaeaiey iaeneioia. Eiay ia?iiiua caneoae a
iaoaiaoeea iai?a?uaiiai, Oa?ia oeaeeeii iia?oaeaaony a iaoaiaoeeo
aeene?aoiiai, inoaaea iiinoueaaoea aaiiao?e/aneea /a?oaaee naiei
iiiiiaioai. Aai iiaie no?anoueth noaiiayony /enea. Nianoaaiii aiai?y,
any “Oai?ey /enae”, eae naiinoiyoaeueiay iaoaiaoe/aneay aeenoeeieeia,
naiei iiyaeaieai ia naao oeaeeeii iaycaia aeecie e oai?/anoao Oa?ia.

A o?oaeao ae?aaieo, n eo eoeueoii /a?oaaea, iu iaoiaeei oaeeaeoaeueii
iaei enneaaeiaaiee ii oai?ee /enae. Aaeeeae ioia/aao eia-eaeea i?aaeea
aeaeeiinoe e aeieacuaaao aaneiia/iinoue iiiaeanoaa i?inouo /enae. Iiaeii
oaeaea i?eiiiieoue cribrum Eratosthenis (?aoaoi Y?aoinoaia) – iaoiae
auaeaeaiey i?inouo /enae ec iaoo?aeueiiai ?yaea. Aio, iiaeaeoe, e ana.
Iniaiyeii noiyo ni/eiaiey Aeeioaioa (III aae aei i. y.), eioi?ue
?anniao?eaae caaea/e i i?aaenoaaeaiee /enae e ?aoae iaii?aaeaeaiiua
o?aaiaiey a oeaeuo /eneao. Ec o?eiaaeoeaoe eiea aai “A?eoiaoeee” aei
iaoeo aeiae aeioei eeoue oanoue. A Aa?iia ia?aaiaeu ni/eiaiee Aeeioaioa
ia eaoeineee e o?aioeocneee ycuee iiyaeeenue eeoue a ia/aea XVII a. Aaoa
aea Iace?eae a 1621 a. ecaeae ia?aaiae “A?eoiaoeee” n nianoaaiiuie
iiae?iaiuie eiiiaioa?eyie e aeiiieiaieyie. Eiaiii yoi ecaeaiea,
iiiaaoenue a ?oee Oa?ia, nua?aao auaeathuothny ?ieue a enoi?ee
iaoaiaoeee.

Oa?ia aieiaoaeueiaeoei ia?acii oooaee?oao “A?eoiaoeeo” e iiiauaao ia
iieyo eieae 46 caia/aiee e oaenoo. E?iia yoeo iiiaoie, iieiaeaiey ec
oai?ee /enae (a iniiaiii aac aeieacaoaeuenoa) ?annayiu a ienueiao
Oa?ia. Yoiai aiieia oaaoeei aeey aicieeiiaaiey iiaiai iai?aaeaiey a
iaoaiaoeea. Iinea nia?oe Oa?ia aai nui Naithyeue ecaeae a 1670 a.
i?eiaaeeaaeauee iooeo yecaiiey? “A?eoiaoeee” iiae iacaaieai “Oanoue eiea
a?eoiaoeee aeaenaiae?eeoea Aeeioaioa n eiiiaioa?eyie E. A. Aaoa e
caia/aieyie I. aea Oa?ia, ooeocneiai naiaoi?a”. A eieao auee aeeth/aiu
oaeaea iaeioi?ua ienueia Aeaea?oa e iieiue oaeno ni/eiaiey AEaea aea
Aeeuee “Iiaia ioe?uoea a eneonnoaa aiaeeca”, iaienaiiia ia iniiaa ienai
Oa?ia. Ecaeaiea eiaei iaaa?iyoiue oniao. Ia?aae ecoieaiiuie
niaoeeaeenoaie ioe?ueny iaaeaeaiiue y?eee ie?. Iaiaeeaeaiiinoue, a
aeaaiia aeinooiiinoue, aeaiie?aoe/iinoue oai?aoeei-/eneiauo ?acoeueoaoia
Oa?ia ii?iaeeee ianno iiae?aaeaiee. A oi a?aiy iaei eoi iiieiae eae
au/eneyaony ieiuaaeue ia?aaieu, ii eaaeaeue oeiey? iia iniciaoue
oi?ioee?iaeo Aaeeeie oai?aiu Oa?ia. Ia/aeanue ianoiyuay ioioa ca
iaecaanoiuie e ooa?yiiuie ienueiaie o/aiiai. Aei eiioea XVII a. auei
ecaeaii e ia?aecaeaii eaaeaeia iaeaeaiiia aai neiai. Ii ao?iay enoi?ey
?acaeoey eaeae Oa?ia oieueei ia/eiaeanue.

A iineaaenoaee Oa?ia iauynieo naia oaea/aiea /eneaie a ienueia
aiaeeeneei iaoaiaoeeai Aeeaae e A?ioiea?o. Yoi ienueii eiaao
niaoeeaeueiue iiaecaaieiaie: “Aoi?ie aucia Oa?ia iaoaiaoeeai”. Oa?ia
ieoao: “Aaeaa ee eoi-ieaoaeue iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue eee aeaaea iiiyoue
/enoi a?eoiaoe/aneea caaea/e. Eai ?acaa A?eoiaoeea ia oieeiaaeanue
nei?aa aaiiao?e/anee, /ai a?eoiaoe/anee. Yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
aieueoeinoai o?oaeia ae?aaieo e iiauo aaoi?ia; iiaeoaa?aeaeatho yoi e
o?oaeu naiiai Aeeioaioa. Ii ianeieueei aieaa ae?oaeo ioaeaeeeny io
aaiiao?ee, eiaaea ia/ae eceaaaoue Aiaeeoeeo a ?aoeeiiaeueiuo /eneao;
iaeiaei e yoa /anoue ia nianai eeoaia aaiiao?ee, /oi aiieia aeieacaee
eieae Aeaoa “Caoaoeea”, aaea iaoiae Aeeioaioa ia?aiineony ia iai?a?uaiua
aaee/eiu, a cia/eo, e ia aaiiao?eth. … Eeoue y, neiaii eaeouee
aia?aaee oaeaeiiinaoe, i?aaeeaaath aai aeey aeieacaoaeuenoaa eee
iino?iaiey neaaeothuoth oai?aio eee caaea/o. Anee au aa ?aoeoa, oi
iieiaoa, /oi caaea/e oaeiai ?iaea ie oiieinoueth, ie o?oaeiinoueth, ie
niiniaii aeieacaoaeuenoaa ia onooiatho ciaiaieoaeoei i?iaeaiai
aaiiao?ee”.

*oi aea eneae e /oi ioe?ue Iuea? Oa?ia, caieiaynue /eneaie? ?eneiai
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi aieaa anaai Oa?ia eioa?aniaaee niiniau iino?iaiey
i?inouo /enae. Ii ia/oae iaeoe yaioth oi?ioeo, eioi?ay iicaieyao auno?i
au/eneyoue neieue oaiaeii aieueoea i?inoua /enea. Ia iieyo “A?eoiaoeee”
ii auneacae i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi oaeei “aaia?aoi?ii” i?inouo /enae
aoaeao oi?ioea

, n = 0,1,2,…

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?e n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 iieo/aai i?inoua /enea 3, 5, 17,
257, 65537. Oa?ia iieaaae, /oi i?e anao i?i/eo n /enea F(n) – i?inoua,
e iaiaeiie?aoii i?aaeeaaae naiei ei??aniiiaeaioai aeieacaoue yoio
?acoeueoao .

eiaiii 3, 5, 17 e o.ae.. nooue i?inoua, i?e/ai nai ii, ii aai
i?eciaieth, ia niia yoiai aeieacaoue e, ianeieueei y ciath, iinea iaai
ieeoi ia aeieacae”. Yeea? ia?o eao iiaeoiae e iieacae, /oi oaea i?e n =
5 /enei F(5) aeaeeony ia 641:

.

Aeey iieo/aiey yoiai ?acoeueoaoa Yeea?o i?eoeinue eniuoaoue 160
aeaeeoaeae. Ninoaaiuie ieacaeenue e iiiaea ae?oaea /enea Oa?ia (i?e n
=6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 23, 36, 38, 73). Iaeaieueoaa ec
ecaanoiuo a ianoiyuee iiiaio ninoaaiuo /enae Oa?ia F(452) ninoieo ec
10135 oeeo? e aeaeeony ia 27(2455+1 ( iieacaii n iiiiuueth YAI).
Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi Oa?ia, n/eoay /enea
F(n) i?inouie, ieeiaaea ia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ?aniieaaaao
aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiai oaeoa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie
ecaanoii noieueei aea i?inouo /enae Oa?ia, neieueei ec ciaee ai a?aiaia
Oa?ia, a eiaiii: 3, 5, 17, 257, 65537.

i?e n ( ( .

. Oi auea ianoue Oa?ia nianeaui aaiiao?ai. Oai?aia Aaonna iiaeaaea
/a?oo iiae iiiaiaaeiauie nii?aie ioiineoaeueii aiciiaeiinoe iino?iaiey
i?aaeeueiuo iiiaioaieueieeia e nyeiiiieea ianno a?aiaie ethaeoaeyi
iaoaiaoeee. Ec yoie oai?aiu neaaeoao, /oi iiaeii iino?ieoue i?aaeeueiua
3-, 5-, 17-, 257-, 65537- e ae?oaea iiiaioaieueieee e iaeuecy
iino?ieoue, iai?eia?, i?aaeeueiua 7-, 11-, 13- oaieueieee. Aeey
iaaa?othueo Aaonn ia iieaieeny iino?ieoue i?aaeeueiue 17-oaieueiee.

Caieiaynue oaeiaie i?inouo /enae Oa?ia noi?ioee?iaae iiiai iieiaeaiee i
i?aaenoaaeiinoe /enae eaaae?aoe/iuie oi?iaie. Iai?eia?, ii iaia?oaeee
neaaeothuea oaeeaeoaeueii i?inoua e aeoaieea caeiiiia?iinoe:

1. Oi?iie x2+y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eioi?ua eaaeao a
i?ia?annee 4n+1 , i?e/ai eaaeaeia ec ieo i?aaenoaaeii yoie oi?iie
aaeeinoaaiiui ia?acii. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 4n+3 ia
i?aaenoaaeii noiiith aeaoo eaaae?aoia.

2. Oi?iie x2+2y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eaaeauea a i?ia?anneyo
8n+1 e 8n+3. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 8n+5 e 8n+7 ia
i?aaenoaaeii a aeaea x2+2y2 .

3. Oi?iie x2-2y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eaaeauea a i?ia?anneyo
8n+1 e 8n+7. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 8n+5 e 8n+3 ia
i?aaenoaaeii a aeaea x2-2y2 .

4. Oi?iaie x2+3y2 e x2+xy+y2 i?aaenoaaeiu ana i?inoua /enea, eaaeauea
a i?ia?annee 3n+1. Ie iaeii i?inoia /enei ec i?ia?annee 3n+2 ia
i?aaenoaaeii oeacaiiuie oi?iaie.

Oa?ia inoaaee e?aeia iaei iiyniaiee, aeathueo aiciiaeiinoue
onoaiiaeoue, eae aio oaeaeinue iieo/eoue yoe a aunoae noaiaie iauea
?acoeueoaou. Eeoue ia?aae nia?oueth a ienueia e aea Ea?eaae Oa?ia
/anoe/ii iainiiaae iieiaeaiea (1) n iiiiuueth naiaai iaoiaea
aaneiia/iiai nionea. Iiaeii eeoue iiaeaeaoue nia?aiaiieeia Oa?ia,
eioi?ua ?aaoey?ii iieo/aee aa?eaoeee ia oaio ooaa?aeaeaiee (1) – (4) a
ea/anoaa caaea/. Ia?aua iieiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa yoeo ooaa?aeaeaiee
oaeaeinue iieo/eoue eeoue Yeea?o. Iiiooii ii noi?ioee?iaae i/aiue
aaaeioth oai?aio i aeaeeiinoe – oae iacuaaaiie eaaae?aoe/iue caeii
acaeiiinoe, aeieacaoaeuenoai eioi?iai aeae Aaonn. *a?ac oaea/aiea
eaaae?aoe/iuie oi?iaie i?ioee Eaa?aiae, Eaaeaiae?, *aauoaa, a a iaoa aae
– Aaeeue, A?oei e iiiaea ae?oaea aeanoyuea iaoaiaoeee. Eae anaaaea
eaeae Oa?ia ieacaeenue /?acau/aeii ieiaeioai?iu a niunea iino?iaiey
aeaeaei eaeoueo iaiauaiee e oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo iiiyoee. Aeia?ay iieiaeia
oa?ieiia nia?aiaiiie aano?aeoiie aeaaa?u aicieeea ec iiiuoie aeieacaoue
ooaa?aeaeaiey Oa?ia.

Iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo ?acoeueoaoia Oa?ia iieo/ee niaoeeaeueiia iacaaiea
“Iaeay oai?aia Oa?ia”. Yoi ooiaeaiaioaeueiue oaeo oai?ee aeaeeiinoe ia
i?inoua /enea: aeey ethaiai i?inoiai p e ethaiai a(1, eioi?ia ia
aeaeeony ia p, ?aciinoue ap -1-1 aeaeeony ia p. Iai?eia?, ionoue a=5,

p=2, 3, 7, 11. Oiaaea 52-1-1=2(2, 53-1-1=3(8, 57-1-1=7(2232,
511-1-1=11(8878 . Oa?ia auneacae yoo oai?aio a ienueia O?aieeeth aea
Aanne a 1640 a. n iau/iui aeey iaai caia/aieai: “… y au Aai i?eneae
aeieacaoaeuenoai, anee au ia iianaeny auoue neeoeii aeeeiiui”.

Ia?aia aeieacaoaeuenoai “Iaeie oai?aiu Oa?ia” aeae Eaeaieoe. Caoai
Yeea?, ia/eiay n 1736 a., ioaeeeoao n?aco o?e ?acee/iuo
aeieacaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ua iieacuaatho, /oi Oa?ia aiieia iia oiaoue
aeieacuaaoue naith oai?aio. Iioiiee /anoi eneaee yeaiaioa?iua
aeieacaoaeuenoaa ooaa?aeaeaiee Oa?ia, iuoaynue iiiyoue ianeieueei
eoeaaee aaeeeee ooeocaoe. I?iaeaiu Oa?ia aieiiaaee Yeea?a ia i?ioyaeaiee
anae aeecie. A 1760 a. ii iieo/ee nouanoaaiiia iaiauaiea aai “Iaeie
oai?aiu”: ionoue ((m) – /enei iaoo?aeueiuo /enae, ia i?aainoiaeyueo m e
acaeiii i?inouo n m . Oiaaea aeey ethaiai m e ethaiai a(1, acaeiii
i?inoiai n m, ?aciinoue a((m)-1 aeaeeony ia m. Yoo oa?aio Yeea? ne?iiii
iioaeeeiaae a ea/anoaa /aoaa?oiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa “Iaeie oai?aiu Oa?ia”

Iaeiiaoe, iu ia?aoiaeei e eceiaeaieth naiie ciaiaieoie oai?aiu a
enoi?ee iaoaiaoeee. Yoa oai?aia iieo/eea ecaanoiinoue eae “Aaeeeay
oai?aia Oa?ia” (iia aea “Aieueoay”, iia aea “Iineaaeiyy”). Ia
nia?aiaiiii yoi ycuea cao/eo oae:

ia nouanoaoao ioee/iuo io ioey oeaeuo /enae x, y e z, aeey eioi?uo
eiaao ianoi ?aaainoai

i?e n>2.

?acoiaaony, ieeaeiai o?aaiaiey o Oa?ia ia auei. Ii aiiaua ia ciae ciaea
?aaainoaa, a eniieueciaae eaoeineia eq. I?eaiaeei ooaa?aeaeaiea Oa?ia a
i?eaeiaeueiii aeaea:

“Eoa, iaeiaei, ia aeaa eoaa eee eaaae?ieaaae?ao ia aeaa
eaaae?ieaaae?aoa e aiiaua ieeaeoth aei aaneiia/iinoe naa?o eaaae?aoa
noaiaiue a aeaa oiai aea iacaaiey iaaiciiaeii ?acaeaeeoue”. E ia
iinoaaea oi/eo, Oa?ia i?eienae: ”y ioe?ue iienoeia oaeeaeoaeueiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Ii iii ia oiauaaony ia oceeo
iieyo.“

Yoie o?acie Oa?ia i?ieiiiaioe?iaae caaea/o ec Aeeioaioa: “Caaeaiiue
eaaae?ao ?aceiaeeoue ia aeaa eaaae?aoa”. Aeaiiia caia/aiea yaeyaony
aoi?ui ii n/aoo ec naeaeaiiuo ei ia iieyo “A?eoiaoeee”. Ia?aia eanaeinue
aeeoaeneeo oai.

eioa?aniaaee ae?aaieo a?aeia a nayce n oai?aiie Ieoaai?a. Iie eneaee
(e iaoiaeeee) o?ieee oeaeuo /enae, ia?acothuea noi?iiu i?yiioaieueiiai
o?aoaieueieea. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?e n =1, 2 o?aaiaiea a ?aiea eiaao
aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai ?aoaiee. Aeiaaaeea Oa?ia caeeth/aeanue a oii,
/oi i?e anao i?i/eo n oaeeo o?iae ia nouanoaoao.

A?yae ee Oa?ia aue ia?aui, eoi i?eoae e iiaeiaiiio auaiaeo. Iai?eia?,
ieiei ouny/e eao iacaae ocaaeneee iaoaiaoee Oaieae ae-Oaaeaeaiaee (/oi
icia/aao Oaieae ec Eaieiaaaaea) ooaa?aeaeae, /oi o?aaiaiea x3+y3=z3 ia
eiaao ?aoaiee a oeaeuo /eneao. Naaiaeiy ynii, /oi Oaieae ia eiae ieeaeeo
oainia aeieacaoue yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea.

A ioiioaiee Oa?ia aeinoiaa?ii ecaanoii, /oi ii aeieacae “Aaeeeoth
oai?aio” i?e n=4 ia iieyo ana oie aea “A?eoiaoeee”. E yoi aaeeinoaaiiia
oai?aoeei-/eneiaia aeieacaoaeuenoai Oa?ia aeioaaeoaa aei iaoeo aeiae. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee 20 eao Oa?ia oii?ii noa?aaony i?eaea/ue aieiaiea iaoaiaoeeia
e “Aaeeeie oai?aia”, i?aaeeaaay /anoiua neo/ae a ea/anoaa caaea/.
Neo/ae n=3 ii oi?ioee?oao a iyoe ienueiao, i?e/ai a iineaaeiai ienueia
(io aaaonoa 1659 a.) ieoao, /oi aeieacae oai?aio aeey n=3 iaoiaeii
nionea. Iaaeaeo oai “Aaeeeoth oai?aio” aeey iauaai neo/ay n>2 Oa?ia
noi?ioee?iaae oieueei iaeei ?ac a oiiiyiooii caia/aiee ia iieyo
“A?eoiaoeee”. Ii ia oi?ioee?oao aa ie ?aco ie a iaeiii ec ienai. Ii
i?aaeeaaaao oieueei /anoiua neo/ae (n=3, 4), a ioiioaiee eioi?uo
oaa?aiii aiai?eo, /oi ?aniieaaaao aeieacaoaeuenoaii. Aeaaea a ienueia e
aea Ea?eaae io 1659 a., a eioi?ii Oa?ia ia?a/eneyao naie iniiaiua
aeinoeaeaiey, i “Aaeeeie oai?aia” a iauai aeaea iao ie neiaa. Yoi iiaeao
icia/aoue oieueei iaeii: Oa?ia iaia?oaeee i?iaaeu a naiai “iienoeia
oaeeaeoaeueiii aeieacaoaeuenoaa”, eioi?ua oae e ia niia ono?aieoue.

?acoiaaony, yoi ia ioeaaeeei iioiieia. Ia/eiay n eiioea XVII a.
ia/aeanue iaaeaeaiiay ii naiae iai?yaeaiiinoe aiiea ca aeieacaoaeuenoaii
“Aaeeeie oai?aiu Oa?ia”. Iaiai/eaay i?inoioa oi?ioee?iaee oai?aiu
ia?aeea ouny/e iieeiiieeia iaoaiaoeee ia aanieiaeiua iienee
aeieacaoaeuenoaa eee ii?iaa?aeaiey oai?aiu. Aieaa noa eao ieeiio ec
o/aiuo ia oaeaaaeinue i?iaeaeiooueny aia?aae aeaaea i?e ?anniio?aiee
/anoiuo neo/aaa eiie?aoiuo cia/aiee iieacaoaey n.

, aaea a, b – oeaeua /enea. A XVII a. iiaeiaiay a?anue ia iiaea
i?eaeoe a aieiao aeaaea Oa?ia.

. A /anoiinoe ii i?aaeiieaaae aaeeinoaaiiinoue ?aceiaeaiey oaeeo /enae
ia i?inoua iiiaeeoaee. Aeey ono?aiaiey i?iaaeia a aeieacaoaeuenoaa
Yeea?a iiiaaeiaeeenue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua aeaaa?ae/aneea aano?aeoeee:
/eneiaua eieueoea e iiey. ?aaeecaoeeth yoie i?ia?aiiu ia/ae Aaonn,
eioi?iio i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia?aia aaniethoii no?iaia aeieacaoaeuenoai
“Aaeeeie oai?aiu Oa?ia” aeey n=3.

Aeieacaoaeuenoai aeey neo/ay n=5 i?aaeeiaeeee ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii a
aoiinoa?a ino?iai niia?ie/anoaa aeaa o?aioeoca: Eaaeai-Aee?eoea e
Eaaeaiae? (1825). Iaa aeieacaoaeuenoaa auee i/aiue neiaeiuie. A 1839 a.
oai?aia Oa?ia auea aeieacaia aeey neaaeothuaai i?inoiai iieacaoaey n=7.
Yoi oaeaeinue aeaaiaea?y oeoaie/aneei oneeeyi Eaia. Ii aea a 1847 a.
iauyaee, /oi aeieacae oai?aio aeey anao i?inouo iieacaoaeae n>3 .
Iaeiaei aaeeoaeueiue Eeoaeeue n?aco aea iaia?oaeee a ?annoaeaeaieyo Eaia
ioeaeo noiaeioth n oie, eioi?oth aeiionoee Yeea?. Eaia aue auioaeaeai
i?eciaoue naia ii?aaeaiea.

Iiea ai O?aioeee i?ienoiaeeee yoe niauoey, a Aa?iaiee iieiaeie
iaoaiaoee Eoiia? oii?ii caieiaaony oai?aiie Oa?ia. Iiaoi?ea ana ioeaee
Eaia, ii i?eoae e iiiyoeth “eaeaaeueiuo /enae”, aeey eioi?uo ?aceiaeaiea
ia i?inoua iiiaeeoaee aaeeinoaaiii. Iaiauaiea yoiai iiiyoey i?eaaei e
nicaeaieth aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiuo aano?aeoiuo eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ua
naaiaeiy eco/athony a niaoeeaeueiii ?acaeaea aeaaa?a iiae iacaaieai
“Oai?ey eaeaaeia”. Eoiia?, iinayoeaoee oai?aia ianeieueei aeanyoeia eao,
e eiioeo aeecie oiae aeieacuaaoue “Aaeeeoth oai?aio Oa?ia” aeey anao
i?inouo iieacaoaeae n <100 . A 1857 a. aio auea a?o/aia i?aiey O?aioeocneie aeaaeaiee iaoe a ?acia?a 3 oun. o?aieia. ?aaiou Eoiia?a ieii/aoaeueii iioi?iieee iaaeaaeaeu ia aiciiaeiinoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa oai?aiu Oa?ia yeaiaioa?iuie n?aaenoaaie. Noaei ynii, /oi Oa?ia ieeiaaea ia eiae e ia iia eiaoue aeieacaoaeuenoaa oai?aiu a iauai aeaea.Iinea Eoiia?a na?ueaciuo naeaeaia a aeieacaoaeuenoaa oai?aiu Oa?ia ia i?ienoiaeeei aieioue aei 1929 a., eiaaea Aaiaeeaa?, eniieuecoy iaoiae Eoiia?a, iieo/ee a yaiii aeaea iaeea oneiaey, iicaieythuea i?iaa?youe enoeiiinoue oai?aiu aeey ethaiai i?inoiai iieacaoaey. N yoiai iiiaioa aeieacaoaeuenoai oai?aiu aeey eiie?aoiiai n naaeinue e /enoi au/eneeoaeueiui i?iaeaiai, n eioi?uie eaaei ni?aaeythony nia?aiaiiua YAI. A ?acoeueoaoa e eiioeo naieaeanyouo aiaeia iaoaai noieaoey “Aaeeeay oai?aia Oa?ia” auea aeieacaia aeey anao n <100000 . Yoi i/aiue aieueoia /enei, ii yoi aua ia ana n , a cia/eo “Aaeeeay oai?aia Oa?ia” ia aeieacaia e ia ii?iaa?aiooa.“Aa?ia eee ia aa?ia?” - oae iacuaaeny /oaeaniue iao/ii-iiioey?iue ea?iaie oeeuei, i?iiaeueeioaoee ia ye?aiao oaeaaeci?ia a ia/aea naieaeanyouo. Nia?aiaiiue yeoeaaieiaue iaoaiaoee, ?aceiaeea ia ioeueoa YAI noa?eiiua oieeaiou, eieaeoao iaae eeiyuae ?aoi?oie. Ii ?aoee ia?aoeoueny e iineaaeiaio n?aaenoao. I?iecianaia iaae/aneay oi?ioea, ?acaeaaony ac?ua, e a iaeaea aeuia iiyaeyaony eioaeeeaaioiiai aeaea aeueyaie (aai aeanoyua ea?aao iieiaeie Eaeaeaiianeee). Iiiaoeaay oainoii, ia/enoue aaaeeeai ni?aoeaaao, /oi oaiaeii eeeaioo a iaiai ia aannia?oioth aeooo. “ss oi/o ciaoue, aa?ia eee ia aa?ia oai?aia Oa?ia”- onoaei ioaaonoaoao iaoaiaoee. “I?inoeoa, eoi eiio ia aa?ia?”- ia?ani?aoeaaao ioa?aoaiiue aeueyaie. “Aaeeeay eee Iineaaeiyy oai?aia Oa?ia. Yoi iaoaiaoe/aneia ooaa?aeaeaiea. Iii eeai ni?aaaaeeeai, eeai ioeai/ii. ss aeieaeai yoi ociaoue ethaie oeaiie”. Aeueyaie inoi?iaeii eioa?anoaony ian/ao aieaa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iiaeaeaiee - caiiua aeaaa, aa/iay iieiaeinoue e ana oaeia. Ii iaoaiaoee oi?yii o?aaoao ioaaoa ia i?ieeyoue aii?in. Aeueyaie, ia?a/aiii acaeuoay, niaeaoaaony aieeiooue a nooue i?iaeaiu. Iaoaiaoee ioneaaony a iauyniaiey: “O?aaiaiea Oa?ia iiaeao auoue ?aoaii a oeaeuo /eneao, anee iieacaoaeue ?aaai aeaoi. Iai?eia?, o?e a eaaae?aoa iethn /aou?a a eaaae?aoa ?aaii iyoe a eaaae?aoa. Ii anee iieacaoaeue ?aaai o?ai... ”“Iiaeiaeaeeoa,- ia?aaeaaao aai aeueyaie. - Eae Au neacaee? O?e a eaaae?aoa iethn /aou?a a eaaae?aoa... ”, e aeueyaie ?enoao eii/eeii oainoa:+Iaoaiaoee n ecoieaieai ace?aao ia iineaiieea aaea. Aeueyaie aaciaaeaaeii ionoae e ia ciaao yeaiaioa?iie aeaaa?u! I?eaeaony ia/eiaoue n naiiai ia/aea. *a?ac ianeieueei ieioo aeueyaie (a caiaeii e c?eoaeue) oyniyao oi?ioee?iaeo oai?aiu e i?iieeaaony aa eio?eaothuae enoi?eae. Ii iieii iioeiecia, aio ia oa?ieony i?enooieoue e ?aoaieth caaaaeee: “ss anaai eeoue aeieaeai iaeoe o?e /enea? O?e iau/iuo /enea, eioi?ua oaeiaeaoai?ytho o?aaiaieth a-ia Oa?ia aeey iaeioi?iai iieacaoaey, iai?eia?, aeey o?ao”. “Aea, yoiai aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau ioaa?aiooue oai?aio”- ioaa/aao iaoaiaoee, ii aeueyaie oaea en/ac. *a?ac ianeieueei ieioo ii aiiaue neaeeo a e?anea: “ss ia?aa?ae aeeeeiiu /enae aeey ouny/e iieacaoaeae, ii ioaeiuo oeeo? n?aaee ieo ia auei” - cayaeyao ii iaeaeaiii. Iaoaiaoee oeuaaaony: “C?y noa?aeenue. Ecaanoii, /oi oai?aia Oa?ia aa?ia aeey anao iieacaoaeae ia i?aainoiaeyueo 100000. Iiiuoaeoanue aeieacaoue oai?aio, eniieuecoy ciaiey, iaeiieaiiua ethaeueie”. *an nionoy aeueyaie iiyaeyaony aiiaue. Aeae o iaai naiue icaai/aiiue. Ii a i/eao, ia iai iiaeiay aiaeieacea. “Aea, Au i?aau. Yoa ooo/ea aeaeao ii/eua aaeneiai ieaiaie. - aiai?eo ii caaeoi/eai - ss iieiinoueth iaeaaeae iaoaiaoe/aneei aiaeecii, y eco/ee oai?eth eaaae?aoe/iuo au/aoia, ?yaeu Aee?eoea, aeeioaioiau o?aaiaiey, aecaoa-ooieoeee, iiey eeannia e iiiaia ae?oaia. E y ciath, /oi aeecie e oeaee. ss i?eoae i?ineoue ion?i/ee aua ia /an”. Ii aica?auaaony eeoue iicaeii ii/ueth, ?acaoaeea caae?aiaaoaai iaoaiaoeea. “Iineooaeoa, - oai/ao aicaoaeaeaiii aeueyaie, - a Au i?iaiaaee ?anniao?eaaoue aeaaa?ae/aneea e?eaua a i?iaeoeaiie ieineinoe eiaa?eaioiua ioiineoaeueii ae?aoeeiiaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee a oaonaei?oiaie oiiieiaee. Oainia iaiiiai, ii ... ”. “Iicaieueoa, - i?a?uaaao aai iaoaiaoee, - ?acaa yoi aiciiaeii a neo/aa i?iecaieueiuo iieae”. Aeueyaie a ioaao ?ane?uaaao iao/iue aeo?iae: “Oae Au ia aeaeaee naaaeae ?aaiou Na??a ii eiaiiieiaeyi Aaeey? Aio, acaeyieoa”. E iie, caaua i naeaeea, oaeoaeythony a oi?ioeu, iaiaieaaynue ?aieeeaie ia aeooeiaaoii i?ioanneiiaeueiii aea?aiia.Caaaaiue oeeuei aiieia oi/ii iiaeia/aao eioa?iaeueiue oa?aeoa? ianeaaeey Oa?ia. “Aaeeeay oai?aia” iaa?ioeanue i?ieeyoeai aeey aeanyoeia, iiaeao auoue nioai ouny/ ethaeae, eiaaoeo ian/anouea aieeiooue a aa oi?ioee?iaeo e ca?aceoueny aeaeaieai eniuoaoue naie neeu. Anooieaoea ia yoo noacth oaea ia aieiaee ieeaeei aeiaiaeai ?annoaeea. Eeethno?aoeeae iiaeao neoaeeoue aiaeaeioe/iay oaeaa?aiia, i?eoaaeoay a I?aceaeeoi AI NNN?: “Aeieacae oai?aio Oa?ia. Iniiaiay eaeay ia?aianoe ea?ae yiiie a i?aaoth /anoue. Iiae?iaiinoe ienueiii”.Aaaeouea iaoaiaoeee anao a?aiai e ia?iaeia iaiaeiie?aoii iauyniyee, /oi yeaiaioa?iia aeieacaoaeuenoai oai?aiu Oa?ia ai-ia?auo ia nouanoaoao, a ai-aoi?uo ia aoaeao eiaoue ieeaeiai cia/aiey aeey iaoee. Iii anaai eeoue cae?iao i?iaeaio. Iiaeeeiiia cia/aiea “Aaeeeie oai?aiu” a oii, /oi i?e iiiuoeao aa aeieacaoaeuenoaa auee aueiaaiu iiuiua n?aaenoaa, i?eaaaeoea e nicaeaieth iiauo iaoe?iuo ?acaeaeia iaoaiaoeee.Aeaeaeaiea “oa?iaoenoia” i?eiyei iaaa?iyoiue ?aciao, iinea oiai, eae a 1908 a. iaiaoeeee ethaeoaeue iaoaiaoeee Aieueoneaeue caaauae 100000 ia?ie oiio, eoi aeieaaeao oai?aio Oa?ia. I?aai i?enoaeaeaiey i?aiee i?aaeinoaaeyeinue Aaoeiaaineie aeaaeaiee Aa?iaiee. Iaiaaeeaiii ouny/e ethaeae noaee aiiaa?aee?iaaoue iao/iua iauanoaa e ?aaeaeoeee aeo?iaeia ?oeiienyie, yeiau niaea?aeaueie aeieacaoaeuenoai “Aaeeeie oai?aiu”. Oieueei a Aaooeiaaineia iaoaiaoe/aneia iauanoai ca ia?aua o?e aiaea iinea iauyaeaiey caaauaiey Aieueoneaey i?eoei aieaa ouny/e “aeieacaoaeuenoa”. Iaaeaioe/iua iaioeu aeaaea caaioiaeee aeaiee: “Aaoa aeieacaoaeuenoai niaea?aeeo ioeaeo ia no?. ____ , eioi?ay caeeth/aony a oii, /oi ____________”Iinea ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu ai a?aiy eioeyoeee i?aiey Aieueoneaey iaanoeaieeanue, ii iioie “oa?iaoenoneeo aeieacaoaeuenoa” ia i?ae?aoeeny.Oeiae yoie enoi?ee aaiaeai. A 1993 a. ana aaaeouea eioi?iaoeeiiiua aaaionoaa ia?aaeaee niiauaiea i oii, /oi aeaoi aia?eeaineei iaoaiaoeeai oaeaeinue aeieacaoue oai?aio Oa?ia a iauai aeaea. *a?ac iieaiaea a iaoae i?anna aunooiee e?oiiaeoee aeaaa?aeno aeaae. Oaaeaaa, eioi?ue iiaeoaa?aeee oaeo aeieacaoaeuenoaa . XX aae iieii/ee n “Aaeeeie oai?aiie Oa?ia” oeoi e aoaeie/ii. I?e iiiiue iau/iie oai?ee eaeaaeia.Eeoa?aoo?a1. I.Oa?ia. Enneaaeiaaiey ii oai?ee /enae e aeeioaioiao aiaeeco. I., “Iaoea”, 1992.2. I.I.Iinoieeia. Oai?aia Oa?ia.I., “Iaoea”, 1978.3. A.A. Ieeeoi?ianeee, E.N. O?aeiai. ?iaeaeaiea iiaie iaoaiaoeee. I., “Iaoea”, 1976.4.?. Oeea. Eaiia?ae Yeea?.Eeaa, “Aeua oeiea”, 1983.5. A.O. Anion. Aeaea?o. I., Ainiieeoecaeao, 1956.6. E. A. Aaoiaeiaa, A.E. Neaaooei. Enoi?ey aeeioaioiaa aiaeeca io Aeeioaioa aei Oa?ia. I., “Iaoea”, 1984.PAGEPAGE 1543

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