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Павел Михайлович Третьяков

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IAAAE IEOAEEIAE* O?AOUessEIA

Ainoaea?noaaiiay O?aoueyeianeay aaea?ay – iaoeeiiaeueiay aaea?ay ?onneie
aeeaiiene, yaeyaony ooaeiaeanoaaiiui iocaai ie?iaiai cia/aiey. Iia auea
nicaeaia ?onneei iaoeaiaoii Iaaeii Ieoaeeiae/ai O?aoueyeiaui. Yoi auei
aeaei e?aeia iai?inoui, ii I.I.O?aoueyeia ioaeae ana naie neeu
nicaeaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai iocay ?onneiai eneonnoaa, eioi?ue,
ecia/aeueii, ii aai eaeaa, noae au aeinoiyieai ia?iaea.

Niae?aoaeuenoai ?acee/iiai ?iaea eieeaeoeee, a oii /enea e ea?oei, auei
aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiui a n?aaea eoia/anoaa, a a ieaia nicaeaiey
ea?oeiiuo aaea?ae, O?aoueyeia aue aeaeaei ia ieiia?ii. Naioth ia?aoth
ooaeiaeanoaaiioth aaea?ath iniiaae eieeaeoeeiia? Naeiueei, aai aaea?ay,
iacuaaaoayny «?onneei iocaai», nouanoaiaaea n 1819 ii 1839 aiaeu, a
aiineaaenoaee auea i?iaeaia ia aoeoeeiia. Oaeaea, a 1840-1860 aa.
eieeaeoeeiia? I?yieoieeia ec Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa e eieeaeoeeiia?u Eiei?aa e
Nieaeaoaieia eiaee aieueoea eieeaeoeee ea?oei. Ii eo nia?aiey
i?aneaaeiaaee oeaeue niae?aoaeuenoaa eae oaeiaiai, a oi a?aiy eae
niae?aoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue I.I.O?aoueyeiaa ia eiaea ?aoeoaeueii
ie/aai iauaai n oaeiai ?iaea iioeaaie eoia/aneiai eieeaeoeeiie?iaaiey,
iia aaeanue eiuie iaoiaeaie e eiaea eioth aunieoth oeaeue.

Ioaoe e aeaae I.I.O?aoueyeiaa auee eoioeaie. Nai ii n iaeuo eao iiiiaae
iooeo oi?aiaaoue a eaaea, aaaae ii ii?o/aieyi, auiinee ioni? e o/eeny
aanoe caiene a oi?aiauo eieaao, a iinea nia?oe iooea ii aae aianoa n
a?aoii ana oi?aiaua aeaea.

A oa?aeoa?a I.I.O?aoueyeiaa – iniiaaoaey aaea?ae, nio?aieeenue
iaeioi?ua /a?ou, iaiiieiathuea i eoia/aneeo o?aaeeoeeyo naiuee e ee/iiai
iiuoa, ii e n/anoueth aeey aaeeeiai aeaea – nicaeaiey aaea?ae, yoi auee
/a?ou niaa?oaiiiai aanei?unoey, ?oeiaiaenoaa eioa?anaie ?innee e ?onneie
eoeueoo?u, ia?auaiiua ia iieueco aieueoiai eoeueoo?iiai ia/eiaiey.
O?aoueyeia i?eaue oaaaeaoue e?aiinoue aeaiiiai ?ac neiaa, e aeaeae yoi
aeey oiai, /oiau aanoe aeaea n ooaeiaeieeaie /anoii e ioe?uoi, aiooay ei
aa?o a nieeaeiinoue e i?i/iinoue i?aaei?eiyoiai ei aeaea – nicaeaiey
aaea?ae ?onneie aeeaiiene.

O?aoueyeia ioiineeny e ia/aoiio aeaeo aa?aaeii, ii-oicyenee.
I?aaei?eiya aeaei aeaaioneiai, ia aeaeaiiiai aeey nee iaeiiai /aeiaaea
?aciaoa e cao?aoea ia yoi ieeeeiiiia ninoiyiea, O?aoueyeia ieeiaaea ia
ia?aiea/eaae ca ea?oeiu aieueoa oiai, /oi n/eoae ioaeiui, e aa?aa
aeaiueae ia ?aaee ieo naieo, a eeoue aeey oiai, /oiau eiaoue n?aaenoaa
i?eia?anoe aeey aaea?ae eo/oea i?iecaaaeaiey ?onneie aeeaiiene, e a
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ieaoeoue aaoi?ai aia?aae, iiaeaea?aeeaay eo,
aeaaay aiciiaeiinoue niieieiie oai?/aneie ?aaiou iaae ea?oeiaie.

Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ O?aoueyeia ecaaaae a auoo ?ineioe e eceeoanoa aeey
oiai, /oiau iie/a e ne?iiii iiiiaaoue ioaeaeathueiny ooaeiaeieeai,
iaania/eaaoue eo aaeia e ne?io, aeino?aeaaoue e ?anoe?youe aaea?ath.

Ii noae iaeiei ec naiuo ia?aaeiauo ethaeae ?innee n aeaiie?aoe/aneeie e
iao?eioe/aneeie acaeyaeaie, n aeoaieei ciaieai e iiieiaieai eneonnoaa, n
oiieei ooaeiaeanoaaiiui /ooueai, ?acaeoui aei aunoae noaiaie. Oae, a
iocuea nouanoaoao iiiyoea «aaniethoiue neoo». E anee anoue a aeeaiiene
«aaniethoiia c?aiea» a niunea aacoi?a/iiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aeona, oi
ei niieia iaeaaeae I.I.O?aoueyeia.

I.I.O?aoueyeia ia/ae naith aeayoaeueiinoue ii niae?aieth ea?oei ?onneeo
ooaeiaeieeia a 1856 aiaeo n i?eia?aoaiey ea?oeiu «Eneooaiea», ?aaiou
Ieeieay Oeeueaea?a e e oaea a 1860 a., eiaaea aio auei aua 29 eao (!),
?aoee, /oi iiaea?eo naith eieeaeoeeth ai?iaeo, naeaeaao aa ia?iaeiui
aeinoiyieai. A caaauaoaeueiii ienueia 1860 a. I.I.O?aoueyeia ieoao, /oi
eaieoae ii caaauaao «ia ono?ienoai a Iineaa ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iocaoia
eee iauanoaaiiie ea?oeiiie aaea?ae», e aeiaaaeyao, /oi «aeaeae au
inoaaeoue iaoeeiiaeueioth aaea?ath, oi anoue ninoiyuoth ec ea?oei
?onneeo ooaeiaeieeia». A ienueia e aaeiaa ooaeiaeieea Ianoi?a
Eoeieueieea a 1870 a., O?aoueyeia aiiaue iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi aai
nia?aiea «ea?oei ?onneie oeieu e ii?o?aoia ?onneeo ienaoaeae,
eiiiiceoi?ia e aiiaua aeayoaeae ii ooaeiaeanoaaiiie e o/aiie /anoe»
iinooieo a nianoaaiiinoue ai?iaea Iineau. E iaeiiaoe, a ienueia e
Noaniao a 1895a. O?aoueyeia, iiaoi?yy naia aeaeaiea, «/oiau iaoa
nia?aiea anaaaea auei a Iineaa e ae i?eiaaeeaaeaei»,- aeiaaaeyao: «…a
/oi iieueciaaoueny nia?aieai iiaeao aanue ?onneee ia?iae, yoi naii niaie
ecaanoii!»

Ia?iiiay enoi?e/aneay caneoaa O?aoueyeiaa – yoi aai iaiieieaaeiay aa?a
a oi?aeanoai ?onneie iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu aeeaiiene – aa?a, aicieeoay a
eiioea 50-o aiaeia i?ioeiai noieaoey e i?iianaiiay ei /a?ac anth
aeeciue, /a?ac ana o?oaeiinoe e eniuoaiey. Iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth
neacaoue, /oi a ianooieaoai a eiioea 19 aaea o?eoioa ?onneie aeeaiiene
ee/iay caneoaa I.I.O?aoueyeiaa eneeth/eoaeueii aaeeea e iaioeaieia.

A ienueiao O?aoueyeiaa nio?aieeenue naeaeaoaeuenoaa yoie aai ai?y/ae
aa?u. Aio iaeii ec ieo. A ienueia e ooaeiaeieeo ?eoeoeiie io 18 oaa?aey
1865 aiaea ii ienae: «A i?ioaaeoai ienueia e Aai, iiaeao iieacaoueny
iaiiiyoiui iia au?aaeaiea: «Aio oiaaea iu iiaiai?eee au n iaaa?othueie»
– y iiynith Aai aai: iiiaea iieiaeeoaeueii ia oioyo aa?eoue a oi?iooth
aoaeouiinoue ?onneiai eneonnoaa e oaa?ytho, /oi anee eiiaaea eaeie
ooaeiaeiee iao iaieoao iaaeo?ioth aauue, oi eae-oi neo/aeii, e /oi ii
aea iioii oaaee/eo niaie ?yae aacaea?iinoae. Au ciaaoa, y eiiai iiaiey,
eia/a y ia niae?ae au eieeaeoeeth ?onneeo ea?oei, ii eiiaaea ia iia ia
niaeaneoueny n i?eaiaeeiuie oaeoaie; e aio anyeee oniao, eaaeaeue oaa
aia?aae iia i/aiue aei?iae, e i/aiue au aue y n/anoeea, anee au
aeiaeaeaeny ia iaoae oeeoea i?acaeieea». E i?eia?ii /a?ac ianyoe,
aica?auaynue e oie aea iunee, O?aoueyeia ieoao: «ss eae-oi iaaieueii
aa?oth a naith iaaeaaeaeo: iaoa ?onneay oeiea ia iineaaeiath aoaeao –
auei, aeaenoaeoaeueii, ianio?iia a?aiy, e aeiaieueii aeieai, ii oaia?ue
ooiai i?iyniyaony».

Yoa aa?a O?aoueyeiaa ia auea neaiui i?aae/oanoaeai, iia iie?aeanue ia
aaeoi/eaia iaaethaeaiea ca ?acaeoeai ?onneie aeeaiiene, ia aeoaieia
oiieia iiieiaiea oi?ie?othueony ia aeaiie?aoe/aneie iniiaa
iaoeeiiaeueiuo eaeaaeia.

Oae, aua a 1857 aiaeo I.I.O?aoueyeia ienae ooaeiaeieeo-iaecaaeenoo
A.A.Ai?aaneiio: «Ia iiai iaecaaea, y Aan iiei?iaeoa iii?ioo inoaaeoue
aai, e aianoi iaai iaienaoue iia eiaaea-ieaoaeue iiaue. Iia ia ioaeii ie
aiaaoie i?e?iaeu, ie aaeeeieaiiie eiiiiceoeee, ie yooaeoiiai inaauaiey,
ieeaeeo /oaean». Aianoi yoiai O?aoueyeia i?inee ecia?aaeaoue i?inooth
i?e?iaeo, ionoue aeaaea naioth iaac?a/ioth, «aea /oiau a iae i?aaaea
auea, iiycey, a iiycey ai anai iiaeao auoue, yoi aeaei ooaeiaeieea».

A yoie caienea au?aaeai oio naiue ynoaoe/aneee i?eioeei oi?ie?iaaiey
aaea?ae, aicieeoee a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeoiuaaiey iooae ?acaeoey ?onneie
iaoeeiiaeueiie aeeaiiene, oaaaeuaaiey aa i?ia?anneaiuo oaiaeaioeee
caaeieai aei aicieeiiaaiey naa?anianeie ea?oeiu «A?a/e i?eeaoaee»,
iaecaaeae Aaneeueaaa, Eaaeoaia, Na?iai, Ino?iooiaa e Ianoa?iaa –
ooaeiaeieeia, noiaaoeo a i?aaaeeaii ecia?aaeaiee i?e?iaeu ?innee
ia?aaeaoue i?enouea ae iiyceth e i/a?iaaiea.

Eioa?aniua auneacuaaiey I.I.O?aoueyeiaa iiaeii ano?aoeoue e a ia?aienea
n Aa?auaaeiui ii iiaiaeo ecia?aaeaiey nia?aiaiiie ei ?onnei-oo?aoeeie
aieiu 1877-1878 aiaeia ca iacaaeneiinoue Aieaa?ee io Oo?oeee, aieiu, a
eioi?ie ?inney aunooieea ia noi?iia Aieaa?ee. Ociaa io Noaniaa, /oi
Aa?auaaei niae?aaony aoaoue ia o?iio, /oiau ienaoue na?eth ea?oei ia
yoie aieia, I.I.O?aoueyeia ieoao Noaniao: «Oieueei iiaeao auoue a
aeaeaeii aoaeouai aoaeao ioeaiaia aea?oaa, i?eianaiiay ?onneei
ia?iaeii». O?aoueyeia i?aaeeaaaao Aa?auaaeio oieaoeoue aia?aae aieueooth
noiio ca aai ?aaioo: «Eae ie no?aiii i?eia?aoaoue eieeaeoeeth, ia ciay
niaea?aeaiea aa, ii Aa?auaaei oaeie ooaeiaeiee, /oi a yoii neo/aa ia
iaai iiaeii iieiaeeoueny, oai aieaa, /oi iiiauay a /anoiua ?oee, ii ia
aoaeao naycai auai?ii nthaeaoia e iaaa?iia, aoaeao i?iieeioo aeooii
i?eianaiiie ia?iaeiie aea?oau e aeanoyueo iiaeaeaia ?onneeo nieaeao e
iaeioi?uo ioaeaeueiuo ee/iinoae, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui aeaei iaoa auai?aei,
ianiio?y ia iaoiaeinoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e aeoiinoue e iiaeeinoue iiiaeo
ee/iinoae». E, ia?aoiaey e ea?oeia Aa?auaaeia «Ieaiiua», Iaaae
Ieoaeeiae/ ieoao, /oi iia «iaeia naia ii naaa ia i?aaenoaaeyao no?aieoeu
ec aieaa?neie aieiu, iiaeiaiua noeaiu iiaoo auoue e a Aoaaienoaia, aea e
ai iiiaeo ianoao; y ia iaa niio?th eae ia i?aaeaeaa?ea a eieeaeoeeth».

Yoi ienueii aucaaei ainoi?a Noaniaa, eioi?ue ienae, /oi a aeaea
?onneiai eneonnoaa ii aai n/eoaao enoi?e/aneei.

Eiiai iiaiey aue Aa?auaaei: «*oi eanaaony Aaoaai ienueia e A.A.Noaniao
ii iiaiaeo aeaeaiiie Aaie iiae ea?oeiu, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi iu n Aaie
?anoiaeeiny iaiiiai a ioeaiea iieo ?aaio e i/aiue iiiai a eo
iai?aaeaiee. Ia?aaei iiie, eae ia?aae ooaeiaeieeii, Aieia, e y Aa aueth,
neieueei o iaiy anoue nee; neeueiu ee, aeaenoaeoaeueiu ee iie oaea?u –
yoi aii?in, aii?in iiaai oaeaioa, ii y aueth n ?aciaoa e aac iiuaaeu.
Aan aea, i/aaeaeii, caieiaao ia noieueei aiiaua ie?iaay eaeay aieiu,
neieueei aa /anoiinoue, iai?eia? a aeaiiii neo/aa «aea?oau ?onneiai
ia?iaea», aeanoyuea iiaeaeae ?onneeo nieaeao e iaeioi?uo ioaeaeueiuo
ee/iinoae, iiyoiio e ea?oeia iiy, Aaie aeaeaiiay, eaaeaony Aai
aeinoieiie auoue oieueei «i?aaeaeaa?eai aoaeouae eieeaeoeee». ss aea yoo
ea?oeio n/eoath iaeiith ec naiuo nouanoaaiiuo ec anao iiith naeaeaiiuo e
eiathueo auoue naeaeaiiuie. I?eciathnue, y iaiiiai oaeeaeythnue, eae Au,
Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/, eae iia eacaeinue, iiiyaoee iie oo?eanoaineea ?aaiou,
iiaee ?ann/eouaaoue iaeoe ai iia e oi ie?inica?oeaiea e oo
iiaeaoeeainoue, eioi?ua i/aaeaeii, Aai oae aei?iae…»

I.I.O?aoueyeia ioaa/aao ia yoi: «E Au e y ia ca aieio, a i?ioea iaa.
Aieia anoue ianeeea e naiia a?oaia, eoi aea ca ianeeea? Ii yoa aieia
eneeth/eoaeueiay, ia n caaiaaaoaeueiie oeaeueth, a n inaiaiaeeoaeueiie,
nicaeaiiay naiuie ia?aciaaiiuie iaoeeyie, eiaaoeie iieiaeooth
aiciiaeiinoue ono?aieoue aa e ia naeaeaaoeo yoi ec yaiecia, ec
oi?aaoanoaa. Ecia?aaeaiea ia aeanoyueo iiaeaeaia, a ia?aaeiii niunea,
eiae y a aeaeo, a aea?oa, i?eianaiiuo e nii?yaeaiiuo ni anaie oaeanaie
aieiu. A yoi ee ia ae/ aieiu?»

Auneacaiiue I.I.O?aoueyeiaui acaeyae ia aieio, o?aaothuee o/eouaaoue aa
oeaeue, caia/aoaeueii ii?iaa?aaao iaoeeoenoneee iooaiie i?eaaaeaiiuo
neia Aa?auaaeia, a i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea aeanoyueo iiaeaeaia ?onneeo
nieaeao iiae Ieaaiie «aeoiinoe e iiaeeinoe» ?oeiaiaeeoaeae oea?neie
?innee, iieacuaaao aeaiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa? oaaaeaeaiee O?aoueyeiaa e
auyaeyao ana aaee/ea aai iao?eioecia, a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue
naiiaea?aeaaiiio iaoeeiiaeecio i?aayuae aa?oooee.

O?aoueyeia /anoi aunooiae ia oieueei eae niae?aoaeue oaea iaienaiiuo
ea?oei e ia oieueei eae i?eia?aoaoaeue aioiaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee, ii e eae i?aaiecaoi?, yaeyaoeeny a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a
nio/anoieeii caiunea ooaeiaeieeia. O?aoueyeia aue anaaaea a eo?na aeaea,
iaae /ai ?aaioaao e /oi caiuneee oio eee eiie ooaeiaeiee. Aai ia?aienea
n ?aieiui, E?aineei, Ia?iaui, Aa, Aa?auaaeiui e ae?oaeie, iieia
eiie?aoiuo caia/aiee e niaaoia, iieacuaathueo, ianeieueei oiiei e
i?ioanneiiaeueii iiieiae O?aoueyeia aeeaiienue e eae n aai iiaieai
n/eoaeenue e?oiiaeoea e oaeaioeeaaeoea ?onneea ooaeiaeieee.

Ec ainiiieiaiee I.A.Ianoa?iaa: “Ai a?aiy iiaai ian/anoiiai eneaiey
“aeeaiiene” iie i?eyoaee ia ?ac aiai?eee, /oi ei iia niae?aaony caaoaoue
iiniio?aoue ea?oeio I.I.O?aoueyeia, e y aiyeny, /oi ii caaaeao
iiniio?aoue ea?oeio, eiaaea aianoi aieiau “Ionouiieea” ii oaeaeeo
noa?oia aei/enoa ianoi. Iaeiaei yoiai ia neo/eeinue. Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/
i?eaoae iaiaeeaeaiii, ii oiaaea, eiaaea ea?oeia auea niiaa a ii?yaeea e
y iaeee… ss oiae, /oi Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ – ia ethaeoaeue ?acaiaa?eaaoue.
Ii i?yii i?enooiaao e aeaeo, o.a. e iniio?o ea?oeiu. ii iii?inee
iicaieaiey iiniio?aoue “Ionouiieea”. Niio?ae aeieai, noiy, neaey, iiyoue
noiy. Aeaeae iaeiineiaeiua aii?inu, oaeea aea caia/aiey, anaaaea enoaoe,
oiii, ni ciaieai aeaea. I?ineaeae ieiei /ana. Niiauee, /oi aue o oiai-oi
e o oiai-oi. Neacae, /oi oi?ioe aaue o Eaaeoaia. Caoai ii iaiaeeaeaiii,
anoaaay, ni?inee, iiao ee y onooieoue aauue aeey aaea?ae? I! Aiaea iie!
Iiao ee y noooieoue? Caaaoiie ia/oie eaaeaeiai iieiaeiai ooaeiaeieea
auei iiianoue a aaea?ath, a oai aieaa iiae! Aaaeue ioaoe iia aeaaii
iauyaee, iieooooy, iieona?ueacii, /oi iaaeaee e caaiea, eioi?ia y
iieo/ee, aai ia oaaaeyo a oii, /oi y “aioiaue ooaeiaeiee”, oae, eae
iieoiea ea?oeiu a aaea?ath. A ooo – iiao ee y noooieoue? Iaeiaei y
noaiaiii ioaaoee, /oi “iiao”. Neaaeothuee aii?in – naiue o?oaeiue aeey
ioaaoa: “*oi Au ca iaa oioeoa:” – *oi oi/o? Ie/aai ia oi/o, e?iia oiai,
/oiau iia auea a aaea?aa, ?yaeii n Ia?iaui, E?aineei, ?aieiui,
No?eeiaui, Aaniaoeiaui. Aio /aai y no?anoii oi/o… E ana aea, iaaei
neacaoue ia yoi, a /oi-oi ae?oaia, na?ueaciia… e y ?aoeeny… neacae e
nai naaa ia iiaa?ee… *oi y iaaeaeae? N/anouea auei oae aeecei, oae
aiciiaeii, a y aacoiiue, iacia/ee iyouenio ?oaeae! Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ ia
aiciooeeny, a i?aoeaaeiie?iaii auneooaa iia ?aoaiea, neacae: “ss
inoaaeyth ea?oeio ca niaie”. E noae i?iuaoueny, iaeaeny, oaoae, a y
inoaeny a eaeii-oi iieoa?aaeo…”

I?aaiecaoi?neay ?ieue I.I.O?aoueyeiaa iaaeyaeii aeaeia ia i?eia?a
nicaeaiey ii?o?aoia ?onneeo ienaoaeae, o/aiuo, eiiiiceoi?ia.

O?aoueyeia caeacuaaao ii?o?ao Ienaineiai – Ia?iao, Aii/a?iaa –
E?aineiio, aeiaeaaaony i?eia?aoaiey ii?o?aoa Aiaiey ?aaiou Iieea?a,
caeacuaaao ii?o?ao A.I.Ino?ianeiai – Ia?iao, Oaa/aiei – E?aineiio, aai
aea i?ineo iaienaoue ii?o?aou A?eaiaaeiaa, Oiiaeceia, Eieueoeiaa e
ooaeiaeieea Aaneeueaaa, caeacuaaao ii?o?ao Oo?aaiaaa – Aoio e aeaaaeaeu
oio aea ii?o?ao ?aieio; caoai Ia?iao ii?o/aao aua ?ac ii?o?ao Oo?aaiaaa,
a oaeaea ii?o?aou Aeinoiaaneiai, Iaeeiaa, Aeaey; E?aineiio i?aaeeaaaao
ienaoue Oienoiai, Naeoueiaa-Uaae?eia, Iae?aniaa, Aenaeiaa; caeacuaaao
?aieio ii?o?aou Otho/aaa, Ie?iaiaa, Oienoiai; i?eia?aoaao o Aa ii?o?ao
Aa?oeaia e o.ae.

N ii?aceoaeueiie ianoie/eainoueth e oa?iaieai aeiaeaaaony
I.I.O?aoueyeia nicaeaiey ii?o?aoia aaeeeeo ?onneeo ienaoaeae,
eiiiiceoi?ia, o/aiuo, niaaooynue n aeecei ciathueie eo ethaeueie e
ia?acaeacuaay ii ianeieueeo ?ac, anee ii?o?ao aai ia oaeiaeaoai?yao
noiaenoaii eee ea/anoaii aeeaiiene. O?aoueyeia neaaeeo aeaaea ca
ianoiiaoiaeaeaieai oao eee eiuo i?anoa?aeuo ecaanoiuo ?onneeo ienaoaeae
e oaiaa?eaaao ooaeiaeieeia iouneaoue eo e nicaeaoue ii?o?aou. Oae,
O?aoueyeia iaiiieiaao ?aieio, iaoiaeyuaiony ca a?aieoeae, /oi iiaeecinoe
io iaai «aeeaao iao ecaanoiue iiyo Aycaineee, noa?ee 95 eao. Ooo oaeaea
iaaei acaeyiooue n iao?eioe/aneie noi?iiu. Anee aea – oi y ociath aai
aae?an e niiauo Aai». Oaeia aunieia iiieiaiea ?iee iaoeeiiaeueiie
?onneie aeeaiiene, i?ecaaiiie oaaeiaa/eoue aeaeiuo ethaeae ?onneie
iaoee, eneonnoaa e eeoa?aoo?u, oa?aeoa?ii aeey I.I.O?aoueyeiaa, iieiiai
aa?u a oi?aeanoai ia oieueei ?onneie aeeaiiene, ii e anae ?onneie
eoeueoo?u. I?e yoii, auae?ay eeoe aeey ii?o?aoe?iaaiey, O?aoueyeia
i?aaeaea anaai auaeaeaaao i?ia?anneaiuo ienaoaeae-?aaeenoia,
i?ineaaeaoeo ?onneoth eeoa?aoo?o ai anai ie?a.

Anee au ia ianoie/eainoue O?aoueyeiaa e ia aai aunieia /oanoai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae ia?iaeii, aeey eioi?iai iaiaoiaeeii auei
caia/aoeaoue neeie ?onneiai eneonnoaa ia?acu aaeeeeo ?onneeo ethaeae –
iu au ia eiaee au e aeanyoie aeiee oie aiaaoaeoae eieeaeoeee ii?o?aoia,
eioi?ie ?aniieaaaao O?aoueyeianeay aaea?ay. E a yoii niunea ia?iiia
ee/iay caneoaa I.I.O?aoueyeiaa ia?aae ?onneie eoeueoo?ie.

Auaeathuaany cia/aiea O?aoueyeianeie aaea?ae a ?acaeoee ?onneie
aeeaiiene ia neo/aeii niaiaaeaao n aa iiao/ei iiaeuaiii ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIX aaea, iaoneiaeaoei aa ie?iaia cia/aiea e naycaiiui n
aeayoaeueiinoueth iiaeaeaeieeia, n ?anoeaaoii oai?/anoaa oaeeo aaieaa,
eae ?aiei e No?eeia. Ionthaea e i?i/iay ae?oaeaa O?aoueyeiaa n
eaeaieiaaie ia?aaeaeaeieeia – E?aineei, Ia?iaui e ae?oaeie.

Oeaeue, inouanoaeyaiay O?aoueyeiaui – nicaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aaea?ae ?onneie aeeaiiene – auea oe?a e a?aiaeeiciaa,
/ai niae?aiea ea?oei iaeiie oeieu eee iaeiiai iai?aaeaiey, oioy au e
aieaa i?ia?anneaiiai. E O?aoueyeia ?acaeaeaaao ?aiee naiae eieeaeoeee;
ii ia/eiaao niae?aoue ae?aaia?onneia eneonnoai, ia/eiay n XI aaea e
ii?o?aoioth aeeaiienue XVIII aaea, i?iaeieaeay a oi aea a?aiy
aieiaoaeueii neaaeeoue ca oniaoaie ooaeiaeieeia ieaaeoaai iieieaiey e
i?eia?aoay ea?oeiu Na?iai, Ianoa?iaa, Ino?iooiai e ae?oaeo, n oie aea
o?aoueyeianeie aacioeai/iinoueth ioae?ay aeaenoaeoaeueii naiia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiia, /oi caneoaeeaaao i?aaa aieoe a nie?iaeuieoeo
iaoeeiiaeueiie ?onneie aeeaiiene.

I?e oaeie oeaee niae?aoaeuenoaa, O?aoueyeiao auei ynii, eaeoth
aieueooth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii aa?ao ia naay ia?aae enoi?eae ?onneie
eoeueoo?u, i?eia?aoay aeey aaea?ae iaeie i?iecaaaeaiey e ia i?eia?aoay
ae?oaea, /oi yoei naiui ii iaeie i?iecaaaeaiey i?eiauaao e eo/oaio, /oi
nicaeaii ?onneei eneonnoaii, a ae?oaea inoaaeyao aac aieiaiey.
O?aoueyeia /oanoaiaae eieinnaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae ia?iaeii ca
eaaeaeia naia i?eia?aoaiea n oi/ee c?aiey niaethaeaiey /enoiou
i?eioeeia, eiathuaai a aeaeo, /oi niae?ay aaea?ath, ii noaiiaeony eae au
enoi?eeii ?onneie aeeaiiene, e i?eoii enoi?eeii, eioi?ue ia oieueei
iienuaaao oiae niauoee, ii e nai yaeyaony aeoeaiui o/anoieeii enoi?ee.
O?aoueyeia iiaeieao i?ineaeeaae a ianoa?neeo ooaeiaeieeia ia?aae
ea?oeiaie eee a?iaeee ii aunoaai/iui caeai aei ioe?uoey, iaeeiieee,
iie/aeeaue, caaeoi/eaue. Ii niaaoiaaeny n E?aineei, Ia?iaui, ?aieiui,
acaaoeaae eo oi/ee c?aiey, oeaiee eo niaaou, ii i?eieiae naia
ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea anaaaea naiinoiyoaeueii.

Eiaaea ?aiei iaeiaaeaeu neacae O?aoueyeiao, /oi eaeoth-oi ea?oeio oio
eoiee c?y, Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ ioaaoee aio: «Ana, /oi y o?a/o e eiiaaea
a?inath ia ea?oeio – iia iinoiyiii eaaeaony iaiaoiaeeii ioaeiui; ciath,
/oi iia eaaei ioeaeoueny; ana /oi naeaeaii – eii/aii, yoiai ia
iii?aaeoue, ii aeey aoaeouaai, eae i?eia?u, iia iaiaoiaeeii ioaeii,
/oiau Au iia oeacaee, /oi a?ioaii, oi anoue ca eaeea aaue. Yoi inoaiaony
iaaeaeo iaie… I?ioo Aan, ?aaee aiaa, naeaeaeoa yoi, iia yoi ioaeii
aieueoa, /ai Au iiaeaoa i?aaeiieaaaoue». A 1855 aiaeo I.I.O?aoueyeia
ienae ?aieio: «?aaee aiaa, ia ?aaiyeoa iaiy n ethaeoaeyie, anaie
ae?oaeie niae?aoaeyie, i?eia?aoaoaeyie… ia iaeaeaeoanue ia iaiy ca oi,
ca /oi ai?aaa iaeaeaoueny ia ieo».

I.A.Ianoa?ia aniiieiaao, /oi eiaaea ia ia?aaeaeaeiuo aunoaaeao c?eoaee
aeaeaee iiae ianeieueeeie ea?oeiaie aaeoth ea?oi/eo n iiaeienueth:
«I?eia?aoaii I.I.O?aoueyeiaui» – yoi cia/eei, /oi ?onneay aeeaiienue
iiaeao ai?aeeoueny iiyaeaieai iiauo auaeathueony i?iecaaaeaiee. ?aoaiea
O?aoueyeiaa i?eciaaaeinue eae aeneiia – aieueoaai aaoi?eoaoa ia auei. E
O?aoueyeia acye ia naie iea/e yoo oyaeanoue ii?aeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
eae acye ii e oyaeanoue iaoa?eaeueioth – nia?aiea iaoeeiiaeueiie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aaea?ae n?aaenoaaie iaeiiai /aeiaaea.

Iiyoiio I.A.Ianoa?ia caeai/eaaao naie ainiiieiaiey i I.I.O?aoueyeiaa
neaaeothueie neiaaie: «eiio ia i?eoiaeeea a aieiao iuneue i oii, /oi ia
iiyaenue a naia a?aiy I.I.O?aoueyeiaa, ia ioaeaeny ii anaoeaei aieueoie
eaeaa, ia ia/ie niae?aoue aiaaeeii ?onneia Eneonnoai, noaeueau aai auee
au eiua, auoue iiaeao, e iu ia ciaee au ie «Aiy?uie Ii?iciaie», ie
«E?anoiiai oiaea», ie anao oao aieueoeo e iaeuo ea?oei, eie nae/an
oe?aoatho ciaiaieooth O?aoueyeianeoth aaea?ath. Oiaaea, a oa aeaeaeea
aiaeu, yoi aue iiaeaea…»

Ii ianiio?y ia a?aiaeeiciinoue e cia/eiinoue i?aaei?eiyoiai aeaea,
I.I.O?aoueyeiao auee i?enoue naea?aeaiiinoue e iaeioi?ay caieiooinoue.
Aeaaea ec iaoe?iie aai ia?aienee o?oaeii ninoaaeoue en/a?iuaathuea
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeonao, iiaieyo e acaeyaeao. Ii iaeioi?ua oaeou iiaoo
iieacaoueny eioa?aniuie.

O?aoueyeia ecaaaae ano?a/ oieueei n aeaoiy eaoaai?eyie iineoaeae aeanoe
– naaoneie e aeooiaiie. Iaeiaaeaeu aio niiaueee, /oi a aaea?ath
i?eaoaeao Eiaii E?iiooaaeneee. Iiioey?iinoue yoiai nayuaiiineoaeeoaey
n?aaee aa?othueo auea ia?iiiie, iiiaea n/eoaee aai nayoui. A aeaiue
iinauaiey aaea?ae Eiaiiii E?iiooaaeneei, O?aoueyeia ?aiiei oo?ii oaoae a
Eino?iio, ia naith oaa?eeo.

-”Neaaeeoa, /oi iaiy yeno?aiii aucaaee ii aeaeai oe?iu ia ianeieueei
aeiae”.

Aue oieueei anaai iaeei aeceo aunieiai ainoy, eiaaea Iaaea Ieoaeeiae/a
ana-oaee auioaeeee i?enoonoaiaaoue i?e iniio?a aai eieeaeoeee: a 1893
aiaeo aaea?ath iinaoee Aeaenaiae? III n noi?oaie. Eo nii?iaiaeaeaee
ieieno?u a?ao N.TH.Aeooa, a?ao E.E.Ai?iioeia-Aeaoeia e i?aceaeaio
Aeaaeaiee ooaeiaeanoa, a?ao oea?y aaeeeee eiycue Aeaaeeie?
Aeaenaiae?iae/.

A oii aea 1893 aiaeo, O?aoueyeia ioeacaeny io aeai?yinoaa, eioi?ia aio
oioae aea?iaaoue oea?ue, iinea ia?aaea/e aaea?ae Iineaa.

-”ss eoioeii ?iaeeeny, eoioeii e oi?o”,- ioaaoee O?aoueyeia yaeaoaiony
ia?aaeiaaoue aai /eiiaieeo. Aaeeinoaaiiia caaiea, i?eiyoia ei n
ai?aeinoueth – Ii/aoiue a?aaeaeaiei ai?iaea Iineau.

E, enoaoe, ia?aaea/o aaea?ae ai?iaeo Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ oioae i?iecaanoe
eae iiaeii aieaa oeoi, aac anyeiai ooia, ia aeaeay auoue a oeaio?a
iauaai aieiaiey e iauaeoii aeaaiaea?iinoe. Ii aio yoi ia oaeaeinue e ii
aue i/aiue iaaeiaieai.

E?iia caiyoey niae?aoaeuenoaii, Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ O?aoueyeia aeoeaii
caieiaeny aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoueth. Aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue aeey iaai auea
noieue aea caeiiiia?ia, neieue caeiiiia?iui auei nicaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaea?ae.

O?aoueyeia ninoiye ii/aoiui /eaii Iauanoaa ethaeoaeae ooaeiaeanoa e
Iocueaeueiiai iauanoaa ni aeiy eo iniiaaiey, aiinee nieeaeiua noiiu,
iiaeaea?aeeaay ana i?inaaoeoaeueneea ia/eiaiey. Ii i?eieiae o/anoea ai
iiiaeanoaa aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo aeoia, anao iiaea?oaiaaieyo a iiiiuue
naiueyi iiaeaoeo nieaeao ai a?aiy E?uineie e ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu.
Noeiaiaeee I.I.O?aoueyeiaa auee onoaiiaeaiu a eiiia?/aneeo o/eeeuao –
Iineianeii e Aeaenaiae?ianeii. Ii ieeiaaea ia ioeacuaae a aeaiaaeiie
iiiiue ooaeiaeieeai e i?i/ei i?ineoaeyi, ouaoaeueii caaioeeny i
aeaiaaeiuo aeaeao aeeaiienoeaa, eioi?ua aac no?aoa aaa?yee aio naie
naa?aaeaiey. Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ iiiaie?aoii nnoaeae aeaiueae naiaio
aeia?iio niaaoieeo e eiinoeueoaioo E.I.E?aineiio, iiiiaae aanei?unoii
A.A.Ooaeyeiao, E.A.O?ooianeiio, I.E.Eeiaeoo e iiiaei ae?oaei. A?aoueyie
– Iaaeii e Na?aaai O?aoueyeiauie – auei iniiaaii a Iineaa
A?iieueaei-O?aoueyeianeia o/eeeua aeey aeooiiaiuo. Iiia/eoaeuenoai iaae
o/eeeuai, ia/aaoaany a 60-a aiaeu, i?iaeieaeaeinue a oa/aiea anae aeecie
I.I.O?aoueyeiaa e iinea aai nia?oe. A naiai caaauaiee Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/
i?aaeoniio?ae ia?iiiua eaieoaeu aeey o/eeeua aeooiiaiuo. Aeey
ainieoaiieeia o/eeeua O?aoueyeia eoiee aieueoie eaiaiiue aeii n naaeii.
Oai aeeee 150 iaeue/eeia e aeaai/ae. Caeanue iie ainieouaaeenue aei
16-oe eao e auoiaeeee a aeeciue, iieo/ea i?ioanneth. a o/eeeua. Ii
iiaeae?ae eo/oeo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, ciaeiieeny n iaoiaeeeie iao/aiey,
neaaeee, /oiau ainieoaiieeia oi?ioi ei?ieee e iaeaaaee. A eaaeaeue
i?eacae a o/eeeua ii iaoiaeee eeannu e ianoa?neea a /anu caiyoee,
anaaaea i?enoonoaiaae ia yecaiaiao.

Iinea nia?oe Iaaea Ieoaeeiae/a O?aoueyeiaa a 1898 aiaeo, aaea?ay, ii
aai caaauaieth, ioioea a nianoaaiiinoue ai?iaea Iineau. A 1918 aiaeo,
iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee, ii iiaeienaiiiio A.E.Eaieiui aeae?aoo i
iaoeeiiaeecaoeee aaea?ae, iia noaea iacuaaoueny Ainoaea?noaaiiie
O?aoueyeianeie aaea?aae.

A ia?eiae niaaoneie aeanoe O?aoueyeianeay aaea?ay iiiieieea naia
nia?aiea ia oieueei ea?oeiaie ooaeiaeieeia 18-19 aaeia ec nia?aiee
ae?oaeo eieeaeoeeiia?ia, ii e i?iecaaaeaieyie ooaeiaeieeia niaaoneiai
ia?eiaea, oaeeie eae: Eocueia Iao?ia-Aiaeeei, TH?ee Ieiaiia, Naiai
*oeeia, A?eaaeee Ieanoia, Aeaenaiae? Aeaeiaea, oai?/aneee nithc
Eoe?uieenu e iiiaea ae?oaea.

Ia?auaynue e neooaoeee nia?aiaiiie ?innee, o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa
/aeiaaea, eioi?ue iia au caiyoueny /ai-oi iiaeiaiui. E aeaei aeaaea ia a
oii, /oi yoi, eae neaaeoo iiiaea, “ia i/aiue-oi e ioaeii”, a a oii, /oi
nae/an i?inoi ae?oaia a?aiy, ae?oaea i?iaeaiu, ae?oaea caaea/e, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaoue. Oioy e yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea ia aannii?ii.

A ieaia eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann n eaaeaeui
aeiai ioe?uaaao iai ana iiaua e iiaua oi?iu e ?acoeueoaou
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a noa?a eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa. E iai, a iaoa
a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeii caaioeony i ieo, nio?aiyoue e i?eoiiiaeaoue eo, a oi
aea a?aiy ia caauaay i i?ioeii, /oiau inoaaeoue naiei iioiieai iaoa
aeaeaiea ie?a, iaoo aeeciue, eae yoi naeaeae iienoeia aaeeeee /aeiaae –
Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ O?aoueyeia.

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U:

Iaaae Ieoaeeiae/ O?aoueyeia. A.I.Aioeeia, Iineaa, 1951 aiae.

The Tretyakov Gallery. Leningrad, 1974.

Niaaoneee Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. 1987 aiae.

Cieioie aae ?onneiai iaoeaiaonoaa. A.A.A?iiia, Iineaa, 1995 aiae.

Copyright by Vladimir Kostitsyn, 1996.

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